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Report Text : Natural Phenomenon

Aurora

Arranged by : 1. Raditya Indrastata H. (26) as leader


2. Putri Asih Nugraheni (25) as co-leader
3. Rahel Kristina (27)
4. Rizaldi Noor Yusuf (28)
5. Rizky Hilmianto (29)
6. Robertus Darwin S. (30)
Class : IX-B
An aurora (plural: auroras), sometimes referred to as polar lights,
northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural
light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high latitude regions
(around the Arctic and Antarctic). Auroras are produced when the
magnetosphere is sufficiently disturbed by the solar wind that the trajectories of
charged particles in both solar wind and magnetospheric plasma, mainly in the
form of electrons and protons, precipitate them into the upper atmosphere
(thermosphere/exosphere) due to Earth's magnetic field, where their energy is
lost. The resulting ionization and excitation of atmospheric constituents emits
light of varying color and complexity. The form of the aurora, occurring within
bands around both polar regions, is also dependent on the amount of
acceleration imparted to the precipitating particles. Precipitating protons
generally produce optical emissions as incident hydrogen atoms after gaining
electrons from the atmosphere. Proton auroras are usually observed at lower
latitudes.

The basic cause involves the interaction of the solar windwith the Earth's
magnetosphere. The varying intensity of the solar wind produces effects of
different magnitudes, but includes one or more of the following physical
scenarios.
1. A quiescent solar wind flowing past the Earth's magnetosphere steadily
interacts with it and can both inject solar wind particles directly onto the
geomagnetic field lines that are 'open', as opposed to being 'closed' in the
opposite hemisphere, and provide diffusion through the bow shock.
2. Geomagnetic disturbance from an enhanced solar wind causes distortions of
the magnetotail ("magnetic substorms"). These 'substorms' tend to occur
after prolonged spells (hours) during which the interplanetary magnetic field
has had an appreciable southward component. This leads to a higher rate of
interconnection between its field lines and those of Earth
3. Acceleration of auroral charged particles invariably accompanies a
magnetospheric disturbance that causes an aurora. This mechanism, which
is believed to predominantly arise from strong electric fields along the
magnetic field or wave-particle interactions, raises the velocity of a particle
in the direction of the guiding magnetic field

Auroras frequently appear either as a diffuse glow or as "curtains" that extend


approximately in the east–west direction. At some times, they form "quiet arcs";
at others they evolve and change constantly. These are called "active aurora".
1. Red : At the highest altitudes, excited atomic oxygen emits at 630.0 nm
(red); low concentration of atoms and lower sensitivity of eyes at this
wavelength make this color visible only under more intense solar activity.
Scarlet, crimson, and carmine are the most often-seen hues of red for the
auroras.
2. Blue : At yet lower altitudes, atomic oxygen is uncommon, and molecular
nitrogen and ionized molecular nitrogen takes over in producing visible
light emission; radiating at a large number of wavelengths in both red and
blue parts of the spectrum, with 428 nm (blue) being dominant.
3. Green : At lower altitudes the more frequent collisions suppress the 630.0
nm (red) mode: rather the 557.7 nm emission (green) dominates. Fairly high
concentration of atomic oxygen and higher eye sensitivity in green make
green auroras the most common.

In the traditions of Aboriginal Australians, the Aurora Australis is


commonly associated with fire. For example, the Gunditjmara people of western
Victoria called auroras puae buae ('ashes'), while the Gunai people of eastern
Victoria perceived auroras as bushfires in the spirit world. The Dieri people of
South Australia say that an auroral display is kootchee, an evil spirit creating a
large fire. Similarly, the Ngarrindjeri people of South Australia refer to auroras
seen over Kangaroo Island as the campfires of spirits in the 'Land of the Dead'.
Aboriginal people in southwest Queensland believe the auroras to be the fires of
the Oola Pikka, ghostly spirits who spoke to the people through auroras. Sacred
law forbade anyone except male elders from watching or interpreting the
messages of ancestors they believed were transmitted through an aurora.

Auroras take many forms, including luminous curtains, arcs, and


patches. The uniform arc is the most stable form of aurora, sometimes persisting
for hours without noticeable variation. However, in a great display, other forms
appear, commonly undergoing dramatic variation. The lower edges of the arcs
and folds are usually much more sharply defined than the upper parts. Greenish
rays may cover most of the sky poleward of the magnetic zenith, ending in an
arc that is usually folded and sometimes edged with a lower red border that may
ripple like drapery.

Both the Northern Lights and Southern Lights are types of Auroras. The
only difference between the Northern Lights and Southern Lights is that the
Northern Lights occur at the North Pole, while the Southern Lights occur at the
South Pole. The name Aurora is the name of the Roman goddess of dawn. As
the lights look like approaching dawn, they were named after the goddess of
dawn. The name Borealis is the Greek name for the north wind, hence denoting
that it occurs in the north, while the name Australis is the Latin word meaning
‘of the South’ or ‘Southern’.
Paragraph 1

Main Idea :
It is to describe the general information of Aurora Phenomenon

Translation :
Aurora (jamak: aurora), kadang-kadang disebut sebagai lampu polar, lampu
utara (aurora borealis) atau lampu selatan (aurora australis), adalah tampilan
cahaya alami di langit bumi, yang sebagian besar terlihat di daerah lintang
tinggi (sekitar Arktik dan Antartika). Auroras diproduksi saat magnetosfer
cukup terganggu oleh angin matahari sehingga lintasan partikel bermuatan baik
di angin matahari maupun plasma magnetosfer, terutama dalam bentuk elektron
dan proton, mengendapnya ke atmosfer bagian atas (termosfer / eksosfer) akibat
medan magnet, dimana energi mereka hilang. Ionisasi yang dihasilkan dan
eksitasi konstituen atmosfer memancarkan cahaya dari berbagai warna dan
kompleksitas. Bentuk aurora, terjadi di dalam gerombolan di sekitar daerah
kutub, juga bergantung pada jumlah percepatan yang diberikan pada partikel
yang mengendap. Mengendapkan proton umumnya menghasilkan emisi optik
sebagai atom hidrogen yang terjadi setelah mendapatkan elektron dari atmosfer.
Proton aurora biasanya diamati pada garis lintang rendah.

Difficult Words :

1. Predominantly
Synonim : Mainly, mostly, chiefly
Antonym : Subsidiary
Means : For the most part
Meaning : Didominasi
Sentences : Arkansas is predominantly an agricultural state.

2. Latitude
Synonim : Parallel
Antonym : Longitude
Means : The angular distance of a place north or south of the earth’s
equator, or of the equator of a celestial object, usually expressed in
degrees and minutes.
Meaning : Garis Lintang
Sentences : At a latitue of 51° N
3. Emmision
Synonym : Discharge, release, outflow
Antonym : Absorb, refrain
Means : The production and discharge of something especially gas or
radiation
Meaning : Emisi
Sentence : The effects of lead emmision is bad for the earth

4. Constituents
Synonim : Ingridients
Antonym : Whole
Means : A component part of something
Meaning : Komponen, unsur
Sentences : The essential constituents of the human diet includes healthy
vegetables among many other things
5. Trajectories
Synonym : Course, path, route
Antonym : -
Means : The path followed by a projectile flying or an object moving
under the action of given forces
Meaning : Lintasan
Sentence : The missile’s trajectory was predetermined
Paragraph 2

Main Idea :
It is about the causes of aurora phenomenon

Translation :
Penyebab dasarnya melibatkan interaksi angin matahari dengan magnetosfer
bumi. Intensitas angin matahari yang bervariasi menghasilkan efek dengan
besaran yang berbeda, namun mencakup satu atau lebih dari skenario fisik
berikut.

1. Sebuah angin matahari yang tidak bergerak mengalir melewati magnetosfer


Bumi terus berinteraksi dengannya dan dapat memasukkan partikel angin
matahari secara langsung ke jalur bidang geomagnetik yang 'terbuka', sebagai
lawan dari 'tertutup' di belahan bumi yang berlawanan, dan memberikan difusi
melalui kejutan busur.

2. Gangguan geomagnetik dari angin matahari yang disempurnakan


menyebabkan distorsi magnetotail ("badai magnetik"). 'Badai' ini cenderung
terjadi setelah waktu berkepanjangan (jam) selama medan magnet antarplanet
memiliki komponen selatan yang cukup besar. Hal ini menyebabkan tingkat
interkoneksi yang lebih tinggi antara garis medan dan bidang Bumi.

3. Akselerasi partikel bermuatan aurora selalu menyertai gangguan magnetosfer


yang menyebabkan aurora. Mekanisme ini, yang diyakini sebagian besar timbul
dari medan listrik yang kuat sepanjang medan magnet atau interaksi partikel
gelombang, meningkatkan kecepatan partikel ke arah medan magnet pemandu.
Difficult words :

1. Quiescent
Synonym : Inactive, idle
Antonym : Active
Means : In a state or period of inactivity or dormancy
Meaning : Diam
Sentence : Strikes were headed by groups of workers who had previously
been quiescent
2. Involve
Synonym : Include
Antonym : Preclude, exclude
Means : (of a situation or event) include something as a necessary part or
result
Meaning : Melibatkan, meliputi
Sentence : His transfer to another school would involve a lenghty assessment
procedure

3. Magnetosphere
Synonym : Magnetic field, magnetic flux
Antonym : -
Means : The region surrounding the earth or another astronomical body in
which its magnetic field is the predominant effective magnetic field
Meaning : Magnetosfer
Sentence : All of magnet has the magnetosphere

4. Invariably
Synonym : Always
Antonym : Sometimes
Means : In every case/on every occasion; always
Meaning : Selalu
Sentence : The meals here are invariably big and hearty

5. Interplanetary
Synonym : -
Antonym : -
Means : Situated or traveling between planets
Meaning : Antar planet
Sentence : Interplanetary mission
Paragraph 3

Main Idea :
It is about the occurrence of colors in Aurora Phenomenon

Translation :
Auroras sering muncul baik sebagai cahaya yang menyebar atau sebagai "tirai"
yang membentang kira-kira di arah timur-barat. Pada beberapa waktu, mereka
membentuk "busur yang tenang"; pada waktu lain mereka berkembang dan
berubah terus-menerus. Ini disebut "aurora aktif".

1. Merah: Pada ketinggian tertinggi, oksigen atom yang menyala memancar


pada 630,0 nm (merah); konsentrasi atom yang rendah dan sensitivitas mata
yang lebih rendah pada panjang gelombang ini membuat warna ini hanya
terlihat di bawah aktivitas matahari yang lebih intens. Scarlet, crimson, dan
carmine adalah warna merah yang paling sering terlihat untuk aurora.
2. Biru: Pada ketinggian yang lebih rendah, oksigen atom jarang ditemukan, dan
nitrogen molekul dan nitrogen molekul terionisasi mengambil alih dalam
menghasilkan emisi cahaya yang tampak; memancar pada sejumlah besar
panjang gelombang di bagian spektrum merah dan biru, dengan 428 nm (biru)
dominan.
3. Hijau: Pada ketinggian yang lebih rendah tubrukan yang lebih sering
menekan mode 630,0 nm (merah): emisi 557,7 nm (hijau) mendominasi.
Konsentrasi oksigen atom yang cukup tinggi dan sensitivitas mata yang lebih
tinggi pada hijau membuat aurora hijau paling umum.

Difficult words :

1. Evolve
Synonym : Develop, progress
Antonym : Halt, stop
Means : Develop gradually, especially from a simple to a more complex
form.
Meaning : Berkembang
Sentence : The company has evolved into a major chemical manufacturer

2. Arcs
Synonym : Curve, crescent
Antonym : Circle
Means : A part of the circumference of a circle or others curve
Meaning : Busur, setengah lingkaran
Sentence : Brightest are the curtain-like Auroral arcs
3. Radiating
Synonym : Emit
Antonym : Dims, tone down
Means : Emit (energy, especially light or heat) in the form of rays or
waves.
Meaning : Memancarkan
Sentence : Light radiated from the hall

4. Altitudes
Synonym : Height, elevation
Antonym : Depth
Means : The height of an object or point in relation to sea level or ground
level.
Meaning : Ketinggian
Sentence : Clouds are classified according to form and altitude

5. Inoized
Synonym : Ionised
Antonym : Oxidation
Means : Convert (an atom, molecule, or subtance) into an ion or ions,
typically by removing one or more electrons
Meaning : Terionisasi
Sentence : The closer the electrons are to the nucleus of the atom, the higher
the atom’s ionizetion energy.
Paragraph 4

Main Idea :
It is about the superstition and mythology surrounding the Aurora Phenomenon

Translation :
Dalam tradisi orang Aborigin Australia, Aurora Australis umumnya terkait
dengan api. Misalnya, orang Gunditjmara di barat Victoria yang memanggil
aurora puae buae ('abu'), sementara orang-orang Gunai di timur Victoria
menganggap aurora sebagai api hutan di dunia roh. Orang-orang Dieri di
Australia Selatan mengatakan bahwa tampilan aurora adalah kotchee, roh jahat
yang menciptakan api besar. Demikian pula, orang-orang Ngarrindjeri di
Australia Selatan merujuk pada aurora yang terlihat di Pulau Kanguru sebagai
api unggun roh di 'Tanah Orang Mati'. Orang-orang Aborigin di Queensland
barat daya percaya bahwa aurora adalah api Oola Pikka, roh-roh hantu yang
berbicara kepada orang-orang melalui aurora. Hukum suci melarang siapapun
kecuali tetua laki-laki untuk melihat atau menafsirkan pesan nenek moyang
yang mereka percaya ditransmisikan melalui aurora.

Difficult words :

1. Sacred
Synonym : Holy. pure, saint
Antonym : Profane, secular
Means : Connected with God (or gods) or dedicated to a religious purpose
and so deserving veneration
Meaning : Suci
Sentence : He holds the sacred stone of the mountain

2. Forbade
Synonym : Ban, prohibit, disallow
Antonym : Allow, grant, authorize
Means : To prohibit (something); make a rule or law against
Meaning : Dilarang
Sentence : A strict law forbade children from entering this building

3. Interpreting
Synonym : Deciphering, translating, analyzing
Antonym : Misinterpreting, misunderstandung
Means : Explain the meaning of (information, words, or actions)
Meaning : Menafsirkan
Sentence : The killer left an evidence that was hard to interpret
4. Bushfire
Synonym : Wildifre, wildland fire
Antonym : Rain
Means : A large, destructive fire that spreads quickly over woodland or
bushes

Meaning : Kebakaran hutan


Sentence : After the iminent dry weather, the spreading bushfire was
inavoidable

5. Aboriginal
Synonym : Native, original, genuine
Antonym : Foreign, nonnative
Meaning : Asli
Means : (of human races, animals, and plants) inhabiting or existing in a
land from the earliest times or from the arrival of the colonists
Sentence : Around the world, 70 percent of uranim deposits are located on
aboriginal land
Paragraph 5

Main Idea :
It is to describe forms of aurora

Translation :
Auroras mengambil banyak bentuk, seperti tirai bercahaya, lengkungan, dan
tambalan. Lengkungan yang seragam adalah bentuk aurora yang paling stabil,
kadang-kadang dapat bertahan selama berjam-jam tanpa variasi yang terlihat.
Namun, dalam tampilan yang bagus, bentuk lainnya tampil, umumnya
mengalami variasi dramatis. Tepi bawah lengkungan dan lipatan biasanya jauh
lebih tajam daripada bagian atas. Sinar kehijauan bisa menutupi sebagian besar
kutub langit dari puncak magnetik, berakhir di lengkungan yang biasanya
dilipat dan kadang-kadang beringsut dengan batas merah rendah yang mungkin
bergetar seperti gorden.

Difficult words :

1. Luminous
Synonym : Shining, bright, brilliant
Antonym : Dark
Meaning : Bercahaya
Means : Full of or shedding light; bright or shining, especially in the dark.
Sentence : The desert was luminous, starkly beautiful.

2. Diffuse
Synonym : Spread, disseminate, scatter
Antonym : Merges
Meaning : Menyebar
Means : Spread or cause to spread over a wide area or among a large
number of people.
Sentence : Technologies diffuse rapidly

3. Undergo
Synonym : Undertake
Antonym : Discontinue
Meaning : Menjalani/mengalami
Means : Experience or be subjected to (something, typically something
unpleasant, painful, or arduous).
Sentence : Aurora commonly undergoing dramatic variation
4. Zenith
Synonym : High point
Antonym : Depth
Meaning : Puncak
Means : The time at which something is most powerful or successful.
Sentence : The Byzantine Empire reached its zenith of influence

5. Drapery
Synonym : Curtain, drape, mantle
Antonym :-
Meaning : Tirai
Means : Cloth coverings hanging in loose folds.
Sentence : The hall of the school was hung with green drapery
Paragraph 6

Main Idea :
It is about the difference between Nothern lights and Southern lights and its
name origins.

Translation :
Baik Cahaya Utara dan Lampu Selatan adalah jenis Auroras. Satu-satunya
perbedaan antara Cahaya Utara dan Lampu Selatan adalah bahwa Cahaya Utara
terjadi di Kutub Utara, sedangkan Lampu Selatan terjadi di Kutub Selatan.
Nama Aurora adalah nama dewi romawi fajar. Saat lampu tampak mendekati
fajar, mereka diberi nama sesuai dewi fajar. Nama Borealis adalah nama Yunani
untuk angin utara, yang berarti bahwa itu terjadi di utara, sedangkan nama
Australis adalah kata Latin yang berarti 'Selatan' atau 'Paling Selatan'.

Difficult words:

1. Pole
Synonym : Post, pillar
Antonym :-
Means : A line/square rod
Meaning : Kutub
Sentence : Lina connects the North pole with the South pole

2. Goddess
Synonym : Queen, deity
Antonym : Witch, crone, hag
Means : A female deity
Meaning : Dewi
Sentence : Desmond is a (fictional) Hollywood goddess of the 1920s

3. Dawn
Synonym : Sunrise, daylight, daybreak
Antonym : Dusk
Means : The first apprearance of lights in the sky before sunrise
Meaning : Fajar
Sentence : We got up at dawn
4. Greek
Synonym : Doric, hellenic
Antonym : Roman
Means : The ancient/modern language of greece the only represntative of
the hellenic branch
Sentence : Rina always learning about the Greek history

5. Hence
Synonym : Consequently, therefore, thus
Antonym : Previous, however
Means : As a consequence for this reason
Meaning : Oleh karena itu, karena itu
Sentence : the weather was much better this year; hence the orange cop is
larger Hence, I will not be attending your party because of the poor
weather

Sources

• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aurora
• https://www.northernlightscentre.ca/northernlights.html
• http://www.differencebetween.info/difference-between-northern-
lights-and-southern-lights
• Images.google.com