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Challenges and solutions for

Impedance measurements

Gustaaf Sutorius
Application
Engineer

1
Challenges and solutions for Impedance measurements

Introduction & Objectives for today

2
Challenges and solutions for Impedance measurements

3
Agenda
1. Introduction
2. Impedance Basics & Measurement Methods
3. LCR Meters
4. Impedance Analyzers
5. Accessories/test-fixtures
6. Vector Network Analyzers
• E5061B VNA as Impedance Analyzer
7. Reference Documents + Q&A

4
Agenda
1. Introduction
2. Impedance Basics & Measurement Methods
3. LCR Meters
4. Impedance Analyzers
5. Accessories/test-fixtures
6. Vector Network Analyzers
• E5061B VNA as Impedance Analyzer
7. Reference Documents + Q&A

5
Objectives

• Review Impedance Measurement Methods


• LCR meter vs Impedance analyzer vs Network
Analyzer
• Review E5061B Network Analyzer/Impedance
Analyzer.
• “It’s also the test-fixture”

6
Impedance Measurement Applications

Material On-wafer C-V Diode MOS FET Inductor


Measurements Measurements Measurements Measurements Measurements

Auto-balancing Bridge
In-circuit Capacitor
Tests Measurements

LCR Meters
Impedance Analyzers (ZA) RF I-V
Wide Variety of Test Fixtures

Battery Cable Resonator Transformer Resistor


Measurements Measurements Measurements Measurements Measurements

7
www.agilent.com/find/impedance
Solutions for Measuring Impedance
Low-Cost High-Performance Capacitance RF LCR Meter ZA RF ZA
LCR Meter LCR Meter Meter
‘60
4270A

‘70 4260A
4271A
4272A/73A

‘80 4261A
4274A/75A
4276A/77A 4192A
4262A
‘90 4191A

4278A
4194A
4284A/85A
4263A/B 4286A 4291A/B
‘00
4268A/88A
4294A

‘10 4287A
E4980A E4991A
E4981A

E4980AL E4982A Installed Base of Legacy Products

8
Agenda
1. Introduction
2. Impedance Basics & Measurement Methods
3. LCR Meters
4. Impedance Analyzers
5. Accessories/test-fixtures
6. Vector Network Analyzers
• E5061B VNA as Impedance Analyzer
7. Reference Documents + Q&A

9
Impedance

Z: Total opposition a device or circuit offers to the flow of AC

Z = R + jX (rectangular-coord)
Imaginary axis
Z = |Z|  (polar form)
+j
Z (R,
X
X)
R = |Z| cos 
|Z| X = |Z| sin 

|Z| = R2 + X2

Real axis  = tan-1(X/R)
R

Unit of impedance: ohm ()

10
Series and Parallel Combinations

R jX
Real and imaginary Z = R + jX
components are (Impedance is easier to express)
connected in series

R
jRX RX2 R2X
Z= = 2 +j
R + jX R + X2 R2 + X2
(Impedance is too complex)
Real and imaginary jX
components are
connected in parallel G
Y = G + jB
(Admittance is easier)
jB
Unit of admittance: Siemens (S)
conductance, G and the susceptance, B

11
Inductive and Capacitive Reactance
L (Inductance) C (Capacitance)
XL= 2fL = L 1 1
XC = =
: Angular frequency (= 2f)
2fC C
R jXL R -jXC

Z R
jXL




-jXC
R Z
(a) Inductive vector (b) Capacitive vector
on impedance plane on impedance plane

XL -XC 1
Q = quality factor= = D = dissipation factor =
R R Q
= tan  = tan 

12
Parasitics

• No real components are purely resistive or reactive


• Every component is a combination of R, C and L elements
• The unwanted elements are called parasitics
Intrinsic C

Unwanted
R and L of
leads

Unwanted R and C
of dielectric

Capacitor Equivalent Circuit

13
Series and Parallel Models
Capacitor Equivalent
Circuit

Series Parallel
R
Model C p
Model
R
s
s

C
p
Low-Impedance Device
(Large C, Small L; |Z|  10 ) High-Impedance Device
(Small C, Large L; |Z|  10 k)

14
Equivalent circuit models of components

15
Relationship between Series and Parallel mode

16
Component Dependency Factors

• Measurement conditions that determine the measured


impedance value
• Effects depend on component materials and manufacturing
processes
• Four major factors:
• Test signal frequency
• Test signal level
• DC voltage and current bias
• Environment

17
X versus Test Signal Frequency

Capacitor

|X| C L
1
XC =
C
XL = L

Resonant Frequency ()


Frequency
XC = X L

18
Example Capacitor Resonance

Impedance versus Frequency

L

1
C

|Z|

fs

19
C versus Test Signal Level

AC voltage dependency of ceramic SMD capacitors


for various values of dielectric constant (K)

C
High K

Mid K

Low K

Capacitance change due to


AC voltage dependence of
K value

AC Test Signal level (Vac)

20
C versus DC Voltage Bias

DC bias voltage dependency of


type I and II SMD capacitors

C
Type I
C0G or NPO (Low K)
0

Type II
X7R,Y5V, or Z5U (High K)

Capacitance change due to


DC voltage dependence of K value

DC bias voltage

21
L versus DC Current Bias

DC bias current dependency of


cored inductors
L

Inductance roll-off due to


0 magnetic saturation of inductor core

DC bias current

22
C versus Temperature

Temperature dependency of ceramic


capacitors for different K values

C
Mid K
0

High K K: Dielectric Constant

|
25 Temperature (C)

23
Agenda
1. Introduction
2. Impedance Basics & Measurement Methods
3. LCR Meters
4. Impedance Analyzers
5. Accessories/test-fixtures
6. Vector Network Analyzers
• E5061B VNA as Impedance Analyzer
7. Reference Documents + Q&A

24
(1) Auto-Balancing Bridge method

Measurement Principle
Virtual ground (driven at 0 V)
Rr
DUT
HIGH LOW
Signal I Ir
Source V1 I = Ir
-
+

V2
V2 = - Ir Rr

V1 - V1 Rr
Z= =
Ir V2

25
(2) RF I-V method
Measurement Principle
Current detection

R Vi

R/2 I Z
V
Signal Voltage V DUT
x
Source detection v
R

R = 50 

Test Head (High-Impedance type)

V R Vv
Zx= = ( - 1)
I 2 Vi
As V = Vv – Vi and I = 2Vi /R

26
(3) Network Analysis method

Measurement Principle
VINC
DUT
VINC V V Vr Vr

Reflected
Signal

OSC Vr ZX - Z0
Incident
ZX = = X+
Z
Signal VINC Z0
Directional Bridge
or Coupler

Zo: 50  or 75 

27
Summary of Measurement Methods Auto-Balancing Bridge

Impedance ()
RF I-V

Network An.

Frequency (Hz)

Method Frequency Impedance Terminal # of


Range Range Connections Ports

Auto-
1 m  Z  100 M 4-terminal pair,
Balancing 20  f  110 MHz (10% acc) 1
BNC
Bridge

0.2  Z  20 k
RF I-V 1 MHz  f  3 GHz 7 mm 1
(10% acc)

Network
f  300 kHz Z  Z0 7 mm, N-type N1
Analysis

28
Measurement Methods and Agilent products

Measurement Method Agilent Product Frequency Range

4263B LCR Meter 100 Hz to 100 kHz spot


E4981A C Meter 120 Hz/1 kHz/1 MHz spot
Auto-Balancing
E4980A Precision LCR Meter 20 Hz to 2 MHz
Bridge 4285A Precision LCR Meter 75 kHz to 30 MHz
4294A Precision Impedance Analyzer 40 Hz to 110 MHz

E4982A RF LCR Meter 1 MHz to 3 GHz


RF I-V E4991A Impedance/Material Analyzer 1 MHz to 3 GHz

ENA Series 5 Hz to 20 GHz


Network Analysis Vector Network Analyzers

PNA Series 300 kHz to 1.1 THz


uW Vector Network Analyzers

29
Impedance Measurement Methods and Instrument selection

1) Frequency
These determine the most
2) DUT impedance
suitable method
3) Required measurement accuracy

4) Electrical test conditions


These determine the proper
5) Measurement parameters
instrument and test fixture
6) Physical characteristics of DUT

30
Agenda
1. Introduction
2. Impedance Basics & Measurement Methods
3. LCR Meters
4. Impedance Analyzers
5. Accessories/test-fixtures
6. Vector Network Analyzers
• E5061B VNA as Impedance Analyzer
7. Reference Documents + Q&A

31
Historical Product Overview
Over 40 Years Experience LCR ZA
Low-Cost High-Performance Capacitance RF LCR Meter ZA RF ZA
LCR Meter LCR Meter Meter
‘60
4270A

‘70 4260A
4271A
4272A/73A

‘80 4261A
4274A/75A
4276A/77A 4192A
4262A
‘90 4191A

4278A
4194A
4284A/85A
4263A/B 4286A 4291A/B
‘00
4268A/88A
4294A

‘10 4287A
E4980A E4991A
E4981A

E4980AL E4982A Installed Base of Legacy Products

32
Current Product Portfolio for Impedance

www.agilent.com/find/impedance

LCR meter Impedance Analyzer Network Analyzer

4263B E4980AL
LCR meter precision LCR meter E5071C
4294A ENA network analyzer
Precision impedance analyzer

E4981A E4980A
Capacitance meter precision LCR meter

E5061B
ENA-L network analyzer
E4991A
E4982A RF impedance/material analyzer
LCR meter

33
Product Overview
LCR Meters & Impedance Analyzers & Network Analyzers

LCR Meters & Impedance Analyzers Network Analyzers

 Specialized to measure LCR & impedance Measure S-parameter, also can be used for
 High impedance accuracy impedance measurement
 Wide impedance measurement range Higher Frequency range
 Main target application: Main target application:
• Capacitors, inductors, resonators • Filters, Antennas
• Materials • DC-DC converters
• Semiconductor • Amplifiers, Mixers
• In-circuit (4294A w/42941A)

34
Product Overview
LCR Meters & Impedance Analyzers Product Portfolio
E4991A ZA
RF impedance/material analyzer
1 MHz – 3 GHz
General Purpose

4263B LCR
R&D Lab

LCR meter
100 Hz – 100 kHz
Main Usage

E4980AL E4980A 4294A


Precison LCR meter
Precision impedance analyzer
4339B 20 Hz – 300 kHz/500 kHz/1 MHz/2 MHz
40 Hz – 110 MHz
High-R meter

4285A E4982A
Precision LCR meter RF LCR meter
75 kHz – 30 MHz 1 MHz – 3 GHz
+ Wide Variety of
Manufacturing
High Volume

Accessories
E4981A
Capacitance meter
120 Hz, 1 kHz, 1 MHz Unit Price [$]
$10k $20k $30k $40k $50k

35
LCR Meters

LCR meter Impedance Analyzer Network Analyzer

4263B E4980AL
LCR meter precision LCR meter E5071C
4294A ENA network analyzer
precision impedance analyzer

E4981A E4980A
capacitance meter precision LCR meter

E5061B
ENA-L network analyzer
E4991A
4339B E4982A RF impedance/material analyzer
high-R meter LCR meter

36
LCR Meters
What Is LCR & Impedance Measurement?

Measure Z, then calculate LCR value…


X
Z
δ
 R
D, Q
Capacitance
Phase () (Cs, Cp)

Reactance (X) Inductance


(Ls, Lp)
Resistance (R)

E4980A
(Cp-D measurement)

37
LCR Meters
Overview

• Spot frequency measurement


• Numeric only display
• Low cost
• High speed
• Application specific
E4980A Measurement Display E4982A Measurement Display

1 MHz – 3 GHz E4982A LCR meter

20 Hz – 2 MHz
E4980A precision LCR meter
20 Hz – 300 kHz/500 kHz/1 MHz E4980AL precision LCR meter
100 Hz – 100 kHz 4263B LCR meter
120 Hz, 1 kHz, 1 MHz E4981A capacitance meter

Frequency (Hz)

10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M 10M 100M 1G 10G

38
LCR Meters
List Sweep : the poor mans Impedance Analyzer”

• Instrument: E4980A
• DUT: 100 nF ceramic capacitor & 100 uH chip inductor
• Key Word:
– Adapter Compensation
– ALC function
– List Sweep

39
LCR Meters
Key Products Overview

E4982A LCR Meter 1 MHz to 3 GHz


• An industrial standard in RF impedance/material measurements up to 3 GHz
• Target applications – passive components
• Target customers – manufacturing
• Migration opportunities – 4286A, 4287A
E4980AL/A Precision LCR Meter 20 Hz to 300 kHz, 500 kHz, 1 MHz / 2 MHz
• A new standard for low-frequency impedance measurements up to 2 MHz
• Target applications – passive components, semiconductors, MEMS, materials
• Target customers – R&D, manufacturing, QA, incoming inspection
• Migration opportunities – 4279A, 4284A
E4981A Capacitance Meter 120/1k/1MHz
• A new standard for ceramic capacitor (C) production tests
• Target applications – capacitors
• Target customers – manufacturing
• Migration opportunities – 4278A, 4268A, 4288A
4263B Low-Cost LCR Meter 100/120/1k/10k/100kHz (20kHz option)
• Cost effective solution for low-frequency impedance measurements up to 100 kHz
• Target applications – passive components, transformers, electrolytic capacitors
• Target customers – R&D, manufacturing
• Migration opportunities – 4263A

40
Agenda
1. Introduction
2. Impedance Basics & Measurement Methods
3. LCR Meters
4. Impedance Analyzers
5. Accessories/test-fixtures
6. Vector Network Analyzers
• E5061B VNA as Impedance Analyzer
7. Reference Documents + Q&A

41
Impedance Analyzers

LCR meter Impedance Analyzer Network Analyzer

4263B E4980AL
LCR meter precision LCR meter E5071C
4294A ENA network analyzer
precision impedance analyzer

E4981A E4980A
capacitance meter precision LCR meter

E5061B
ENA-L network analyzer
E4991A
4339B E4982A RF impedance/material analyzer
high-R meter LCR meter

42
Impedance Analyzers
Parasitics
• No real components are purely resistive or reactive
• Every component is a combination of R, C and L elements
• The unwanted elements are called parasitics
Intrinsic C

Unwanted
R and L of
leads

Unwanted R and C
of dielectric

Capacitor Equivalent Circuit

43
Impedance Analyzers
X versus Test Signal Frequency
Impedance |X| L C

1
XC =
C
XL = L

Resonant Frequency ()


Frequency

44
Impedance Analyzers
Example Capacitor Resonance

Impedance versus Frequency

L

1
C

|Z|

45
Impedance Analyzers
Overview

• Sweeps parameter, displays graphics


– Frequency
– DC Bias
– AC level
• Use model
– Frequency characteristics analysis
– Resonant analysis
– Circuit modeling

E4991A RF impedance/material analyzer

1 MHz – 3 GHz

4294A precision impedance analyzer


40 Hz – 110 MHz

Frequency (Hz)
10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M 10M 100M 1G 10G

46
Impedance Analyzers
4294A Impedance Analyzer
Key numbers…
Frequency range: 40 Hz ~ 110 MHz
 Basic measurement accuracy: 0.08 %

Versatile Analysis Functions


Z-Q C C
A B C

L
Ca Ca
Ca
L
L R R
R
D E
Frequency DC LVL AC LVL
Cb
Frequency Sweep DC Bias Sweep AC Level Sweep
L Ca R

L Ca R

EQV R 38.6347 mΩ EQV Ca 82.1028 nF


EQV L 2.19795 nH EQV Cb F

Equivalent Circuit Calculation

47
Impedance Analyzers allow to measure:

– Frequency dependency of the capacitor


– Influence of the residual inductance
– Resonant frequency
– Equivalent circuit simulation
– Limit Test

48
Impedance Analyzers
Key Products Overview

E4991A RF Impedance/Material Analyzer 1 MHz to 3 GHz


• An industrial standard in RF impedance/material measurements
• Target applications – passive components, semiconductors, materials
• For – R&D, QA, incoming inspection
• Replaces 4291A

4294A Precision Impedance Analyzer 40 Hz to 110 MHz


• An industrial standard in mid-freq. impedance measurements
• Target applications – passive components, semiconductors, materials, in-circuit
• For– R&D, QA, incoming inspection
• Replaces – 4192A, 4194A

49
Summary: Impedance Analyzer versus LCR Meter

Impedance Analyzer LCR Meter


• Full measurement conditions • Limited measurement conditions
• Freq/Osc/DC bias sweep • No or limited sweep
• Wide frequency coverage • Spot/multiple frequencies
• Versatile analysis capability • Limited analysis capability
• Markers, List Sweep, Limit • GO/NO GO testing
Test, EQT CKT, IBASIC, LAN
• Numerical display
• Graphic display
• Measurement traces • Only numbers displayed

Suitable for deep evaluation or Suitable for simple testing


multipurpose use

50
Summary:
Frequency range Impedance Analyzer & LCR Meter
Low-cost
LCR
0.1% 4263B
100 Hz 100 kHz

20 Hz 0.05% E4980A 2 MHz

Precision 0.1% 4285A


75 kHz 30 MHz
LCR
1% E4982A
1 MHz 3 GHz

Impedance
0.08% 4294A 110 MHz
Analyzer
40 Hz
1 MHz 0.8% E4991A 3 GHz

100 1k 10k 100k 1M 10M 100M 1G (Hz)

51
Agenda
1. Introduction
2. Impedance Basics & Measurement Methods
3. LCR Meters
4. Impedance Analyzers
5. Accessories/test-fixtures
6. Vector Network Analyzers
• E5061B VNA as Impedance Analyzer
7. Reference Documents + Q&A

52
Accessories
Introduction

• MUST be used to connect DUTs


– Fixtures, Probes
– Test leads
– DC bias
– Cal std…

• Benefits of Agilent Accessories


– Minimum residual error for better accuracy
– Clearly defined error compensation for
error correction
– Strict measurement specifications

53
Accessories
Wide Variety of Fixtures to Cover Various Applications

54
Accessories
Top 3 Fixtures for Auto balancing Bridge Instruments

16334A SMD/chip Tweezers


Frequency: ≤15 MHz
Maximum dc bias: ±42 V
Applicable SMD size: Minimum 1.6 (L) ´ 0.8 (W) mm

16089B Medium Kelvin Clip Leads


Clip type: Kelvin alligator clips (small)
Frequency: 5 Hz to 100 kHz
Maximum dc bias: ±42 V peak
Cable length: 0.94 m

16047A Test Fixture (Axial and Radial)


Frequency: ≤13 MHz
Maximum dc bias: ±35 V
Four-terminal (Kelvin) contacts

55
Agenda
1. Introduction
2. Impedance Basics & Measurement Methods
3. LCR Meters
4. Impedance Analyzers
5. Accessories/test-fixtures
6. Vector Network Analyzers
E5061B VNA as Impedance Analyzer
7. Reference Documents + Q&A

56
Vector Network Analyzers for measuring Impedance
one of the 3 Key Impedance Measurement Methods
Network Analysis

LCR meter Impedance Analyzer Network Analyzer

Auto-Balancing Bridge

• Wide frequency coverage 4263B


(LF to HF)
E4981A • Covers highest
• High accuracy over aLCR widemeter
impedance range 4294A
E5071C
Capacitance meter ENAfrequencies
Network Analyzer
• Variety of fixture selections Precision impedance analyzer • High accuracy
• Higher frequency range not available around the
characteristic
E4980A impedance (Z0)
precision LCR meter • Narrow impedance
measurement
E5061Brange
RF I-V • Low
ENA LFaccuracy
Network in Q
Analyzer
(D) measurement
• High accuracy and wide impedance range
• HF and RF
• Variety of fixture selections
• Lower frequency range is limited by the transformer
4287A
used in the test head E4991A
RF LCR meter E5061A/62A
RF impedance/material analyzer
ENA-L Network Analyzer

57
Network Analysis Measurement Range
Impedance Accuracy versus frequency

100M
10M E4981A 4263B E4980A/AL 4294A

1M Auto-Balancing Bridge
100k
Impedance (Ω)

10k
1k RF I-V E4982A E4991A

100 Network Analysis


10
1
E5061B E5071C
100m
Note: PNA Network Analyzer
10m covers 300 kHz to 1.1 THz

1m
10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M 10M 100M 1G 10G
Frequency (Hz)
10% accuracy range for each measurement technique

58
Measurement Frequency Range
Summary

Note: PNA Network Analyzer covers 300 kHz to 1.1 THz


Product Basic Z Meas. Range Measurement
Purpose Frequency Range Model
Type Accuracy (10% Accy. Range) Method
S-parameter/
9 kHz/100 kHz – 20 GHz E5071C Network
Impedance
Network
S-parameter/ N/A NA
Analyzer
Gain–phase/ 5 Hz – 3GHz E5061B Network
Impedance
High performance/
1 MHz – 3 GHz 0.8 % 130 m – 20 kohm E4991A RF I-V
Impedance Multi function
Analyzer High performance/
40 Hz – 110 MHz 0.08 % 25 m – 40 Mohm 4294A ABB
Multi function
Inductor
1 MHz – 3 GHz 0.8 % 140 m – 4.8 kohm E4982A RF I-V
measurement
High performance/
20 Hz – 2 MHz 0.05 % 10 m – 100 Mohm E4980A ABB
Multi function
LCR Meter
Low cost/ 20 Hz – 300 kHz/500
0.05 % 10 m – 100 Mohm E4980AL ABB
Multi function kHz/1 MHz
Low cost/ 100 Hz/120 Hz/1 kHz/10
0.1 % 1 m – 100 Mohm 4263B ABB
Multi function kHz/20 kHz/100 kHz
Capacitance Capacitor
120 Hz/1 kHz/1 MHz 0.07 % 0.001 p to 2 mF E4981A ABB
Meter measurement

59
E5061B-3L5 LF-RF Network Analyzer
E5061B-3L5

• 5 Hz to 3 GHz Zin=1 MΩ #1 or 50 ohm


ATT=20 dB or 0 dB
• Wide dynamic range
DC bias
• Built-in DC bias source (0 to ±40 Vdc, max 100 mAdc) T R source

• A S-parameter test port (5 Hz to 3 GHz, 50 Ω)


ATT ATT
R1 R2

Zin Zin T1 T2

• B Gain-phase test port T R LF Port-1 Port-2


(5 Hz to 30 MHz, Zin=1 MΩ / 50 Ω switchable)
OUT

• C Impedance analysis function (Option 005) Gain-phase test port S-parameter test port
(5 Hz to 30 MHz) (5 Hz to 3 GHz)

Gain-phase S-parameter
test port test port

60
6 A: E5061B as VNA for S-Parameters (5Hz to 3GHz)
- Filter
- Antenna
- Amplifier
- Cable

61
6 B: E5061B as gain-phase analyzer (5 Hz – 30 MHz)
Detail: E5061B’s R and T receiver ports are semi-floated
This eliminates the measurement error associated with the source-to-receiver test
cable ground loop. As receivers are semi-floated with the impedance |Zg|, which is
about 30 Ω in the lowfrequency range below 100 kHz. Similarly to the case of
using the magnetic core, we can intuitively understand that the shield current is
blocked with the impedance |Zg|. More details in appnote
http://cp.literature.agilent.com/litweb/pdf/5990-5578EN.pdf

AC current
T port
Rc2 LF OUT
VT = Vo + Vc2 Vo Zsh
VT V=Vc2
= Vo + (Va/(Zg+Rc2)) x Rc2
= Vo, because Zg >> Rc2
Va VR
|Zg| = about 30 Ω at low freq. range
Rc2 = 10 mΩ or several 10 mΩ
Zg Zg
Common-mode noise
R port

Measured attenuation
Easy & accurate solution for
DUT’s true
attenuation • High attenuation DUTs (<-80 dB)
Freq • milliohm-|Z| of LF PDN components

62
6 C: E5061B as Impedance Analyzer using Option E5061B-005 ZA firmware
Reflection
method
• Fully supports basic functions of (for low to mid-Z)
impedance analyzer (ZA)
Series-thru
• Displays Z parameters method
(for mid to high-Z)
• Calibration + Fixture compensation
• Equivalent circuit analysis Shunt-thru
method
• Covers variety of ZA applications (for very low-Z)
with multiple meas. techniques

Advantages of Z measurement with E5061B


 NA plus ZA in one box
 Milliohm Z-measurement
 Very broad freq range

63
E5061B Impedance Measurement methods
Both test ports are available for impedance measurements

S-Parameter test port Gain-Phase test port

Port 1 Port 2 T R LF OUT

S-Parameter Test port Gain-Phase


5 Hz - 3 GHz Frequency range 5 Hz - 30 MHz
• Reflection
Measurement
• Series-thru • Series-thru
configurations
• Shunt-thru • Shunt-thru

64
Reflection method
Z = 50 x ((1 + S11) / (1 - S11))

S-Parameter S11

Vector voltage ratio relationship to impedance


0

VT/VR (S11, S21, TR) [dB]


VS VDUT
-10
50Ω
-20

-30
Mid-Z
-40

-50
0.1 1.E+00
1.E-01 1 10
1.E+01 100 1.E+03
1.E+02 1k 10k
1.E+04
Impedance [Ω]

65
Series-thru method
Z = (50 x 2) x ((1 - S21) / S21)

S-Parameter S21

Vector voltage ratio relationship to impedance


0

VT/VR (S11, S21, TR) [dB]


V I
-10

-20

Gain-Phase T/R -30


Mid to High-Z
-40

V I -50
0.1 1.E+00
1.E-01 1 10
1.E+01 100 1.E+03
1.E+02 1k 10k
1.E+04
Impedance [Ω]

66
Shunt-thru method
Z = (50 / 2) x (S21 / (1 - S21))

S-Parameter S21

Vector voltage ratio relationship to impedance


0

VT/VR (S11, S21, TR) [dB]


VS VDUT
-10

-20

Gain-Phase T/R -30


Low to Mid-Z
-40

VS VDUT -50
0.1 1.E+00
1.E-01 1 10
1.E+01 100 1.E+03
1.E+02 1k 10k
1.E+04
Impedance [Ω]

67
Measurement method & impedance range

Covers wide impedance range: mΩ to 100 kΩ


using 3 methods in combination

Configuration Applicable impedance range


Mid - High
Series-thru

Mid
Reflection

Low - Mid
Shunt-thru

1m 10 m 100 m 1 10 100 1k 10 k 100 k

Impedance [ohm]

68
10% measurement accuracy range
S-Parameter test port

1.E+06

1.E+05
100 kΩ

1.E+04
10 kΩ Port 1-2 Series
1 1.E+03

Impedance [Ohm]

1.E+02
100 Ω
Port 1 Refl
1.E+01
10 Ω

1 1.E+00
Ω

1.E-01
100 mΩ Port 1-2 Shunt
1.E-02
10 mΩ

1 1.E-03

1.E-04
1.0E+00 1.0E+01
10 Hz 1.0E+02
100 Hz 1.0E+03
1 kHz 1.0E+04
10 kHz 1.0E+05
100 kHz 1.0E+06
1 MHz 1.0E+07
10 MHz 1.0E+08
100 MHz 1.0E+09
1 GHz 1.0E+10

Frequency [Hz]
Supplemental performance data (SPD): It is not guaranteed by the product warranty.
Represents the value of a parameter that is most likely to occur; the expected mean or average.

69
10% measurement accuracy range
Gain-Phase test port

1.E+06

1.E+05
100 kΩ

1.E+04
10 kΩ

1 1.E+03

GP Series
Impedance [Ohm]

1.E+02
100 Ω

1.E+01
10 Ω

1 1.E+00
Ω

1.E-01
100 mΩ
GP Shunt
1.E-02
10 mΩ

1 1.E-03

1.E-04
1.0E+00 1.0E+01
10 Hz 1.0E+02
100 Hz 1.0E+03
1 kHz 1.0E+04
10 kHz 1.0E+05
100 kHz 1.0E+06
1 MHz 1.0E+07
10 MHz 1.0E+08
100 MHz 1.0E+09
1 GHz 1.0E+10

Frequency [Hz]
Supplemental performance data (SPD): It is not guaranteed by the product warranty.
Represents the value of a parameter that is most likely to occur; the expected mean or average.

70
Measurement Methods Summary
Configuration & Test port & Method
Impedance range S-Parameter (5 Hz - 3 GHz) Gain-Phase (5 Hz - 30 MHz)
Port 1-2 Series GP Series (T: 50Ω, R: 1MΩ)
User 4-terminal pair
Series-thru,
Mid - High

Port 1 Refl
7-mm
Reflection,
Mid

Port 1-2 Shunt GP Shunt (T: 50Ω, R: 50Ω)


User User
Shunt-thru,
Low - Mid

(Splitter)

71
Test Fixtures (1)
7 mm test fixture with
16201A

Reflection method
(S-Parameter, Port 1) 16092A
5 Hz to 3 GHz

16201A

4-terminal pair test


fixture
Series-thru method
(Gain-Phase, T 50Ω, R 1MΩ)
5 Hz to 30 MHz

16047E

72
Test Fixtures (2)
S-Parameter test port (Reflection method)

Test Fixtures available in actual FW: (None), 16191A, 16192A, 16193A, 16194A, 16196A/B/C, 16197A,
(User)

73
Test Fixtures (3)
Gain-Phase test port (Series-thru method)

74
E5061B demonstration

Next pages contain slides for supporting discussion during


demonstration

75
Calibration and Fixture Compensation (1)

76
Calibration and Fixture Compensation (2)

Impedance calibration Low-Loss Capacitor Calibration


When you measure Q, D, and ESR of RF
The impedance calibration executes the capacitors and RF inductors by using the
open/short/load (and optional low-loss-C) reflection method (with the 16201A), performing
the low-loss capacitor (LLC) calibration in
calibration in the impedance domain after addition to the open/short/load improves the
accuracy at high frequencies over 1GHz. The
the measured S-parameter or gain-phase LLC provides a reference for calibration with
ratio data is converted to impedance. respect to the 90°-phase component of
[Cal] > Calibrate > Impedance Calibration impedance. LLC is available with 16195B CalKit.

Fixture compensation
- The open/short (and optional load)
compensation eliminates the fixture’s Open/Short Compensation and Z Port
residual impedance and stray admittance. Extension
The recommended fixture compensation method
-The electrical length compensation up to a few hundreds of MHz is the open/short
(selecting fixture type, or Z port extension) compensation.
For the measurement at higher frequencies over
eliminates the phase shift error that occurs a few hundreds of MHz, it is recommended to
at 7 mm fixtures in the RF range. perform the combination of the fixture electrical
length compensation and the open/short
[Cal] > Fixture Compen > Compensate compensation.

77
Z measurement with Network Analyzer (1)
Reflection method
Middle Zdut

S11=VT/VR
50

50 50

Zdut 50
VT 50 VR

78
VNA Uncertainties Calculator
S11 Magnitude Accuracy
E5061B 3L5 (RSS) with 85033E Calibration Kit
0.05
S21 = S12 = 0; Cal power = -10 dBm; Meas power = -10 dBm
IF Bandwidth = 1 Hz; Average Factor = 1
1MHz
0.04
Uncertainty (Linear)

0.03

0.02

0.01

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Reflection Coefficient (Linear)

79
Impedance Uncertainty

Reflection method: Impedance Uncertainty


30.0

25.0

20.0
Uncertainty (%)

15.0

10.0

5.0

0.0
1.0E-01 1.0E+00 1.0E+01 1.0E+02 1.0E+03 1.0E+04
Impedance (Ohm)

80
Reflection method Configuration example

1609x test fixture

• For middle Z-range


• Need Open/Short/Load cal
16201A/001) +
16195B

short P/N 0699-2829


SMD 50 ohm
10 uH inductor measurement
Test freq=100 kHz to 100 MHz
Source= -10 dBm, IFBW=Auto / 100 Hz-limit

Open/Short/Load cal at fixture


DUT
1 kohm
10 uH
|Z| [ohm]

Ls [henry]

60 dB
(=1 kohm)

20*log |Z| [dB]

81
Typical configuration examples
for S-Parameter Reflection method (Low-Mid Z, up to 3 GHz)
- E5061B options
E5061B Network Analyzer
E5061B-3L5 LF-RF NA with DC bias
E5061B-005 Impedance analysis function for LF-RF NA (*1)
---------------------------------------------------------------
E5061B-1E5 High stability time base
E5061B-020 Standard hard disk drive
E5061B-810 Add key board
E5061B-820 Add mouse

- Adapter for connecting fixtures


16201A 7 mm terminal adapter kit
16201A-001(*2) 7 mm terminal adapter kit for E5061B

- 7 mm calibration kit
16195B (open/short/load + low-loss capacitor)

- 7 mm test fixtures
16092A (SMD & leaded component, 500 MHz) 16092A

(*1) E5061B-005 is not applicable to the E5061B RF NA option: 1x5 / 2x5 / 1x7 / 2x7.
(*2) Option 001 is the only option for the 16201A. Must choose this option when ordering the 16201A.

82
Reflection method: Home-made fixtures

To
Cal devices
SMA receptacle Port-1

Copper foil (GND)


50 ohm
DUT Open Short Load resistor
(soldered between
center pin and GND)

83
Z measurement with Network Analyzer (2)
Series-thru method
Middle to large Zdut, no grounded DUT

50
Zdut
50 50
S21=VT/VR
50
VT 50 VR

84
10% measurement accuracy range (E5061B, S-Parameter test
port) E5061B (SPD)
100 S-Parameter, Series-thru

1.E+05
10 kΩ
1.E+04 E5061B (SPD)
1 kΩ S-Parameter, Reflection
1.E+03
100 Ω
1.E+02
10 Ω
Impedance [Ohm]

1.E+01

1.E+00
100

1.E-01
10 mΩ

1.E-02
1 mΩ

1.E-03
100 100 100
10 Hz 1 kHz 10 kHz 1 MHz 10 MHz 1 GHz
1.E-04 Hz kHz MHz
1.E+00 1.E+01 1.E+02 1.E+03 1.E+04 1.E+05 1.E+06 1.E+07 1.E+08 1.E+09 1.E+10
Frequency [Hz]
Definitions
- Specification (Spec): Warranted performance. Specifications include guardbands to account for the expected statistical performance distribution,
measurement uncertainties, and changes in performance due to environmental conditions.
- Supplemental performance data (SPD): Represents the value of a parameter that is most likely to occur; the expected mean or average. It is not
guaranteed by the product warranty.

For more details about conditions for defining accuracy, please refer to the Data Sheet.

85
10% measurement accuracy range (E5061B, Gain-Phase test
port)
1.E+05
100

10 kΩ
1.E+04
E5061B (SPD)
Gain-Phase, Series-thru
1 kΩ
1.E+03

100 Ω
1.E+02
Impedance [Ohm]

10 Ω
4-terminal pair test
1.E+01
fixture

1.E+00

100
1.E-01

10 mΩ
1.E-02

1 mΩ
1.E-03

1.E-04 100 100 100


1.E+00 10 Hz
1.E+01 1.E+02 1 kHz
1.E+03 10 kHz
1.E+04 1.E+05 1 MHz
1.E+06 10 MHz
1.E+07 1.E+08 1 GHz
1.E+09 1.E+10
Hz kHz MHz
Frequency [Hz]

Definitions
- Specification (Spec): Warranted performance. Specifications include guardbands to account for the expected statistical performance distribution,
measurement uncertainties, and changes in performance due to environmental conditions.
- Supplemental performance data (SPD): Represents the value of a parameter that is most likely to occur; the expected mean or average. It is not
guaranteed by the product warranty.

For more details about conditions for defining accuracy, please refer to the Data Sheet.

86
Series-thru method with gain-phase test port (<=30 MHz)
• For middle to large Z-range
• Need Open/Short/Load cal at fixture

4-Terminal-Pair type fixture 4TP fixture


Zdut Hp
Lc Lp Hc
T R LF OUT
Zin=50 ohm Zin=1 Mohm 1 nF capacitor measurement
Test freq=100 Hz to 30 MHz
+ Source=7 dBm, IFBW=Auto / 20 Hz-limit
50
VT VR
Internal DC bias
applicable to
capacitive DUTs

1 nF |Z| [ohm]
Calibration
100 kohm
Examples of load: Cp [farad]
open
P/N 0699-2829
SMD 50 ohm
short bar 20*log(|Z|) [dB]
P/N 0699-2014 100 dB
Axial-lead 50 ohm (=100 kohm)
50 ohm R (ESL = approx. 14 nH
with minimum lead length)

87
Typical configuration examples
for Gain-Phase Series-thru method (Mid-High Z, up to 30 MHz)

- E5061B options
E5061B Network Analyzer
E5061B-3L5 LF-RF NA with DC bias
E5061B-005 Impedance analysis function for LF-RF NA (*1)
---------------------------------------------------------------
E5061B-720 50 Ω resistor set
E5061B-720
50 Ω resistor set contains the following items for
the impedance calibration at the test fixture:
- SMD 50 Ω (0699-2929), 10 ea
- Leaded 50 Ω (5012-8646), 2 ea
- Tweezers (8710-2018), 1 ea

E5061B-1E5 High stability time base


E5061B-020 Standard hard disk drive
E5061B-810 Add key board
E5061B-820 Add mouse

- 4-terminal pair test fixtures


16047E (leaded component)
16034E (SMD), or 16034G (for SMD)
16034E 16047E

(*1) E5061B-005 is not applicable to the E5061B RF NA option: 1x5 / 2x5 / 1x7 / 2x7.

88
Series-thru method: Home-made fixtures

50 ohm DUT
short resistor Terminal To R-port
wire block (Zin=1 Mohm)

Cal devices

To T-port From
(Zin=50 ohm) LF OUT

BNC(f)
receptacle
Copper board (GND)

89
Z measurement with Network Analyzer (3)
Shunt-thru method
Small Zdut

S21=VT/VR
50

50 50

50 Zdut
VT 50 VR

90
10% measurement accuracy range (E5061B, S-Parameter test
port)
1.E+05
100

10 kΩ
1.E+04
E5061B (SPD)
1 kΩ
1.E+03 S-Parameter,
Reflection

100 Ω
1.E+02
Impedance [Ohm]

10 Ω
1.E+01


1.E+00

100
1.E-01

10 mΩ
1.E-02
E5061B (SPD)
1 mΩ S-Parameter, Shunt-
1.E-03 thru

1.E-04 100 100 100


1.E+00 10 Hz
1.E+01 1.E+02 1 kHz
1.E+03 10 kHz
1.E+04 1.E+05 1 MHz
1.E+06 10 MHz
1.E+07 1.E+08 1 GHz
1.E+09 1.E+10
Hz kHz MHz
Frequency [Hz]

Definitions
- Specification (Spec): Warranted performance. Specifications include guardbands to account for the expected statistical performance distribution,
measurement uncertainties, and changes in performance due to environmental conditions.
- Supplemental performance data (SPD): Represents the value of a parameter that is most likely to occur; the expected mean or average. It is not
guaranteed by the product warranty.

For more details about conditions for defining accuracy, please refer to the Data Sheet.

91
10% measurement accuracy range (E5061B, Gain-Phase test
port)
1.E+05
100

10 kΩ
1.E+04

1 kΩ
1.E+03

100 Ω
1.E+02
Impedance [Ohm]

10 Ω
1.E+01


1.E+00

100
1.E-01

10 mΩ
1.E-02
E5061B (SPD)
1 mΩ Gain-Phase, Shunt-
1.E-03
thru

1.E-04 100 100 100


1.E+00 10 Hz
1.E+01 1.E+02 1 kHz
1.E+03 10 kHz
1.E+04 1.E+05 1 MHz
1.E+06 10 MHz
1.E+07 1.E+08 1 GHz
1.E+09 1.E+10
Hz kHz MHz
Frequency [Hz]

Definitions
- Specification (Spec): Warranted performance. Specifications include guardbands to account for the expected statistical performance distribution,
measurement uncertainties, and changes in performance due to environmental conditions.
- Supplemental performance data (SPD): Represents the value of a parameter that is most likely to occur; the expected mean or average. It is not
guaranteed by the product warranty.

For more details about conditions for defining accuracy, please refer to the Data Sheet.

92
Shunt-thru method
• For small Z-range (down to milliohms / sub-
milliohms)

• Calibration method depending on


measurement configuration and test
With
freq S-param. test port (<= 3 GHz):
For most of capacitors, and PCB measurements |Z| [ohm]
(Linear scale)

20*log(|Z|) [dB]

Test board

Z-phase [deg] S21 [dB]


With gain-phase test port (<= 30 MHz):
For very-large capacitors (milli-farad order), DC-DC converters MLCC (Multi-layer ceramic chip)
measurement in broad freq. range
- Test freq=100 Hz to 1 GHz.

T: Zin=50 ohm
R: Zin=50 ohm

93
Equivalent Circuit Analysis (1) Equivalent
Circuit Analysis

Simulate =
“ON”
memory trace

e.g., Ceramic
Resonator (Type E
circuit)

# Equivalent Circut
# ----C0----
# -| |-
# -L1-C1-R1-

Type, E
R1, 6.94624374266e+000
L1, 6.79827222119e-003
C1, 2.45000000000e-011
C0, 3.47238726000e-010

94
Equivalent Circuit Analysis (2)
Equivalent
Circuit
Analysis Generally suitable for…
Typical freq. characteristics

Inductors with high core


loss *1

Inductors with high winding resistance


or resistors with low resistance value *1

Resistors with high resistance


value *1

Capacitors
*1

Resonator
*2

*1.
*2.

95
End of E5061B demonstration

96
Methods and Fixtures Summary Low-Z Mid-Z High-Z
~ 100
1 mΩ ~ 1Ω 1 kΩ
Test port kΩ
S-Parameter Gain-Phase Applicable
(5 Hz - 3 GHz) (5 Hz - 30 MHz) Z-range

Port 1 Refl / Port 2 Refl


Reflection

S1
1

Mid
7-mm type fixtures

Port 1-2 Series GP Series (T 50Ω, R 1MΩ)


Configuration

S2 1MΩ input
Series

TR
1

Mid -
High 4-Terminal Pair type
fixtures
Port 1-2 Shunt GP Shunt (T 50Ω, R 50Ω) Shunt Series
Power
Shunt

splitter
S21 TR

Low -
Mid
User fixtures are required

97
Summary of Impedance measurement methods

98
Impedance Analysis (E5061B-005) Summary

NA+ZA in one box Supports ZA functions


Provides comprehensive solutions as general R&D Fully supports traditional ZA functions as shown
tool: below:
- Characterize components (ZA) - Display Z parameters (Z, θz, Ls, Cp, Rs, D, Q, …)
- Evaluate system performance (NA: S21, T/R) - Impedance Cal. & Fixture Compen
- Cost effective 5 Hz to 3 GHz impedance analyzer - Equivalent circuit analysis
with moderate performance

Migrate legacy combo analyzer Covers moderate Z range


(4195A, 4395/96x, 4194A, 4192A)
Easy to migrate by supporting conventional test Covers various ZA applications with three
fixtures: measurement techniques using both S-Parameter
- 7 mm test fixtures (S-Parameter Reflection and Gain-Phase test ports (up to several tens kΩ,
method) down to around mΩ):
- 4TP test fixtures (Gain-Phase Series-thru method) - Reflection method (S-Para.)
- Series-thru method (S-Para./Gain-Phase)
- Shunt-thru method (S-Para./Gain-Phase)

99
Agenda
1. Introduction
2. Impedance Basics & Measurement Methods
3. LCR Meters
4. Impedance Analyzers
5. Accessories/test-fixtures
6. Vector Network Analyzers
• E5061B VNA as Impedance Analyzer
7. Reference Documents + Q&A

100
Key Reference Document
Selection Guide

5952-1530E: Agilent LCR Meters, Impedance Analyzers, and Test Fixtures Selection Guide

Brief introduction of Agilent


LCR and Impedance
measurement solution

Test accessories / fixtures


compatibility chart

101
Key Reference Document
Accessories Selection Guide

5965-4792E: Accessories Selection Guide For Impedance Measurements

Tips for selecting


appropriate
accessories

Detailed information on
each accessories

102
Key Reference Document
Impedance Measurement Handbook

5950-3000; Impedance Measurement Handbook

Deep discussion on each


measurement method

Tips for accurate fixturing

103
Thank You!

104