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VOCATIONALHIGHERSECONDARY

FIRSTYEAR

FISH PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY


TEACHERS’SOURCEBOOK

GOVERNMENT OF KERALA
Department of Education
2005

State Council of Educational Research & Training (SCERT)


Vidyabhavan, Poojappura, Thriuvananthapuram-12, Kerala
Prepared by:
State Council of Educational Research & Training (SCERT)
Vidyabhavan, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram -12
Kerala
E-mail:scertkerala@asianetindia.com

Type setting by:


SCERT Computer Lab.

©
Government of Kerala
Department of General Education
2005
Preface
Dear Teachers,
The activity based, process oriented and learner centred
pedagogy is being introduced in the Vocational Higher
Secondary classes. It becomes imperative to make
significant changes in the learning process as well as in
the evaluation system for its successful implementation.

Sourcebook is to assist the teacher to transact the modified


curriculum through leaner centred and activity oriented
strategies. The sourcebook on ‘Fish Processing Technology’
has been designed in such a way to help the teacher to
provide suitable learning activities for effective teaching.
This book has enough opportunities to improve the
proficiency of the teacher and to develop diversified teaching
strategies.

Thiruvananthapuram Dr. E. Valsala Kumar


25.11. 05 Director
SCERT, Kerala
CONTENTS

Section I
General Approach .........................................................0 5
Approach to Fisheries ....................................................1 9
Curriculum Objectives...................................................2 1
Syllabus ...........................................................................2 4
Planning ..........................................................................2 7
Evaluation .......................................................................3 6
Section II
1. General Introduction ............................................5 1
2. Fish as a Food Material.........................................5 7
3. Fish Spoilage .........................................................6 2
4. Microbiology of Fish Spoilage .............................6 6
5. Microbes in Public health ....................................7 1
6. Fish Handling ........................................................7 7
7. Freezing .................................................................8 2
8. Freezers .................................................................8 7
9. Freezing of Shrimps ..............................................8 9
10. Cold Storage ..........................................................9 1
11. Storage, Transport and Distribution.....................9 3
12. Lay out of Processing Plant ..................................9 6
13. Factory Hygiene and Sanitation ..........................9 8
14. Modern Packing Methods ................................. 1 0 0
Section III
Sample Questions ....................................................... 1 0 2
GENERAL APPROACH

Introduction
The ultimate aim of education is human refinement. Education should enable
the learner to formulate a positive outlook towards life and to accept a stand
which suits the well being of the society and the individual as well.
The attitude and potential to ‘to work’ has determined the destiny, progress and
cultural development of the human race. As we all are aware, the objective of
education to form a society and individuals having a positive work culture. The
educational process expected in and outside our formal schools should
concentrate upon inculcating concepts, abilities, attitudes and values in tune with
these ‘work culture.’ Hence vocationalised education cannot be isolated from the
main stream of education. In anthor sense, every educational process should be
vocationalised. However, due to our inability to utilise the resources wisely,
scarcity of job opportunities is a severe issue of the present society. For
overcoming this deep crisis, emergent techniques have to be sorted out and
appropriate researches have to be seriously carried out. It is in the sence that the
content and methodology of vocational Higher Secondary Education have to be
approached.

The Vocational Higher Secondary course was envisaged as a part of the National
Policy on Education with the noble idea of securing a job along with education.
The relevance of Vocational education is very great in this age of un employment.
This education system, which ensures a job along with higher education, stands
aloof from other systems of education.
A learning environment which ensures vocational aptitude, vocational training,
basic life skills, competencies related to different subjects, appropriate values
and attitudes and existential readiness has to be provided here.
The curriculum should be one which recognises the specific personality of the
learner and should develop it in a desirable way. It should provide opportunity
to imbibe novel ideas to follow a critical approach and for learning through
experiences.

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The competency to transform ones own resources for the betterment of the society
and the individual is to be ensured in each individual. Training in the sense of
equality, democratic sense, environmental consciousness and devotion to the
constitution is an inseparable factor of the curriculum.
The need of a systematic curriculum is prevailing in vocational subjects. A
scientifically structured curriculum incorporating the unique features peculiarity
of Kerala ensuring the possibility of higher education and utilising the national
and international possibilities of employment is required.

The new curriculum should be capable of assimilating the life skills, scientific
temper, attitude of coexistence, leadership qualities and mental health to face
the challenges of life. It should be capable of strengthening the competencies
imbibed by the learners up to the tenth class.
A curriculum for selecting vocational areas according to the aptitude of the
students, learning it in depth, acquire general awareness in the basic areas and to
secure jobs has become the social need of the day. A learner centered, process
oriented, need based vocational curriculum is envisaged.

What is learning?
l Learning is construction of knowledge and so it is a live and continuous
mental process.
l Learning is a process of advancement through adding and correcting in the
light of comparing the new issue with the previously learned concepts.
l Learning takes place as a part of the effort to solve problems.
l Learning takes place by assimilating bits of knowledge into ones own cognitive
structure.
l Learning is not a linear process. It is a spiral process growing deeper and
wider.
l Learning is an intellectual process rather than the mere memorisation of facts.
Learning is a conglomeration of a variety activities like problem analysis,
elucidation, critical thinking, rational thinking, finding out co-relations,
prediction, arriving at conclusions, applications, grouping for other
possibilities and extracting the crux. When opportunities are provided for
intellectual processes learning will become effective and intellectual ability
will get strengthened.
Theoretical foundations of learning
Education is the best device that can be adopted for creation of a new society. It
should be democratic in content and process and should acknowledge the rights
of the learner. It should also provide opportunity for better citizenship training.
The concept of equality at all areas should get recognition in theory and practice.
There should be conscious programme of action to develop nationality,
humanness and love and against the encroachment of the sectarianism of caste
and religion.

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The learner should be able to take firm steps and deferred against the social crisis
like privatisation, liberalisation, globalisation etc. and against all kinds of
dominations.
They should develop a discrimination to use the acquired learning as a
liberative weapon.

They should be able to view education and life with the perspective of social
well being.
They should get opportunity to recognise that co-operation is better than
competition and that co-operation is the key to social life and culture.
A basic awareness of all the subjects needed for life essential for all students.

The remnants of perspectives formed in us during the colonial period still


influence our educational philosophy. The solution to the present day perplexities
of the society which approaches education on the basis of competitions and
marketisation is only a comprehensive view of life.
It is high time that education was recognised on the basis of the philosophy of
human education. The human approach to education has to reflect in its content,
learning process and outlook. The perspective of ‘learning to be ‘ and learning to
live together as expressed by the UNESCO and the concepts of existentialist
intelligence intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence.
The basis of new approaches on curriculum, teaching- learning process are derived
from the developments place in the east and west of the world.

When we begin to see the learner at the centre of the learning process, the teaching
process has to be changed timely. It is the result of the rapid growth and
development of Science and Technology and Pedagogy. If we want to undergo
the changing process, we have to imbibe the modern hypothesis regarding learner,
they have;
• Great curiosity
• Good imagination
• Numerous other qualities and interests
• Independent individuality
• Interest in free thinking and working in a fearless atmosphere.
• Have interest in enquiring and questioning.
• Ability to reach conclusions after logical thinking.
• ability for manifest and establish freely the conclusions arrived at.
• Interest for recognition in the society.
• Determination to face the interference of society and make components which
is a part of social life.

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When we consider the learning system, the domains to be stressed in education
according to the modern development becomes relevant.
The knowledge domain consists of
• Facts
• Ideas
• Laws
• The temporary conclusions and principles used presently by scientists.
The learning is a process. The continuous procedures we undergo to reach a
particular goal is process. The skills which are parts of the process to analyse the
collected ideas and proofs and come to a conclusion is called process skills. Some
important process skills are,
the skills;
• To observe
• To collect data and record
• To classify
• To measure and prepare charts
• To experiment
• To predict
• To recognise and control the variables
• To raise questions
• To generalis
• To form a hypothesis and check.
• To conclude
• To communicate
• To predict and infer
• To use tools.

Observation is the process of acquiring knowledge through the senses. It is purely
objective oriented. Learning experiences which provide the opportunity to use all
the senses may be used.
The process of grouping is known as classifying. Starting from simple groupings
of data, it can extend to the level of classification into minute sub-groups.
In addition to this, consider the skills related to creative domain also, they are
skills:
• To visualize
• To connect facts and ideas in new ways

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• To findout new and uncommon uses of objects
• To fantasize
• To dream
• To develop creative isolated thoughts

Creativity is an essential component of process and activities. The element
of creativity is involved in finding out problems, formation of hypothesis,
finding ‘solutions’ to problems etc. Through activity oriented learning
experiences, opportunities to express creativity can be created.
Again, the following factors consisting in the Attitudinal domain are also important
as;
• Self confidence
• Love for scientific knowledge
• Attitude to know and value history
• Respect human emotions
• Decide with reasonable present problems
• Take logical decisions regarding personal values
‘Hypothesis’ is a temporary conclusion drawn using insight. Based on
knowledge and experiences relating to the problems the causes and
solutions can be guessed.
As regards the application domain the important factors are the ability to:
• observe in daily life examples of ideas acquired.
• take the help of scientific process to solve the problems of daily life.
• choose a scientific life style
• connect the ideas acquired with other subjects.
• integrate the subjects with other subjects.
Some basic stands have to be taken on the new scientific knowledge about
intelligence learning and teaching. When such basic concepts are accepted changes
are required in the following factors.
l The vision, approach, structure and content of the curriculum.
l The vision, approach, structure and content of the textbooks.
l Role of the teacher and the learner.
l Learner atmosphere, learning materials and learning techniques.
Some scientific perspectives accepted by modern world in educational psychology
are given below.

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Constructivism
This approach puts forward the concept that the learner constructs knowledge.
New knowledge is constructed when ideas are examined and practiced in new
situations relating them with the previously acquired knowledge and experience.
That is assimilated into the congnitive structure of one’s knowledge. This method
which gives priority to critical thinking and proble solving provides opportunity
for self motivated learning.
Social Constructivism
Social constructivism is a sub section of constructivism. Knowledge is formed,
spread and imbibed and it becomes relevant in a social enviornment. Interactive
learning , group learning, co-operative participatory learning, all these are concepts
put forward by social constructivism.
The main propounders of constructivism are piaget, vygotsky and Bruner.
Discovery learning and interactive learning have prime importance. Learning takes
place as a part of the attempt for problem solving. The activities of a learner who
confronts cognitive disequilibrium in a learning situation when he tries to
overcome it is leads to the renewal of cognitive structure. It is through this process
construction of new knowledge and the assimilation of them that learning take
place. Observation and enquiry are unavoidable factors. The learner advances
towards new areas of acquisition of knowledge where he tries to compare his
new findings with the existing conceptions.

Learning is a live mental process. Rather than the ability for memorisation of
facts cognitive process has to be given emphasis. The process of problem analysis,
elucidation, critical thinking, rational thinking, finding out co-relation, prediction,
hypothesis formation, application, probing for other possibilities, extracting the
crux and other processes are of critical importance in learning.
Constructivism gives greater predominance to co-operative learning. Social and
cultural factors influence learning. Sharing of knowledge and experience among
learners, collective enquiry, assessment and improvement, group activity and
collaborative learning, by sharing responsibilities with the objective of public
activity, provide opportunity for effective learning.
In learning internal motivation is more important than external motivation. The
learner should have interest and initiative in learning. Learning situation should
be capable of forming a sense of ownership in of the learner regarding the learning
process.

Learning is not a linear process. It progresses in a spiralled way advancing deeper


and wider.

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Learner-his nature and features
The learners in standard XI has undergone a learner centered and process oriented
learning experience up to X standard. He is adequately competent to select
vocational subjects according to his aptitude and interest and to acquire higher
education and profession as he wishes. The aspirations about future life is framed
in this particular age foreseeing national and international job oppurtunities. Some
of the peculiarities of the learner at this stage are:
l Physical, intellectual an emotional planes are intensive changes during this
age and their reflections can be observed.
l Ability to enquire, discover and establish cause-effect relationship between
phenomena.
l Readiness to undertake challenges.
l Capacity to shoulder leadership roles.
l Attempt to interprest oneself.
l Susceptibility to different pressures.
l Doubts, anxieties and eagerness about sex.
l Longing for social recognition.
Needs of the learner
l To make acquaintance with a job through vocational education.
l To acquire more knowledge in the concerned area through higher education.
l To recognise and encourage the peculiar personality of the later adolescent
period.
l To enable him to defend against the unfavourable circumstances without any
help
Role of the Learner
• Active participant in the learning process.
• Acts as a researcher
• Sharer of information
• Sharer of responsibilities
• Collects information
• Takes leadership
• Involves in group work
• Acts as a co- participant
• Observes his environment
• Experiments and realises
• Makes interpretations and draws inferences.

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Role of the Teacher
The teacher should;
• consider the ‘Stress and strain’ of the teenagers
• understand the socio- economic and cultural background of the students.
• promote and motivate the students to construct knowledge.
• arrange proper situations to interact in and outside of the classroom.
• guide the students by explanations, demonstrations etc.
• promote opportunity for co-operative learning and collaborative learning.
• facilitate interpersonal and intra-personal interactions.
• act as a democratic leader.
• act as a problem solver
• effectively guide the students for the selection and conduct of various
continuous evaluation elements.
• continuously evaluate the progress of the learners.
• gives scaffolding/support wherever necessary.
• motivate for learning
• promote divergent thinking.
• act as a democratic group leader.
• act as a co-learner
• gives variety of learning experiences.
• be a constant student
• facilitate for reference/data collection
• have a clear under standing about the age, needs, peculiarities, abilities,
nature, aptitude etc. of the learner.
• have the ability to motivate the learner in order to acquire and enrich their
knowledge.
• be a guide to the learner in developing insights and creating responses on
current affairs.
• be capable to lead the learner into a variety of learning methods and process
based on curricular objectives.
• be a link between school and community.
• be a good organiser, guide, friend, philosopher and co-learner.
• have an inter disciplinary approach in learning activities.
• be able to guide the learner in his/her career prospects based on his interest
aptitude and ability.
• be impartial and democratic.
• provide ample experiences to attain the basic values and objectives of the
curriculum.

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New Concepts of Learning
1. Discovery Learning-
The teacher has to create a motivating atmosphere for the learner to discover
concepts and facts, instead of listening always. Creating occasion to progress
towards discovery is preferred. Instead of telling everything before and
compelling to initiate the models, situations are to be created to help the children
act models as themselves.
2. Learning by discussion
That discussion leads to learning is Burner's theory. Here discussion is not
opposing each other. It is a sharing on the plane of ideas. New ideas are arrived
at by seeking explanations, by mutual giving and taking of ideas and by problem
solving.
3. Problem solving and learning
Only when the learner feels that some thing is a problem to be solved that he
takes the responsibility of learning it. It is an inborn tendency to act to solve a
problem that causes cognitive disequilibrium in a particular area. It is also needed
to have confidence that one is capable of doing it. The problems are to be presented
in consideration of the ability and level of attainment of the learner.
4. Collaborative learning
This is the learning in which the responsibilities are distributed among the
members of the group keeping common learning objectives. The common
responsibility of the group will be successful only if each member discharges his
duties. All the members will reach a stage of sharing the result of learning, equally
through the activity with mutual understanding. The teachers who arrange
collaborative learning will have to make clear the responsibilities to be
discharged. This is possible through the discussion with the learners. Collaborative
learning will help to avoid the situations of one person working for the whole
group.
5. Co-operative learning
This is the learning in which the learners help one another. Those who have more
knowledge, experience and competency, will help others. By this exchange of
resources the learners develop a plane of social system in learning also. As there
are no high ups and low ones according to status among the learners they can ask
the fellow students doubts and for helps without any hesitation or in hesitation
Care should be taken not to lead this seeking of help to mechanical copying. It
should be on the basis of actual needs. So even while encouraging this exchange
of ideas among the members of the group cautions acceptance is to be observed
as a convention. There should be an understanding that satisfactory responses
should come from each member and that the achievement of the group will be
assessed on the basis of the achievement of all the members

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6 Zone of Proximal Development
Vygotsky observes that these is a stage of achievement where a learner can reach
by himself and another higher zone where he can reach with the help of his teachers
and peers and elders. Even though some can fulfil the learning activity by
themselves there is the possibility of a higher excellence. If appropriate help is
forth covering every learner can better himself.
7 Scaffolding
It is natural that the learner may not be able to complete his work if he does not
get support at the proper time. The learner may require the help of the teacher in
several learning activities. Here helping means to make the learner complete the
activity taking responsibility by himself. The teacher has to keep in mind the
objective of enabling the learner to take the responsibility and to make it
successful.
8 Learning: a live mental process
Learning is a cognitive process, only a teacher who has an awareness as to what
the cognitive process is alone can arrange learning situations to the learner to
involve in it. Learning can be made effectively and intellectual sharpness can be
improved by giving opportunity for the cognitive processes like reminding,
recognising compromising , co- relating, comparing, guessing, summarising and
so on. How is cognitive process considered in language learning? Take guessing
and prediction for example.
l Guessing the meaning from the context.
l Guessing the content from the heading.
l Predicting the end of the story.
l Guessing the incident, story from the picture.
l Guessing the facts from indications.
l and other such activities can be given the following activities can be given for
the cognitive process of summarisation.
l Preparation of blue print.
l Preparation of list.
l Preparation of flow chart.
l Epitomising in one word.
l Giving titles and so on.
l Symbols, performance of characters indications, lines of a poem, tables,
pictures, concepts, actions, body language and such things can be given for
interpretation. Process based language given for interpretation. Process based
language learning has to give prime importance to the cognitive process.
9 Internal motivation
Internal motivation is given more importance than external motivation. The teacher

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has to arouse the internal motivation of the learner, A person internally motivated
like this alone can immerse in learning and own its responsibility. How motivating
is each of the activities is to be assessed.
10 Multiple intelligence
The Theory of Multiple Intelligence put forward by Howard Gardener has created
a turning point in the field of education. The National curriculum document has
recommended that the curriculum is to be designed taking into consideration of
this theory.
Main factors of the intellect :

1. Verbal/linguistic Intelligence -
Ability to read and write, making linguistic creations , ability to lecture
competence effective a communication , all these come under this . This can be
developed by engaging in language games and by teaching others.

2. Logical /mathematical Intelligence


Thinking rationally with causes and effect relation and finding out patterns and
relations come under this area, finding out relations and explaining things
sequential and arithmetical calculations are capable of developing this area of
intelligence.

3. Visual /spatial Intelligence


In those who are able to visualise models and bringing what is in the imagination
into visual form and in philosophers, designers and sculptors this area of
intelligence is developed. The activities like modelling using clay and pulp,
making of art equipments, sculpture, and giving illustrations to stories can help
the development of this ability.

4 Bodily Kinaesthetic Intelligence


The activities using body language come under this. This area of intelligence is
more developed in dancers and actors who are able to express ideas through
body movements and in experts in sports, gymnastics etc.
5 Musical Intelligence
This is an area of intelligence which is highly developed in those who are able to
recognise the different elements of music in musicians and in those who can here
and enjoy songs. Playing musical instruments, initiating the songs of musicians,
listening silently to the rhythms and activities like this are capable of developing
this area of intelligence.
6 Interpersonal Intelligence
Those in whom this area of intelligence is developed show qualities of leadership
and behave with others in a noble manner. They are capable of understanding
the thought of others and carrying on activities like discussion successfully.

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7 Intrapersonal Intelligence
This is the ability to understand oneself. These people can recognise their own
abilities and disabilities. Writing diaries truthfully and in an analysing way and
assessing the ideas and activities of others will help developing this areas of
intelligence
8 Naturalistic Intelligence
A great interest in the flora and fauna of the nature, love towards fellow beings
interest in spiritual and natural factors will be capable of developing this area.
9. Existential Intelligence
The ability to see and distinguish ours own existence as a part of the universe,
ability to distinguish the meaning and meaninglessness of life, the ability to realise
the ultimate nature of mental and physical existences, all these are the peculiarities
of this faculty of intelligence.
Emotional Intelligence
The concept of emotional intelligence put forward by Daniel Golman was used
in framing the new curriculum. The fact that one’s Emotional Quotient (E.Q) is
the greatest factor affecting success in life is now widely accepted. The teacher
who aims to focus on improving the emotional intelligence of students need to
concentrate on the following.

i) Ability to take decisions


Rather than imposing decision on students while planning and executing
activities, the students may be allowed to take part in the decision making process.
Taking decisions through open discussion in the class, inviting students
suggestions on common problems etc. are habits to be cultivated.

ii) Ability to reach consensus


l When different opinions, ideas and positions arise the students may be given
the responsibility to reach a consensus.
l Imaging what would be the course of action in some situations, allowing to
intervene in a healthy way in problems between individuals.
iii) Problem solving
l Developing the idea that there is reason and solution to any problem.
l Training in finding reasons for problems.
l Suggesting solutions through individual or group efforts.
l Discussing social problems.
l Analysing the shortcomings in methods to solve problems.
Whether plastic can be banned within school premises can be given as a problem.
Group discussion will provide reasons and solutions. Problems which can
influence classroom learning and for which the learner can actively contribute
solutions need to be posed.

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l Self criticism, evaluation
l Ability to face problem-situation in life
l Thinking what one would do if placed in the situation of others, how one
would respond to certain experiences of others - All these foster the growth of
emotional intelligence.
iv) Life skills
Life skills need to be given a prominent place in education. W.H.O. has listed
ten skills required for success in life.
l Self awareness
l Empathy
l Inter personal relations
l Communication
l Critical thinking
l Creative thinking
l Decision making
l Problem solving
l Copying with emotion
l Copying with stress
The new curriculum addresses these areas.

Knowing the characteristics of the learner, role of the teacher and how to use the
teachers handbook help the teacher to plan and effectively implement learning
activities.

Objectives of the Vocational Higher Secondary Curriculum.


l To facilitate higher education while giving opportunity to enter in the field of
employment.
l To develop enviornmental awareness, sense of national integration, tolerance
and human values so as to ensure social and cultural improvement.
l To enable the learner to find on his own employment.
l To inculcate mental courage in the learner to face unfavourable situations.
l To make human resource development possible.
l To enable the learner to understand social problems and to react appropriately.
l To develop the learner to identify and develop his own competencies.
l To develop vocational aptitude, work culture and attitude in the learner so
as to provide useful products and services to the society.
l To create an awareness about mental and physical health.
l To acquire awareness about different job areas and to provide backgrounds
for acquiring higher level training in subjects of interest.
l To develop possibilities of higher education by creating awareness about
common entrance examinations.
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l To provide situation for the encouragement of creative thinking and organising
training programmes in each area, creative abilities and to develop artistic
talents.
Nature of Approach
The learning device is to be organised in the selected vocational subjects in such
a way that adequate practical experience should be given, making use of the
modern technology. The development in each area on the basis of information
technology is to be brought to the learner. The work experience in the respective
fields (OJT, Field trip, Production/Service ..... training, Survey, Workshop,
Exhibition, Youth festival, Physical fitness etc.) are to be adjusted suitable to the
learning and evaluation process. The participation and leadership of the students
in planning and execution is to be ensured through this kind of activities. Social
service is to be made a part of the course.

Approach towards Vocational Higher Secondary Education


The learning methodology has to be organised so as the learning provide adequate
practical thinking on the opted vocational subject utilising the new technology.
The development of information technology should be made available in each
sector. Work experience, OJT, Field trip production, Service cum training centre,
Survey, Workshops, Exhibitions, Youth festivals, Physical fitness etc should be
systematised well appropriate to learning and evaluation. Learner participation
should be ensured in the planning and implementation of these activities. Social
service should be a part of the course. If a learner has to change his school, he
should be provided an opportunity to continue his studies in the new school.
While considering criteria for admission to higher courses, grades of vocational
subjects should also be given due weightage. In tune with the changes in the
Vocational Higher Secondary Education changes should be ensured in the field
of higher education.
The teachers have to take special care in arranging learning activities for the
development of all the faculties of intelligence.
Learning activities and learning atmosphere.

A proper learning atmosphere is essential for the betterment of learning activities.


They are:
l Proper physical environment
l Healthy mental atmosphere
l Suitable social atmosphere
l Active participation of PTA, Local bodies and SRG
l Reference materials and visual media equipments.
l Academic monitoring
l School Resource Group (SRG)

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APPROACH TO FISHERIES

Introduction
Vocational education, a dream of Mahatma Gandhi, was realized by the central
government to address the problem of massive unemployment among the youth
in our country. Among the different vocational courses introduced, Fisheries
courses has great relevance. Being a country with a vast coastline of about 8000
km fishing and allied industries play an important role in providing employment
to a vast majority of the population, as well as sustaining the economy with the
foreign exchange earned from the export of various fisheries products. Among
the maritime states of India, Kerala holds a remarkable position in fisheries sector.
That is why the importance of fisheries in the economic development of Kerala
was emphasized by our President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam.

The courses like Fishing Craft and Gear Technology, Fish processing Technology,
Aqua-culture offer scope in studying new technologies, and help to improve the
fishing industry, which directly or indirectly helps to improve the standard of
living of fisher folk and also generate employment opportunities.
Aims
• To create general awareness about the fisheries sector, its resources and their
significances.
• To impart knowledge and training on various fish culture, capture and
processing techniques.
• To create and develop confidence and skills for initiatives in self employment
in fisheries sector.
Educational Approach
The studies conducted by UNESCO, SCERT on the various defects of teacher
centred education evolved a new idea of student centred educational approach.
According to their approach the learning activities should pave way for the
construction of knowledge. While selecting the learning activities we should take
into account the nature, mental ability and skills of students. This approach should
explore the activities like problem solving and self studying. It is important that
the new educational approach should create opportunities for individual learning,
co-learning and group learning.

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For this we can adopt different strategies and techniques.

1. Discovery learning
The teacher has to create an atmosphere that encourages the learner to discover
ideas and facts of his own. For example the teacher can assign the students to
identify and classify different marine fishes. This gives an opportunity for the
learner to observe the different ***** fishes available in the local market and can
collect information from different sources like internet and journals. Their
observation can be consolidated and presented.

2. Co-operative learning
In this method the learners learn by helping each other. The negotiation among
peers take place here. For example, if we want to make an awareness among the
students about different preservative methods, the students can be divided into
different groups and a group discussion on the topic can be conducted. The ideas
evolved from the discussion can be consolidated and presented in the class by
one person from each group.

3. Collaborative learning
The two important aspects of this method of learning are sharing of ideas and
negotiation among the learners. Suppose we have to deal with different packaging
materials for fishery products. A group discussion can be conducted. Divide the
class into four groups ask them to collect different types of packaging materials
and to analyse their merits and demerits. For this prepare discussion points.
l Traditional packing materials.
l Modern packing materials.
l Merits and demerits of packing materials.
l Impact on the environment.
Assign each group to discuss about one of the discussion points. Encourage the
group leaders to present the findings of their group and allow the class to comment
on it. When the presentations are over teacher may consolidate it and ask each
one to prepare the report. This type of learning is called Collaborative learning.

4. Socio-Cultural related learning


This method of learning pertains to social and cultural aspect of the society. For
example to study the problems faced by the fishermen for keeping the fish in
fresh condition, conduct an informal interview among the fishermen to collect
the problems faced by them and findout the solutions to tackle the problems and
prepare a report.

20
CURRICULUM OBJECTIVES

l To understand the status of Indian fisheries and export.


l To identify the maritime states, fishing zones, major fishing harbours and
ports of India.
l To understand various fishing methods briefly.
l To develop skills to identify the morphological characters of typical fish and
prawn.
l To develop skills to differentiate teleost and elasmobranch.
l To understand the commercially important fishery resources of India.
l To develop the skills to familiarise different varities of fishes, crustaceans
and molluscs.
l To understand the proximate composition of fish.
l To understand the classification of protien based on its solubility.
l To understand the importance of fish in human diet.
l To develop a skill to compare the nutritive value of fish with other food
items.
l To apply the knowledge acquired about nutrition in real life situations.
l To understand the post mortem changes taking place in the fish muscle.
l To understand different causative agents of fish spoilage.
l To develop the skill for evaluating shrimp organoleptically.
l To develop the skill to differentiate fresh and spoiled fish.
l To understand the structure of bacteria.
l To understand the effect of environmental factors on bacterial growth.
l To understand the methods to prevent fish spoilage.
l Apply the knowledge acquired in new situations
l To understand different types of food poisioning caused by the pathogenic
bacteria.

21
l To develop skill for identifying the types of food poisioning through their
symptoms.
l Understand the different methods of controlling food poisioning.
l Apply the acquired skill in unfamiliar situation.
l To understand the hygienic handling of fish and prawn on board fishing vessel
and on shore.
l To develop the skill for fish handling.
l To develop the steps in the preparation of fish for processing.
l To understand the principle of chilling.
l To understand the different methods of icing.
l To understand the process of ice manufacture.
l To develop the skill for icing the fish.
l To identify different types of ice.
l To develop skill for chlorinating water.
l To understand the significance of quality of ice and water to be used in fish
processing.
l To understand the need for chlorination of water in fish processing.
l To understand the use of Refrigerated Sea Water (RSW) and Chilled Sea Water
(CSW) for fish storage.
l To familiarise the different equipments in fish processing industry.
l Apply the acquired skills to new situations.
l To understand refrigeration and different types of refrigerants.
l To understand the concept of freezing as a preservative method.
l To develop a skill to differentiate freezing and chilling.
l To develop a skill to differentiate slow freezing and quick freezing.
l To understand the terms related to freezing.
l To understand the factors affecting freezing rate.
l To understand different freezing methods.
l To understand different product styles of cephalopods and fishes.
l To apply the acquired skills in new situations.
l To familiarise with different steps in freezing.
l To familiarise with common types of freezers.
l To develop skills in preparing different product styles of prawns.

22
l To develop skills for the freezing of shrimps.
l To understand the functions of a cold storage
l To understand different types of cold storage
l To understand the chilled storage and frozen storage
l To understand fish transportation and distribution
l To understand the changes in fish muscle during freezing and in the cold
storage.
l To get an awareness about the minimum infrastructural facilities required
for a fish processing plant.
l To understand the details about factory hygiene and sanitation.
l To understand the significance of sanitation in sea food industry.
l To develop skills to maintain personal hygiene and sanitation.
l To apply the acquired knowledge in new situations.
l To understand the concept of packing and its importance
l To familiarise with different types of packaging materials.
l To understand recent trends in packaging.
l To apply the knowledge in new situations.
l To develop skills for identifying and applying different types of packing
materials.

23
SYLLABUS

Unit. 1 General Introduction


Morphology and biology of typical fish and shell fish. Major Indian fisheries:
marine, estuarine and fresh water. Pelagic and demersal fisheries of India. Fishing
methods. Marine fish production in India. Export of marine products from India
Unit. 2 Fish as a Food Material
Importance of fish in human diet.
Chemical aspects of fish flesh components- Water, fat (oil), protien, carbohydrate,
vitamins.
Unit. 3 Fish Spoilage
Rigor mortis, Autolytic spoilage, Bacterial spoilage, oxidation of fat.
Unit. 4 Microbiology of Fish Spoilage
Structure and growth of bacteria, Role of bacteria in fish spoilage, Effect of
temperature, pH, Oxygen, Salinity etc. on bacterial growth, methods of controlling
spoilage.
Unit. 5 Microbes in Public Health
Microbes that cause infection to man- Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp.
Clostridium botulinum, Vibrio cholera, Escherichia coli, feacal Streptococci.
Unit. 6 Fish Handling
Hygienic handling of fish on board fishing vessel and on shore, Manufacture and
storage of ice, Quality of ice, Use of ice for handling, transportation and processing
of fish, Quality of water to be used in fish processing, Chlorination of water,
Refrigerated sea water for fish preservation.
Unit. 7 Freezing
Principles involved in freezing of fish.
Different freezing methods, freezing of fishery products and the steps involved.
Slow freezing Vs Quick freezing, Double freezing, Post freezing treatment.

24
Unit. 8 Freezers
Airblast freezers
Contact plate freezers
Spray and Immersion freezers
Other types of freezers
Freezing time and freezer operating temperatures
Unit. 9 Freezing of Shrimps
How to make good frozen products
Freezing of shrimps in different styles like whole, HL, PD, PUD, CPD, Block and
IQF products.
Unit. 10 Cold Storage
Types of cold store
Unit. 11 Storage, Transportation and Distribution
Chilled storage
Frozen storage
Change in fish muscle during frozen storage
Unit. 12 Lay out of Processing Plants
Site, building, water supply, equipments and clothing
Unit. 13 Factory Hygiene and Sanitation
Building, equipment and staff sanitation
Maintanace of Quality control
Unit. 14 Modern Packing Methods
Choice of packing materials
Types of modern packaging

25
Topics added to Syllabus
Unit - VIII - Freezing
Different freezing methods, freezing of fishery products and the steps involve in
freezing
Note: As a Vocational course the students should have a knowledge about the
newly added topics.

Topics Deleted from Syllabus


Unit- II - Fish as food material
Analysis of major components - Moisture, fat, protien, carbohydrate, ash.
Unit- III - Fish Spoilage
Measurement of spoilage in fish
Unit- IV - Microbiology of fish spoilage
Yeast and moulds.
Unit- V - Microbes in Public health
Shigella species, Clotridium perfringens, Vibrio prahaemolyticus, Bacillus cereus.
Unit- VI - Fish Handling
Insulated containers for fresh fish transportation
Unit- X - Cold Storage
Important design factors
Unit- XI - Storage, Transport and Distribution
Requirments for chill and cold storage
Note: The above mentioned topics are deleted from the syllabus. The topics
donot have any vocational importance at this stage.

26
PLANNING

The role of teacher as well as the learner has changed in the emerging scenario. So
teacher being the facilitator should bear in mind the fact that the C.O’s are to be
accomplished within the specified time schedule. In order to fulfill this goal the
facilitator should prepare necessary plan. Four such plans are given below which
include field visit to a collaborative institutions, OJT, Surveys, Exhibition and all
the teaching learning activities include and outside the class room.
l Year Plan
l Unit Plan
l Daily Plan
Year plan covers all the unit and the entire activities to be completed with in a
year.

Unit plan include all the portions, processes and activities before studying a unit.
This plan must give reveal the actual information about the curriculum objectives,
concepts, process skills, activities, material required and evaluation.
Daily plan is the daytoday plan to provide activities for a period (one hour). The
structure of daily plan is given with each chapter.

27
28
YEAR PLAN

Unit Name of Unit Name of Sub Unit Number of hrs. Month planned Activity/Suggestion
To Teach
1 General Introduction Status of Indian Fisheries and 2 June Field visit and
Export Data collection.
Identification of maritime states, 2 Demonstration
harbours and ports. Discussion
Various fishing methods. 6 Assignments
July
Morphology of typical fish and 2 25 hours Seminar.
prawn.
Difference between Teleost and 1
Elasmobranch.
Commercially important fishery 6
resources of India.
Different varieties of fishes, 6
crustanceans and molluscs
2 Fish as a food Proximate composition of fish 3 August Discussion
material Classification of protien 2
Importance of fish in human diet 2
10 hours
Nutrative value of fish and other 3
food
Unit Name of Unit Name of Sub Unit Number of hrs. Month planned Activity/Suggestion
To Teach
3 Fish Spoilage Post mortum changes taking 4 September Demonstration
place in fish. of Samples
Causative agents of fish spoilage 2 10 hours
Organoleptic evaluation of 2
shrimp.
Differentiation of fresh and spoiled 2
fish
4 Microbiology of fish Structure of Bacteria 3 September Discussion with
spoilage Environmental factors on bacte- 5 the help of OHP
rial growth and Charts.
11 hours Demonstration
Methods to prevent fish spoilage 3

5 Microbes in public Different types of food poisoning. 4 October Field visit, Quiz,
health 8 hours Discussion
Methods of controlling food 4
poisoning Assignment.

29
30
Unit Name of Unit Name of Sub Unit Number of hrs. Month planned Activity/Suggestion
To Teach
6 Fish Handling Handling on board and on shore 7 October Field visit and
Manufature of Ice Demonstration
4
Chlorination of water 15 hours Discussion
1
RSW and CSW 3
7 Freezing Refrigeration and Refrigerants 2 November Field visit
Concept of freezing 2 Discussion
Freezing and chilling 2
14 hours
Freezing methods 3
Product styles 2
Different steps in freezing 3

8 Freezers Common type of freezers 8 hours November Field visit


Demonstration
Discussion,

9 Freezing of shrimps. Different product styles of prawn 3 10 hours December Video show,
Freezing of prawns 7 Discussion with
the help of charts
and samples.
Unit Name of Unit Name of Sub Unit Number of hrs. Month planned Activity/Suggestion
To Teach
10 Cold Storage Functions of cold storage 2 January Field visit
5 hours
Types of cold storage 3 Discussion

11 Storage, Transport Chill storage and frozen storage 1 January Field visit
and Distribution Transportation and distribution. 2 5 hours Discussion
Changes in fish muscle during 2
freezing and cold storage.
12 Lay out of processing Infrastructure facilities required 5 hours January Field visit,
plant for a processing plant. Discussion

13 Factory hygiene and Hygiene and sanitation 3 January Discussion


Sanitation Significance of sanitation 1 6 hours
Personal hygiene 2

14 Modern Packing Concept 1 February Collection


methods Types of packaging materials 4 Debate
8 hours
Recent trends 3 Discussion

31
32
UNIT PLAN

UNIT. 2 FISH AS A FOOD MATERIAL


Curriculum Objectives Ideas/ Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation Total
Concepts Nos.

Water, Fat, Observation Observation Charts and Participa-


l Understand the
Protien, Communication of charts. Reference tion
Proximate composition
Carbohydrate, Discussion Interest
of fish. Comparison 3
Minerals, Prepara-
Vitamins, NPN tion of
Compounds notes.

Observation Observation Charts and Participa-


l Understand the Sarcoplasmic
Classification of charts. Reference tion
classification of protien protien.
Discussion Interest.
based on its solubility. Fibrillar protein Communication 2
Prepara-
Stroma protien
tion of
notes.

l Understand the Deficiency Observation Observation Charts and Participa-


importance of fish in diseases. Communication of charts and Reference tion
human diet. comparison Prepara-
Comparison 2
tion of
notes.
Curriculum Objectives Ideas/ Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation Total
Concepts Nos.

l Develop skills to Comparison of Observation Observation Charts Participa-


compare the nutritive fish protien with Communication of charts and tion 3
value of fish with other vegetable and Comparison Interest.
Comparison
food items. meat protein.

l Apply the knowledge Essential Communication Discussion Reference Participa-


acquired about nutrition aminoacids. Preparation tion
to other situation. Polyunsaturated of notes. Presenta-
fatty acids. tion of
Vitamin A and D notes.
Iodine
Calcium
Phosporous

33
DAILY PLAN

UNIT. 2 FISH AS A FOOD MATERIAL

Name of Teacher : ..................... Class : I st VHSE


Name of the School : ..................... Division : .....................
Subject : Fish Processing Strength : 30
Technology
Average age : .....................
Topic : Nutrative value
of fish Duration : 1 hour

Curriculum Objectives
Develop skills to compare the nutritive value of fish with other food items.
Concepts and Ideas
The nutritive value of fish in regards to protein, fat, viatmins and minerals is
better compared to meat and vegetables.
Process Skill
Observation
Comunication

Comparison
Previous Knowledge
Students have knowledge about the proximate composition of fish, meat and
vegetables.
Materials required
Charts showing the percentage of proximate composition of fish, meat and
vegetables.
Response/ Feed back
Interest, Comparison

34
Participation in discussion
Presentation of findings based on charts.

Activities Assignment
Prepare three different charts showing Ü Write an assignment on the
the percentage of proximate composition nutritive value of fish
of fish, meat and vegetable. Divide the compared to meat and
whole class into five or six groups. Ask vegetables.
the groups to obeserve the charts and
discuss the nutritive value of fish
compared to meat and vegetables. Ask
each group to present their findings.
After the presentation teacher
summerises that the nutritive value of
fish is better than others.
Consolidation
Ü Fish contains more soluble protien
than meat.
Ü The protiens in fish are easily
digestable, hence fish is a good
nutritive food for children.
Ü The presence of Vitamin. A and D in
fish increases its nutritive value.
Ü Minerals like Iodine, Calcium and
Phosphorus also increases its
nutritive value.

35
EVALUATION

Introduction
As the curriculum is based on a particular vocation, evaluation becomes an
inevitable procedure. Evaluation is done along with learning process throughout
the course of study. Inorder to make an evaluation, the teacher should be able to
understand the students, their scholastic and co-scholastic knowledge. Capacity
building in the selected vocation is the most important part in vocational education
and it should be evaluated accordingly. The technical skills, interest and devotion
in the particular field, communication skills, analysis, organising and presentation
skills etc. have to be evaluated. The personal and social qualities also have to be
evaluated. Thus evaluation is an integral part of learning process which assesses
the implementation of the curriculum.

Need and importance of Evaluation


Evaluation is to assess the scientific knowledge of students and to recognise to
what extent they have achieved the specified capabilities. A written examination
at the end of an year which is purely based on a textbook is not of much use.
“Evaluation is a systematic process of collecting, analysing and interpreting
evidence of students’ progress and achievement both in cognitive and non-
cognitive areas of learning for the purpose of taking a variety of discussions”.
The teacher can properly assess the level of the learner and can identify his/her
strength and weakness. This will help each student to evaluate themselves and
to improve their level of learning by taking necessary assistance from the teacher
(self evaluation) classmates can evaluate themselves through interaction (peer
group evaluation) Evaluation even help the teacher to analyse and improve their
performance. Evaluation helps to integrate the teacher, learner and even the
parents. Thus student who are socially useful and can perform productive work
are created. This will improve the quality of our young generation.

Features of Evaluation
l Evaluation should be humane in nature. It must help the students grow
as social beings.

36
l Evaluation should be the responsibility of the teacher who teaches the
students and is responsible for developing the requisites healthy attributes
in them.
l Evaluation should be consistent with its purpose and must provide a
reliable and valid measure of the student’s performance.
l Evaluation should reflect the outcome of each learning intervention and
should provide all the students with equal opportunity to display their
individual potential.
l Evaluation should take into account both the background and the prior
experience of the students.
l Procedures for grading and their reporting should be appropriate and
easily understood by one and all.
l Evaluation should restore the faith and trust of the masses by ensuring
transparency in the procedure.
Theories of constructivism and multiple intelligence are the basis of modern
learning. So evaluation strategies have also to be changed. Evaluation must be;
l Continuous and comprehensive
l Scholastic and co-scholastic
l Depending on grading system.
l Depending on a vocational or trade proficiency.

Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation


Most of our traditional evaluation methods are related only to the area of scientific
knowledge or the memory of students. To eliminate the limitations of this method
we are forced to evaluate the multi-dimensional competencies of the learner with
respect to the practicability and nature of the subject.
Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation is an essential ingredient of any
learning process. It helps the learner to understand and evaluate his own progress
and to develop adequate strategy for further improvement. Continuous Evaluation
also helps us to measure the attained goals of formulated curriculum objectives.
Merits of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation system are:
1. Making student’s learning regular
2. Provides for a variety of activities
3. Effective feedback is possible
4. Assess the all round development of the learner on a continuous basis
through a variety of activities.
5. Remedial and diagnostic teaching is possible.
6. The process as well as the product is assessed.
Different tools are used to evaluate the multi dimensional competencies of the
learners. The Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) includes not
only written test (class tests) but also oral tests, observation, interview, debates,
discussions, seminars etc.

37
The learner proceeds through a variety of learning experiences. Therefore the
level of progress should be evaluated in a comprehensive and continuous manner.
More over, the learner is to be made aware of the findings and it helps him to
measure his progress. Necessary help should be provided to them in time. As
such we can generate the environment and opportunity for Continuous
Evaluation.
In order to evaluate the multi- dimensional competencies of the learner, different
tools and techniques have to be used. The multi- dimensional competencies of
the learner include :
l Class -room interaction
l Task orientation
l Creative expression
l Field/institutional interactions
l Knowledge assessment/ expression

Continuous Evaluation Items


1. Assignment
2. Seminar
3. Class test
4. Project etc.

* For continuous evaluation class test (CT) is made compulsory taking any two of the above said
indicators. CT can be a written test, oral test (viva), Practical test.

CE Item Evaluation Indicators Weightage Score

1. Assignment 1. Awareness of the content 4/3/2/1


2. Comprehensiveness of the content 4/3/2/1

3. Systematic and sequential arrangement 4/3/2/1


4. Observation/suggestions/Views
Judgements/ Evaluation 4/3/2/1
5. Timely Submission 4/3/2/1 20

2. Seminar 1. Ability to plan and organise 4/3/2/1

2. Skills in the collection of data 4/3/2/1


3. Awareness of the content (presentation
of the paper, participation in discussion,
ability to substantiate the ideas and views) 4/3/2/1

38
4. Ability to prepare the report
(sequence in the presentaionof the concepts,
authenticity and clarity of ideas/views/concepts 4/3/2/1
5. Quality of Seminar Document 4/3/2/1 20

3. Project 1. Ability to plan


(Selection of the method for solution of the problem,
identifying suitable tools, planning the various
activities to be carried out in each stage) 4/3/2/1
2. Ability to collect data (sufficiency and
Relevance of data. Classification and
arrangement of data for analysis, reliability
and authenticity of the Collected data.) 4/3/2/1
3. Ability to analyse the elements and procedure
(Structuring of elements and developing logic.
Efficieny in using the package/tool. Recognising
design errors and correcting them) 4/3/2/1
4. Ability to prepare the project report

(Reflection of the process skills. Communicability


and authenticity of the report in relation with the
Project diary 4/3/2/1
5. Viva Voce(Knowledge of the content and Process) 4/3/2/1 20

CE item calculation

Subject item: Assignment

Sl. No Name Evaluation Indicators Total Score


(20)
I II III IV V
(4) (4) (4) (4) (4)

1 Anand 2 3 4 4 4 17

2 Shibu 4 3 4 4 4 19

39
Consolidated statement of CE
Class: Ist year

Stream: Fisheries Subject: Fish Processing Technology

Sl. No Name CE Items Total Total CE


(60) Out of 20
1 2 3
Class Test Assigment Seminar/
Score 20
(20) (20) Project
obtained × 60
(20)

1 Anand 18 17 19 54 18

2 Shibu 20 19 18 57 19

No minimum score for CE


Terminal Evaluation (TE)
Terminal Evaluation is in written form. The test should not be aimed to test the
memory alone. The terminal evaluation questions give more emphasis on
application level, analysis and synthesis. The questions are framed so that the
students are able to apply their different mental process. The maximum score is
80 and the minimum score of TE is 24 (30%).
The terminal evaluation questionnaire should be capable of measuring
l Content validity
l Criterion validity
l Constant validity
l Reliability
l Class test, term evaluation and annual examination should be in tune
with the new approach.
l Should not be prepared to test the rote memory.
l Questions asked should provoke the thinking abilities of students.
l Questions to test the competency of application analysis, synthesis and
evaluation are to be given. In otherwords the questions should be framed
in such a way that the students are able to apply their various mental
processes.
l Questions should be based on the learning process and the new approach
to each subject.
l Results should be scientifically analysed.

40
l Evaluation results should be analysed and follow up may be carried out
at relevant levels (remedial measures).
l Eighty percent marks are set apart for the common examination as the
part of the Term Evaluation
The Question Paper must have
l Application level questions
l Synthesis level questions
l Comparison of facts
l Challenging questions
l Scope for obtaining innovative ideas
l Giving creative thinking by the students
l Questions based on the objectives of learning activities
l Practial oriented questions
l Enviornment related questions
l Divergent thinking level questions

Role of the Teacher in the Evaluation Process


l Preparation for the effective execution of evaluation
l Preparation of daily planning notes (teaching manual) and helping learners
in their activities.
l While learners are engaged in doing seminars/collections/assignments/
collections, conduct interim evaluation and provide necessary help.
l Consider assignment, seminar, collections etc. as learning activities and
approach them as evaluation materials.
l Prepare a format to record continuous evaluation.
l Identify and evaluate the progress at different stage.
l Find out learner’s difficulty by conducting feedback.
l Make use of the support mechanism fully, provided by the department of
education.
l Make the parents aware of the new approach to curriculum and evaluation
system through class P.T.A.
l Make use of the training programme for professional excellence and
transparency in work.
l Make use of the Humanities Teachers Council for academic progress.
l Identify and make use of the possibility of action research to resolve
classroom learning problems.

Grading
It is not scientific to assess the achievement of a student soley based in the marks
in the terminal examinations. Marking system proved unscientific in evaluating
the growth and development of students both in cognitive and non-cognitive
areas. To overcome this shortcomings, a popular mode of evaluation based on

41
students’ performance- grading system- has been evolved. At the Higher
Secondary stage, it is desirable to use a point absolute grading to co-ordinate and
record the evaluation. After giving the score, they are changed into percentages
and appropriate letter grades are awarded curresponding to each percentage.
The score percentage and corresponding letter grade in Fish Processing
Technology is given below.

Score in percentage Grade


90-100 A+

80-89 A

70 -79 B+

60-69 B

50-59 C+

40-49 C

30-39 D+

20-29 D

Below 20 E

Consolidated statement of CE & TE


Class: Ist year

Stream: Fisheries Subject: Fish Processing Technology

Sl. No Name CE TE Total Grade


(20) (80) CE+ TE
(100)

1 Anand 18 60 78 B+

2 Shibu 19 72 91 A+

The maximum score of CE+TE is 100 and the minimum score is 30. (30%)

42
Practical Evaluation (PE)
PE is the important part of vocational practicals. The practical skills must be
evaluated after completing all practical experiments in each term and at the end
of the academic year. PE must cover all required indicators to evaluate the
technical skill and practical knowledge of the different topics covered.

Syllabus

Practical 420 hrs


1 Collection and identification of commercially important teleosts,
elasmobranches, crustanceans and molluscs. 50 hrs.
2 Study and recording of morphological characters of
selected telecosts, elasmobranches, crustacean and molluscs. 25 hrs
3. Preparation of charts showing fish landing centres,
fishing harbours and ports in India and Kerala.
Compilation of data of fish landings (item-wise and
quantity wise) of India and Kerala for the past 10 years. 30 hrs
4. Estimation of the proximate composition of fish: Moisture content,
glycogen content, fat content, protein content and ash. 30 hrs
5. Visit to fisheries bacteriology laboratory for familiarisation with
bacteriological methods and demonstration of procedures for isolation
and identification of bacterial from fish. 75 hrs
6. Organoleptic evaluation: Organoleptic evaluation tests on fish and
shellfish and organoleptic tests for detection of spoilage. 50 hrs
7. Analysis of water for chlorine and pH. 10 hrs
8. Familiarisation of techniques of handling for
processing of fish and shellfish. On-hand training for handling
and dressing fish and shell fish for processing. 75 hrs
9. Familirisation of freezing and processing of fish
and fish products. Visit to ice plants, freezing units, peeling sheds
and cold storage. 75 hrs

43
Indicators for Practical evaluation and their score
No Indicators Percentage Score
1 Procedure and
demonstration 40% 60
2 Calculation 10% 15
3 Identification 20% 30
4 Spotters 10% 15
5 Record 10% 15
6 Viva 10% 15
Total 150

Consolidated statement of Practical Evaluation


Class: Ist year

Stream: Fisheries Subject: Fish Processing Technology

No Name Procedure and Calculation Identification Spotters Record Viva Total Grade
demonstration

60 15 30 15 15 15 150

1 Anand 40 10 20 10 12 13 105 B+

2 Shibu 55 13 25 13 13 13 142 A+

How will you find out grade for PE

Convert the total score into percentage and findout the grade
105
eg: Total score: 105, percentage × 100 = 70 , Grade B+
150

The minimum score to be obtained is fixed at 40% that is 60 out of 150.


Grade B

Vocational Competency Evaluation


Being a vocational course, a system to judiciously evaluate the required value
addition and consequent capacity building in the selected vocational subject is
highly essential. As the other evaluation components like CE, PE and TE cannot
assess the vocational competencies and professional skills acquired by the
students, an internship evaluation (IE) component has been introduced to meet
this requirement.

44
Internship evaluation should be done based on the following components.

I. Regularity and punctuality.


A regular presence and habit of time bound completion of task is a must for
attaining maximum efficiency.

Regularity and Punctuality can be evaluated by 5 Point scale.

Rating Scale

1 2 3 4 5

1 Regularity Never Often Usually Most of the Always


regular regular regular time regular regular

2 Punctuality Never Often Usually Most of the time Always


Punctual Punctual Punctual Punctual Punctual

Regularity and punctuality can be assessed by using attendence of the student


and time bound completion of tasks.
II. Value addition
Value addition can be evaluated through conducting field visits/survey. The
experiences gained through field visit and survey increases the level of intrinsic
motivation and positive attitude towards the vocational field and there by increase
his value as a skilled semi- professional.
The aim of value addition is to measure the interest, devotion Group management,
perseverance of the learner in specific areas Value addition can be evaluated
from field visit, survey and simulated experiments.

III. Capacity building


Capacity building can be evaluated through conducting the following
activities.
1. OJT/Simulated experiment
2. Performance- Camp/ Exhibition/ Clinic.
3. Performance- Production/Service cum Training censtre.
These components helps the students to practice the acquired skills in the real
situation and there by increasing self confidence and promoting self reliance.
Capacity building is aimed at measuring the skills of the learner from OJT/
production cum training centre/ research and development/graded area
exposure.

45
IE Item Evaluation Weightage Score
Indicators
1. Regularity and
Punctuality 10

2. Value addition Field Visit


1. Attitude and readiness 4/3/2/1
towards the task.
2. Capacity for 4/3/2/1
observation.
3. Data collection. 4/3/2/1
4. Application of ideas. 4/3/2/1
5. Documentation/ 4/3/2/1
recording.
OR
20
Survey
1. Planning. 4/3/2/1
2. Data collection. 4/3/2/1
3. Consolidation of data 4/3/2/1
and analysis.
4. Drawing inference. 4/3/2/1
5. Reporting. 4/3/2/1

3. Capacity OJT/ Simulated


building Experiment/ Practical skill
1. Involvement/ 4/3/2/1
Participation.
2. Skills in doing work/ 4/3/2/1
Communication skill.
3. Time bound action. 4/3/2/1
4. Capacity for observation, 4/3/2/1
analysis and innovation.
5. Documentation,
Recording and display. 20
4/3/2/1
OR
Performance in camp/
Exhibition/ clinic
1. Ability for planning and
organising. 4/3/2/1
2. Mastery of subject.
3. Ability for 4/3/2/1
communication.
4/3/2/1

46
IE Item Evaluation Weightage Score
Indicators

4. Innovation. 4/3/2/1
5. Involvement/Social 4/3/2/1
commitment.
OR
Performace in
production/ service cum
training centre (PSCTC)
1. Mastery of vocational 4/3/2/1
skills.
2. Managerial capacity. 4/3/2/1
3. Promoting self 4/3/2/1
confidence.
4. Innovative approach. 4/3/2/1
5. Promoting self - 4/3/2/1
reliance.

Vocational Competency Items for Internship Evaluation

Items Score
Regularity & Punctuality 10
Field visit/survey(any one) 20
OJT/simulated experiment/
Practical Skill/ Performance-
Camp/exhibition/Clinic 20
Performance- PSCTC (any one)
Total 50

A minimum of 80% attendance is required for promotion to the second year. Those
who have shortage of attendance should repeat first year. Those who have 80%
and above attendance but failed to achieve 30% of Internship Evaluation (IE) will
be promoted to the second year. He has to improve the component in which he
performed poor. He has to attain the minimum by improving the particular
component to get eligible for appearing second year public examination.

47
Consolidated statement of IE
Class: Ist year

Stream: Fisheries Subject: Fish Processing Technology

Sl No Name Regularity & Field visit OJT or Total Grade


Punctuality or survey Practical Score
skill

10 20 20 50

1 Anand 5 12 10 27 C+

2 Shibu 6 15 16 37 B+

48
Format for Subject Wise Evaluation
Sl no: Name CCE TE (80) Total Grade PE Vocational Competency Evaluation
(100)
1 (20) 2 (20) 3 (20) Total Total Regularity Value
Class As- Semi- (60) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total Grade Capacity Total Grade
out of and Addition building
Test sign- nar/ (50)
20 Punctuality (20) (20)
ment Project (10)

49
50
Format for School wise Score Sheet
Sl no: Name English General Vocational Subjects Physics Chemistry Mathematics
Foundation

CE
TE
Course

VCE

CE
TE
CE
TE
CE
TE
CE
TE
PE
CE
TE
PE
CE

Total
TE

Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total

Grade
Grade
Grade
Total
Grade PE
Grade
Grade
Grade
Grade
UNIT. 1

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Introduction
Fisheries is a multidisciplinary sector which deals with aquaculture, fish
capturing, fish processing, etc. Since the students have limited knowledge about
fisheries, this unit aims to convey the fundamental aspects such as status of
fisheries in Indian economy, morphology of fishes, commercialy important Indian
fish resources and various fishing methods.
Syllabus
Morphology and biology of typical fish and shell fish. Major Indian fisheries:
marine, estuarine and fresh water. Pelagic and demersal fisheries of India. Fishing
methods. Marine fish production in India. Export of marine products from India.
Curriculum Objectives
l To understand the status of Indian fisheries and export.
l To identify the maritime states, fishing zones, major fishing harbours and ports
of India.
l To understand various fishing methods briefly.
l To develop skills to identify the morphological characters of typical fish and
prawn.
l To develop skills to differentiate teleost and elasmobranch.
l To understand the commercially important fishery resources of India.
l To develop the skills to familiarise different varities of fishes, crustaceans and
molluscs.
Sub Topic - Status of Indian Fisheries and Export
Suggested Activities - Data Collection
Ask the students to collect the data of fish landings and exports from journals,
internet and economic reviews. Based on the collected data plot graphs and discuss
the fluctuations and trends in landings and export. This activity aims to acquire a
knowldege about the status of Indian fisheries and export.

Sub Topic - Indian Coast Line


Suggested Activities - Demonstration
Demonstrate a map of India. Ask them to draw the map and mark the maritime
states, different fishing zones, important harbours and ports.

51
Sub Topic - Fishing Methods
Suggested Activities - Field trip with Discussion
A field trip is preferable as a strategy to study different fishing methods. Teacher
may enble the students to visit a suitable fish landing centre to familiarise with
various fishing methods. On the basis of the field trip a discussion can be
conducted.
Points for discussion
Discuss methods such as gillnetting, trawling, purse- seining, shore seining, boat
seining, line fishing and fish traps.
Sub Topic - Morphological Characters of Typical Fish and Prawn
Suggested Activities - Group Discussion
The students are divided into groups. Each group shall not exceed six students.
Each group is provided with a typical fish and prawn. Groups are asked to discuss
the morphological characters of the given specimens with the help of labelled
chart.
Points for discussion
Discuss the general features of fish such as body shape, fins, scales, gills and
operculam, eyes and air bladder.
Discuss general features of prawn such as body shape, gills, eyes, exoskeleton
and appendages.
Sub Topic - Teleost and Elasmobranchs
Suggested Activities - Group Discussion
Students have previous knowledge about external characters of fishes. On the
basis of that knowledge arrange a general discussion on different charatecters of
a typical teleost and an elesmobranch. Teacher may consolidate the differences
between a teleost and an elasmobrach and ask them to prepare a note.
Points for discussion
Discuss the differences in vertebral column, scales, caudal fin, position of mouth,
operculam, number of gills and mode of reproduction.
Sub Topic - Commercially Important Fishery Resources of India
Suggested Activities - Assignments and Seminar
Students have a basic idea about fishery resources of their area. Hence it is better
to give assignments and seminar based on the topic. Class may be divided into
small groups and ask them to collect information on different fishery resources
such as oil sardine, Mackerel, Tuna, Bombay duck, Shark and Prawns. Teacher
may guide the seminar by giving specific points for presentation.

52
Points for discussion
Scientific names of economically important fishes and prawns, geographical
distribution in India food and feeding habits, habitats, spawning season, fishing
season, fishing methods and utilization.
Sub Topic - Different varieties of Fishes, Crustaceans and Molluscs
Suggested Activities - Field trip
Arrange a visit to fishlanding centre or fish market and ask the students to collect
and list the names and features of various fishes, crustaceans and molluscs, they
came across. In addition to this, the students are asked to classify the specimens.
The teacher may guide the students to familiarise fishes such as Oil sardine,
Mackeral, Anchovies, Tuna, Seer fish, Ribbon fish, Carangids, Sharks, Rays, Skates,
Scianids, Silver bellies, Pomfrets, Cat fishes, Flat fishes, Polynemids, Codes,
Thread fin bream, White fish, Pearl spot, Mullets, Milk fish, Carps, Prawns,
Lobsters, Cephalopods, Mussles, Clams, Oysters etc.
Additional Points
Total coast line of India - 8129 Kms
Total coastline of Kerala - 590 Kms
Marine fish production in India (2004- 2005) - 2.99 Million M Ton.
Total fish production in India (2004- 2005) - 5.98 Million M Ton.
Area of Indian EEZ - 2.02 Million sq. Km
Area of Continental shelf - 0.506 Million sq. Km
Major Fishing zones
North West Zone - Gujarath, Maharashtra
South West Zone - Kerala, Karnataka, Goa
South East Zone - Tamilnadu, Pondichery and Andrapradesh
North East Zone - Orissa and West Bengal
Important Ports
Chennai, Kochi, Visakhapatanam, Tuticorin, Kolkata, Mangalore, Mumbai,
Kandla, Marmagoa, Nhevasheva, Paradeep, Haldia and Ennore.
Important Fishing Harbours of India
Neendakara, Kochi, Baypore, Mangalore, Karwar, Ratnagiri, Jafuabad,
Tuticorin, Mumbai, Veraval, Mandapam, Nagapattanam, Chennai,
Visakhapatnam, Kakinada, Paradeep.
Marine products export from India (2004 - 2005)
Quantity - 461329 MT
Value - 6646.69 Crores

53
Commercially Important Fishery Resources of India

54
Name of Scientific Major Common Common Peak General Common
Fishery Name Distribution Feeding Spawning Fishing Fishing Utilisation
habits Season Season Methods

1. Oil Sardine Sardinella Kollam to Plankton June to October July Purse seining, Fresh, iced form.
longiceps Ratnagiri feeder (Mainly to Boat seining, By products - Body
feeds on
Fragillaria March Shore seining, oil, fish meal, fish
occeanica) Gill netting. manure etc.
2. Indian Rastrelliger Kollam to Zoo plankton South west August Purse seining, Fresh, iced, salt
Mackeral kanagurta Ratnagiri feeder monsoon to Boat seining, dried, wet cured,
April Shore seining, colombo cured.
(Rampani in By products- Fish
Karnataka) meal, fish manure
Gill netting. etc.

3.Bombay Harpodon North West Carnivores November September Bagnet (Dol net) Fresh and sun
Duck nehereus Zone (Even to to Boat seining, dried etc.
cannibalistic) March December Gill netting, By products - Lami
Trawl netting. nated Bombay
duck, manure etc.

4.Tuna 1.Auxis sp. Lakshadweep Voracious, Through out the Through out the Purse seining Fresh, frozen,
2. Euthynnus Minicoy Carnivores year. year. Pole and lining. canned smoked
affinis Islands, and predatory (Lakshadweep) form etc.

3. Thunnus Kerala and Tuna long lining By product -


albacares Tamilnadu Masmin

4.Katsuwonus
pelamis
Name of Scientific Major Common Common Peak General Common
Fishery Name Distribution Feeding Spawning Fishing Fishing Utilisation
habits Season Season Methods

5. Elasmo Scoliodon sp. North West Carnivores Through out the Through out the Hook and lining. Wet cured,
branchs Dasyatis sp. Zone, Kerala year. year. sun dried etc.
and South By products -
East Zone Shark liver oil,
shark fin rays,
shark skin, shark
cartilage.

6.Prawn Penaeus Kerala Omnivores Monsoon Monsoon Bottom trawling Fresh, frozen.
monodon Trammel netting canned, sun dried
Penaeus Drift gill netting form etc.
indicus By products -
Stake netting
Parapenaeopsis Chitin, chitosan
stylifera. etc.
Metapenaeus
monoceros
Metapenaeus
dobsoni

55
Unit : 1 General Introduction

56
Curriculum Objectives Ideas/ Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation
Concepts
l To Understand the status of Indian Total fish Collection Collection Journals, Authenticity
Fisheries and export. landings and of data Internet, Interpretation
Total export Economic Interest.
from India. reviews.
l To identify the maritime states, fishing Maritime Drawing Drawing Map Interest
zones, major fishing harbours and ports states, fishing and Participation.
of India. zones, ports Marking.
and harbours
l To understand various fishing methods Trawling Observation Field visit Models. Participation
briefly Gill netting Communication Demonstra- Interest
Seining etc. tion. Presentation.
Discussion
l To develop skills to identify the Morphology Identification. Group Specimen Participation
morphological characters of typical fish of fish and Communication discussion Interest
and prawn. prawn. Presentation
l To develop skills to differentiate teleost Teleost Observation Group Specimen Participation
and elasmobranch. Elasmobranch Differentiation discussion Charts Interest
Communication Presentation.
l To understand the commercially Fishes, Identification Assignment Specimen Presentation
important fishery resources of India. Prawns Observation Seminar Charts. Depth of
Classification. knowledge.
l To develop skills to familiarise different Fin fishes Identification Field trip Specimens. Observation
varieteis of fishes, crustaceans and Shell fishes Observation Charts. Interest
molluscs. Classification. Participation
UNIT. 2

FISH AS A FOOD MATERIAL

Introduction
Fish is a food of excellent nutritional value providing high quality of protiens,
fats and a wide variety of vitamins and minerals. Its protien is easily digestable
and contains more essential aminoacids and essential fatty acids than in cereals
and legumes.
People in developed countries are much more dependent on fish as part of their
daily diet. It reveals the importance of fish as food material. In this unit an attempt
has been made to make the students aware of different biochemical components
in the fish muscle. In addition, this unit deals with the nutritional value and the
importance of fish in human diet.
Syllabus
Importance of fish in human diet.
Chemical aspects of fish flesh components- Water, fat (oil), protien, carbohydrate,
vitamins.
Curriculum Objectives
l To understand the proximate composition of fish.
l To understand the classification of protien based on its solubility.
l To understand the importance of fish in human diet.
l To develop a skill to compare the nutritive value of fish with other food items.
l To apply the knowledge acquired about nutrition in real life situations.
Suggested Activities- Discussion
Use charts showing percentage of different components in fish, meat and
vegetables. Compare the proximate composition of fish with others. Discuss
nutrition in general and connect it with the nutritional value of fish. Thus let
them understand that nutritive value of fish is superior.
Points for discussion
Ü About water, fat, protien, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and NPN
compounds in fish muscle.

57
Ü Classification of protiens according to their solubility and mention their
percentage in fish muscle.
Ü Compare the protien, fat and vitamins in fish with meat and vegetable.
Ü Deficiency diseases caused by the inadequate consumption of fish such as goiter
kwashiorkar, night blindness, rickets etc.
Ü Nutritive value of essential aminoacids, PUFA, Viatmin A and D, Iodine,
Calcium and Phosporus in the fish.
Additional information

1. Fats
Fats are triglycerides of higher fatty acids, usually containing even numbers of
carbon atoms. Fish fats have a high content of poly- unsaturated long chain fatty
acids with four to six double bonds, which is uncommon in mammalian fats,
fattyacids eg: Palmitic acid, oleic acid, arachidonic acid etc.

2. Protiens
Protiens are basically complex nitrogenous organic substances. These are long
chains of polypeptides having of very high molecular weights ranging from
thousands to lakhs. Basic building units of protiens are amino acids. Compared
to meat, digestable protiens are more in fish. In fish muscle 95% of total protien
are easily digestable.

3. Non- Protien Nitrogenous Compounds (NPN Compounds)


NPN Compounds play a very important role in the physiological functions of
live fish muscle. They are generally encountered in fish muscle and comprises
ammonia, urea, tri- methyl amine oxide, guanidine and imidazole and
miscellaneous substances like purins and pyramidines. The details are given
below:

Tri Methyl Amine Oxide (TMAO)


It is considered to be one of the compounds responsible for the characteristic
fishy ordour and flavour of marine fish.

Free Alpha Amino Acids


Attractive flavour of prawns and other crustaceans are due to their comparatively
higher contents of Free Alpha Amino Acids. Quicker rates of spoilage of
invertibrates are also due to the presence of free Amino Acids in their muscles.
There are two types of Free Alpha Amino Acids viz. essential and non- essential.

4. Vitamins
Low molecular weight subtance performs an important role in regulating the
body functions. Vitamins are not synthesised by body and hence can be
substituted through the food. Fats soluble and water soluble vitamins are there.
Vitamine A,D, E and K are fat soluble.

58
Riboflavin, Nicotinic acids, Pyridoxine, Cyanocobalamine are water soluble
vitamins.

Proximate Composition
Components Percentage in Fish

Protien 18 - 24
Lipids and Fat 0.2 - 22
Water 66 - 84
Minerals 0.4 - 2
Carbohydrate below 0.1
Vitamins Trace
NPN compounds 0.3 - 0.6

Different types of protiens in Fish Muscle

Types of Sarcoplasmic Myofibrillar Stroma


protien protiens protiens protiens

Solubility In water or salt In salt solution Only in


solution of low ionic or strong acid
oncentration. 0.1 N NaOH. or alkali
Percentage
to total protien 16 - 22 65 - 75 3

Function Metabolism Muscle Connective


movement tissue
Example Myogen, myoglobin, Actin, myosin, Collagen and
Haemocyanin Tropomyocin, Elastin
Troponin

Classification of Fishes based on Fat content

Lean Fishes Less than 2.5% of fat eg: Anchovies,


Silver bellies
Semi fatty fishes 2.5% - 5% of fat eg. Ribbon fish,
Carangids
Fatty fish More than 5% of fat eg. Oil sardine,
mackerel

59
60
Unit : 2 Fish as a Food Material

Curriculum Objectives Ideas/ Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation


Concepts
l Understand the Proximate Water, Fat, Observation Observation Charts and Participation
composition of fish. Protien, Communication of charts. Reference Interest
Carbohydrate, Comparison Discussion Preparation
Minerals, of notes.
Vitamins,
NPN
Compounds

l Understand the classification of Sarcoplasmic Observation Observation Charts and Participation


protien based on its solubility. protien. Classification of charts. Reference Interest.
Fibrillar Communication Discussion Preparation
protein of notes.
Stroma
protien

l Understand the importance of fish in Deficiency Observation Observation Charts and Participation
human diet. diseases. Communication of charts Reference Preparation
and of notes.
Comparison
comparison
Curriculum Objectives Ideas/ Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation
Concepts
l Develop skills to compare the Comparison Observation Observation Charts Participation
nutritive value of fish with other food of fish protien Communication of charts Interest.
items. with and
Comparison
vegetable and Comparison
meat protein.

l Apply the knowledge acquired about Essential Communication Discussion Reference Participation
nutrition to other situation. aminoacids. Preparation Presentation
Polyunsaturated of notes. of notes.
fatty acids.
Vitamin A
and D
Iodine
Calcium
Phosporous

61
UNIT. 3

FISH SPOILAGE

Introduction
Fish is a highly perishable food and starts spoiling at the moment they are taken
out of water. Post mortem changes take place in fishes in atmospheric and
refrigerated temperatures. Post mortem changes taking place in fish are sensory
changes, Autolytic changes, Bacteriological changes and lipid oxidation. This unit
reveals the students about the post mortem changes taking place in fish muscle
and the causative agents of fish spoilage. Besides, it equips the students to
differentiate the spoiled fish from the fresh one.
Syllabus
Rigor mortis, Autolytic spoilage, Bacterial spoilage, oxidation of fat.
Curriculum Objectives
l To understand the post mortem changes taking place in the fish muscle.
l To understand different causative agents of fish spoilage.

l To develop the skill for evaluating shrimp organoleptically.

l To develop the skill to differentiate fresh and spoiled fish.


Suggested Activities - Demonstration
Students have to acquire the skill to recognise the spoiled fish. Hence it is necessary
to include demonstration as an activity. Bring samples of fresh and spoiled fishes
of the same species to the class room. Teacher should ask the groups to evaluate
and compare the appearence of gills, eyes, belly and texture of the spoiled fish
with that of the fresh fish and make a report on the basis of this organoleptic
evaluation. The report should be presented in the class by the group leader and
discuss the report in detail.
Points for discussion
Ü Sensory evaluation of fish and shrimp.
Ü Post mortem changes such as Rigor mortis, Autolysis, Microbial changes Belly
burst and Rancidity.
Ü Role of enzymes, microbes and oxygen in fish spoilage.

62
Additional Information
Comparision of Fresh and Spoiled Fish
Fresh Fish Spoiled Fish

Flesh firm, elastic, cannot easily be Loose, non elastic, can easily
seperated from the bone. be separated from the bone.
Sea weedy or fishy odour Off odour
Gills have bright red colour Colour faded into brown
and finally yellow.
Eyes are bright, clear and transparent Red in colour, cloudy,
opaque
Skin is slimy with un faded colour Not slimy and colour faded
Sweet characteristic flavour Un pleasant flavour
Bright colour Dull colour
Scales are firm and strong Not firm and easily
detachable

63
64
Unit : 3 Fish Spoilage

Curriculum Objectives Ideas/ Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation


Concepts
l Understand the post mortem changes Rigor mortis Observation Demonstration Specimens Participation
taking place in fish muscle. Autolysis Communication Discussion Reference Interest.
microbial Presentation
Comparison
changes of notes.
Belly burst
Rancidity

l Understand different causative agents Enzymes Communication Discussion Reference Presentation


for fish spoilage. Microbes Prediction Preparation of notes.
of notes Participation
Oxygen
in discussion.

l Develop the skill for evaluate shrimp Black spot Observation Demonstration Specimens Participation
organoleptically. loose shell Communication Discussion Reference in discussion.
Preparation
of notes

l Develop skills to differentiate fresh Appearance Observation Demonstration Specimens Participation


and poiled fish. of gills, eyes, Communication Discussion Reference in discussion.
flesh etc. Preparation
of notes
Curriculum Objectives Ideas/ Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation
Concepts

l Develop skills to differentiate fresh Appearance Observation Demonstration Specimens Participation


and poiled fish. of gills, eyes, Communication Discussion Reference in discussion.
flesh etc. Preparation
of notes

65
UNIT. 4

MICROBIOLOGY OF FISH SPOILAGE

Introduction
Students have previous knowledge about the role of micro organism in fish
spoilage. They have got a basic idea about the micro organisms at school level.
Our aim is to give an idea about bacteria present in fish and fishery products.
This unit deals with the effect of various enviornmental factors on bacterial growth
and methods of controlling fish spoilage. In addition, they should also get an
idea about the structure of bacteria. On completion of this unit the students get
the concept of preventing the bacterial spoilage by altering different enviornmental
conditions.
Syllabus
Structure and growth of bacteria, Role of bacteria in fish spoilage, Effect of
temperature, pH, Oxygen, Salinity etc. on bacterial growth, methods of controlling
spoilage.
Curriculum Objectives
l To understand the structure of bacteria.
l To understand the effect of environmental factors on bacterial growth.
l To understand the methods to prevent fish spoilage.
l Apply the knowledge acquired in new situations.
Sub Topic - Reprodcution of Bacteria
Suggested Activity - Discussion
With the help of OHP and charts discuss binary fission and spore formation.
Let the students prepare notes by observing it.
Points for Discussion
Ü During the favourable environmental conditions bactetia multiply by binary
fission at a faster rate within a short period.
Ü Bacteria produce spores to withstand unfavourable enviornmental conditions.

66
Sub Topic - Structure and Shape of Bacteria
Suggested Activity - Demonstration with Discussion
Recall the previous knowledge that gained by the students in lower classes
about the structure and shape of bacteia through a discussion. Charts showing
the structure and shape of bacteria can be exhibited. Permanent microscopic slides
can also be shown. Let the students understand the structure and shapes of bacteria
by observation. Let them recognise the shapes and ask them to classify based on
their shape, such as spherical (coccus), rod (Bacillus), Spiral (Spirillum) and Coma
(Vibrio).

Ask the students to record labelled diagram and let them prepare notes. Based
on this, conduct a group discussion.
Points for discussion
Ü How the bacterial cell differs from a typical plant cell.
Ü The shapes of bacteria.
Sub Topic - Effect of enviromental factors on bacterial growth
Suggested Activity - Discussion
Salinity
Discuss the effect of fresh water on marine organism and saline water on fresh
water organisms and lead them to halophilic and halophobic bacteria.
Temperature
Plot a temperature scale on black board ranging from 0 - 1000 C. Let the students
identify the range of normal atmospheric temprature and help them to divide the
whole range into three sections- cold condition, normal condition and hot
condition. Lead them to understand psychrophiles, mesophiles and thermophiles.
pH
Students have acquired the concept of acidic pH, neutral pH and alkaline pH
in their previous classes. Let the students get aware that most of the bacteria
generally live in neutral pH and a few exceptions are inhabiting in acidic pH.
Oxygen
The students have learned of the necessity of oxygen for living organisms.
Make them aware of that certain organisms can withstand in the absence of oxygen.
Based on this, teacher leads the students to understand about aerobes and
anaerobes.
Moisture
Water is necessary for the existence of life. The students realise that microbes
cannot survive without free water in their habitat.

67
Sub Topic - Bacterial Growth
Suggested Activity - Discussion with Demonstration
Using a growth curve chart discuss different phases of bacterial growth such
as Lagphase, Logarithemic phase, Stationary phase and Mortality phase.

Sub Topic - Methods of controlling microbial spoilage


Suggested Activity - Group Discussion
Students are divided into groups. Each group should not exceed six students.
Ask them to discuss how to control fish spolage with the knowledge acquired
from the effect of enviornmental factors on microbial growth. Additional skills
for discussion should be given as “at which temperature, salinity, pH or water
content bactaria destroys”. Consolidation should be done in order to make the
student understand that the conditions prevailing in fish favours the multiplication
of bactaria. Students should understand that by altering the temperature, salt
content, pH and water content, we can destroy or prevent the growth of bactaria.
Thus the students must understand that icing, freezing, salt curing, drying, canning,
smoking irradiation and marinading can be employed as methods of fish
preservation.
Additional Points
Differences between bacteria and a typical plant cell
Bacteria Typical Plant Cell

1. Prokaryotic Eukaryotic.
(without clear nucleus, posses only (with nucleus)
genetic material)
2. Cell wall is made of mucopeptides Cell wall is made of cellulose
3. Membraneous organels absent Present

Examples of different morphological types


Coccus - Staphylococcus, Streptococcus
Bacillus - Clostridium sp, E. coli, Bacillus sp.
Coma - Vibrio cholera

Spirillum - Spirillum sp.

Classification of Bacteria based on Environmental factors


Psychrophiles - Bacteria which grow at a temperature of 0- 200 C with
an optimum at 150 C.
eg. Psuedomonas.

68
Mesophiles - Bacteria which survive at a temperature of 20- 450 C
with an optimum growth at 30 - 370 C.
eg. Salmonella typhi.
Thermophiles - Bacteria which survive at a temperature of 45- 900 C
with an optimum growth at 550 C.
eg. Clostridium botulinum.
Halophilic - Bacteria which grow best in the presence of salt.
eg. Serratea salinaria.
Halophobic - Bacteria which cannot tolerate salt concentrations
higher than 6%.
eg. Achromobacter, Pseudomonas.
Acidophiles - Bacteria which can survive at a pH of 4.5 and below.
eg. Lactic acid bacteria.
Aerobic - Bacteria which grow only in the presence of air.
eg. Salmonella typhi.
Anaerobic - Bacteria which grow only in the absence of oxygen
eg. Clostridium sp.
Autotrophs - Bacteria which can synthesis their own food material.
eg. Green sulphur bacteria.
Heterotrophs - Bacteria which depends on others for their food.
eg. Vibrio cholera.

Growth Curve of Bacteria

C D

Number of
micro
organisms

A B E

Time

AB - Lag Phase
BC - Logarithemic Phase
CD - Stationery Phase
DE - Mortality Phase

69
70
Unit : 4 Microbiology of Fish Spoilage

Curriculum Objectives Ideas/ Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation


Concepts
l Understand the structure of bacteria Structure and Observation Obeservation Charts, Participation
shape of Differentiation of charts Permanent in discussion.
bactaria. Discussion slides Presentation
Communication
Diagrams of labelled
Drawing Labelling
diagrams.
diagrams

l Understand the effect of environmental Temperature Communication Discussion Reference Participation


factors on bacterial growth. Salinity Observation Preparation Charts/ in discussion.
Oxygen of notes OHP Presentation
Humidity Demonstra- of notes
pH tion

l Understand the methods to prevent Icing Communication Discussion Reference Participation


fish spoilage Freezing in discussion.
Salt curing
Drying etc.

l Apply the knowledge acquired in new


situations.
UNIT. 5

MICROBES IN PUBLIC HEALTH

Introduction
Students are aware of food poisoning caused by micro organisms. Some of the
micro organisms present in fish and fishery products cause food poisioning and
affects public health adversely. This unit aims to develop a skill to understand
and identify food poisioning, causative organisms, its symptoms and preventive
measures.
Syllabus
Microbes that cause infection to man- Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp.
Clostridium botulinum, Vibrio cholera, Escherichia coli, feacal Streptococci.
Curriculum Objectives
l To understand different types of food poisioning caused by the pathogenic
bacteria.
l To develop skill for identifying the types of food poisioning through their
symptoms.
l Understand the different methods of controlling food poisioning.
l Apply the acquired skill in unfamiliar situation.
Suggested Activities - Field visit, Quiz, Assignment
Interact with the students about food poisoning caused in there area. Then divide
the whole class into two groups and ask them to collect information about food
poisoning from pamphlets published by health department, posters, magazines
and news papers. Conduct a field visit to a microbiology laboratory and ask them
to prepare an assignment with the help of the information collected. Teacher may
consolidate about the food poisoning caused by Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureuas,
V. cholera, Clostridium botulinum, E. Coli and feacal Streptococci.

71
72
Additional Points Bacterial Food Poisoning
Bacteria Characteristics Source of Symptoms Preventive measures
Contamination
Clostridium Anaerobic, gram +ve, Sea mud and under At the beginning Proper fish handling
rod shaped, spore processed canned food. diarrhoea, weakness, methods.
forming. uneasiness, tiredness,
Good sanitary practices.
head ache, dizziness.
Produce a neurotoxin Later, constipation Chlorination of water.
botulin occures with difficulty to
talk and distrubance in Ideal process conditions.
vision. Muscles of neck
become fatigued.
Death may occur due to
respiratory failure.

Salmonella Aerobic, gram -ve, Contaminated water, Severe fever, head ache, Proper fish handling
rod shaped, sorting of fish on vomitting, diarrhoea, methods.
non- spore forming, contaminated beach, abdominal pain.
Good sanitary practices.
motile. handling by potential
carriers, inadequate Chlorination of water.
personal hygiene and
factory sanitation. Ideal process conditions.
Avoid potential carriers
from handling the fish.
Avoid fishing from near
shore waters.
Bacteria Characteristics Source of Symptoms Preventive measures
Contamination
Staphylococcus Aerobic gram +ve, Poor fish handling Nausea, vomitting, Proper fish handling
coccoid, non spore practices and personal diarrhoea, abdominal methods.
forming, non motile. hygiene. pain, weakness, abnormal Good sanitary practices.
blood pressure.
Chlorination of water.
Ideal process conditions.
Avoid potential carriers
from handling the fish.
Maintanance of cool
temperature during fish
handling and processing.

* Escherichia Aerobic gram -ve, Poor fish handling Bloody diarrhoea Proper fish handling
coli rod shaped, non- practices and personal followed by kidney methods.
spore forming. hygiene. Presence of failure.
Good sanitary practices.
E. coli in fish and
fishery products is an Chlorination of water.
indication of faecal
Ideal process conditions.
contamination.
Avoid potential carriers
from handling the fish.
Avoid fishing from near
shore waters.
* Presence of E. coli in fish and fishery products is an indication of faecal contamination.

73
74
Bacteria Characteristics Source of Symptoms Preventive measures
Contamination
Vibrio cholera Aerobic, gram -ve, Contaminated water, Nausea, vomitting, Proper fish handling
comma shaped, sorting of fish on profuse diarrhoea with methods.
non- spore forming, contaminated beach, abdominal cramps,
Good sanitary practices.
motile. handling by potential Dehydration.
carriers, inadequate Chlorination of water.
personal hygiene and
factory sanitation. Ideal process conditions.
Avoid potential carriers
from handling the fish.
Avoid fishing from near
shore waters.
Bacterial Food poisoning - incubation period and duration of illness

Causes of Poisoning Incubation Duration of


Period (hrs) illeness

Salmonella (Infection) 6 to 36 1 to 7 days

Staphylococcus aureus 2 to 6 6 to 24 hrs.


(Food intoxication)
Clostridium botulinum 12 to 96 Death in 24 hrs
(Food intoxication) to 8 days or slow
convalescence over 6 - 8
months
Escherichia coli
(Infection and toxin) 12 - 72 1 - 7 days

Vibrio (Infection) 2 - 48 2 - 5 days

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76
Unit : 5 Microbiology of Fish Spoilage

Curriculum Objectives Ideas/ Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation


Concepts
l Understand different types of food Salmonella Observation Assignments Reference Presentation
poisoning caused by the pathogenic E. coli Identification Field trips. Microbial Interest.
bacteria. Staphylococcus Communication colonies.
V. cholera
C. botulinum

l Develop skill for identifying the type of Diarrhoea Observation Collection of Reference Participation
food poisoning through their symptoms. Vomitting Communication information. Presentation
Headache Identification
Stomachache
l Understand the different methods of Proper fish Observation Collection Journals Presentation
controlling food poisoning. handling Communication of Magazines of notes.
Sanitation informations. Internet
Chlorination

l Apply the acquired skill in unfamiliar


situations.
UNIT. 6

FISH HANDLING

Introduction
Fishing Industry has given great importance for hygienic handling of fish on board
and on shore, because it determines the quality of the final product. This unit
aims to get an awareness about the importance of hygienic handling practices,
and use of different chilling methods to keep the fish fresh. This unit also describes
the use of chlorine for disinfection in various stages of processing to reduce the
bacterial load considerably. The students should acquire skills to handle the fish
hygienically, when the completion of this unit.
Syllabus
Hygienic handling of fish on board fishing vessel and on shore, Manufacture and
storage of ice, Quality of ice, Use of ice for handling, transportation and processing
of fish, Quality of water to be used in fish processing, Chlorination of water,
Refrigerated sea water for fish preservation.
Curriculum Objectives
l To understand the hygienic handling of fish and prawn on board fishing vessel
and on shore.
l To develop the skill for fish handling.
l To develop the steps in the preparation of fish for processing.
l To understand the principle of chilling.
l To understand the different methods of icing.
l To understand the process of ice manufacture.
l To develop the skill for icing the fish.
l To identify different types of ice.
l To develop skill for chlorinating water.
l To understand the significance of quality of ice and water to be used in fish
processing.
l To understand the need for chlorination of water in fish processing.
l To understand the use of Refrigerated Sea Water (RSW) and Chilled Sea Water
(CSW) for fish storage.

77
l To familiarise the different equipments in fish processing industry.
l Apply the acquired skills to new situations.
Sub Topic. 1 - Hygienic handling of Fish on board and on shore
Suggested Activities - Field visit and discussion
Students have already learned the need for hygienic handling practices. To
familarise them with hygienic handling practices conduct a field visit to a nearby
fishing harbour and a pre- processing centre. Ask the students to acquire the skill
for proper hygienic fish handling on board and on shore. They can also collect
details group wise. On the basis of field visit prepare a report and arrange a
group discussion.
Points for discussion
Washing, sorting, beheading, gutting, splitting, filleting, bleeding, icing, storing
and transport.
Sub Topic. 2 - Manufacture and storage of Ice
Suggested Activities - Field visit
Conduct a field visit to nearby ice plant and familiarise with the manufacturing
process of ice; on the basis of this a discussion can be arranged.
Points for discussion
Icing methods- bulking, shelving, boxing.
Types of ice- block ice and flake ice.
Manufacture of block ice.
Insulated containers- Plastic box, thermocol box, MPEDA box, Matsyafed box.
Sub Topic. 3 - Chlorination of Water
Suggested Activities - Discussion
Conduct a discussion about the use of bleaching powder on the purification of
water. On the basis of discussion teacher should consolidate the bactaricidal
property of chlorine.
Points for discussion
1. Bactericidal property of chlorine.
2. Use of chlorinated water in fish handling.
3. Advantages of Chlorination
Sub Topic. 4 - Refrigerated Sea Water(RSW)
Suggested Activities - Demonstration
Using charts/LCD/OHP discuss the structure and working of RSW and CSW
and its advantages and disadvantages.

78
Unit : 6 Fish Handling

Curriculum Objectives Ideas/ Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation


Concepts

l Understand the hygienic handling of fish hygenic Observation Field visit. Fishing Participation
and prawn onboard and on shore. handling on vessel. in discussion.
Discussion.
board and on
shore. Interset in
field visit.
Sanitory
operations

l Develop a skill for fish handling

l Understand the steps in the preparation Beheading. Observation Field visit. Specimen Field visit
of fish for processing. report.
Gutting, Discussion.
Participation
Splitting, in discussion.
Filleting.
l Understand the principle of chilling Chilling. Communication Discussion References Participation

l Understand the process of ice Ice Observation Field visit. Ice plant Participation
manufacture manufacture
Discussion. Interest

79
80
Curriculum Objectives Ideas/ Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation
Concepts
l Understand different methods of icing. Bulking Communication Discussion Ice Participation
Shelving
Boxing.
l Develop skills for icing. the fish.

l Identify different types of ice. Block ice Observation Field visit. Ice Acquired
concept.
Flake ice
l Understand the significance of quality of Potable water Observation Experiments Ice and Participation
ice and water. water.

l Understand need for chlorination of water Bactericidal Observation Discussion Bleaching Participation
in fish processing. property of powder. in discussion.
chlorine. Sodium
hypochlorite.
l Develop skills for chlorinating water.

l To understand the use of Refrigerated Fish storage Observation Demonstration Charts Participation
seas water (RSW) and chilled sea water OHP in discussion.
Discussion
(CSW) for fish storage. LCD
Curriculum Objectives Ideas/ Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation
Concepts
l Familiarise the different equipments in General Observation Field visit Equipments Participation
fish processing industry. awareness
Interest

l Apply the acquired skills in new


situations.

81
UNIT. 7

FREEZING

Introduction
Freezing is basically the removal of heat from a substance until it attains sub zero
temperatures and assumes a hard consistancy by the solidification of its water
content. From this unit the student learns the fact that microbes are inactivated or
destroyed due to the solidification of free water and the enzymes are denatured
due to the lowering of temperature. A thorough knowledge on different types of
freezing techniques is also essential to adopt appropriate methods in accordance
with consumer demand. This unit deals with the principle of freezing, different
steps involved in the freezing of fishery products and helps to develop skills for
selecting suitable freezing techniques.
Syllabus
Principles involved in freezing of fish.
Different freezing methods, freezing of fishery products and the steps involved.
Slow freezing Vs Quick freezing
Double freezing
Post freezing treatment
Curriculum Objectives
l To understand refrigeration and different types of refrigerants.
l To understand the concept of freezing as a preservative method.
l To develop a skill to differentiate freezing and chilling.
l To develop a skill to differentiate slow freezing and quick freezing.
l To understand the terms related to freezing.
l To understand the factors affecting freezing rate.
l To understand different freezing methods.
l To understand different product styles of cephalopods and fishes.
l To apply the acquired skills in new situations.
l To familiarise with different steps in freezing.

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Suggested Activities - Field visit
Visit a freezing plant and familiarise with different steps in freezing, different
product styles and refrigeration system. Ask the students to prepare a report
based on the visit and show flow charts for the different stages of frozen fish
products.

Group discussion
Students are divided into various groups and each group does not exceed six
students. Ask them to discuss why the food products kept in the freezer is not get
spoiled easily and lead them to understand how the enzymatic spoilage and
microbial spoilage are controlled by freezing.
Points for discussion
Ü Principles of Refrigeration
Ü Different types of refrigerants - Ammonia, Freon, Liquid nitrogen and Dry ice.
Ü Effects of freezing on enzymes, microbes and rancidity.
Ü Freezing point, zone of maximum crystallisation, Thermal arrest period,
Freezing time, freezing curve.
Ü Factors affecting freezing rate such as freezing temperature, product thickness,
thermal conductivity of packaging material.
Ü Different freezing methods such as Block freezing, Individual Quick Freezing
(IQF), double freezing, carton freezing, vacuum freezing, cryogenic freezing.
Ü Raw material preparation, washing, size grading, weighing, setting, glazing,
freezing, re- glazing, packing and labelling, cold storing and shipment.
Ü Thawing, Thaw rigor, Thaw drip, drip loss.
Ü Mention product styles.
Squid - squid rings, squid tentacles, squid fillets, squid wings.
Cuttle fish - Whole, Whole cleaned, Fillets, roe, tentacles, wings.
Octopus - Whole gutted.
Fish - Whole, whole gutted, fillets, steaks, minced, loins.
Crab - Whole, Cut crab, crab meat
Lobster - Whole, lobster tail, cooked.
Ü Slow freezing and quick freezing.

Freezing Curve

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84
Unit : 7 Freezing

Curriculum Objectives Ideas/ Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation


Concepts
l Understand refrigeration and different Principle of Observation Field visit Reference Participation
types of refrigerants. refrigeration. Communication Discussion in discussion
Different Preparation Presentation
refrigerants. of report of reports.

l Develop skills to differentiate freezing Short term Comparison Field visit Reference Participation
and chilling. storage and Communication Discussion in dicussion.
long term Presentation
Preparation
storage. of reports.
of reports
l Understand the concept of freezing as a Prevention of Comparison Field visit Participating
Reference
preservative method. microbial Communication Discussion in discussion.
and
Preparation Presentation
enzymatic
of a report. of reports.
spoilage
Reduction in
rate of
rancidity.
l Understand freezing methods. Block, IQF, Observation Field visit Reference Participation
double, in discussion.
Communication Discussion
carton,
Preparation Presentation
vacuum and
cryogenic of a report of reports.
freezing
Curriculum Objectives Ideas/ Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation
Concepts
l Understand product style of Different Observation Feild visit Reference Participation
cephalopods and fishes. product Communication Discussion in discussion
styles. Presentation
Preparation
of reports. of reports.

l Apply the acquired skills in unfamiliar


situation.
l Familiarise with steps in freezing. Various steps Observation Field visit Reference Participation
in freezing Communication Discussion in discussion
Preparation Presentation
of report. of reports.

l To understand the factors affecting Temperature Observation Discussion Reference Participation


freezing rate. Thickness of Communication in discussion
product.
Thermal
conductivity
of packaging
material.

85
86
Curriculum Objectives Ideas/ Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation
Concepts
l To understand the terms related to Freezing Observation Discussion Reference Participation
freezing. point Communication in discussion
Maximum
zone of
crystalisation
Thermal
arrest period
Freezing
time.
Freezing
curve.

l To understand slow and quick freezing. Slow Observation Discussion Reference Participation
activities Communication in discussion
UNIT. 8

FREEZERS

Introduction
Several types of freezers are used in seafood industry for freezing of fish. In this
unit we are going to familiarise different types of freezers and their working. We
also intend to classify freezers based on freezing techniques, so that a comparison
may be drawn among them. During this process of learning the students realise
how to select a type of freezer for a specific head.
Syllabus
Airblast freezers
Contact plate freezers
Spray and Immersion freezers
Other types of freezers
Freezing time and freezer operating temperatures
Curriculum Objectives
l To familiarise with common types of freezers.
Suggested Activities - General discussion with Demonstration and Field visit
Teacher can explain different types of freezers with the help of charts, OHP and
models. A trip can be arranged to a nearby freezing plant to familiarise with the
structure and operations of different freezers. An assignment will be given to the
students based on the field trip. In order to get more ideas about freezers a class
seminar may be arranged. Teacher may guide the students to attain the curriculum
objectives through discussion and seminar.
Points for Discussion
Discuss about the structure and operation of different types of freezers such as
Plate freezers, Air blast freezers, Drum freezers, Immersion freezers, Fluidised
bed freezers, Spray freezers and their merits and demerits.

87
88
Unit : 8 Freezers

Curriculum Objectives Ideas/ Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation


Concepts
l Familiarise with common types of Structure Observation Field visit Freezers Interest
freezers. Operation Communication Discussion References Presentation
of seminar
Freezing time Seminar
Participation
Freezing Assignment
in discussion
temperature
Preparation
Refrigerant. and Presenta-
tion of as-
signment
UNIT. 9

FREEZING OF SHRIMPS

Introduction
Students have already learned that freezing is one of the methods of fish
preservation by lowering the temperature. Likewise the students should get an
awareness about the method of freezing of shrimp also. Here an attempt has been
made to make the students understand about different steps in freezing of shrimps
and its’ product styles.
Syllabus
How to make good frozen products
Freezing of shrimps in different styles like whole, HL, PD, PUD, CPD, Block and
IQF products.
Curriculum Objectives
l To develop skills in preparing different product styles of prawns.
l To develop skills for the freezing of shrimps.
Suggested Activities - Discussion with the help of Charts, Samples and Video
show
Students have previous knowledge in the freezing of fish. Teacher can introduce
additional steps involved in freezing of shrimps through a general discussion
with the help of a flow chart showing important steps in freezing. Teacher can
also depend on visual media in connection with shrimp processing to familiarise
the different steps comprehensively. Using flow charts, photographs and video
shows discuss with the students about different styles of frozen shrimp products.
Based on this students may be asked to evaluate different product styles and
prepare a report.
Points for Discussion
Ü Different steps- Raw material preparation, grading, weighing, filling, glazing,
freezing, reglazing, packing cold storage and shipment.
Ü Product styles- Whole, HL,PD,PUD,CPD and Fantail.
Ü IQF products and Block frozen prawn products.

89
90
Unit : 9 Freezing of Shrimps

Curriculum Objectives Ideas/ Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation


Concepts
l Develop skills in preparing different Whole Observation Discussion Flow charts Participation
product style. HL Communication Samples Preparation
PD Visualmedia of notes and
flow charts.
PUD
CPD
Block
IQF products

l Develop skills for the freezing of shrimp Raw material Observation Field visit Shrimp Interest
preparation Communication Discussion Participation
grading,
Field report.
weighing
filling,
glazing,
freezing,
re- glazing,
packing
clod storage
UNIT. 10

COLD STORAGE

Introduction
It is necessary to keep frozen products in cold condition until it is delivered to
the consumer. The students should be made aware of the fact that cold store
provides such a condition. The students should get the concept and functions of
cold store when the completion of unit. They should also acquire the skills to
select appropriate type of cold store.
Syllabus
Types of cold store
Curriculum Objectives
l To understand the functions of a cold storage
l To understand different types of cold storage
Suggested Activities - Field Visit and Discussion
Arrange a visit to a cold store and ask the students to note down the various
activities taking place there. In addition to this the pupils are asked to draw the
diagramatic representation of the cold store. Charts, models and multimedia tools
can be used for introducing different types of cold stores. A general discussion
can be conducted based on different types of cold stores and its operations.
Points for Discussion
Ü Principle and concept of cold storage.
Ü Cold store temperature and its fluctuation
Ü Different types of cold storage- Jacketed type, finned type and unit cooler type.

91
92
Unit : 10 Cold Store

Curriculum Objectives Ideas/ Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation


Concepts
l Understand the functions of a cold store. Principle Observation Field visit Charts Preparation
Communication Discussion Models of notes
Drawings Multimedia

l Understand different types of cold store. Jacketed type Observation Field visit Charts Participation
Finned type Communication Discussion Models Preparation
Unit cooler of notes.
Reference
type.
UNIT. 11

STORAGE, TRANSPORT AND DISTRIBUTION

Introduction
The students are familiar with the concept of storage, transport and distribution.
This unit helps the students to understand different types of fish storage, live fish
transportation and the concept of cold chain.
Syllabus
Chilled storage
Frozen storage
Change in fish muscle during frozen storage
Curriculum Objectives
l To understand the chilled storage and frozen storage
l To understand fish transportation and distribution
l To understand the changes in fish muscle during freezing and in the cold
storage.
Sub Topic- 1 - Storage
Suggested Activities - Field Trip
A field trip can be arranged to a frozen storage and cold storage and asks the
students to conduct a comparative study and prepare a report.
Points for discussion
Ü Differentiate chilled storage and frozen storage based on main points like
storage temperature, quality of the product, nature of product to be stored etc.
Sub Topic- 2 - Transport and Distribution
Suggested Activities - Group discussion
Using pictures of fish transporting vehicles and video casettes of fish distribution,
conduct a group discussion on different types of fish transport and distribution
system. Collect information from each group about locally available fish
distribution system.

93
Points for discussion
Ü Various types of fish transport systems.
Additional Points - Cold chain
Cold chain is the scientific and systematic distribution of frozen fish in the
interior market by refrigerated vans, refrigerated railwagons etc.

Sub Topic- 3 - Changes in Fish muscle during freezing and in the cold
storage.
Suggested Activities - Discussion
Discuss the points such as ice crystal formation, shrinkage, driploss, organoleptic
changes, freezer burn, texture, protein denaturation, nutritional changes, enzyme
denaturation, declaining of bacterial load, discolouration.

94
Unit : 11 Storage, Transport and Distribution

Curriculum Objectives Ideas/ Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation


Concepts
l Understand the chilled storage and Storage Observation Field trip Reference Field report.
frozen storage. temperature Communication Discussion Participation
Quality of the in discussion.
Comparison
product,
Nature of the
product to be
stored.

l Understand fish transportation and Observation Discussion Pictures, Participation


distribution. Communication cassets and in discussion
videos of
transporting
vehicles
l Understand the changes of fish muscle Ice crystal Observation Discussion References Participation
during freezing and in the cold storage. formation Communication in discussion
Shrinkage
Drip loss
Organoleptic
changes
Freezer burn
Texture
Protein
denaturation.

95
UNIT. 12

LAYOUT OF PROCESSING PLANTS

Introduction
Like any other industry fish processing plants also need proper layout for smooth
functioning. This unit introduces various aspects to be considered while
preparing a layout for the installation of a processing plant.
Syllabus
Site, building, water supply, equipments and clothing
Curriculum Objectives
l To get an awareness about the minimum infrastructural facilities required for
a fish processing plant.
Suggested Activities
Students have already visited fish processing plants. Hence a discussion can be
conducted about minimum infrastructural facilities by using a standard layout
of a processing plant.
Points for discussion
Ü Mention chute, raw material receiving room, chill room, processing hall,
working table and utensiles, freezers, cold storage, machinery, ventillation,
measures for controlling flies and animals, lighting, potable water and ice, toilet
facilities, laboratory etc.

96
Unit : 12 Layout of Processing Plants

Curriculum Objectives Ideas/ Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation


Concepts
l Understand minimum infrastructural Chute, raw Communication Discussion Reference Participation
facilities required for a processing plant. material in discussion
receiving
room,
chill room,
processing
hall,
processing
table and
utensils.
freezers, cold
store, Water
supply and
electricity.

97
UNIT. 13

FACTORY HYGIENE AND SANITATION

Introduction
The students have learned the role of microbes in fish spoilage and the importance
of proper hygiene and sanitation to prevent microbial contamination in sea food.
They have also got a general idea about the need for hygiene and sanitaion for
healthy enviornment. This chapter aims to make them understand how proper
hygiene and sanitation can be acquired.
Syllabus
Building, equipment and staff sanitation
Maintanace of Quality control
Curriculum Objectives
l To understand the details about factory hygiene and sanitation.
l To understand the significance of sanitation in sea food industry.
l To develop skills to maintain personal hygiene and sanitation.
l To apply the acquired knowledge in new situations.
Suggested Activities - Discussion
A discussion can be conducted about factory sanitation and presonal hygiene
based on their previous knowledge acquired from the visit at the processing plant.
Points for discussion
Ü Mention about the significance of sanitation on consumer’s point of view, public
health, microbiology and product quality.
Ü The concentration of chlorine to be used at different stages of sanitation.
Ü Sanitation practices such as personnel hygiene, sanitation of utensils and
equipments, building sanitation, ventillation, fumigation, maintenance of
proper drainage, pest control, toilet facilities, medical check up on workers
and waste disposal.
Additional Points - Chlorination of Water
Processing water - 5 ppm
Floor washing - 100 ppm
Hand dip - 20 ppm
Foot dip - 100 ppm
Processing table and Utensils - 50 ppm
Glaze water - Below 2 ppm
98
Unit : 13 Factory Hygiene and Sanitation

Curriculum Objectives Ideas/ Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation


Concepts
l Understand the details about factory Prevention of Communication Discussion Reference Participation
hygiene and sanitation. Microbial in discussion
contamination

l Understand the significance of sanitation Product Communication Discussion Reference Participation


in seafood industry. quality, in discussion
public health

l Develop skills to maintain personal Hygienic Communication Discussion Chlorinated Participation


hygiene and sanitation practices. water. in discussion

l Apply the acquired knowledge in new


situations

99
UNIT. 14

MODERN PACKING METHODS

Introduction
A product should be supplied to the consumer in the most appropriate form. For
this, packaging is an essential thing. Packaging methods conserve and preserve
all the qualities of the product in good condition. In this unit an attempt has been
made to make the students understand the concept of packing, its importance,
types of packaging materials and modern trends in packaging.
Syllabus
Choice of packing materials
Types of modern packaging
Curriculum Objectives
l To understand the concept of packing and its importance
l To familiarise with different types of packaging materials.
l To understand recent trends in packaging.
l To apply the knowledge in new situations.
l To develop skills for identifying and applying different types of packing
materials.
Suggested Activities - Collection and Debate
Ask the students to collect different types of packaging materials used for packing
fishery products. Conduct debates on merits and demerits of different types of
packaging materials. Teacher may consolidate important points of debate such
as suitable packaging materials for each fishery product, which product can be
packed in a particular packing material and recent trends in packing.
Points for discussion
Ü The concept of packing and its importance in sea food.
Ü Mention different packing materials - Metals, glass, wood, paper, paper boards,
corrugated fibre boards and plastics (HDPE, LDPE)
Ü Mention about recent trends in packing- PCB, cellophane, MLF, modified
atmospheric packing, vacuum packing and retortable pouch.

100
Unit : 14 Modern Packing Methods

Curriculum Objectives Ideas/ Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation


Concepts
l Understand the concept of packing and
its importance.
l Familiarise with different types of Metals, glass, Collection Collection Packing Interest in
packing materials. wood, paper, Communication Debate materials collection
paper boards, Observation Reference Participation
corrugated in debates
fibre boards
and plastics.
l Understand recent trends in packaging PCB, Observation Collection Packing Interest in
Laminates, Comparison Debate material collection
Cellophane, Reference Participation
Discussion
MLF,
Modified
atmospheric
packaging
Vacuum
packing
l Apply the knowledge in new situations

l Develop skills for identifying and


applying different types of packing
material.

101
SAMPLE QUESTIONS

1. A doctor asked the parents of a child, who has the deficiency of protein, to
give more fish. Can you explain why?

2. A doctor prescribed shark liver oil to a patient, who has a deficiency disease.
Can you say what are the possible deficiencies that patient may have and
why did the doctor prescribe shark liver oil?
3. How can you help a customer to seperate fresh fish from spoiled one?
4. Oil which is kept in an open bottle for a few days produces foul smell. Why?

5. The bactarial load of fish kept in cold condition is lower than that of ambient
temperature. What is your explanation?
6. The buyer of an industry regularly complaints that the raw materials he
received from the supplier is highly contaminated. Can you help the fisherman
and the supplier to provide good quality raw material.
7. A tourist party, who consume a canned fish product, affected by food
poisoning. Which are the symptoms you observe in them? Can you infer
which bacteria caused it?

8. Suppose you have visited a peeling shed. You noticed that the workers are
using tap water for sanitation purpose. What are your suggestions?
9. Match the following

A B

Plate freezer Liquid nitrogen


Air blast freezer Freon- 12
Spray freezer Cooled air

Cryogenic freezer Super cooled brine

102
10. Pelagic/Demersal Fatty/Semifatty/Lean

Oil sardine Fatty

Ribbon fish
Shark
Seer
Carangids Demersal
Silver belly

11. Seperate the character of an elasmobranch from the following.


a. Bony skeleton b. Placoid scales
c Four pairs of gills d. Cartilageneous skeleton
e. Heterocercal caudal fin f. Cycloid scale
g. Ventral mouth
12. Rancidity is (Self digestion, death stiffness, oxidation of
fat)
13. Suppose a processor bought heavily feeded fishes from the landing center.
Does he take any precautions. Why?
14.
C D

Number of
micro
organism

A B E

The graph shows the growth of bactaria. Complete the following.

AB -
CD - Stationary phase
BC -
DE -
X axis -

103
15. A boat man kept a part of his catch in ice and the remaining part without ice.
During the auction the iced fish fetch more price than the other. What is your
explanation for it?
16. On analysis of a frozen prodcut, large ice crystals are found. Can you evaluate
the quality, duration of freezing, temperature and type of freezing techinque
employed?

SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR ASSIGNMENT

Prepare one Assignment in each term


Topics for First term
m Fishery resources of a nearby fish landing centre.

m Fishing methods employed in your area.

m Importance of fish in human diet.

Topics for Second term


m Food poisoning through fish and fishery products.

m Problems faced by a pre- processing centre/ peeling shed.

m Different product styles of fish/ shrimps/cephalopods etc.

Topics for Third term


m Various types of cold storage.

m Transportation and distribution of fresh fish in and around your area.


m Different types of packaging materials for fish and fishery products.

m Hygiene and sanitation practised in a hospital in your locality.


m Different types of containers used for the storage and transportation of fish
and fishery produts in your area.

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SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR SEMINAR

Conduct only one seminar in a year. For this the whole class is divided in to 4 - 5
groups. Each group should be given different topic for seminar. Each group
prepares one seminar topic. One representative from each group presents their
topic and as a result all students share all the topics.
m Problems faced by traditional fishermen to keep the fish in fresh condition.
m Constraints faced by freezing plants to ensure quality.
m Quality problems in iced fish storage.
m ‘Chakara’- a bloom to fisher folk.
m Impact of ‘Trawl Ban’-

SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR PROJECTS

Conduct only one project in a year


m Analyse the content of moisture present in different fish species.
m Landings of economically important species of fishes, prawns and cephalopods
within 5 Kms of nearby coastal area.
m T. P. C. of gills, intestine and flesh of three different species of fish.
m T. P. C. of same species of fish collected from different centres (Market, local
landing centres and harbours)
m Requirements on to start a pre- processing plant.

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REFERENCE

Fish Processing Technology - T. K. Govindan

Fish and Fisheries of India - Jhingran

Fish as Food Vol. I, II and III - Borgstrom. 1961

Quality control Assessment - CIFT

Text book of Fisheries


Science and Indian Fishes - Srivasthava

Summer Institute on
Fish Processing Technology - CIFT

Microbiology -

Marine Fisheries of India - Bal, D.V and K. Virabhadran

Fish Processing Technology - K. K Balachandran

Internet Sites

listserv@searn.sunet.se

http://dir.yahoo.com/science/agriculture/aquaculture/
fisheries/institutes/college_ and _university/_departments

http:/www.webscope.com/fishelp/info.htm/.

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