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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACHING WRITING BY USING MIND

MAP OF THE SEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF SMPI AL HUDA IN


ACADEMIC YEAR 2016-2017

THESIS

BY:

SUBHAN
NIM: 15.034.06.024;

ENGLISH EDUCATION PROGRAM


FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
ISLAMIC UNIVERSTY OF JEMBER
2017
IMPROVING STUDENT WRITING SKILL BY WRITING
DIARY OF VIIIA GRADE OF MTs.MIFTAHUL ULUM
BESUKI SITUBONDO

THESIS

Presented to Islamic University of Jember in Partial Fulfillment of the


Requirements for the Sarjana Degree in English Language and Art Departemen at
English Education Program Faculty of Teacher Training and Education

BY:

KHOSNOL KHOTIMAH
NIM. 12.034.06.0071

ENGLISH EDUCATION PROGRAM


FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
ISLAMIC UNIVERSTY OF JEMBER
2016
DECLARATION SHEET

Bismillahirrahmaanirrahiem,

Herewith, I :

Name : Khosnol Khotimah


NIM : 12.034.060.0071
Program : English Education
Address : Kp.Dauh Desa Jatibanteng

Declare that:

1. This thesis is my own work and it is not a product of plagiarism.


2. This thesis is never submitted to any other tertiary education institution for
any other academic degree.
3. This thesis is sole work of author and has not been written in collaboration
with any other person, nor does it include without due acknowledgement.
4. If at a later time is found that this thesis is a product of plagiarism, I am
willing to accept any legal consequences that maybe impose to me.

Besuki, 13 Desember 2016


MOTTO

If you can’t fly, then run


If you can’t run, then walk
If you can’t walk, then crawl
But whatever you do, you have to keep moving forward

_Martin Luther King Jr._


DEDICATION

This thesis is dedicated purely to:

1. The Dean of the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Islamic


University of Jember
2. My beloved mother, who always give me support with her prayer
3. My belove husband, who always support and take care of me
4. My almamater, the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Islamic
University of Jember
APPROVAL SHEET

IMPROVING STUDENT WRITING SKILL BY WRITING


DIARY OF VIIIA GRADE OF MTs.MIFTAHUL ULUM
BESUKI SITUBONDO

THESIS

Presented to Islamic University of Jember in Partial Fulfillment of the


Requirement for the Sarjana Degree in English Language and Art Departemen in
English Education Program Faculty of Teacher Training and Education

Name : Khosnol Khotimah


NIM : 120.340.60.0071
Level : 2011
Department : Language and Art
Program : English Education
Place and Date of Birth : Situbondo, 17th July 1993

Approved by:

Consultant I Consultant II
Arifin Nur Budiono,S.Pd.,M.Si. Fatih Al Fauzi,M.Pd.
NIDN.0712127204 NIDN.0716018504
THE LEGITIMINATION SHEET

This thesis with the title Improving Student Writing Skill by Writing Diary of
VIIIA Grade Student of MTs.MIFTAHUL ULUM Besuki Situbondo has been
approved and defended in front of the examination and the Faculty of Teacher
Training and Education Islamic University of Jember.

On : Monday
Date : Pebruary,6th 2018
Place : Faculty of Teacher Training and Education,
Islamic University of Jember

1. Imam Ghozali,S.S.,M.Pd.I (The Chief) ………………

2. Fatih Al Fauzi, M.Pd. (The Secretary) ……………….

3. Arifin Nur Budiono,S.Pd,M.Si. (The Member) ……………….

Legitimize,
Dean of Faculty of Teacher Training and Education
Islamic University of Jember
Arifin Nur Budiono, S.Pd.,M.Si
NIDN.0712127204

ACKNOWLEDMENT

First of all, praises be to Allah SWT, who always gives me with all His
blessing, mercy, and grace so I can finish this thesis.
I would like to express my deepest gratitude to:
1. Mr. Arifin Nur Budiono,M.Si, the Dean of Faculty of Teacher Training
and Education Islamic University of Jember
2. Mr. Abdur Rahman S,M.Pd., The Secretary of the Faculty of Teacher
Training and Education Islamic University of Jember
3. The headmaster, the English teacher and staff of MTs.Miftahul Ulum
Besuki Situbondo
4. I thank to all my lecturer of English department who has given to the
valuable knowledge, in mastering English so it will be applicable to the
future. Lastly I thank to all people either my friends or another, who
always help and support me in finishing my thesis.

Besuki, November 27th 2016

The Researcher
SUMMARY

KHOSNOL KHOTIMAH, NIM. 12.034.06.0071, 2016, Improving Student


Writing Skill by Writing Diary of VIIIA Grade Student of MTs.Miftahul Ulum
Besuki Situbondo

Nowadays, English becomes important for people all over the world.
Firstly, it is important because English is used as international communication
means. People who do not use English as their native language can communicate
each other using English. Secondly, English becomes urgent to master because
global information and scientific development are reported in English. Therefore,
to make it possible to access the information and science, English is needed. In
addition, English becomes one of primary subject for graduation standard in
Indonesia. It shows how important the acquisition of English is. However, the
instructional purpose has not been reached so far. Thus, the improvement on the
instructional technology is absolutely needed. Once, by making many research on
education field and the improvement on teaching method the human recourses.
This research was aimed at implementing diary writing as a medium to
improve the writing skills of the VIIIA grade students of MTs.Miftahul Ulum in
the academic year of 2015/2016.
This research was an action research study. The participants of this
research were 20 students of VIIIA grade and the English teacher.
This research used two types of data, namely qualitative data and
quantitative data. The qualitative data were obtained through an interview with the
English teacher and the students and observations during the teaching and learning
process. Meanwhile, the quantitative data were in the form of the results of the
students’ writing before the implementation of the actions (pre-test) and after the
implementation of the actions (post-test).
The results of the research showed that there were improvements on the
students’ writing skills in the five aspects, namely the content, organization,
vocabulary, language use, and mechanics. First, in the content aspect, the gain
score is 21,3. Second, the gain score for the organization aspect is 3.34. Third, in
the vocabulary aspect, the gain score is 3.42. Fourth, the gain score for the
language use aspect is 5.15. The last, the gain score for the mechanics aspect is
0.78. Therefore, the hypothesis of “Diary writing can improve the writing skills of
the VIIIA grade students of MTs.Miftahul Ulum” is accepted.

Keyword: Writing Skill, Writing Diary


TABLE OF CONTENT

COVER …………………………………………………. i
DECLARTION SHEET …………………………………. ii
MOTTO …………………………………………………. iii
DEDICATION …………………………………………. iv
APPROVAL SHEET …………………………………………. v
THESIS LEGITIMITION SHEET …………………………. vi
SUMMARY …………………………………………………. vii
ACKNOWLWDGEMENT …………………………………. viii
TABLE OF CONTENT …………………………………. ix
LIST OF TABLE …………………………………………. x
LIST OF PICTURE …………………………………………. xi

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1.1 Research Background ………………… 1
1.2 Definition of Key Term ………………… 3
1.3 Limitation of Problem ………………... 3
1.4 Research Problem ………………………… 4
1.5 Research Objectives ………………… 4
1.6 Research Significances ………………… 4

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


2.1 Literary Review ………………………… 5
2.2 Framework Research ………………… 16
2.3 Hypothesis ………………………………… 18

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD


a. Research Design ………………………… 19
b. Indicator of Success and Cycle ………… 19
c. Research Procedure ………………… 21
d. Research Variable ………………………… 23
e. Operational Definition ………………… 23
f. Research Subject ………………………… 24
g. Data Collecting Method ………………… 24
h. Data Analysis Method ………………… 25

CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION


a. Research Area Determination ………… 26
b. Data Presentation (Result of the Research) and Analysis
……………………………………………. 26
c. Discussion ……………………………….. 34

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION


5.1 Conclusion ……………………………….. 35
5.2 Suggestion ……………………………….. 35
Bibliography
Research Matrix
Appendix
Biography
LIST OF TABLE

No Table the Title of Table Hal


3.1 The classification of score 14
4.1 The result of writing test 27
4.2 The result of writing test cycle 1 28
4.3 The result of writing test 30
4.4 The result of writing test cycle 2 31
4.5 The Percentage of Total Students are pass 33

Khosnol Khotimah
NIM: 12.034.06.0071
CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Research Background


English is an international language which is widely used in many
countries around the world. It is very important for student to master English in all
skill. The skills are listening, speaking, reading and writing. Those skills are
related to each other. In this case, the researcher is going to focus in writing skill.
Writing is a language skill that is very important but in fact the teaching of
writing is not successful yet. It can be seen from the learners’ performances in
writing and their responses toward writing. Most of English learners might agree
that writing is the most difficult skill to master ( Harsyafet al : 2009 ). Student
low interest and lack ability in writing their ideas with the use of correct grammar,
vocabulary and punctuation.
The first indicator is the student low interest in writing compared to their
interest in speaking. They prefer to express their ideas orally rather than to express
them in the written form. As the result, student can speak English fluently but they
cannot write in English well. Another indicator is that most students find it
difficult in using correct grammar, vocabulary and punctuation to compose
English sentences into readable and acceptable texts.
Based on the information obtained in the observation on the English
teaching learning process conducted in MTs.MIFTAHUL ULUM the researcher
found similar problems discuss previously also happen in this school. The ability
of the second grade student of MTs.MIFTAHUL ULUM in writing paragraph is
not satisfied yet. This is happen because most of the student faces some
difficulties in composing sentences into good paragraph. The difficulties are

1
classified into four categories; the difficulty in term of content, organization,
grammar and vocabulary.
The first category is the difficulty found in term of content. The students
seemed to be reluctant in writing their stories because they did not have sufficient
idea on what story they were going to write. The students only had few words to
write whenever they were asked to start composing the text. As addition, they
often questioned the teacher what they should write and others wrote similar story
done by a friend sitting next to them or in other words, they are poor of ideas.
The second difficulty is related to the organization. The difficulty in term
of organization found when the student could not organizes their ideas within their
minds into coherent sentences. Even though they could write the sentences, they
still did not know how to express them into sequence of sentences and organize
them into chronological and coherent paragraph. The student’ difficulty in
organizing the ideas can be seen from their writing work. Most of the students
simply wrote the sentences without paying attention to the unity of the text.
Another difficulty found is related to the grammar mastery. Inability to use
correct tense and pronoun are two majors difficulties found in relation to grammar
mastery. In writing narrative story, most of the students still used present tense
instead past tense. Moreover, they often misused pronouns in their writing, for
example some students used the personal pronoun ‘her’ for a man instead ‘him’ or
vice versa. The facts shown previously indicate that the student still do not know
the appropriate use of grammar used in writing a particular text.
Then, vocabulary mastery is the last difficulty faced by the students in
writing. They directly wrote the meaning of the words found in dictionary without
paying attention whether those wordsare appropriate with the contexts. In other
words, the students’ knowledge of diction was not sufficient yet. As the result,
having insufficient vocabulary makes it difficult for them to do their writing
activity.
To overcome the students’ problem in writing, there are many techniques
that can be used to create a good class atmosphere and to guide the students to the
material that being taught.Gerlach& Ely (1980:187) argue “The effective teacher
has a multitude of technique and must be prepared to select the ones which will be
most efficient in leading the learner to desire terminal behavior.” This statement is
supported by Langan (2008 & 2011) he states that as writing is skill, it makes
sense that the more they practice to write, the better their writing will be. He also
proposes that keeping a daily or almost dairy journal/dairy can be an excellent
way to get practice in writing. Since the main problem in this case is that the
student lacked of material of knowledge of write, they lack of vocabulary in
making writing, they lack of ability to organize of paragraph, and they lack of
confidence for choosing a topic and developing their ideas. Therefore diary
writing can solve this problem. Through diary writing student can keep a record of
their ideas, opinions, and their stories of daily life. It may also encourage the
student to become involve and interest in writing.

1.2 Definition of Key Term

1.2.1 Writing

Writing is one of the four language skills.It has been characterized as


written language. It means that writing is a way to produce language that comes
from our thought. It can be written on a paper, computer, or other electronic
media.

1.2.2 Diary Writing

Diary is manuscript or typescript kept on a more or less regular basis by


individual recording daily events, thought and opinion, the weather or almost
anything else. In this research, diary writing is a process of writing student’s daily
activities and experiences in a diary. During the treatment of the research, the
students will be asked to write their daily experiences in English through diary. It
will be conducted as long as a month as homework.
1.3 Limitation of Problem

This Scope of the research is the VIIIA grade students (20 Students) of
MTs. MIFTAHUL ULUMBesuki, in the 2016 / 2017 academic year. The research
is limited by writing diary to improve student skill especially in writing skill.
1.4 Research Problem

Based on the background of the research above, the researcher problem is


“Is there an improvement on student writing skill by writing diary especially in
VIIIA grade student of MTs.MIFTAHUL ULUM?

1.5 Research Objective

This researchis aim to describe improvement of student writing skill of


VIIIA grade in MTs.MIFTAHULULUM by writing diary.

1.6 Research Significances

The results of this study are expected to give both theoretical and practical

benefits as follows:

1. Theoretically
The result of this study is expected to find out strategy of increasing
students’ writing ability
2. Practically
 Teacher
Teacher will have new method to teach writing easily
 Student
The student will easy to improvetheir ability in writing
 Researcher
The researcher can use the result of this study to be reference.
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITEATURE

2.1 Writing
2.1.1 The Definition of Writing

Writing is considered as a productive skill along with speaking (Harmer,


2007 : 265). When student deal with language production, its mean that they
should use their knowledge to produce the language to achieve the communicative
purpose either in the form of spoken or written language.
According to a psycholinguist, Eric Lenneberg, (as cited in Brown, 2001:
334), he says that different from speaking in which people learn language through
a natural process or human behavior as learning to ‘walk’ , writing is a learned
behavior as learning to ‘swim’, people need someone to teach them. Its mean that
people learn to write if they are members of a literate society and usually if
someone teaches them.
Among the four language skill, “Writing is the most difficult skill for
second or foreign learners to master” (Richards &Renandya, 2002:303). It is
because writing is considered as a complex process of putting ideas down on
paper to transform thought into words (Brown, 2001:336). Since the idea or
thought is an abstract thing which comes from our mind, it is not easy to
transform it into understandable or readable form. The similar definition also
stated by Rohman (as cited in McDonald & McDonald, 2002:7). He points out
that writing is usefully described as a process of putting thought into words and
words into paper.
Writing can be seen as two different views. They are the product of that
writing and the process of writing (Harmer, 2001&2007 and Brown, 2001). When
writing is seen as a product, the attention is placed on the final product of writing
such as the essay, the report, the story or what the product should ‘look’ like

6
(Brown, 2001:335). Its mean that the writing should (a) meet certain standard of
prescribed English rhetorical style, (b) reflect accurate grammar, and (c) be
organized in conformity with what the audience would be conventional. In other
words, the value of the end product is the main thing to be focused on rather than
the process of writing itself (Harmer, 2007:325).
On the other hand, when writing is seen as a process, it focuses on the
various stages that any process of writing goes through, such as putting ideas
down on paper to transform thoughts into words (Brown, 2001: 336). It means
that the process of writing is more valuable than the end of the product.
Since writing is a way to communicate with others in the written form,
everything should be clear. Unlike speaking that the message of the
communication can be grasped through non-verbal language, such as gestures,
body languages or facial expressions, in writing the message is conveyed through
the written form. Therefore, the writer should be able to make his or her reader
understand the message conveyed.
Making a good piece of writing is a complex process. It requires the ability
to write grammatically correct sentences and organize them logically into
paragraphs or essays (Oshima& Hogue, 2006). McCarthy (2000) and Harmer
(2007) point out that there are two important aspects in writing. In order to make
writing to be successful, it has to be both coherent and cohesive.
Coherent is the feeling that the elements of texts are bound together in
which the reader can follow the sequence of ideas or points. While cohesive is the
surface links between the clauses and sentences of a text. It is a more technical
matter since it deals with the various linguistic ways of connecting ideas across
phrases and sentences, such as using pronoun and connector.

2.1.2 The Characteristics of Written Language

Brown (2001: 341-342) points out several characteristics of written


language which distinguish them from spoken language. The characteristics are as
follows:
a. Permanence
Writing is permanent. Once the writers finish their writing, they cannot re-
edit their writing. So, a thorough refinement and revision are needed before the
final draft is submitted.

b. Production time
Time limitation is one of the important issues in writing, especially in an
educational context. A sufficient length of time will affect the production of a
good writing, and vice versa. When the time given is not sufficient, the writers
may produce a messy text. Therefore, a sufficient training in the process of
writing will help the students to make the best possible use of such time
limitation.

c. Distance
A good writer is the one who can deliver the message of his or her writing
clearly to the target reader. Distance, here, may mean a range between the writer
and the target audience. In order to shorten the distance, the writer should be able
to predict the audience’s general knowledge and write from the perspective of the
target audience.

d. Orthography
Many different writing systems have evolved around the world (Harmer,
2004: 1). Therefore, being able to use such writing system is not an easy matter,
especially in a language which has different orthography from the writer’s native
writing system.

e. Complexity
Different from spoken language which tends to have shorter clauses and
forms, the written language tends to have larger clauses with more complex
forms. Therefore, the writer should write clearly, cohesively, and coherently in
delivering the message to the readers.
f. Vocabulary
The written English has a greater variety of lexical items than in spoken
conversational English. The lexical items used in the text may have different
meaning depend on the context embedded. Therefore, the writer should learn and
take benefits from the extensive number of English words.

g. Formality
Formality refers to the convention of rules that a certain written message is
meant to be. Different purposes of writing have different forms of language that
must be followed.
Since writing is a way to communicate in the written form, everything
should be clear. It means that before the writers come to the end of their writing,
they should make sure that their writing has already met the purpose of their
writing so that the target readers could get the message clearly.

2.1.3. Aspects of Writing

In writing, there are several aspects which should be considered by


students in order to write well. Brown (2001) proposes six major aspects of
writing that have to be required by a writer in producing a written text namely
content, organization, discourse, syntax, vocabulary, and mechanics. Content
deals with thesis statement, related ideas, development ideas, and the use of
description. Organization covers the effectiveness of introduction, logical
sequences of ideas, conclusion, and appropriate length. Discourses include topic
sentence, paragraph unity, transition, discourse maker, cohesion, rhetorical
convention, reference, fluency, economy, and variation.
Mechanics include the use of spelling, punctuation, citation of reference,
and appearance.
Another explanation, Harris (2000) proposes five aspects of writing
namely content (the substance of writing), form (the organization of content),
grammar (the employment of grammatical form and syntactic pattern), and style
(the choices of structure and lexical items to give a particular tone or flavor to the
writing). Similarly, Jacobs (1981: 90) specifically mentions that in order to be
effective: a piece of composition should meet the following qualities:

1. Content

Content refer to the substance of writing, the experience of main idea. i.e.,
group of related statements that a writer presents as unit in developing a subject.
Content the paragraph do the work of conveying ideas rather that fulfilling special
function of transition, restatement, and emphasis.

2. Organization

Organization refers to the logical organization of content. It is scarily more


than attempt to piece together all collection of fact and jumble ideas. Even in early
drafts it may still be searching for order, trying to make out patterns in its
materials and working to bring particulars of its subject in line with what is still
only a half-formed notion of purpose.

3. Vocabulary

Vocabulary refers to the selection of words those are suitable with the
content. It begins with the assumption that writer wants to express the ideas as
clearly and directly as he/she can. As a general rule, clarity should be his/her
prime objective. Choosing words that express his/her meaning is precisely rather
than skews it or blurs it.
4. Language use

Language use refers to the use of correct grammatical form and synthetic
pattern of separating, combining, and grouping ideas in words, phrases, clauses,
and sentences to bring out logical relationship in paragraph writing.

5. Mechanic

Mechanic refers to the use graphic conventional of the language, i.e., the
step of arranging letters, words, paragraphs by using knowledge of structure and
some others related to one another.
Based on the categories of writing aspects above, it can be concluded that
generally the aspects of the writing are classified into five aspects, namely,
content, organization, vocabulary, language use, and mechanic. Students can
make a well-organized text by comprehending those aspects.

2.1.4. Micro- and Macro skills of Writing

Brown (2003: 220-221) points out some micro- and macro skills of
writing. The micro skills refer to producing the basic skills of writing, such as
forming letters, words, or simple sentences. The micro skills are as follows.
 Producing graphemes and orthographic patterns of English.
 Producing writing at an efficient rate of speed to suit the purpose.
 Producing an acceptable core of words and use appropriate word order
patterns.
 Using acceptable grammatical system (e.g. tense, agreement,
pluralization), patterns, and rules.
 Expressing a particular meaning in different grammatical forms.
 Using cohesive devices in written discourse.

Besides, the macro skills refer to producing a text at or beyond the discourse
level that is producing a meaningful text. The macro skills of writing are as
follows:
 Using the rhetorical forms and conventions of written discourse.
 Appropriately accomplishing the communicative functions of written texts
according to form and purpose.
 Conveying links and connections between events, and communicate such
relations as main idea, supporting idea, new information, given
information, generalization, and exemplification.
 Distinguishing between literal and implied meanings when writing.
 Correctly conveying culturally specific references in the context of the
written text.
 Developing and using a battery of writing strategies, such as accurately
assessing the audience’s interpretation, using prewriting devices, writing
with fluency in the first draft, using paraphrases and synonyms, soliciting
peer and instructor feedback, and using feedback for revising and editing.

Teaching writing means teaching the micro and macro skills of writing as
well. Therefore, the teacher should provide activities and materials which cover
those micro and macro skills in order to make the students come to the productive
stage, producing a text, without finding great difficulties.

2.1.5. The Process of Writing

Rohman (as cited in McDonald & McDonald, 2002:7) proposes the


process of writing into three stages. They are pre-writing, writing, and re-writing.
Pre-writing is defined as the stage of discovery the writing process when a person
assimilates his “subject” to himself. In other words, the pre-writing stage is a
stage when the process of thinking is happened, such as developing ideas and
designing the ideas. Writing is a stage in which the writers put their ideas into
words on papers. It means that the writers write down of what they are going to
say or write. The next is re-writing. This stage is defined as a process of making
revisions or changes of what they have written.
In line with the above concept, Richards &Renandya (2002: 315), Harmer
(2004: 4-6), and Langan (2008: 17-19) propose that there are four basic writing
stages. They are planning, drafting, revising, and editing. The first element is
planning, that is thinking of what comes on the writers’ mind, what they are going
to say or write. The second is drafting. In this stage, the writers are focused on the
fluency of writing and are not preoccupied with grammatical accuracy. Writers
can refer this as their first draft which may have several changes later. The next is
reflecting or revising. Revising is a process of reading through what the writers
had written. In other words, the writers review their text on the basis of given
feedback and make a global check to make sure that their writing can be
understood by the readers. The last stage is editing. It is a stage in which the
writers have edited and made revisions or changes to their draft into their final
version.
Nation (2009: 114) points out that there are seven sub processes of
writing. They are considering the goals of the writer, having a model of the reader,
gathering ideas, organizing ideas, turning ideas into written text, reviewing what
has been written, and editing.
From the explanation above, it can be concluded that writing, as it is seen
as a process, is a product of turning out the ideas into words in a piece of paper
which faces several processes. They are planning, drafting, revising, and editing.

2.1.6. The Tasks of Teacher in Teaching Writing

Harmer (2004: 41-42) points out that there are a number of tasks that the
teachers should do to help their students become better writers. They are as
follows:
a. Demonstrating
Teachers have to be able to draw the features of the genre of the written
texts, so that the students are aware of the differences among the types of written
texts.
b. Motivating and provoking
Students often find themselves lost for words when they are writing. In
this case teachers can help them by provoking them into having ideas, enthusing
them with the value of the task and persuading them what fun it can be.
c. Supporting
Students need a lot of help and reassurance once they get going, both with
ideas and with the mean to carry them out.

d. Responding
Teachers react to the content and construction of a piece supportively and
often (but not always) make suggestion for its improvement.

e. Evaluating
Teachers make a correction of the students’ writing. It can be a note which
indicates where they wrote well and where they made mistakes. It is a kind of
giving feedback towards the students’ writing.
The explanation above shows that the teachers take an important role in
the development of the students‟ writing skills. Good teachers are they who can
perform those tasks while teaching writing. They can facilitate the students in
their learning so that the students could develop their writing strategies.

2.1.7. Types of Writing Performance

Brown (2001: 343-346) proposes five major categories of classroom


writing performance. They are as follows:
a. Imitative
This type of writing is usually for the beginners, in which they simply
write down English letters, words, and possibly sentences in order to learn the
conventions of the orthographic code.

b. Intensive
Students produce language to display their competence in grammar,
vocabulary, or sentence formation.

c. Self-writing
Self-writing is a writing with only the self in mind as an audience. Diary
or journal writing and note taking can be categorized in this kind of writing in
which they take a note for something for the purpose of later recall.

d. Display writing
This type of writing is more focused on task based responses in which
students are responding to a prompt or assignment.

e. Real writing
The purpose of this type of writing is to exchange useful information.
Since the different writing may have different purposes, the teacher should able to
give the students a clear understanding of the types of writing performance so that
the students could differentiate and recognize which types their writing belongs
to.

2.2 Diary

2.2.1 The Definition of Diary


Curtis and Bailey (2007: 68) use the terms diary and journal
interchangeably. According to Stanley, Shim kin and Lanner (1988: 3) “A journal
or diary is a record, often kept daily, of one’s life, a kind of personal account
book.” The similar description also proposed by Fitzpatrick (2005: 4), he states
that “a diary is a personal record of a writer’s life experience and is usually
private.”
Though writing a diary seems a simple thing, it can be an effective way to
develop and enhance a great understanding and help the students to their
experiences in everyday life routine. The purpose of a journal or diary is “to give
your writing „muscles‟ a daily workout” (Massielo, 1986: 37). By making the act
of writing something routinely, the students will change it from an irritating and
unsuccessful activity to one that they feel comfortable and familiar.

2.2.2 The implementation of Diary in Education

Classroom writing is an essential academic requirement. However, most


students are reluctant and unconfident when they have to write about something in
the classroom. It is because they think that they have nothing to say or write. In
addition, the time pressure also makes them cannot write their ideas properly.
In relation to those cases, Chanderasegaran (as cited in Tuan, 2010: 81)
states that writing outside the classroom can be a useful tool to enhance writing
skills. One of the tasks is to practice writing at home by keeping journals or
diaries. Spaventa (as cited in Tuan, 2010: 82) points out that writing a journal or a
diary is keeping a record of ideas, opinions, and descriptions of daily life which
help the writers to develop their creativity.
In addition, diary writing is introduced to students to get them to be
familiar with the writing process so that they would be encouraged to write
frequently on their own. By keeping a diary, students will develop their writing
skills or at least they will write better day by day because it gives them more
opportunities to write freely whatever they want to write about. As Chickering and
Gamson (as cited in Tuan, 2010: 82) states that giving the students more chances
to write what is relevant to them is “an active learning technique.” Several
scholars such as Artof (as quoted by Tin in Tuan, 2010: 82) state that diary
writing or personal writing has several values.

“It is a powerful tool to find our own untapped creative power, uncover
our family history, learn to see the world more clearly, heal unsolved issues,
understand our fears, and explore our motivation. Through personal writing, we
can develop both writing skills and awareness, can develop greater awareness and
interpersonal understanding, increasing the ability to relate to others.”

Harmer (2007: 128) states that there are some benefits of diary writing.
The first is the value of reflection. A diary provides an opportunity for students to
think about what they are learning and also how they are learning. The second is
freedom of expression. Diary writing allows students to express feelings more
freely. For example, in their writing they can write about their daily life, love
story, or anything they want to write to. The next is developing writing skills.
Diary writing contributes to the students‟ general improvement such as
their writing fluency. Their writing fluency will improve since they write
regularly and become more familiar with.
Ngoh (as cited in Tuan, 2010:82) also adds the benefit of diary writing that
it also provides students with good opportunities to improve their writing skills
and good chances to record their thoughts and feelings. Moreover, Langan
(2008:16 & 2011: 14) says that keeping a diary is one of excellent ways to get
practice in writing and it will help the students develop the habit of thinking on
paper. Diary or journal can also make writing as a familiar part of the students’
life. Therefore, it can be summarized that diary writing can help the students to
improve their writing skills and motivation towards writing.
2.3 Frameworks Research

Language as a means of communication has a central role in human life.


To be able to share the ideas, thoughts, and feelings to one another, people need a
language. The communication does not necessary in the form of spoken language,
but it can also be in the form of written language.
However, in the real practice the writing skills in most schools were not
given equal attention as in the speaking skills. Based on the observation
conducted by the researcher in MTs.MIFTAHUL ULUM, the researcher found
some problems in teaching writing. The problems were commonly come from the
students and the teacher.
Students found themselves unconfident to write because they thought that
they had nothing to write. When they had already got the idea, the lack of
vocabulary and grammatical mastery also made their ideas could not be properly
conveyed. The other problems also came from the teacher. First, the teacher did
not give adequate practices for the students to write because the teacher did not
want to waste the time. It is because she had to give all the materials to the
students and had to finish it on time as it was scheduled. Second, the students’
motivation to join the writing class was low. It was because the teacher usually
used pictures as the main media when teaching writing.
By looking at the fact that the students lacked of writing practices, the
researcher employed diary writing as a medium to give them more writing
practices outside the classroom. The use of diary writing as the instructional
media brought some influences in the teaching and learning process. The students
became more enthusiastic and willing to do the tasks. In addition, their motivation
in writing also increased.
In this research, the researcher integrated the use of diary writing with a
text type, recount text. Since a recount text and diary usually tell about past events
or experiences, the use of diary writing would help the students in understanding
the recount text. The researcher planned to give the information about what a
recount text is and its characteristics as the classroom activities. Meanwhile
writing a diary is used as the outside classroom activity.
The use of diary writing in this research was mainly to put the students’
knowledge of writing into practice and to give them more writing practices so that
they will be accustomed to write and when they were asked to write a recount text
in the classroom, they would write it fluently and it would lower their anxiety to
write.
By keeping a diary and getting regular feedback, the students got an
opportunity to practice their writing skills or at least their writing would get better
day by day. So, it can be assumed that diary writing can improve the writing skills
of the VIIIA grade students of MTs.MIFTAHUL ULUM.

2.4Action Hypothesis

The hypothesis of the result study is formulated as follows: “writing diary


can improve student ability in writing for the VIIIA grade of MTs.MIFTAHUL
ULUM.”
CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METOD

3.1 Research Design

The present researcher categorized into a classroom action research.


Classroom action research design to help a teacher to find out what is happening
in his or her classroom, and to use that information to make the wise decisions for
the future. The approach used in the classroom action research can be qualitative
or quantitative, descriptive or experimental. According to Kurt Lewin (in
suharsimi, 2002), there are four components of action research, they are, planning,
acting, observing, and reflecting. Action research is categorized, as qualitative
research although the data collect can be in a form of quantitative. Meanwhile,
Kemmis (in suharsimi, 2002, p. 84). States that action research is a form of self-
reflective inquiry under taken by participants in a social (including education)
situation in order to improve the rationality and of (a), their own social or
educational practices justice, (b) their understanding of their practice, and (c)
situations on which practice are carried out.
Lewin (1946, 1948 quoted in Cohen, Manion, and Morrison 2000: 234)
codified the action research process into four main stages: planning, acting,
observing, and reflecting. These are called as cycle. This research was conducted
in two cycles.

3.2Indicator of Success and Cycles


3.2.1 Indicator of Success

Table 3.1:The classification of the score levels


Score Interpretation
78.00-99.99 High
56.00-77.99 Average

20
34.00-55.99 Low

The students must get minimum score between 56.00-77.99. If the


students’ total score is up to 56.00, it means that the technique of teaching
writingby writing diary is goal. But if the total score is less than 56.00, it means
that the technique of teaching writing by writing diary is fail.

3.2.2 Cycles
There are two cycles in this research, cycle I and cycle II. If this strategy
increases students learning, it would not be necessary to do cycle II.
1. Cycle I
The first cycle in this study was intended to help students generate ideas.
The implementation of action in this cycle was done in two meetings. The
students worked in pairs and some groups of work. In this case, the researcher
asked the students to do some exercises. It was begun with writing a sentence
using past tense. This tense uses in a recount text. Therefore this activity gave two
benefits for students. First, it will help students to generate idea by writing one
simple past sentence. Second, it can evaluate students’ understanding in using
simple past tense. Moreover, the researcher used the completing a text activity, the
researcher asked the students to complete the missing word related by suitable
picture in the form of recount text. Then, students work in group to write a recount
text with holiday as a topic. This was intended to let the students gather ideas
related to the topic provided. Although it was writing diary, the researcher guided
the topic, to avoid the students ‘confusion in starting the writing.
2. Cycle 2
In the second cycle, the researcher also conducted in two meetings. The
researcher decided that the text does not use the topic. But, it was still related with
recount text. In this cycle the researcher asked some questions to the students and
tried to evaluate the mistakes in the first and second meetings. Then, the
researcher gave the students some exercises related the mistakes were found. The
researcher also decided to give exercises that lead students to repeat the writing
activity; therefore these activities stimulated the student to write as a habit. Some
exercises for instances, correcting sentences using past tense as one of the recount
text characteristics, arranging the random recount text, and write in group and
individually to make a recount text. Beside, the researcher put one game in this
cycle, to create the class atmosphere effectively and avoid students were sleepy
along the lesson.

3.3Research Prosedure
In this study, the researcher plan to conduct two cycles and used a simple
action research model that has been developed by Kemmis and McTaggart (1988).
The action research typically involves four phases in a cycle of research but this
research was done in two cycles.

Figure 3.1 The Procedures in conducting the Classroom Action Research


The procedure described at the figure shows that the plans are made by
considering the fact findings from preliminary observation. Then, the teacher as
the researcher follows all the stages in each cycle in implementing writing diary in
teaching writing. The detail research description is explained as follows:
1. Planning
Planning is the beginning process of the research to conduct actions or
after making sure about the problem of the research, the researcher needs to make
a preparation before doing an action research. In this stage, the researcher
prepared some materials that were used in the research process such as the lesson
plans based on the teaching materials, choose the theme, prepare the materials that
needed in the learning process, and prepared the checklist for observation and
formative test. The researcher also prepared the instruments, technique and the
instrument to observe and evaluate the teaching and learning process.
Besides, the researcher identified some problems by interviewing an
English teacher and some students in MTs.MIFTAHUL ULUM Besuki. The
researcher asked problems in teaching English especially teaching writing to
students. Moreover, the researcher did informal interviews to some students about
how their feeling in English subject. Therefore, the researcher and the teacher
developed a plan of action in order to bring an improvement.
2. Action
Action is implementation of planning. It means the researcher performed
as the teacher, students and the teacher performed as an observer conduct
activities based on planning that has been done in classroom. The researcher tried
to take how many students' abilities to understand in writing. The researcher
conducted drawing as activity before teaching the materials, while teacher took
note in form of observation sheet. The researcher gave students assignments in
individual, pairs and group to do the writing diary activity using recount,
sometimes using a given theme and asked students to just write any words that
come into their mind. Then, evaluated their mistakes and summarized the
material.
3. Observation
In this step, a researcher has to observe all events or activities during the
research. The researcher observed the situation in the class during the lesson,
response and attitude of students when they were given explanation, doing task,
and knowing their difficulties. This observation is very important for making
analysis on everything that happened in classroom during implementing the
writing diary activity.
4. Reflection
Reflection means to analyze the result based on the data that have been
collected to determine the next action in the next cycle. At this point, the
researcher and the teacher did reflection, evaluation and description on the effects
of the action in order to make sense of what has happened based on the
observation sheet. The researcher then decided to do further cycle of action
research to improve the situation revise the weaknesses.

3.4 Research Variables


There are two kinds of research variables. They are independent variable and
dependent variable. Independent variable is presumed to have an effect on, to
influence somehow another variable, while dependent variable is a variable that
the independent variable is presumed to affect (Fraenkel and Wallen, 1990:39)
Variable is any trait that can change values from case to case. Examples of
variables would be gender, age, income, or political party affiliation. In any
specific theory, some variables will be identified as causes and others will be
identified as effects or result. In the language of science, the causes are called
independentvariables and the “effects” or result variables are called dependent
variables. (Healey, Joseph F. 1999:3).
In my research variable, the independent variableis writing diaryand
dependent variable is writing skill.

3.5 Operational Definiton


3.5.1 Diary
“Diary is kind of personal writing”. The words diary comes from the Latin
Diarium (“daily allowance”, from dies “day”), found more often in the plural
form diaria.In Indonesia diary is private case is called bukuharian.Diary is
usually made in order to make a reflection or personal purposes and sometimes
can be made to be a more formal and public study.
3.5.2 Writing Skill
Writing as one of four language skills is considered a difficult skill because
the researcher should fulfill some aspects in writing such us content, organization,
purpose, vocabulary and punctuation.
Writing is the activity or occupation of writing, for example books, stories or
articles. We can take more times to think and choose word in order to express our
idea, thought and feeling. We can still make a revision if it is not clear to express
what intend to write.
Writing is considered as a means of communication. Communication in
writing tends to involve a thinking process. Finnochiaro said that writing has been
characterized as written thinking. It means that writing is a way to produce
language that comes from our thought. It can be written on paper, computer or
other electronic media.

3.6 Research Subject


The subject of the research was the VIII grade at MTs.MIFTAHUL ULUM
in academic year 2016/2017. They consisted of 20 students and the researcher
took them all as the subject of study.

3.7 Data Collecting Method


Based on the problem of the research above, the methods will be applied in
collecting data is test.
a. Test
The test will be held considers the test requirements such as the validity
and reliability. According to Baker (1994) reliability is the extent to which a test
would produce the same, or similar, score on two occasions or given by two
assessors. This is the ‘accuracy’ with which a test measures the skill or attainment
is designed to measure. While validity means the extent to which a test measure
what is the purports to measure. If a test does not measure what it is designed the
measure used is misleading. Gipps (1994) classified tests into Direct System
referenced test, Indirect System Referenced test. Direct performance test and
Indirect Performance test. The tests will be a System Reference test for it will
measure the language system.
In this case, the test is given and designed by the teacher and the
researcher for eighth grade students to know students’ writing achievement.
3.8 Data Analysis Method
There are two techniques in analyzing data, qualitative and quantitative.
3.8.1 Qualitative
The researcher analyzes the process of teaching and learning writing skill
by writing diary by analyzing the data taken from observation, interview,
questionnaire and photograph. The data from the observation, interview,and
questionnaire result will be described into written forms, while the photographs
are printed out.
3.8.2 Quantitative
Meanwhile the data from the written test will be analyzed in order to
prove whether teaching writing skill by writing diary can overcome to students‟
problem in writing mastery or not.
The objective of hypothesis of the research will be test to know mean
score. To know the students‟ achievement before and after action, the
researcheruses mean formula in research.
Then the writer computed the mean score of students by using the formula
proposed by Hatch and Farhady (1982:55) as follows:
n
% = ─ x 100%
N
Where
%: the percentage of writing skill of each indicator through
writing diary
n: the score of writing skillof each indicator through writing diary
obtained by the respondent
N: the total score of the tests items of each indicator.
CHAPTER IV
RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Research Area Determination

The research conducted was an action research. The research took place in
MTs.MiftahulUlum, a junior high school in Besuki,
Situbondo.MTs.MiftahulUlumhas fourteen classes, The classroom has quite large
room. It is also equipped with LCD. The research setting was at the class of VIIIA
grade which has 20 students. The school has one language laboratory which is
facilitated with tape recorder, speaker, earphone, TV, and AC. The school has a
laboratory with many of English books and dictionaries to support the English
teaching learning process. There are also English wall magazine to help students
developing their skill in English. The classroom condition is good and supports
the English teaching learning process. The school also has potential teachers.
They always try to improve their knowledge and encourage their students to get
their best.
4.2 Data Presentation (Result of the Research) and Analysis

4.2.1Report of Action Cycle 1

In the preliminary study, I set an informal writing test to my students in


class of VIIIA grade to measure their writing achievement on Monday, October
17th 2016. I give the students writing test. The test is writing down about their
activity on yesterday. Based on the test, the students’ score was only 55 the
average. It means that this score is very low and the students’ writing is still bad.
Then, based on the preliminary study, some activities were done including
planning the research, implementing, observing the activities and reflecting. The
doer of the action was the researcher. Meeting 1 was done on Monday, 24th
October 2016 consisting of the activities in the lesson plan. The first meeting was
carried out based on lesson plan 1 and the second meeting was done based on

27
lesson plan 2. The writing materials were daily activity of the student. The topic
of the first cycle was activities.
During the activities, the researcher made observation to evaluate the
process of the action. It recorded the students’ activities in the class. In the end of
the action, the students were given posttest to evaluate the students’ writing
achievement.

4.2.2 The Result of Vocabulary Test Cycle 1.


The primary data were obtained through writing test (posttest. The result
of the posttest informs the scores of the students. It is presented in table 4.1 and
4.2. The table informs that all of the students have not got expected score. The
average score was only 51,6.
Table 4.1the Result of Writing Test
Total
No Names C O V L.U M
score
1 AlifSugantoro 60 20 10 13 13 4
2 BayuAfandi 53 18 13 10 8 4
3 Imam Rohini 38 13 9 7 5 4
4 IfanMinallah 50 17 11 9 10 3
5 Lutvi 42 13 8 9 9 3
6 M.Agung 62 18 16 12 13 3
7 MahfudzHadi 64 19 15 15 9 4
8 Mahribi 61 17 15 11 15 3
9 Marsan 34 13 7 7 5 2
10 Maria Ulfa 60 19 14 12 11 4
11 Fitriatun 55 17 15 10 11 2
12 Halimatus s. 58 21 14 10 10 3
13 HilyatunMasunah 36 13 9 7 5 3
14 HolisNurCahya 46 15 10 10 9 2
15 IsmatulMaula 49 18 11 10 8 2
16 KholifaturRohmah 58 19 13 11 11 4
17 lailatulFajriah 36 13 9 7 5 2
18 KhoirunNisa’ 66 21 16 12 13 4
19 Intan Tiara 51 12 10 13 12 4
20 Pijennatun 54 20 10 11 10 3
Notes :
C : Content
O : Organization
V : Vocabulary
L.U : Language Use
M : Mechanic

Table 4.2.The Result of Post Test in each Indicator


Organiza Vocabul Languag Mechani
Content
ID tion ary e use c
% n % n % n % n % n N T TT
33, 16, 21, 21,
1 20 10 13 13 6,7 4 60 √
3 7 7 7
33, 24, 18, 15, 7,5
2 18 13 10 8 4 53 √
96 5 9 1 4
34, 23, 18, 13, 10,
3 13 9 7 5 4 38 √
2 7 4 15 52
4 34 17 22 11 18 9 20 10 6 3 50 √
30, 19, 21, 21, 7,1
5 13 8 9 9 3 42 √
9 04 4 4 4
29, 25, 19, 20,
6 18 16 12 13 4,8 3 62 √
02 8 3 9
29, 23, 23, 14, 6.2
7 19 15 15 9 4 64 √
7 4 4 1 5
27, 24, 18, 24,
8 17 15 11 15 4,9 3 61 √
9 6 03 6
38, 20, 20, 14,
9 13 7 7 5 5,9 2 34 √
2 6 6 7
31, 23, 18,
10 19 14 20 12 11 6,7 4 60 √
7 3 3
30, 27, 18,
11 17 15 10 20 11 3,6 2 55 √
9 3 2
36, 24, 17, 17,
12 21 14 10 10 5,2 3 58 √
2 1 2 2
36, 19, 13,
13 13 25 9 7 5 8,3 3 36 √
1 4 9
32, 21, 21, 19,
14 15 10 10 9 4,3 2 46 √
6 7 7 6
36, 22, 20, 16,
15 18 11 10 8 4,1 2 49 √
Type equation here.
7 4 4 3
32, 22, 18, 18,
16 19 13 11 11 6,9 4 58 √
7 4 9 9
36, 19, 13,
17 13 25 9 7 5 5,6 2 36 √
1 4 9
31, 24, 18, 19,
18 21 16 12 13 6,1 4 66 √
8 2 2 7
18, 19, 25, 23,
19 12 10 13 12 7,8 4 51 √
2 6 5 5
37, 18, 20, 18,
20 20 10 11 10 5,5 3 54 √
03 5 4 5
Average 51,65
Notes:
% : the percentage of writing skill of each indicator through
n : the score of writing skill obtained by the respondent
N : The average score of each student
T : Success
TT : Fail
4.2.3 The Result of the reflection in Cycle 1
The result of the students’ writing test in cycle 1 still very low. It did not
meet the target. The evaluation of the process of learning also showed bad
symptom. The activities could not go well and most of the students were talking
to each other. It may because this method was still new for the students.
Based on the reflection above, action 1 has not met the target. Therefore, it
needs to do cycle 2.
4.2.4 The Result of writing Test Cycle 2
The score of the students were divided into five aspects. They are content,
organization, vocabulary, language use, and mechanic. The detail score of the
students can see in table 4.3 and 4.4. The students’ score of content are around 17
and 26. There were only one student got 17. It showed how this method could
foster the students’ mastery on noun because 19 of 20 students got more than the
expected result. The students who got inadequate score on content will be
upgraded by their achievement on other aspects such as organization, vocabulary,
language use and mechanic.
Table 4.3 the Result of writing Test
Total
No Names C O V L.U M
score
1 AlifSugantoro 73 23 17 13 16 4
2 BayuAfandi 75 23 15 14 18 5
3 Imam Rohini 65 21 13 13 14 4
4 IfanMinallah 60 17 13 12 14 4
5 Lutvi 54 18 11 9 11 5
6 M.Agung 76 21 14 18 18 5
7 MahfudzHadi 81 24 18 17 18 4
8 Mahribi 80 22 18 18 18 4
9 Marsan 56 18 13 11 11 3
10 Maria Ulfa 78 24 17 16 17 4
11 Fitriatun 65 22 14 12 14 3
12 Halimatus s. 61 20 15 11 12 3
13 HilyatunMasunah 69 22 15 15 14 3
14 HolisNurCahya 68 19 13 12 11 3
15 IsmatulMaula 61 20 13 12 12 4
16 KholifaturRohmah 74 22 17 14 17 4
17 lailatulFajriah 60 18 13 13 13 3
18 KhoirunNisa’ 84 26 18 17 18 5
19 Intan Tiara 81 24 18 18 16 5
20 Pijennatun 66 22 16 12 12 4

Notes :
C : Content
O : Organization
V : Vocabulary
L.U : Language Use
M : Mechanic
Table 4.4.The Result of Post Test in each Indicator
Organiza Vocabul Languag Mechani
Content
ID tion ary e use c
% n % n % n % n % n N T TT
31, 23, 17, 21,
1 23 17 13 16 5,5 4 73 √
5 3 8 9
31, 18,
2 23 20 15 14 2,4 18 6,7 5 75 √
5 7
32, 21,
3 21 20 13 20 13 14 6,2 4 65 √
3 5
28, 21, 23,
4 17 13 20 12 14 6,7 4 60 √
3 7 3
33, 20, 16, 20, 9,2
5 18 11 9 11 5 54 √
3 4 7 4 6
6 27, 21 18, 14 23, 18 23, 18 6,6 5 76 √
6 4 7 7
29, 22, 20, 22,
7 24 18 17 18 4,9 4 81 √
6 2 9 2
27, 22, 22, 22,
8 22 18 18 18 5 4 80 √
5 5 5 5
32, 23, 19, 19,
9 18 13 11 11 5,4 3 56 √
1 2 6 6
30, 21, 20, 21, 5,1
10 24 17 16 17 4 78 √
8 8 5 8 2
33, 21, 18, 21,
11 22 14 12 14 4,6 3 65 √
8 5 5 5
32, 24, 18, 19,
12 20 15 11 12 4,9 3 61 √
8 6 03 7
31, 21, 21, 20, 4,3
13 22 15 15 14 3 69 √
9 7 7 3 5
27, 19, 17, 16,
14 19 13 12 11 4,4 3 68 √
9 1 6 2
32, 21, 19, 19,
15 20 13 12 12 6,5 4 61 √
8 3 7 7
29, 22, 18, 22,
16 22 17 14 17 5,4 4 74 √
7 9 9 9
21, 21, 21,
17 30 18 13 13 13 5 3 60 √
7 7 7
30, 21, 20, 21,
18 26 18 17 18 5,9 5 84 √
9 4 2 4
29, 22, 22, 19,
19 24 18 18 16 6,2 5 81 √
6 2 2 7
33, 24, 18, 18,
20 22 16 12 12 6,1 4 66 √
3 2 2 2
Average 69,35
Notes:
% : the percentage of writing skill of each indicator through
n : the score of writing skill obtained by the respondent
N : The average score of each student
T : Success
TT : Fail

4.2.5 Analysis
After computing the result of the test, in detail, the mean score of each
indicator explains the achievement of the students in content, organization,
vocabulary, language use and mechanic. The mean score of the students for
content is 25,6. It is in the range of 22-26. It means that the students’ content
achievement is very good. Next, the students’ mean score of organization is 15,05.
It is in the range of 14-17 which means that the students’ verb achievement is
good. It happens to the students’ achievement of language use that it shows more
than enough It can be seen that the mean of the students’ score for language use is
15,7. The students’ mean score of vocabulary is good enough too 20,38 that it is
in the range of 18-21. It means that the students’ achievement of preposition is
more than enough. The last, the students’ mean score of mechanic is 4,05. It is in
the range of 4 which means that the students’ verb achievement is good.
The percentage of total students can get score between 66-75 from total
students in this class presented in table 4.5 and figure 4.1. The informs that there
is improvement on students’ writing skill through writing diary for VIIIA grade
student of MTs.MiftahulUlumBesukiSitubondo. From the description, it is
apparent that the teaching method of using writing diary is good for the students.
Table 4.5 The Percentage of Total Students are pass
Pretest Cycle 1 Cycle 2
Component
T P T P T P
Vocabulary 4 20% 8 40% 19 95%

Notes:
T : Total of Students can get score 56.00-77.99
P : Percentage

100%

80%

60%
Pretest
40% Cycle 1
Cycle 2
20%

0%
Vocabulary

Figure 4.1 The Percentage of Total Students are Pass


4.3 Discussion
Based on the result of the analysis, the students’ writing skill can be
described as follows:
The average score of writing skill by writing diary was in the good
category (69, 35). In detail, the mean score of each indicator is that, the mean
score of the students for content is 25,6. It is in the range of 22-26. It means that
the students’ content achievement is very good. Next, the students’ mean score of
organization is 15,05. It is in the range of 14-17 which means that the students’
verb achievement is good. It happens to the students’ achievement of language use
that it shows more than enough It can be seen that the mean of the students’ score
for language use is 15,7. The students’ mean score of vocabulary is good enough
too 20,38 that it is in the range of 18-21. It means that the students’ achievement
of preposition is more than enough. The last, the students’ mean score of
mechanic is 4,05. It is in the range of 4 which means that the students’ verb
achievement is good.
CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

5. I Conclusion
This research belongs to action research in which it was conducted in
MTs.MIFTAHUL ULUM BESUKI. It was started from October up to November
2016. The participants of this research were the students of VIIIA grade, the
English teacher, the collaborator, and the researcher.
Based on the result of the data analyzed in this research, it can be
concluded that the implementation of diary writing in the teaching and learning
process of writing is believed to be an effective way to improve the students’
writing skills. To support this result, there are two kinds of data presented in this
research, namely qualitative and quantitative data.

5.2 Suggestion
After conducting this action research, the researcher proposes the
suggestions for English teacher and other researchers as presented below:
1. For the English teacher

It is important for the English teacher, especially the English teacher of


MTs.MIFTAHUL ULUM BESUKI to consider at giving more attention on the
writing skills. The teacher should consider using diary writing as the media to
provide more writing practices to the students both in the classroom and outside
the classroom. Since writing is a skill, the more students write, the better their
writing will be.
2. For other researchers

The result of this research can be used as one of references for other
researchers who want to conduct the similar study related to the use of diary
writing with other text types.

36
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RESEARCH MATRIX
PRO
TIT
BLE VARIABLE INDICATORS RESOURCHES
LE
M
Impr 1. Writi Daily activity of
Is 1. Respondent
ovin there ng the student
g an
stud Diar The student of VIIIA grade MTs.MIFTAHUL ULU
impr
ent’s ove y
writi
ment
ng 2.Informan
skill on
by stud
teacher and staff
writi ent
ng writi
diary ng 1. Content
in skill
VIII by 2. Languag
2. Writi
A writi e use
stud ng
ng
ent diar Skill 3. Organiza
of
y tion
MTs
.MIF espe
ciall 4. Vocabul
TAH
UL y in ary
ULU VIII
A 5. Mechani
M in
acad grad c
emic e
year stud
2016 ent
- of
2017
MTs
.MIF
TA
HU
L
UL
UM
?
BIOGRAPHY

Khosnol Khotimah, the researcher / the writer of this thesis


was born on July, 17th 1993 in Situbondo, East Java. She is
the fourth daughter of Alm.Abdu Rahim and Buniti.
She took her Primary School in SDN V Jatibanteng,
Situbondo and graduated in 2005. Secondary school in
SMPN I Jatibanteng, Situbondo and graduated in 2008.
Then she took her senior high school in MAN I Situbondo
and graduated in 2011.In enlarging her knowledge, the researcher took SI degree
in Islamic University of Jember and focused in English Education Program of
Teacher Training and Education Faculty.
Appendix 1
LESSON PLAN
School : MTs.Miftahul Ulum
Class : VIIIA
Topic : Diary
Skill : Writing
Time Allotment : 6x45 minutes (2 Meetings)

A. Standard of Competence
6. Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks tulis fungsional pendek dan esei sederhana
berbentuk recount, narrative, dan procedure dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-
hari
B. Basic Competence
6.4 Mengungkapkan makna dan langkah retorika teks tulis esei secara akurat,
lancar dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dan untuk mengakses
ilmu pengetahuan dalam teks berbentuk: recount, narrative, dan procedure
C. Indicators
The students are able to:
 Make sentences using past tense
 Use past tense in recounting events in a diary
 Write a diary of personal experiences

D. Objectives
At the end of the lesson, students are expected to write a diary of their personal
experiences.
E. Learning Materials
RECOUNT TEXT
Purpose: To tell the readers what happened in the past through a sequence of
events.
Generic structure of recount text :
 Orientation: Introductory paragraph that tells who, what, where, and when.
 Sequence of events: retell the event in the order they occur
 Re-orientation (optional): conclusion

Language features
 Past tense
 Time conjunctions

DIARY WRITING
Diary entry is a kind of recount text that belongs to personal recount.
The main features of diary writing:
❚ Events in chronological order; points
❚ written in the first person;
❚ Use of past tense for most verbs;
❚ Use of paragraphs for changes of time, event and action
❚more personal

F. Teaching Method
GBA (Genre Based Approach)
G. Teaching procedures
Meeting 1
1. Pre-teaching
Greeting
Praying
Checking the attendance list

2. Whilst-teaching
Building Knowledge of the Field (BKoF)
The students are asked some lead-in questions related to the topic.
The students look some pictures and answer the following questions (Task 1)
The students and the teacher discuss a picture of “The Diary of Young Girl:
Anne Frank” (Task 2)
Modeling of the Text (MoT)
The students read the examples of diary writing and identify the texts (as models
and warming up activities). (Task 3)
The students review the materials about the recount text and discuss the
overview of diary writing (Task 4)
Join Construction of the Text (JCoT)
The students, in pairs, read and identify texts. (Task 5)
3. Post-teaching
The students, together with the teacher, summarize and reflect on what they have
learnt from the lesson.
The students get homework to write their story on their diary book.

Meeting 2
1. Pre-teaching
Greeting
Praying
Checking the attendance list
2. Whilst-teaching
Join Construction of the Text (JCoT)
The students study the provided pictures. (Task 6)
The students study a more explanation of past tense and do the exercises. (Task
7)
In a group of four, the students do a jumbled words game in which they have to
arrange the jumbled words into meaningful sentences. (Task 8)
The students make their own sentences in the form of simple past tense and past
continuous tense. (Task 9)
3. Post-teaching
The students, together with the teacher, summarize and reflect on what they have
learnt from the lesson.
Appendix 2

DAFTAR NAMA SISWA KELAS VIIIA


MTs.MIFTAHUL ULUM BESUKI SITUBONDO

No Nama Ket
1 Alif Sugantoro L
2 Imam Rohini L

3 Ifan Minallah L
4 Lutvi L
5 M.Agung L
6 Mahfudz Hadi L
7 Mahribi L
8 Marsan L
9 Maria Ulfa P
10 Fitriatun P
11 Halimatus S. P
12 Hilyatun Masunah P
13 Holis Nur Cahya P
14 Ismatul Maula P
15 Kholifatur R P
16 Lailatul Fajriyah P
17 Khoirun Nisa’ P
18 Intan tiara P
19 Pijennatun P
20 Maria ulfa p

DENAH RUANG
MTs.MIFTAHUL ULUM BESUKI SITUBONDO
Jl. Gunung Bromo Besuki Situbondo
Lantai 1 Lantai 2
KANTO
KANTOR RUANG
MI R KOMPUTER
MTs
KELA RUANG
KANTOR
KEDIAMAN KELUARGA PESANTREN

S MA
PERPUSTAKAA
N
9C
KELA U KELAS
KELAS
S 7
9B  9D
UNGGLN
KELA
KELAS KELAS
S
9E 7B
9A
KELAS KELAS KELAS
TKM 7D 7C

KELAS KELAS KELAS KELAS


Lantai 1
MI MI TKM TKM
KEDIAMAN
KEL. PESANTREN
KELAS KELAS KELAS KELAS
Lantai 2
MI MI MI MI

Lantai 1 Lantai 2
KANTOR RUANG
MD GURU MTs

KELAS KELAS KOMPLEK


MD 8E PESAREAN
KADIAMAN
ASRAMA SANTRI

KEL.
PESANTREN
KELAS KELAS MUSHALL
8B 8D A

KELAS KELAS KELAS


Lantai 1
8A 8C MD

RUANG KELA
KELAS
MD GUDAN S Lantai 2
G 7E
Appendix 3

1. Data Guru
Nama Guru Ijazah Tahu Bidang Jm
No L/ Statu
n Studi
Tempat Tanggal Lahir P s Akhir Tahun Jm
Tugas Yg Diajarkan

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Abd. Jalal, S.Pd.


1
L GTT S1 1990 1996 PPKn 6
Probolinggo, 23-4-1971

2 Suyanto Bhs. Arab


L GTT SM 1967 1987 15
Madiun, 07-08-1951 Aqidah Ahlaf

Abdullah Fathin, S.S.


3
L GTT S1 2005 2005 B. Indonsia 20
Situbondo, 01-05-1982

4 H. Achmad Syarifuddin, BA. Fiqih, Quha

Sumenep, 15-02-1950 L GTT D3 1977 1987 Aqidah 16


Ahlaq

5 Nur Haeni, S.Pd.I. IPS. Sejarah


L PNS S1 2002 1998 18
Situbondo, 31-05-1969 IPS. Ekonm

Abdur Rahman, S.Pd. Bhs. Inggris


6
L GTT S1 2006 2006 22
Situbondo, 30-04-1974 TIK

Siti Mukhdomah, S.Pd.


7
P GTT S1 2003 2006 B. Indonesia 20
Sidoarjo, 05-01-1980

8 H. A. Nur Djaizuddin, A.Md. Qur’an H.


L GTT D3 2002 1987 18
Situbondo, 27-01-1947 Fiqih

9 H. M. Juhri Zaenal, BA.


L GTT D3 1981 1987 B. Inggris 24
Situbondo, 06-03-1956

10 Metrin Ernariya, ST.


P GTT S1 1994 1999 IPA. Fisika 12
Situbondo, 01-11-1969
Appendix 4

Name :

Class :

Write a diary about your activity yesterday, do not forget to tell how you felt about it!