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Welding of Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) Alloys: A


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Conference Paper · November 2012

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Proceedings National Graduate Conference 2012 (NatGrad2012),
Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Putrajaya Campus, 8-10 Nov 2012

Welding of Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) Alloys: A Review


Yassin Mustafa Ahmed1, Khairul Salleh Mohamed Sahari1, M. Ishak2
1
Center for Advanced Mechatronics and Robotics, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang,
Selangor Malaysia.
2
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, 26600 Pekan, Pahang , Malaysia.

E-mail: aryazerak@yahoo.com or yassinmustafa@yahoo.com

Abstract: Titanium weldment is one of the most widely I. INTRODUCTION


used metals industrial due to its superior physical and Metal structures are a very common sight everywhere
mechanical properties. Titanium weldment can be seen in and anywhere. The beautiful and attractive metal structures
most of the aerospace, medical and industrial products. camouflage the reason behind their existence, welding.
Generally, we can perform welding on the titanium and its The process of welding has been a part of these products
alloy by many different welding processes. During the for more years than one might imagine.
welding process there are a lot of problems which can The world population has been predicted to reach 9
occur. (HAZ), distortions or changes at the mechanical billion by 2045; hence the pressures on manufacturing,
properties and microstructures which affects the metals, infrastructure, power generation will escalate apart from
leading to failure of the product and consequently loss of the basic needs, such as food, water, shelter and education
[1].
effort and cost and time, and even sometimes lives of
The process of welding actually started a very long
people. This paper investigated the significance of
time ago, particularly during the Middle Ages. Many
titanium, which can be welded by using many different artifacts (small boxes) have been found, which date back
welding processes. This study has identified that the to the Bronze Age. These small boxes were welded
titanium weldment has been widely used in various fields together with lap joints; however, no one is exactly sure
all over the world, and the welding method relies on the what these boxes were used for, however these boxes
purpose of the product .It can also be said that the best might have served important purpose during those period,
way to weld titanium and its alloy is by using GTAW and nevertheless the welding process has evolved since
welding. then[1].

Keywords- (Ti-6Al-4V) Titanium Alloys; arc welding; Welding is a method of repairing or creating metal
Gas Metal Arc Welding; Gas Tungsten ; Arc Welding; structures by joining the pieces of metals or plastic through
Titanium weldment. various fusion processes. Generally, heat is used to weld
the materials. Welding equipments can utilize open flames,
Nomenclature electric arc or laser light.
GMAW Gas Metal Arc Welding
GTAW Gas Tungsten Arc Welding There were several significant inventions in the welding
process as illustrated in the chart shown in figure 1:
PAW Plasma arc welding
EBW Electron-beam welding
LBW Laser-beam welding II. TITANIUM WELDING PROCESSES:-
FRW Friction welding Titanium and many of the titanium alloys are readily
RW Resistance welding weldable, using several welding processes. In recent years,
DW Diffusion welding titanium has become a chief material of majority of
EW Explosive welding manufacturing industries (Figure 2). Due to its chemical,
BW Brazing Welding physical and mechanical properties, titanium has to be
MMAW Manual Metal Arc Welding processed differently from conventional alloys [4]. The
following fusion-welding processes are used for joining
HAZ Heat Effected Zone
titanium and titanium alloys [5]:
Proceedings National Graduate Conference 2012 (NatGrad2012),
Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Putrajaya Campus, 8-10 Nov 2012

MASTER CHART OF WELDING AND ALLIED PROCESSES

Figure 1. welding Methods [3]


Proceedings National Graduate Conference 2012 (NatGrad2012),
Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Putrajaya Campus, 8-10 Nov 2012

ensure that it is sufficiently shielded. By contrast,


resistance welding (spot welding, seam welding), which
does not cause the base metal being welded to be exposed
to the air; therefore it can be generally applied to titanium.
Since titanium has higher specific resistance than steel, it
can be welded with a lower current. Furthermore, it does
not impose any limitations on the welding equipment [7].

A lot papers are available in the literature that deal with


applications for titanium welding, including: -

J. Sorina-M ller [8] has stated the use of FEM


simulation of the linear friction welding of titanium alloy
(Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Cr-6Mo) (Figure 3). A full structural–
thermal coupled transient 3D-analysis was conducted. The
Figure 2. Performance Advantages [3] temperature evolution was calculated at any point of time
1- Gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW) during the whole process of the linear welding, until the
oscillation completely stops, and the axial shortening was
2- Gas-metal arc welding (MIG) or (GMAW)
calculated as a function of process time for every part
3- Plasma arc welding (PAW) separately and for the both together, they have also
4- Electron-beam welding (EBW) considered the friction flux, as a result of movement
5- Laser-beam welding (LBW) between the two specimens, heat conduction from the
6- Friction welding (FRW) rubbing interface to the bulk of the specimens, convection
7- Resistance welding (RW) losses to the surrounding air as well as thermal contact
8- Diffusion welding (DW) conductance in the faying areas directly, which could be
achieved due to the three-dimensional modeling, and
9- Explosive welding (EW)
considers the variation with time of the surface contact
10- Brazing welding area, material’s properties and the frictional parameters,
with the properties and friction coefficient of the material
changing with temperature.
III. GENERAL USES OF TITANIUM:-
Titanium is used in many applications in the construction
of industrial equipment such as [6]:-

1- Heat exchangers
2- Piping systems in the chemicals
3- Offshore industries
4- Process instrumentation such as pumps and valves
5- Aircraft construction
6- Medical implants
7- Sports goods such as tennis rackets and golf clubs
8- Spectacle frames
9- Jewellery
10- Paint pigmentation
11- Paper and many other industries

IV. USING OF TITANIUM WELDMENT:- Figure 3. Friction welding [8]

Since titanium has excellent corrosion resistance, high E. Akman [9] has studied about (Ti-6Al-4V) titanium
specific tensile strength and good workability, it is widely alloys welded by Laser welding (Figure 4). He has
used for automotive parts, heat-exchanger plates, etc. identified that laser welding techniques can provide a
However, as far as the weldability of titanium is significant benefit for the welding of titanium alloys
concerned, there are a number of problems, which need because of its precision and rapid processing capability.
special attention, because during welding process titanium For pulse mode Nd:YAG laser welding, pulse shape,
is heated hence, it easily combines with oxygen and energy, duration, repetition rate and peak power are the
nitrogen in the air and its mechanical properties most important parameters that directly or synergistically
deteriorate. Furthermore during arc welding of titanium influence the quality of pulsed seam welds. Moreover he
the metal can be exposed to air, hence, it is necessary to has examined the welding parameters for joining a 3-mm
Proceedings National Graduate Conference 2012 (NatGrad2012),
Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Putrajaya Campus, 8-10 Nov 2012

thick titanium alloy, using the Lumonics JK760TR


Nd:YAG pulsed laser. E.Akman has found that, the ratio
between the pulse energy and pulse duration is the most
important parameter in defining the depth of penetration.
Furthermore he has noted that variation of pulse duration
at constant peak power has no influence on the depth of
penetration. Consequently, to increase the depth of
penetration during welding, the role of the laser
parameters such as, pulse energy and duration and peak
power have been investigated to join 3mm thick (Ti-6Al-
4V).
Figure 5. ( GTAW) welding [14]

X X
H. Zuhailawati [15] has welded titanium with nickel by
Welding Direction
Spot Resistance Welding; she has studied the shear
Z strength and micro-structural characteristics of the spot
brazed titanium and nickel base metal with and without
Z
addition of filler metal. To comprehend the influence of
Filter Shielding Gas welding on the final properties of the joints the strength of
50mm Shielding Gas the joints was assessed using a shear test mode, and the
15mm
microstructure was studied using an optical microscope,
31.6mm
Y Welding Direction Y scanning electron microscope, and energy-dispersive
(a(a)
)
(b) spectroscopy.

Fu Xin Wang [16] has used Micro-plasma arc welding to


weld Ultra-thin Titanium plates. It is widely used in
manufacture of thin-walled titanium tubes, automobile
parts, medical and other industrial fields, is an excellent
structural material.

Figure 4. Laser welding [9] K. Szymlek [17] has reviewed of methods of titanium and
steel welding. Based on this study it is evident that,
titanium can be joined with steel by means of explosive
Qi Yunlian [10] has compared three welding process, in a welding or brazing. Joining titanium with steel by TIG
study entitled "Electron beam welding, laser beam welding welding and friction welding methods is possible with the
and gas tungsten arc welding" titanium sheet , use of copper and tantalum or vanadium interlayer.
microstructures, properties and technical parameters of
welding specimen of 0.5 mm thick sheets of commercial V. DISCUSSION:
purity titanium (C.P. Ti) were studied. The results indicate
that, the EBW is more suitable for C.P. Ti sheets welding, Titanium and its alloys are very important in the
and the welding seam without any defects. industries. Most of welding methods can be applied to
titanium and its alloys. Selection of the best method to
weld titanium depends on the purpose of the product. The
Kato [11] has stated that Titanium (Ti/Ti) rods and interaction of oxygen with titanium and its alloys makes
titanium and stainless steel (Ti/SS) rods has been joined by the welding method by using inert gases, pressure welding
diffusion welding under phase transformation in an air or welding without heat is preferable. The fusion welding
atmosphere. method is preferred widely in the industry because the
durability and tensile strength of products are good. The
particles of base metal will be fused with particles of filler
Y-S.Kim [12] has revealed that the transition of metal metal due to heat the produced during welding process.
transfer mode in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) occurs There are several methods of Fusion welding by; using
much more gradually than is generally believed. inert gases, and table 1 shows a comparsion between
differint methods in titanium weldes : -

Rui Wang [13] has numerically and experimentally


studied the transient Distortion in Titanium alloy welded Based on table 1, it can be said that GTAW welding of is
by (GTAW) welding (Figure 5). the most suitable for welding of titanium and its alloy
Proceedings National Graduate Conference 2012 (NatGrad2012),
Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Putrajaya Campus, 8-10 Nov 2012

Table 1. Specifications of some welding process

Welding process
GMAW MMAW RW LBW EBW PAW DW FRW BW EW
GTAW
Specifications consumable

consumable

consumable

consumable

consumable

consumable

consumable
Non-

Non-

Non-

Non-

Non-

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil
Type of Electrode

Shock force

Shock force
Fusion and

Fusion and

explosion
Fractions
pressure

pressure
Fusions

Fusions

Fusions

Fusions

Fusions

Fusions

Fusions
of the

of the
Type of welding pool
protection

High-tech

High-tech

High-tech
Some

Some

Some

Some

Some
Techniques

little

little

little
Required

Required

Required

Required

Required
medium

medium

medium

medium
Required skills and
Low

Low

experience

Unsafe

Unsafe
Safe

Safe

Safe

Safe

Safe

Safe

Safe

Safe

Safe
Safety

Very Weak
very strong

very strong

very strong

Acceptable

Acceptable
Excellent

Excellent

Excellent

strong

Weak

Seam strength
High

High

High
Low

Low

Low

Low

Low
Fair

Fair

Fair

Cost
medium
Wide

Wide

Wide

Wide

close

close

close

close

close

close

Application

VI. CONCLUSION:-
Titanium can be welded by using many different
Due to the physical and mechanical properties, titanium technics in the welding industry. Titanium weldment has
has many benefits such as, high melting temperature and taken a wider range of uses in various fields of our life.
light weight compared with steel, expanded field of uses. By comparing the GTAW method with other welding
The problem of titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloys is methods show us that this method is the best way to
maintaining the titanium without changeing in metal welding titanium and its alloys. GTAW method is a safe
phase due to the rise in temperatures. Titanium weldment and minority-cost and does not require high skills at
requires high durability. By fusion welding methods can welders and also wide applications compared with other
making the weldment to be more durability . welding methods.
Proceedings National Graduate Conference 2012 (NatGrad2012),
Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Putrajaya Campus, 8-10 Nov 2012

ACKNOWLEDGMENT [9] E. Akman, A. Demir, T. Canel, T. Sınmazcelik., “Laser welding of


Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloys” Journal of Materials Processing
We would thank University Tenaga Nasional Technology 209, pp. 3705–3713, 2009.
(UNITEN) for all the support given to complete this [10] Qi Yunlian, Ju Deng, Hong Quan, Zeng Liying, “Electron beam
work. welding, laser beam welding and gas tungsten
arc welding of titanium sheet”, Materials Science and
Engineering: A ,Vol. 280, Issue 1, 15, pp 177-181, March 2000.
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and Ti/stainless steel rods under phase transformation in air”.
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Metals”, 2006. 409(5), April 1986.
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Allied Processes”, 2005.
[4] Moaz H. Ali , Basim A. Khidhir, Bashir Mohamed, R. [13] Rui Wang, Li Dongfeng, Xinli Han, Jianxun Zhang, “Experimental
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