Eddy current

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Eddy current

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3. BASIC ELECTRICITY

Basic Theory of Eddy Current Testing

electrons through a conductor.

Symbol I

ampere

µA (micro-amperes)1/1000000 (0:000001)

of an ampere

Electrons:

consists of a heavy nucleus containing positively charged protons

around which orbit negatively charged electrons similar to the planets

orbiting the sun. The number of protons equals the number of electrons

and their positive/negative attraction balanced with the centrifugal

forces of the spinning electrons hold the electrons in orbits. Those

electrons orbiting farthest away leave the orbit and flow freely through

the material to exchange orbits with other loosely bonded

electrons. Therefore- electron flow is a movement of loosely bonded

electrons.

Electrical Current Flow can be defined as – A unidirectional

flow of electrons through an electrical conductor. Electron flow

cannot exist in a non-conductor.

Undirectional Flow:

Flow can only be in one direction. The forces acting to cause, flow can be

impeded by a greater or lesser force. If the forces are equal there can be

no flow. If the impeding force is greater by X units of force flow will be

in the direction of the greater force.

Rectified Alternating Current

This "skin effect" limits the use of AC since many inspections call for the

detection of subsurface defects. However, the. convenient access to AC,

drive its use beyond surface flaw inspections. AC can be converted to a

current that is very much like DC by rectification. With the use of

rectifiers, the reversing-AC can be converted to a unidirectional current.

The three commonly used types of rectified current are described

below.

current is allowed to flow in only one direction.. The reverse half of each

cycle is blocked out so that a one directional, pulsating current is

produced. The current rises from zero to a maximum and then returns

to zero. No current flows during the time when the reverse cycle is

blocked out. The HWAC repeats at same rate as the unrectified current

(60 hertz typical). Since.half of the current is blocked out, the-amperage

is half of the unaltered AC.

The pulsation of the HWAC helps magnetic particle indications form by

vibrating the particles and giving them added mobility. This added

mobility is especially important when using dry particles. The pulsation

is reported to significantly improve inspection sensitivity. HWAC is

available in electromagnetic yokes.

Phase)

rather than blocking it out. This produces. a pulsating DC with no

interval between the pulses. Filtering is usually performed to soften the

sharp polarity switching in the rectified current. While particle mobility

is not as good as half-wave AC due to the reduction in pulsation, the

depth of the subsurface magnetic field is improved.

because it has more favorable power transmission and line loading

characteristics. It is also highly desirable for magnetic part testing

because when it is rectified and filtered, the resulting current very

closely resembles direct current. Stationary magnetic particle

equipment wire with three phase AC will usually have the ability to

magnetize with AC or DC (three phase full wave rectified), providing the

inspector with the advantages of each current form.

Basic Theory of Eddy Current Testing

Electrical Conductor:

Some materials are conductors where others are not. This is dependent

on the electrons that surround the nucleus of the atom, if these are

loosely held they will pass from one atom to the next if an electrical

force is applied to the material.

Non-Conductors

on the orbiting electrons. Non-conductors can become charged with

“static electricity” when rubbed vigorously against another non-

conductor. The action is to forcefully remove the outer electrons from

their stable orbit rendering the non-conductor positively charged. The

material will then stick to another non-conductor sharing the electrons

in an attempt to regain stability. Eventually this material will become

stable by capturing free electrons from the limitless supply within the

immediate environment.

Electrical Force

of energy that must be applied across the material to force the electrons

to flow. The potential energy required to cause current flow.

Symbol V (E)

SUB-UNIT commonly used are:

Potential Energy:

When a Hydroelectric dam is filled with water, the water in the dam

possesses potential energy provided by the earth's .gravity. When the

water is released down penstocks to the turbine, the potential energy is

converted to kinetic energy through the turbines to provide heat and

lights.

the battery's circuit is completed, electrons will flow by virtue of the

energy having the higher potential at the negative terminal, causing the

electrons to be pushed around the circuit to the positive terminal.

Eventually, the energy will be expended and the current will cease to

flow.

Electrical Resistance

resistance in a material is the factor tor that limits the amount of

current that flows through the material for a given electrical force. The

above example of the hydroelectric dam showed that the potential

energy of the water was not expended all at once, because it would time

for the water to empty down the penstocks, This is due to the fact that

the physical size of the penstock feeding the turbine offers resistance to

the rate of water flow.

Length of Pipe

Diameter of Pipe

Resistance

Diameter of wire

Resistance

conduct electron flow. From the earlier discussions we know that

electron flow is dependent on the ease with which the free electrons can

leave their orbit. Therefore a highly conductive material contains free

electrons loosely held in their orbit by virtue of their large distance from

the nucleus, and conversely a poor conductor contains free electrons

that are strongly held in their orbits.

Symbol Ω (R)

K Ω (milli-ohms) 1/1000 (0.001) of an ohm

Another word to refer to this is the Conductivity of the material. However this is

not a true relationship it is inversely proportional.

current. It is opposite of resistance. Materials that hace high resistance

have poor conductivity and materials that hace low resistance have high

conductivity. The unit of conductivity is called the “mho”.

Symbol

IACS: A percentage scale that relates the purest grade of copper as

having 100% conductivity and all more electrically resistive materials

as being some percentage less than 100%

OHMS Law: Ohms law states that in any electrical circuit current

flow (I) equals the driving voltage (V) or (E) divided by the circuit

resistance (R).

I = V/R or I = E/R

Resistivity:

This is the opposite of conductivity. For example, Copper, which is

highly conductive, has a very low resisitivity. (See hand out Table).

Symbol

Unit of Measure: µ Ω. CM

This can also be calculated from the % (IACS) Table as shown aby

formulae:

= 172.41 where = conductivity in IACS

= resistivity in micro-ohm. Centimeter

With this in mind we can now look at the true formulae for electrical resistance:

Resistance = Length x p

Area

From this Formula we can see that resistance to electron flow is:

1. Directly proportional to Length

The wire resistance is very small and can be calculated using the

following relationship of resistivity, length and area of the copper wire.

A sample calculation of resistivity in a copper wire follows:

measurement in a standards laboratory with a pure form of the

material, and the values obtained are listed in tables.

The following Table provides a list of the common metals and their

resistivity values, we will use often in this course presentation.

MATERIAL RESISTIVITY VALUE (µ?.cm)

Copper 1.72

Aluminum 4

Brass 7

Zirconium 50

304 Stainless Steel 72

Conductivity

The unit of conductivity s the International Annealed Copper Standard

(IACS), which relates all conductors by percent, to a pure grade of

annealed (stress relieved) copper.

the following relationship of conductivity to resistivity:

OHM’S LAW

Current = Electromotive Force

Resistance

I=E

R Amperes = Volts

OHMS

Resistance = Electromotive Force

Current

R=E

I OHMS = Volts

Amperes

Electromotive Force =

Current X Resistance

SERIES CIRCUITS

• Measure values of voltage and current in a series circuit.

Series circuits are characterized by the fact that they contain only one

path for current flow.

There are three rules concerning series circuits that, when used

with Ohm's Law, permit values of current, voltage, and resistance to

be determined.

Assume that an electron leaves the negative terminal of the battery

in Figure 3-1 and must travel to the positive terminal. Notice . that the

only path the electron can travel is through each resistor. Since there

is only one path for current flow, the current must be the same at any

point in the circuit. Regardless of where an ammeter is connected in the

circuit it will indicate the same value. The first rule concerning series

circuits states that the current must be the same at any point in the

circuit.

HELPFUL HINTS

current must be the same at any point in the circuit.

resistance is the sum of the individual resistances.

The third rule of series circuits states that the total voltage is

equal to the sum of the voltage drops around the circuit.

Another rule concerning circuits is that watts (power) will

add in any type of circuit.

PARALLEL CIRCUITS

Parallel circuits are characterized by the fact that they have more than

one path for current flow. There are three rules concerning parallel

circuits that, when used in conjunction -with Ohm's Law, permit values

of voltage, current, and resistance to be determined for almost any

parallel circuit. As with series circuits, the total power consumption of

the circuit is the sum of the power consumption of each component of

the circuit.

HELPFUL HINTS

The first rule of parallel circuits --- the total current is the

sum of the currents through each branch of the circuit.

across all branches of a parallel circuit.

The third rule for parallel circuits -- the reciprocal of the total

resistance is equal to the sum of the reciprocals of each

branch.

amount of current flowing through each is known, the resistance of

each branch can be determined using Ohm's Law:

(HINT)

The total resistance of a parallel circuit will always be less than the

resistance of any single branch.

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