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Task 1: Written Assignment

Curriculum development is a dynamic process that changes according to the

need of the society and the stakeholders of the education system. The curriculum
development process includes several stages such as planning, preparing, designing,
developing, implementing, evaluating, revising, and improving. In accordance to the
Revised National Curriculum, teachers are considered as the main powerhouse to the
educational revolution. According to Carl (2009) also, the curriculum development
team has to consider the teacher as part of the environment that affects curriculum.
This shows how important the role of teachers in designing and implementing
curriculum. Hence, teacher involvement is important for successful and meaningful

As designers of curriculum, teachers are subjected to be practitioners. The role

suggested teachers are to practice the curriculum designed and not to neglect the
content that have been suggested and changes that can happen at times. A
practitioner is able to include their knowledge and skills to help the effectiveness of a
curriculum and also increase their knowledge and skill in the pedagogical context with
the current time such as including the element of ICT in curriculum which are relevant
today.This also states that teachers should be effective and competent in applying
their knowledge in various pedagogical contexts. The Malaysian Education Blueprint
(2013-2025) emphasises that teachers to be an effective and competent practitioner
by taking the measures like raising and enforcing entry standards into teacher training
programmes and improving the effectiveness of pre-service and continuous
professional development.

In implementing a curriculum, teachers as a practitioners are reflective towards

the lesson that they have done in order to deliver their lesson effectively and to
continue develop knowledge and competence in implementing the curriculum. For an
instance, as teacher trainee, the integration of 21st century learning like the usage of
ICT in classroom and pupils-centred learning is compulsory to practice during
practicum and it is the current approach for practitioners to develop new knowledge
and maintain their competency. This was approved by Groff (2013) with the statement;
technology is an integral part to accessing the higher-order competencies often
referred to as 21st Century Skills, which are also necessary to be productive in today‘s
The role of teacher as an analyst is crucial in designing curriculum. As an analyst,
teachers should understand the nature of pupils are varying in different degrees in the
term of acquiring knowledge whereby teachers should be observant on the needs of
pupils by designing and adapting curriculum to achieve the desired outcomes. As
mentioned by Smith & Gardner (2002), …teachers should teach the knowledge, skills
and understanding in ways that suit their pupils’ abilities. The factors to be considered
are aim, target group, objectives, content, theories, approaches, methods, material
selection, support, personnel, assessments, evaluation and constraints are essential
for an effective curriculum design.

Teachers as analysts in the implementation of curriculum help improve the quality

of teaching and learning process in the classroom. The pupils tend to expect that the
teacher will influence the learning environment. Thus, it important that teachers to be
able to create an effective learning process by taking consideration of the pupils
performance, learning style, proficiency to decide the methods and approaches to be
used for certain topics of a subject. As an example during my previous practicum, I
noticed that my pupils are more aroused during lessons that integrates ICT which
resulting their decent performance during assessments. This motivates me to make
the most of their learning style of using ICT to deliver lessons that are appropriate to
the approach.

While the role of teacher as an analyst is vital, teacher should also be a decision
maker in designing a curriculum. Teachers have the obligation to cogitate on the
content that should be in the curriculum in accordance to the suitability for the country
needs, society and pupils’ learning style. Other than that, teachers have the authority
to decide the methods and approaches that are suitable for topics that present in the
curriculum which in agreement to the notion of no single method of teaching can be
used for all types of subject matter or for achieving all educational goals (Westwood,

Decision making is also appointed to teachers when implementing curriculum,

such as choosing the strategy to be used in delivering content knowledge during
teaching and learning. Teachers are to decide and make changes in selecting
approaches and methods in order to suit the pupils and not just follow the suggested
ways assigned in a curriculum. This happened to me in my practice where I observed
that my pupils were able to do better with the usage of interactive games in learning
grammar rather than using plain pictures as suggested by the topic.
Furthermore, in designing a curriculum, it is important for teachers to be a good
researcher in favour of creating an affective curriculum. Researching other countries
curriculum, especially from countries of respectable education system can be a great
way to improve the design of curriculum by adapting their methods of designing and
content to suit the local needs. Teachers are needed to be critical on reviewing the
design of curriculum to foresee the strengths, weaknesses and the opportunity to
improve the curriculum content.

The implementation of curriculum provides teachers to improve their pedagogy

and the curriculum itself by doing researches such as action research where teachers
can identify effective ways to deliver content which can be used to better the
curriculum itself in the future. This was supported by Kember (2000) who stated that
action research is concerned with social practice; aimed towards improvement ;a
cyclical process; pursued by systematic inquiry; a reflective process; participative and
determined by the practitioners.

Researches are not just able to discover the strengths and weaknesses of
teaching practice but also can rise up the trend of pupils preference of learning
method that later can be review to enhance the structure of a curriculum. As in my
practice as a trainee teacher, I have come to a sense that action research is an
important aspect to improve my teaching practice and to further understand that
teachers play a big role in implementing the curriculum.

In a nutshell, a good curriculum requires careful planning and development where

the teachers act as key players in deciding the effectiveness of the curriculum.
Therefore, curriculum development and the educational reform process continually
under goes review, revision, and constant change (Johnson, 2001). Teachers also
need to be provided with enough information on what is expected of them and to
enable them to fully understand their role in designing and implementing curriculum.
There should be a clear description as to what teachers should do, why it should be
done and how to do it. This is because issues of clarity have been found in almost
every study of significant change, particularly when the reform is too complicated.
Despite the fact that there is agreement that some kind of change is needed, teachers
usually are not clear of what they should do.
Task 3: Reflective Essay

Curriculum change is needed in order to cater to the need of the nation’s current
political, social, economic, cultural and technological states. Malaysia’s previously
used curriculum, known as the KBSR, has now been updated to KSSR which focuses
more on learner’s standard – based approach. The new curriculum has changed the
role of teachers in classroom, the expected teaching and learning experiences of the
classroom as well as the content (learning standards) that should be achieved in the
classroom. Therefore, teachers should have high understanding of the different
aspects of the KSSR, before being able to implement it successfully.

These changes have impacted trainee teachers in several ways. First, trainee
teachers are now exposed to various learning experiences that we can use in our own
classroom later on. This included the integration of social media trends such as
Facebook and Schoology to be medium of academic exchange between lecturers and
trainee teachers. Other than that, trainee teachers are also exposed to various 21st
century learning approaches, one of it was the cooperative learning techniques. We
experienced learning through various techniques such as think-pair-share and round
robin. Technology can shape, and reshape, who is the learner and who is the teacher.
It can open up knowledge and content that otherwise would be less accessible,
through access to open educational resources for example (Groff, 2013). These new
learning experiences were very helpful as it integrated active involvement from pupils
and teachers as facilitators of the lesson, and we are expected to implement these
activities in our future classroom.

Curriculum evaluation has made a positive impact towards our education. It was
known to educators that it helped identify aspects of curriculum that are working and
what is not to enhance and better the structure of the curriculum in the next design. It
was also closely related to highlight the effectiveness of the curriculum, programme
and component. By allowing these to come out the surface, the teachers can make a
better use of the information to create a right direction of changes and innovation of
teaching and learning process. For schools to be successful with change and
development, they must believe that creating a culture of continuous improvement is
the way to adapt to changing needs and conditions. Schools need to continuously
assess themselves and have the goal toward self-actualizing (Glickman, Gordon &
Ross-Gordon, 2013, p. 293). Thus, evaluation of curriculum is crucial to improve and
meet the needs of the society.
Based on my experience during practicum, I could confirm that change is an
essential step towards a better teaching and learning practice which can lead to the
improvement of the curriculum by coming out with something new to integrate with the
current methods and approaches in teaching and learning. This created an
impression towards the development of a teacher as the key player in curriculum
implementation where it helps to direct the future of the nation needs to be achieved
in time as well as to be better as other countries. Therefore, the key to getting
teachers committed to an innovation is involvement (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2014).

Trends in curriculum change in Malaysia has grown rapidly in recent decades

and is expected to continue in line with the changing needs of mainstream education
and global. Therefore, educators, no matter in which position and should also be
taking the opportunity to enhance the national curriculum at the school level and also
can make our education system sat together and stand tall in the international world of

Carl, A. (2009). Teacher empowerment through curriculum development. Juta &

Company Ltd.

Frase, L., English, F. and Poston, W. (2000). The curriculum management audit.
Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education.

Glickman, C. (2013). Basic guide to supervision and instructional leadership, the plus.
Boston: Pearson, pp.250-262.

Groff, J. (2013). Technology-rich InnovativeE Learning Environments. Journal of New

Approaches in Educational Research, 2(2), pp.1-25.

Johnson, J. (2001). Curriculum revision that works in principles of effective change.

New York: Lebhar-Friedman Books.

Kember, D. (2000). Action Learning, Action Research: Improving the Quality of

Teaching and Learning. London: Kogan Page, p.20.

Ministry of Education, M. (2012). Malaysia education blueprint, 2013-2025. Kuala

Lumpur: Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.

Ornstein, A. and Hunkins, F. (2014). Curriculum. 6th ed. Harlow, United Kingdom:
Pearson Education Limited, p.237.

Smith, J. and Gardner, D. (2002). Key geography new foundations. Cheltenham:

Nelson Thornes, p.16.

Westwood, P. (2008). What teachers need to know about teaching methods. Australia:
ACER Press, p.16.