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Describe reliable sources for locating evidence reports and clinical practice guidelines.

When handling patients,treatment regiments and other healthcare related issues,doctors along with other

healthcare providers do frequently encounter difficulties including extreme uncertainity . Time and agin they

heavily rely on diverse scientific journals,in addition to their basic and onjob knowledge,patience preferences

and their expertise to form and inform their decisions. Clinicians must not only locate the latest information but

must as well evaluate its relevance and quality.Increasingly,they have to handle and grapple with the conflicting

data. Most of the reliable information can be adequately met by using the the following sources:

journals,textbooks,the internet ,online database (bibliographic database) and products that support,distill and

consolidate clinical research (Mason,et al,2006).


Journals have been a great and reliable source of information,they provide a forum for sharing experience as well

as learning among the clinicians.Journals do provide a solid mechanism by which the clinicians are updated on

the emerging trends and the latest research on various healthcare topics. When going for the journals and it is

always vital to understand which journal is suitable and it would be important to consider if:

 the journal is peer reviewed

 does the journal have a global,regional or international perspectives

 does it have latest research information,reports,methods or findings?

Even though diverse nursing journals report on various advances regarding research and nursing practices,it is

important decide on which journals to subscribe.Journals do have limitations (Mulrow ,et al,1998).


Textbooks are a great source of information,they provide diverse and valuable stable data.Books are invaluable

in handling specific information requirements,that is ,they are not affected much by changes. If a book is up-to-

date,it can convincingly provide summaries as well as latest including complex themes,or as well offer valuable

insight into related realm of knowledge. This is whhy majority of clinicians and healthcare providers require a

book or two regarding their area of expertise .

The internet
The internet is a broad source of information for pateints and clinicians.However,due to the nature and speed by

which the internet is expanding,it lacks the much needed quality control,much of the information is

questionable.nevertheless,nurses can search for verified information o the internet,and can also research on the

latest discoveries,treatments and methodologies of evaluating certain ailments effectively.


Countless bibliographic databases do provide clinicians and nurses with seamless access to different citation and

original investigations including latest reviews carried by established and authoritative healthcare journals. Some

of these databases include typical database associated with nurses such as CINAHL,Medline as well as

Embase.each database has a unique searching method and entry system.

Distilled/Consolidated Information

Not all peer reviwed works are quantitively or qualititively sounds,some are more informed than others.The

evaluation of quality of the distilled and consolidated information is important. Regular reading of the literature

and abstracts is essential for clinicians in that it helps in accessing reliable information essential in time of

making informed decision.

Participate in structuring the work environment to facilitate integration of new evidence into standards of

practice. (S)

Nurses or clinicians engaged in caring for Catheter-Associated UTIs patient's must provide the best available

continuum of relevant care . To particiapate effectively a working group has to be formed ,with nurses mapping

the course of acute care or long term care. This would entail identification of the group,the clinical priority for

the anticipated nursing care,including the preparation of a stable ,evidence based approach in relation to risk

evaluation. Key areas to factor in integrating of new evidence into standards of practice would entail areas

focussing on transmission and pathogens. Systematic approach would be employed to inject new measures of

acquiring evidence and the criteria of evaluating the suitable evidence would be clearly defined .This would be a

superb development to use in structuring the work environment. The scope developed would have a link

associating or correlating supporting evidence with the recommendations. The structural engagement would

incorporate diffusion as well as dissemination of knowledge within the working group . Focusing on the scope
of working groups to consistently exploit evidence based approach as well as implementing sustainable EBP

would help in mitigating medication risks and errors and improving on operational structures,and nursing values.

Through positive participation,the nursing skills such as leadership would be vital in injecting effective cared

based practices among the working group members.This would ascertain the patient's are well catered for.On the

other hand the participation would ascertain problem solving skills would be employed in the clinical/hospital

setting to avert poor management and handling of the patients. In the same manner it would be pivotal to

introduce new innovations and treatmentd for Catheter-Associated UTIs. The workinggroup participation would

as well factor the provision of effecient,effective,timely,patient centered,safe and equitable care for the

concerned patient. Implementing comprehensive care and strategies to improve on the integration of new

evidence into standards of practice through assimilated skills would be factored too. Providing integrated care

services to the patients would help in enhancing new evidence standards including the patient experience. The

goal would involve using the best EBP with the highest degree of efficiency in providing positive and

productive impact on health status as well as the patients healt outcome.

Acknowledge strengths and weaknesses of scientific bases for practice.

Nursing or clinical decisions are over and again made based on the research based evidence instead of being

anchored on expert opinion or more nursing experience. Diverse systematic opinions do represent countles

approaches of compiling emerging and existing scientific evidence in order to answer Catheter-Associated UTIs

questions in terms of treatments,preventive services including aspects of diagnosis. It ought to be noted that

systematic reviews differs greatly with the traditional approaches.systematic approaches covers technology

oriented evidence based procedures in attempts to reduce bias .That is why systamatic approach is more popular

in formulating the patients and healthcare policies.This is a predominant strength embraced broadly by the

nurses since it is often reliable and easier to execute. Evidence based approach requires in some instances

methodologic approach as to guarantee and ascertain the quality of the prescribed practices (Vine, 2016).

Evidence based approach as regards preventing Catheter-Associated UTIs is not s panacea for all nursing

decision making. Some of the elements of nursing practices can be initiated without the scope of evidence being

factored.for instance the use of intravenous in Catheter-Associated UTIs which is gradually evolving. In such
scenario,it would be challenging to define the role of EBP. Too,collating any type of evidence would be

challenging ,it is not possible to evaluate evidence in certain instances.

Even though evidence based practices nursing is more based on the existin and emerging data on specific and

defined demography . Clinical tests can just evaluate specific scenario collarating to those in the nursing realm.

That is why it would be highlhy difficult to have reliable trials correlated to interventions with likehood of

possible and positive permutations allied to clinical populace .

With the evolution of technologies within the nursing sectors,a great deal of experiences have impacted on the

healthcare settings. With the changinging nursing dynamics,the usage of EBP is being affected tremedous where

traditionally approaches are appreciated. The problem being in most instances many nurses do not have the

capacity or competence to use data or how to evaluate a given data set in order to reach a predefined target or

arrangement. The evidenced based practice is thus a growing challenge to informed and experienced nurses in all

spheres of healthcare care provision including Catheter-Associated UTIs care (Spring,et la,2010).

The challenge of using the evidence based approach is more on technological aspect,shifting from the traditional

approach has faced considerable resistance due to the nature of procedures involved. EBP as regards Catheter-

Associated UTIs is requiring nurses to employ nursing evidence to patients by using clinical or nursing


The scope of resources,expertise,patient participation as well as clinical judgement all are playing a pivotal role

in defining EBP . It would be important to assert that the systematic approach is valuable,the problem is more of

attitude since the nurse must learn how to employ clinical judgements and as well understand the value of using

data .The core weaknesses can be traced to organizationl cultures,each organization have its own cultures and

these may impact on the implementation of EBP specifically in regard to preventing Catheter-Associated UTIs.

Mason, Diana J.; Leavitt, Judith K.; Chaffee, Mary W. (2006). Policy and Politics in Nursing and Health Care .


Mulrow ,C, ;Cook, D (1998). Systematic reviews: synthesis of best evidence for health care decisions.

Philadelphia: American College of Physicians.

Nicolle, Lindsay E. (2014). "Catheter associated urinary tract infections". Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection

Control. 3: 23.

Vine, J.(2016) Standard for Producing Evidence – Effectiveness of Interventions. HACT.

Spring, B.; Hitchcock, K. (2010). "Evidence-based practice in psychology". In Weiner, I.B.; Craighead, W.E.

Corsini’s Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science. 2 (4th ed.). Wiley.