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PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA

Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

Violations against women and children have occurred ever since mankind

appeared in this world; it is attached as part of our culture in other tribes and

other indigenous groups. It is recognized today as a major social problem. This

violence includes a wide range of violations of women’s human rights including

sexual, economic, psychological, and physical abuse.

According to Annan (1998), Violence against women is perhaps the most

shameful human rights violation and it is perhaps the most pervasive. It knows no

boundaries of geography, culture or wealth. As long as it continues, we cannot

claim to be making real progress towards equality, development and peace.

Before the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was proclaimed by

the United Nation General Assembly in Paris on the 10 thday of December 1948,

different types of violation are already committed on every woman around the

world. The creation of UDHR, serves as a passage for many international

organizations that advocates the strengthening of gender equality in all part of

the globe, but still it failed to eradicate the massive number of violations against

women.

Infante (1975) pointed out that the weak nature of women and children

makes it very easy for them to be used. Their competence and authority in public
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Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

matters such as inter- and intra- community relations and understanding of

custom law and ancestry is held in little regard.

Historically, in Roman times, children were the chattels of their father. Under

the civil code of Napoleon Bonaparte, the father was awarded full control of his

wife’s property and full authority over his children until they came of age (Ebbe,

2010). The father then will likely abuse his wife economically and treat his

children as personal property.

The case in the Philippines is not different from other countries, multi-

dimensional violence against women and children are committed every now and

then. During the late 1900's there are number of laws created for the protection

of women and children such as R.A 8505 also known as the Rape Victims

Assistance and Protection Act of 1998 and R.A 9208 also known as Anti-

Trafficking In Persons Act of 2003, but these laws aren’t enough to lessen the

continuing number of domestic violence. According to the report of Philippine

National Police (PNP) from 1997-2003, it shows that 83,012 cases are being

recorded and categorized as violations against women and children. The findings

indicated that Violence against women and children is a serious problem of the

society.

On the 8th day of March 2004 under the term of former President Gloria

Macapagal Arroyo, R.A 9262 also known as “Anti- Violence Against Women and

their Children Act of 2004" was enacted by the Congress. It is a guiding principle
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Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

from the 1987 Philippine Constitution under Article. II Sec. 11 stating that; “the

state shall value the dignity of every human person and guarantee full respect of

human right” and Sec. 14 states that; “the state recognizes the role of women in

nation building, and shall ensure the fundamental equality before the law of

women and man.” Section 3 of R.A 9262 defines violence against women and

their children as: "any act or a series of acts committed by any person against a

woman who is his wife, former wife, or against a woman with whom the person

has or had a sexual or dating relationship, or with whom he has a common child,

or against her child whether legitimate or illegitimate, within or without the family

abode, which result in or is likely to result in physical, sexual, psychological harm

or suffering, or economic abuse including threats of such acts, battery, assault,

coercion, harassment or arbitrary deprivation of liberty”.

The programs under R.A 9262 serve as tools to protect women and children

against all types of violence. As Section 2 of this provision states that "the state

shall value the dignity of women and their children and guarantees full respect for

human rights, the protection of family and its number particularly women and

children, from violence and threats to their personal safety and security.

Likewise, the effectiveness of the services depends on the proper

implementation of the LGU and other administrative agencies as the partner of

the state which aims to prevent, stop or eradicate all types of domestic violence

and promote the General welfare of Women and Children. It has a vital role in

building the gender equality in the Philippines. Also the provisions provide
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Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

services for the victims that will help them in their physical, mental and emotional

recovery.

This study is focused on the implemented programs and services for the

victims under R.A 9262. This study is an assessment of the victim’s condition

and their satisfaction based on the provisions provided by the law through a

survey that was conducted by the researchers. Valenzuela City was used as

provider of resources, specifically of the respondents and other information for

the matter to achieve the desired result of the researchers. Toward the end of

this study, the findings will explain the effectiveness of the mandatory programs

and services implemented and how it helps improve the conditions of the victims

under it.

Conceptual Framework

The data processing that consists of input, process and output served as the

pattern to illustrate the conceptual framework of the study.

In the study input consists of the variables relative to the services and

programs provided by the CSWDO of the City Government of Valenzuela to the

VAWC victims. The said programs and services were based on the Section 40 of

RA 9262 and therefore can be classified into variables needed to further describe

the concept of the study. Variables include shelters, temporary shelters,

counseling, psychological assistance, recovery assistance, rehabilitation

programs, livelihood and medical assistance and legal assistance. These


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Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

provided services are needed for evaluation that would undergo through the

process of applying different methods and tests in order to seek answers which

would formulate the result of the study. The feedback from the output was based

on the result of the programs that would be generated and will reflect the final

status and evaluation of the variables that was used to conceptualize the input of

this study.

The processes that were used in the study are quantitative. It consists of a

survey to assess the effectiveness of the programs and services, and satisfaction

towards it to create the desired results.

The output is the final result that will give the information that will be used as

the basis for development of the programs and services for the victims of

violation.
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PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

Conceptual framework

Input Process Output

 Survey
questionnaire
 50 Respondents Level of
 Profile of the  Conduct a satisfaction on
Respondents survey programs for
 Mandatory
programs and victims of R.A
services 9262 in Val.
City

FEEDBACK

Figure1.Paradigm of the study


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PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

Statement of the Problem

This study sought to determine how City Government of Valenzuela provides

services to those women and children victims of violence.

Specifically, it aimed to answers to the following:

1. What is the socio-demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:

1.1 Age;

1.2 Civil status;

1.3 Educational attainment; and

1.4 Violence encountered ?

2. What is the perceived satisfaction of the respondents on the programs

for women and children victims of violence under R.A 9262 in Valenzuela city in

terms of:

2.1Temporary Shelter;

2.2 Counseling or Psychological Services;

2.3 Recovery and Rehabilitation programs;

2.4 Livelihood assistance; and

2.5 Medical assistance ?

3. What policy recommendation can be proposed ?


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Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

Significance of the Study

This study is important because its findings may acquire data which if

collected may be used as a foundation for other LGU’s to cooperate with the

implementation of the Mandatory Programs and Services for Victims as provided

in Section 40 of R.A. 9262. Other than that, this developing study may help in

understanding the needs of the sectors that belong and comprise this program. It

can also serve as a guide for the future researcher that will come up with the

same study, to fully understand the problem and give the necessary answer on it.

The result of the study may benefit and help the victims, the Local Government of

Valenzuela City especially social service providers (DSWD and CSWDO), other

researchers and future researcher for enhancing the programs of R.A. 9262 in

Valenzuela City.

Victims. They are the primary focus of this study because they are the

main subject of the Mandatory Programs and Services of Section 40 of

R.A.9262. The key emphasis of the government is to maintain and establish the

basic services that the people under the marginalized and indigent sector needs

by forming this kind of program for the masses. By its implementation, the

chance for these people to sustain their needs will be somewhat achieved. The

study will benefit them in a way where they can evaluate and send out their own

opinions and ideas about the effectiveness and status of the program.
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PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) and City

Social Welfare and Development Office (CSWDO).This study will strength the

program implementation and continue in providing necessary resources that can

help the victims.

Local Government of Valenzuela City. The results of this study will

contribute in helping the City government of Valenzuela in promoting awareness

of the current status and functionality of the program. As the main sponsor and

financial provider, they are the responsible in the value of the implementation of

the program to their people.

Community. In general, this study will serve as an eye opener to the

public enabling them to safe guard and respect each other’s right and make them

realize that violating these right would lead to severe punishment and other legal

implications.

Future Researchers. This research will serve as a reference for future

researchers who will conduct study with the same area. It may also serve as their

baseline data to their studies. This study will give knowledge to the future

researchers where they will benefit in a way that they are guided and provided

with more references of information.


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Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

Scope and Limitation

The study was conducted at Valenzuela City, the respondents of the study

comprise of women and children victims of violence. The respondents compose

of 50 victims based on the available recorded data on the City Government of

Valenzuela with compliance to the R.A 9262. To get the proper understanding of

this study, the researchers conducted a survey to assess the programs and

services provided by the R.A 9262

The study is limited to the victims who are women and children only and is

based on the available data recorded by the office of CSWDO from the year

2013 up to 2015. Also, the study is focused on the assessment of mandatory

programs and services given to the victims.

Definition of Terms

To better understand for the research study, the following technical terms

used in the study are defined as follows:

Children – refers to those below eighteen (18) years of age and are

incapable of taking care of themselves.

Programs and Services - refers to the mandatory programs of R.A. 9262

which is implemented for the need of the victims.


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PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

Victims - the women and children who experienced violence and are

recorded in the data with compliance of R.A. 9262 in the City Government of

Valenzuela.

Violence against women and their children - refers to any act or a series

of acts committed by any person against a woman who is his wife, former wife, or

against a woman with whom the person has or had a sexual or dating

relationship, or with whom he has a common child, or against her child whether

legitimate or illegitimate, within or without the family abode, which result in or is

likely to result in physical, sexual, psychological harm or suffering, or economic

abuse including threats of such acts, battery, assault, coercion, harassment or

arbitrary deprivation of liberty.

Women - refers to an adult female 18 years old or above, whether married

or unmarried.