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Hill Road Design Resource

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1 TITLE PAGE

2

3 Geometric Design of Hill Roads to Minimize Natural Disaster Damages

4 Ranadeep Basu (M.Tech., MIE)1, Sridebi Basu (PhD, MIE)2

5

1

6 Principal Engineer, Roads and Rail, COWI India Pvt. Ltd., Gurgaon,

7 24D/C, SFS Flats, Mayur Vihar-III, Delhi-110096, India; +91 9810537423;

8 ranadeepbasu@gmail.com

2

9 Chief Executive Officer, Save Earth Consultancy, 24D/C, SFS Flats, Mayur Vihar-III,

10 Delhi-110096, India; +91 9818673778; bsridebi@yahoo.com

11

12 Submission date : 20th March 2015

13

14 Corresponding Author : Ranadeep Basu (M.Tech., MIE)

15 Principal Engineer, Roads and Rail,

16 COWI India Pvt. Ltd., Gurgaon

17 24D/C, SFS Flats, Mayur Vihar-III, Delhi-110096, India;

18 GSM : +91 9810537423

19 e-mail : ranadeepbasu@gmail.com

20

21 Word Count: Abstract, Body & References = 4,322 Words (excl. tables &

22 figures)

23 Tables =4 nos. (4 x 250 words) = 1,000 Words

24 Figures = 3 nos. (3 x 250 words) = 750 Words

25 Total = 6,072 Words

26

27

2

R Basu and S Basu

1

2 ABSTRACT

3 The northern Indian states which lie in the Himalayan range are susceptible to different kind

4 of natural disasters every year. The major types of disasters are landslides, flash floods,

5 avalanche and earthquake. Disasters cause damages ranging from minor blockage to total

6 destruction of the road formation and disconnect villages and towns for several days. With

7 the growing need for new metalled roads, capacity augmentation of existing roads and

8 human activities on the hill slopes, the slopes are becoming more vulnerable to such natural

9 disasters. Unplanned new alignments and cross-sections often make the roads more

10 susceptible to damages. The guidelines and standards for geometric design followed in

11 India may be used adapting to the changing ground conditions. The geometric design

12 standards and cross-sectional elements of the road need to be adaptive to the terrain,

13 geographic and geological characteristics of the area to produce a sustainable design of the

14 hill roads. The road alignment can be planned and designed section wise based on the

15 terrain, land use, nature of slope and geological characteristics. The geometric design

16 standards like vertical gradient, horizontal curve radius, sight distance, visibility splays can

17 be made flexible and related to the area characteristics over any section of the road. Similar

18 adaptive design of cross-sectional elements can also be proposed. The possible adaptive

19 geometric design standards for of hill roads discussed in this paper are the sustainable

20 solutions to minimize natural disaster damages of roads and its surroundings.

21

22 Keywords : Hill Road, Hill Slope, Road Geometry, Design Speed, Cross-section, Adaptive

23 Design

3

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1

2 INTRODUCTION

3 India has a vast and well-knit network of roads and highways. The network consists of

4 79,241 km of National Highways; 1,31,899 Km State Highways and 31,17,763 km other

5 category road (1).

6 Though the network of roads and highways is mostly concentrated in the plain lands,

7 the hilly and mountainous regions of country are also connected by different categories of

8 road. Data on length of hill roads in India is not available.

9 It is an established fact that the cost of construction and maintenance of hill roads is

10 always more than that of a similar road in the plains. The Indian government, in its budget

11 allocates substantial amount for the construction of new roads, capacity augmentation and

12 maintenance of the existing road network.

13 The hill roads in the Himalayan range are mainly in the northern states of Jammu

14 and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and eastern states of Arunachal Pradesh,

15 Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram and Nagaland. These states suffer natural disasters

16 from landslides, flash floods during the monsoon and also experience rare occurrences of

17 cloud bursts, severe earthquakes and avalanches (2). These cause damage ranging from

18 minor blockage to total destruction of the road formation and disconnect villages and towns

19 for several days. With the growing need for new metalled roads to connect villages,

20 capacity augmentation of existing roads and human activities on the hill slopes, the slopes

21 are becoming more vulnerable to such natural disasters. Due to unplanned alignments and

22 cross-sections adopted, hill roads often become more prone to damages from natural

23 disasters.

24 From the nature and type of natural disasters that occur in the hilly regions of India,

25 the key physical parameters can be identified. These parameters can be addressed to

26 minimize the damaging effects through an adaptive geometric design. The geometric design

27 standards and cross-sectional elements of the road need to be flexible to the terrain,

28 geographic and geological characteristics of the area to produce a sustainable design of the

29 hill roads.

30 When a mountainous road is poorly planned and constructed without well-designed

31 drainage systems, it may lead to destabilization of hill slopes and soil erosions, which

32 provide pathways of sediment transportation into streams and rivers. These results in

33 degradation of water quality, aquatic habitation, reduction in the agricultural productivity

34 due to loss of top soil the landslide causes causalities and damages (3-5). There are

35 instances where a lack of engineering geological or geomorphological appreciation has led

36 to recurrent problems, leading to redesign and even alignment modifications. Elsewhere,

37 engineering geology has provided sufficient information and interpretation to enable

38 designers to proceed effectively, and the evaluation of slope and drainage hazards as past,

39 recurrent and potential future risk elements has required geomorphological assessment as

40 the critical path activity (6). A sustainable highway should satisfy the functional

41 requirements of societal development and economic growth while reducing negative

42 impacts on the environment and consumption of natural resources (7).

43 The Indian Road Congress (IRC) codes (8, 9) have proposed remedial measures for

44 critical site conditions in all cases through engineering solutions like slope stabilization, soil

45 stabilizations, retaining structures, cross drainage structures etc. Such solutions are

46 sometimes not cost effective and short term measures. Design standards are based on terrain

4

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1 types classified as mountainous and steep. Design terrains are adopted based on the

2 predominant terrain in the stretch (8) which sometimes results in huge cut fill situations. In

3 most practical cases solutions like alternate alignment in situations where a total avoidance

4 of critical and natural disaster susceptible locations is required become costly and thus not

5 adopted. As the chance of occurrence of a natural disaster is rare, the cost of maintenance

6 and repair of damages is assumed to be incurred during the life of the road. A sustainable

7 solution through adaptive geometric design can reduce the chance of damages and thus

8 reduce cost of repair and maintenance of hill roads.

9 By addressing the geotechnical, geometric and construction issues simultaneously at

10 the design stage for highways in hilly terrain the possibility and probability of damages to

11 the roads due to natural disasters can be minimized.

12 This paper addresses each of the factors through possible geometric designs

13 solutions during route selection and feasibility study stage.

14

15 METHODOLOGY

16 To propose an adaptive approach and sustainable solution through geometric design of hill

17 roads, the inter-relation and dependency of the physical parameters of a hilly terrain and the

18 geometric design parameters need to be identified. The following paragraphs identifies the

19 parameters, their inter-relation and relevance to the topic.

20

21 Hilly Terrain Physical Parameters

22 During the route selection and geometric design of the hill roads, the major parameters that

23 needs to considered and those which affect the design standards, geometric design of a hill

24 road and technical decision of route selection are terrain and topography; river morphology

25 and regime; hydrological condition; soil and rock types; geological structure of rocks; side

26 slope stability etc.

27

28 Terrain and topography

29 Terrain generally refers to the lay of the land and is usually expressed in terms of the

30 elevation, slope, and orientation of terrain features. Terrain affects surface water flow and

31 distribution. The terrain classification is the most importance decision to be taken at the

32 inception stage of a hill road project. While deciding the terrain, generally the level

33 difference between two points at 50m distance from the centreline of the alignment is

34 considered. The geometric design standards are adopted based on the type of terrain as

35 classified as mountainous and steep (8).

36 The geometric design standards which are governed by the terrain classification are:

37 a) Design Speed

38 b) Sight distance

39 The topography along an alignment is recorded through map studies at the inception

40 stage and further by detail topographical survey in the feasibility study stage. The

41 topography along the alignment is the guiding factor for fixing the following geometric

42 design standards and taking technical decisions:

43

5

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1 a) Width of cross-sectional elements

2 b) Horizontal geometry

3 c) Vertical geometry

4 d) Sight distance

5 e) River/Stream crossing location and geometry

6 f) Alternate alignment

7

8 River Morphology and Regime

9 Road alignments along riverbanks have the inherent advantage of comparatively gentle

10 gradients and proximity of villages that the road connects (9). Hill roads closely following

11 river banks are common in the hilly regions of India and are thus susceptible to damages

12 due to the change of river morphology i.e. the shapes of river channels and their change

13 over time and also the river regime i.e. in the discharge of the river throughout the year. No

14 specific guideline is available for alignments along a river channel in Indian codes. The

15 geometric design parameters that are dependent on the river morphology and the regime are

16 horizontal geometry; vertical geometry; proposed side slope; river/stream crossing location

17 and geometry and alternate alignment.

18

19 Hydrological Condition

20 The hydrology of the road consists of the subsurface and surface drainage along a road

21 alignment and plays a vital road in the stability and integrity of the pavement layers and

22 stability of side slopes. Avoidance of locations with seepage, flow from springs,

23 subterranean channels, water logging, etc. to the extent possible is suggested in IRC codes

24 as a general guideline while selecting the alignment. This is practically not possible as such

25 stretches are an inherent feature of any hill road and thus the adverse affects need to be

26 addressed through technical solutions. The geometric design parameters and technical

27 decisions that are dependent on the hydrological conditions are horizontal geometry;

28 vertical geometry; proposed side slope; carriageway cross-fall and location of cross-

29 drainage structures.

30

31 Soil and Rock Type

32 The type of soil and rock present along a hill road alignment varies frequently along its

33 length and thus due consideration to geometric standards can be given to produce an

34 adaptive solution. The geometric design parameters and technical decisions that are

35 dependent on the soil and rock type are horizontal geometry; sight distance; proposed side

36 slope and carriageway cross-fall.

37

38 Geological Structure of Rocks

39 The structural geology of rocks reveal the information about the history of deformation

40 (strain) and the stress field in the rocks that have resulted in the observed strain and

41 geometries. When road alignment passes through unstable and fragmented rock formations,

42 the chances of damage during landslides and earthquakes are more. Thus by knowing the

43 structural geology, the alignment can be relocated or suitable geometric standards can be

44 adopted to reduce the chance of damage. The strike and dip angles are the measures of

6

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1 rock’s structural geology and the relevant geometric design parameters are horizontal

2 geometry; proposed side slope and carriageway cross-fall.

3

4 Side Slope Stability

5 The stability of the side slopes along an alignment is based on the slope material, slope

6 angle, presence of vegetative growth and groundwater conditions. The stability of a cut

7 slope is critical for any hill road and by adopting suitable geometric standards the chance of

8 landslides can be reduced. The relevant geometric design parameters are width of cross-

9 sectional elements, horizontal geometry; vertical geometry; carriageway cross-fall; sight

10 distance and proposed side slope.

11

12 Inter-relation among Geometric and Physical Parameters

13 The different physical parameters of a hilly terrain and the geometric design parameters as

14 discussed above are presented as a co-relation matrix in Table 1 and Table 2 respectively

15 for geometric design standards and technical decisions respectively.

16

17 TABLE 1 Co-relation Matrix for Geometric Design Standards

Geometric Design Standards

Width

Hilly Terrain of

Design Sight Carriageway Horizontal Vertical

Physical Cross-

Speed distance cross-fall geometry geometry

Parameters sectional

elements

Terrain

Topography

River morphology

and regime

Hydrological

condition

Soil and rock types

Geological

structure of rocks

Side Slope stability

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

7

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1 TABLE 2 Co-relation Matrix for Technical Decisions

Technical Decisions

River/Stream Location

Hilly Terrain Proposed

crossing Alternate of cross-

Physical side

location and alignment drainage

Parameters slope

geometry structures

Topography

River morphology

and regime

Hydrological

condition

Geological

structure of rocks

Side Slope stability

2

3 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

4 Before the actual start of the geometric design of a hill roads, extensive and variety of

5 engineering data along the proposed/existing alignment and along any alternate alignment is

6 required for decision making and for fixing the design standards. The design considerations

7 must include:

8 • The terrain classification all along the alignment is established through topographic

9 data

10 • Contours of the area are available through aerial survey

11 • All location features like river course, streams, cross-drainage structures (for

12 existing alignment), flooding areas, high flood levels, landslide areas, etc.

13 • River morphology and regime data

14 • A chainage wise inventory of the side slope material type i.e. soil with classification

15 and properties, rock type and its structural geology of the area

16 • Hydrological data for all stream and river crossings

17 • Available material and resources that can be used in the road construction

18 • Geometric standards for different conditions of physical parameters and

19 combinations thereof

20 • The deviated geometric design standards with technical backup

21

22 ADAPTIVE GEOMETRIC DESIGN STANDARDS

23 With the understanding of the terrain physical parameters, their inter-relations and their

24 relation with the geometric standards, the following paragraphs have suggested adaptive

25 approaches to minimise probability and severity of the natural disaster damages.

26

8

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1

2

3 Design Speed

4 As per IRC guidelines, design speeds are based on the terrain classification and category of

5 road with a difference of 10 km/hr between the ruling and minimum speeds of same terrain

6 condition. The difference between ruling speed in mountainous terrain and minimum speed

7 for steep terrain in same category of road is 20 km/hr. The ruling minimum and absolute

8 minimum horizontal curve radii are also based on these speeds. A hill road may have

9 intermittent mountainous and steep terrain conditions. In such cases, recommendation of

10 code suggests to adopt a uniform terrain over a significant length. No limiting length is

11 specified for adopting a particular terrain. As per the provisions in IRC codes, the designers

12 have to decide a suitable terrain based on judgement and available data. While deciding the

13 design speed over a stretch the intermittent terrains are thus ignored. This result in high cut

14 fill heights at those isolated stretches and may create unstable cut fill slopes.

15 In most practical situations, it is observed that the design speed cannot be

16 maintained over a stretch and a speed envelop of 10 km/hr is not enough to cover such

17 differences. It is suggested to provide a design speed envelop of 20 km/hr for stretches

18 where intermittent mountainous and steep terrains exist and so the design speed can be

19 suitably decided by the designer. Apart from reducing the impact on the hill slopes, the

20 safety and operational aspects also need to be evaluated while adopting a design speed

21 value.

22 The design speeds given in Indian codes and the suggested adaptive design speeds

23 are given in Table 3 below:

24

25 TABLE 3 Adaptive Design Speed values (km/ hr)

IRC Recommendations

Mountainous Intermittent Terrain

Steep Terrain

Terrain Condition

Sl. Road

Ruling Minimum Ruling Minimum Ruling Minimum

No. Classification

National and

1 50 40 40 30 50 30

State Highways

Major District

2 40 30 30 20 40 20

Roads

26

27 While the provision of an increased speed envelope shall add flexibility in geometric

28 design and reduce the effect on hill slopes, it can lead to hazardous driving conditions if

29 design speed variations are not used judiciously in conjunction with other speed related

30 components and without proper road signs, road markings and traffic calming measures.

31

32 Sight Distance

33 Sight distance on hill roads is a critical geometric design parameter from safety and

34 operational point of view. A design value on sight distance needs to consider terrain,

35 topography, soil and rock type and side slope stability. Thus, adaptation of a single design

9

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1 standard value may result in high cut heights for steep and unstable side slopes and thus

2 makes slopes susceptible to damages during natural disasters.

3 The set-back distance at a horizontal curve is recommended based on the sight

4 distance and sight distance is based on design speed. So, when a design speed is fixed the

5 set back is also fixed for any hill side slope and material condition. In an adaptive approach,

6 the design speed at such locations can be reduced to reduce the requirement of sight

7 distance and set-back distance.

8 From the IRC recommendations of set-back distance for a single lane carriageway

9 presented as Figure 1 below, it can be seen that for a design speed of 30 km/hr a wide range

10 of curve radii can be covered. So, for critical condition of any of the physical parameters, an

11 adaptive approach with a fixed design speed can be used. This shall result in less cut on

12 inner side of curves and can minimize damages due to landslides, rock fall, etc.

13

4

Set-back Distance (m)

0

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110

Curve Radius (m)

20 km/hr 25 km/hr 30 km/hr 40 km/hr 60 km/hr

14

15

16 FIGURE 1 Set-back distances for design speeds and curve radii

17

18 The set-back distance is a critical safety and physical parameter in design of hill road

19 geometry, so reduction of set-back distance shall reduce large hill cuts. This can lead to

10

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1 safety concerns, if such reduced set-back distances are not proposed in conjunction with

2 reduced design speeds or through traffic calming measures.

3

4 Width of Cross-sectional Elements

5 The widths of the cross-sectional elements of a hill road are fixed at the planning stage

6 based on the category of road and capacity requirements. The carriageway width being

7 considered as fixed over the entire length of a road, the only variable is the shoulder widths

8 and the total roadway width which exclude the roadside drains (usually 0.6 m) and parapet

9 walls (usually 0.6 m). For National and State Highways the carriageway width is 7.0m with

10 0.9m shoulder on both sides, i.e. total roadway width is 8.80 m (8). The total roadway width

11 was revised to 10.0m excluding drain and parapet (10). The shoulder widths has been

12 stipulated as 1.0m on hill side and 2.0 m of valley side for both mountainous and steep

13 terrains, carriageway being kept same at 7.0 m (10).

14 The topography along the alignment needs to be considered while adopting the

15 widths of shoulder on hill and valley sides. Though, operational benefits have been

16 achieved by providing a wider roadway by 1.20 m, but the same has resulted in higher cut

17 heights. As in most of the cases, the new codal stipulations are enforced during

18 rehabilitation / upgradation of a road, the extra width of 1.20m is achieved by cutting the

19 hill side without disturbing the valley side parapet walls. This sometimes makes the side

20 slopes unstable and vulnerable to damages during natural disasters.

21 By adopting a rational approach, a location specific engineering decision on whether

22 to keep the roadway of 8.80m or widen it to 10.0m should be made, so as not to disturb the

23 critical slope locations.

24 While some hill cut may be avoided by change of the shoulder widths, but uniform

25 widths of shoulder is desirable for safe driving condition and to avoid change of driver

26 perceptions on edge shyness.

27

28 Carriageway Cross-fall

29 Carriageway cross-fall plays a vital road in road surface drainage, pavement layer drainage

30 as well as groundwater movement across the road. Generally, IRC stipulates bi-directional

31 cross-fall of 2.5% with crown at the middle for bituminous surfaces (8). Alternately, it

32 recommends a uni-directional cross-fall towards the hill side (in-sloped with ditches) for

33 winding alignment stretches only.

34 The possibility of a uni-directional cross-fall towards the valley side (out-sloped) is

35 not discussed in IRC codes. Out-sloped roads have the advantage of better drainage, shorter

36 cut slope (≈1/4 shorter) and less spoils from excavation (≈45% less) as presented for a

37 typical two-lane hill road in Figure 2 below.

38

11

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1

2

3 FIGURE 2 Comparison of In-sloped and Out-sloped Road

4

5 Out-sloped road eliminates inner ditches, narrows the roadway width, rises inside

6 edge of road and minimize the chance to intercept with groundwater as presented in Figure

7 3 below.

8

9

10 FIGURE 3 Advantage of Out-sloped Road

11

12 Depending on the drainage condition, soil and rock type and slope stability (angle of

13 cut slope required) along the alignment, the carriageway cross-fall can be changed from bi-

14 directional, out-sloped and in-sloped along the alignment instead of adopting a fixed type of

15 cross-fall. This shall not only reduce the chance of instability of the slopes but also shall be

16 cost effective in terms of less cut volume.

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1 The dip angle of a rock slope is an important factor which decides the stability of a

2 rock slope. At locations where the dip is such that the bedding planes are inclined towards

3 the face of the slope, the chances of instability are more. The carriageway cross-fall,

4 proposed side slope angle and the roadway formation cut slope of the road can be decided

5 such as to decrease the stress on the underlying rock bed.

6 The disadvantage of an out-sloped road is that the road surface water shall flow

7 towards the valley side, thus increasing the probability of rain cuts if proper slope protection

8 and drainage system is not adopted. So, a decision need to be taken considering the

9 suitability of valley side slope protection measures.

10

11 Horizontal Geometry

12 The horizontal geometry of a hill road is proposed and selected after alternate alignment

13 study. If during the alternate alignment selection, the critical ground conditions are

14 considered at a more detail level, the road alignment shall have fewer chances of damages

15 during natural disasters. In case the road corridor is fixed, the actual geometry of the road is

16 designed based on the design standards adopted. Designing the horizontal geometry by

17 strict adherence of standards may result in high cut-fill heights, unstable cut slopes,

18 proximity of river course, etc. All these make the road susceptible to damages during

19 natural disasters. Sometimes minor deviation from the selected corridor can avoid some of

20 the critical locations.

21

22 The horizontal alignment of a hill road need to be adaptive by :

23 • Aligning road where ground slopes are within 10% - 40% for gentle road gradients,

24 better drainage and less cut fill quantities

25 • Introduction of matching horizontal curves based on ground topography (matching

26 contours as much as possible) to result in less disturbance of the natural slopes

27 • Maintaining sufficient distance from the river course and any possible future change

28 of course to avoid lateral erosion by stream undercutting and minimize crossing of

29 tributary streams

30 • Minimizing or avoiding multiple river crossing by keeping alignment on one side of

31 the river

32 • Avoiding any surface flow areas and minimizing stream crossing shall ensure a dry

33 road pavement

34 • Avoiding areas with loose soil and fragmented rock types which if disturbed can be

35 prone to landslides and rock fall

36 • Avoiding areas with unfavourable dips of rock surface to avoid the damage due to

37 movement of rock faults

38 • Avoiding active landslide and rock fall areas

39

40 As all the above critical physical conditions on a hill road alignment may not be

41 possible to avoid by one single horizontal and vertical alignment, so the designer need to

13

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1 consider all options to propose best solution which minimize the disturbance of natural

2 conditions and surrounding habitats.

3

4 Vertical Geometry

5 Best hill road alignment is a combination of well-fitted horizontal and vertical geometry,

6 which would result in balanced cut-fill and have minimum adverse effect on the

7 surrounding ground. Thus, vertical geometry plays an equal important role and can

8 minimize the damages if designed considering the critical physical parameters of the

9 ground. Design of vertical geometry by adherence of standards may result in high vertical

10 grades, disturbance of the groundwater table, change of watercourse of small streams, etc.

11 All such locations can become more susceptible to damages during natural disasters.

12 The vertical alignment of a hill road need to be adaptive by:

13 • Adopting mild vertical grades for reduced potential for erosion of road bed,

14 avoidance of stream diversion at stream crossings and allowing road surface to drain

15 down slope

16 • Designing vertical profile compatible with natural topography for optimum and

17 balanced cut-fill quantities hence generate less spoil

18 • Keeping finished road level and fill slopes higher than the high flood level (HFL)

19 which is ascertained for rare occurrences of change of river regime also (mainly in

20 case of strategically important roads)

21 • Avoiding interception with water table line which cause wet pavement layers

22 • Optimizing the cut height at landslide and rock fall prone areas

23

24 As all the above critical physical conditions on a hill road alignment may not be

25 possible to avoid by one single horizontal and vertical alignment, so the designer need to

26 consider all options to propose best solution which minimize the disturbance of natural

27 conditions and surrounding habitats.

28

29 ADAPTIVE TECHNICAL DECISIONS

30 During the project inception stage and feasibility stage, the designers study the various

31 varying technical parameters of the terrain along the alternate corridors. The technical

32 decisions like river/stream crossing locations and geometry, alternate alignment for existing

33 roads through landslide prone/unstable areas, proposed side slope/protection and location of

34 cross-drainage structures are taken at the inception and feasibility stages.

35 A dynamic approach to select the best alternative alignment should be taken

36 considering all the aspects rather than based on single most critical criteria. The alternative

37 solution chosen without proper analysis may result in a solution which is more susceptible

38 to damage during natural calamities than the existing road when evaluated over a longer

39 time period.

40 A matrix and ranking approach may be adopted for the specific location which shall

41 evaluate each of the locations/solutions/alignments with the pros and cons for each of the

42 physical parameters individually and then as combinations. A typical ranking format for a

14

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1 existing road running parallel and close to the HFL of a perennial river when got damaged

2 from flash flood can be evaluated for the possible alternate solutions against the site specific

3 physical parameters, is presented as Table 4.

4

5 TABLE 4 Typical Ranking and Evaluation format

Marks for each criteria

(Scale of 1-5, with mini./least effect = 1 and max./most severe= 5)

drainage structures

Cut height > 3.0 m

Alternate Fill height > 3.0 m

Overtopping/ side

creation of new

landslide prone

Ground- water

Disturbance of

natural slopes/

River crossing

over % length

over % length

Geometric

Total marks

interference

No. of cross

geometry

Solution

erosion

Length

areas

Minor

realignment on

same river bank

Major

realignment by

crossing to

other bank

Raising of

existing road

Road taken on

structure

Keep existing

road at same

level and

provide more

slope protective

structures

6

7 CONCLUSION

8 Hill roads are susceptible to natural disaster damages like landslides, rock fall, flash floods,

9 embankment erosion from river runoff, etc. With such occurrences becoming an annual

10 affair, the cost of repair and rehabilitation incurred is also becoming substantial. By

11 providing an adaptive geometric design standard on hill roads, the probability and severity

12 of such damages can be minimized. The paper presents that few of the geometric

13 parameters when deviated from IRC provisions can provide a sustainable solution. A

14 dynamic approach to evaluate alternate geometric solutions shall provide a clear

15 understanding of the severity of any problem area and give the designer the insight for

16 taking the best technical decision. The alternatives discussed in the paper has disadvantages

17 when proposed in isolation or in combination with other factors, which need to be

18 considered by the designer. The paper considers the geometric design of hill roads affected

15

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1 by heavy rainfall during monsoon. Further study can be carried out in same direction for hill

2 roads in snow clad areas.

3

4

5 References

6

7 1. National Highways Authority of India (NHAI), Road Network.

8 http://www.nhai.org/roadnetwork.htm. Accessed Oct. 10, 2014.

9 2. National Disaster Management Authority, Govt. of India, Vulnerability Profile.

10 http://www.ndma.gov.in/en/vulnerability-profile.html. Accessed Oct. 10, 2014

11 3. Sidle, R. C. & Ochiai, H. Landslides: Processes, Prediction and Land Use Water

12 Resources Monogr. 18 (Am. Geophys. Union, 2006).

13 4. Sidle R. C. et al. Erosion processes in steep terrain—Truths, myths, and

14 uncertainties related to forest management in Southeast Asia, Forest Ecol. Manag. 224,

15 199–225 (2006).

16 5. Sidle, R. C., Furuichi, T. & Kono, Y., Unprecedented rates of landslide and

17 surface erosion along a newly constructed road in Yunnan, China Nat. Hazards 57, 313–326

18 (2011).

19 6. Hearn. G.J., Engineering geomorphology for road design in unstable

20 mountainous areas: lessons learnt after 25 years in Nepal, Quart. J. of Eng. Geology and

21 Hydrogeology, 35 no. 2, 143-154 (2002).

22 7. Armstrong. A., Reid. L., Davis. A.J., An Integrated Approach for Designing and

23 Building Sustainable Roads, Green Streets, Highways, and Development, 1-20,2

24 8. Indian Road Congress (IRC), Special Publication 48, Hill Road Manual, India (1998)

25 9. Indian Road Congress (IRC), IRC:52, Recommendations about the Alignment

26 Survey and Geometric Design of Hill Roads, India (2001)

27 10. Indian Road Congress (IRC), Special Publication 72, For Two Laning of State Highway

28 on B.O.T Basis, India (2007)

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