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– Elastic Rebound Theory • After the stress or pressure is release the rock

seals and again starts to accumulate stress.

– Harry Fielding Reid

– May 18, 1859, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.

– American seismologist and glaciologist

– 1911 developed the elastic rebound theory of

earthquake mechanics

– San Francisco earthquake of 1906,

major earthquake with a magnitude of 7.9 that
occurred on April 18, 1906, at 5:12 AM off the
northern California coast.

– What is the Elastic Rebound Theory?

– States that as tectonic plates move relative to each

other, elastic strain energy builds up along their edges
in the rocks along fault planes.

• Ruptures or breaks in the rock are planar cracks

that grow in all directions

• The rupture itself may remain buried, invisible

underground (a blind fault). A rupture may or may
not reach the surface.

• Pressure or stress, builds up in the rock, much like

a bending rubber eraser in your hands.

• You can break a rubber eraser if the pressure or

stress you apply to it exceeds the natural strength
of the rubber.

• Stress in earth sciences refers to the pressure the

rock experiences Foreshocks and Aftershocks are smaller earthquakes that
precede and postdate the main shock.
• Strain is the actual damage or resultant
deformation that we can measure. What is a foreshock or aftershock depends on when the
main shock comes. But, this is really only known AFTER the
• When the rock breaks or ruptures some of the big earthquake occurs!
energy goes into breaking the rock and a lot of it
goes into moving the surround rocks.

• The rupture itself may remain buried, invisible

underground (a blind fault). A rupture may or may
not reach the surface.
Earthquake Bolt or strap the heavy furniture and cabinets to the walls.

A shaking or trembling of the earth that is volcanic or Secure breakable objects properly and on the lowest part
tectonic in origin. of the shelves.

John Blume Check the stability of the hanging objects.

“FATHER OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING”  Organize the things needed during an earthquake.

He was an American structural engineer born in California. Prepare a handy EMERGENCY SUPPLY KIT.

His career included major contributions to dynamic theory,  First aid kit
soil structure interactions, and the inelastic behaviour of  Canned food and can opener
structures.  Water
 Clothing and blankets
Earthquake Engineering
 Battery-operated radio
is the application of the study of earthquakes and the  Flashlights
vibrations generated at the surface in order to protect the  Batteries
built environment and people from being harmed.
To DO’s Before an Earthquake
Aim of Earthquake Engineering
 Familiarize yourself to the fire exits.
Earthquake engineering is the science of the performance
 Know where to find the fire extinguishers, alarms
of buildings and structures when subjected to seismic
and communication facilities.
loading. It also assists analysing the interaction between
civil infrastructure and the ground, including the  Conduct and participate in regular earthquake
consequences of earthquakes on structures. drills.
To make buildings that are earthquake resistant in order to  Practice DROP, COVER, HOLD ON, and EVACUATE.
save lives and property.
Aim of Earthquake Engineering
Things to do after EARTHQUAKE
Proper design and construction of buildings in accordance
with building codes, so as to minimize damage to  Check yourself and others for injuries. Provide first
earthquakes. aid for anyone who needs it.
People behind the earthquake engineering in the  Check water, gas, and electric lines for damage.
Philippines  Turn on the radio
The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology  Stay out of damaged buildings
(PHIVOLCS) is a service institute of the Department of  Be careful around broken glass and debris.
Science and Technology (DOST) that is principally
mandated to mitigate disasters that may arise from  Be careful of chimneys (they may fall on you).
volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunami and other  Stay away from beaches.
related geotectonic phenomena  Stay away from damaged areas.
MANDATES  If you're at school or work, follow the emergency

To DO’s Before an Earthquake plan or the instructions of the person in charge.

 Expect aftershocks.
 Plan for the effective disaster prevention.

Know the earthquake hazards.

Have the right structural design and engineering practices.

Evaluate the structural design of the buildings and houses.

To DO’s Before an Earthquake

 Prepare your home and workplace