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Activity 4: Fundamentals of Materials

Due Date: Monday, January 29th, before class.

Delivery form: Blackboard
Description: Answer the following questions.
Jesus Eduardo Guardado Esparza A01381495
Individual assignment

Chapter 1: The Structure of Materials

1. Explain your understanding of why the study of the crystal

structures of metals is important.
R: To overall performance of the material in regard to
manufacturing and designs is largely determined by its crystal

2. Is it possible for two piece of the same metal to have different

recrystallization temperatures? Is it possible for recrystallization
to take place in some regions of a part before it does on other
regions of the same part? Explain your answer.
R: Two pieces of the same metal can have different recrystallization temperatures if the
pieces have been cold worked to different amounts. The piece that was cold worked to a
greater extent so it has a higher strains, and willa have more internal energy, to drive the
recrystallization process, hence its recrystallization temperature will be lower.

3. Describe your understanding of why different crystals structures

exhibit different strengths and ductilities.
R: The ductility of a metal is depent upon how many slips
systems be operative and different crystal structures have
different slip systems. A slip system has a slip plane and slip
direction. Also, the number of slip systems varies.

4. What materials and structures can you think of (other than metal)
that exhibit anisotropic behavior?
R: Wood, polymers cold worked, bone.
5. Two parts have been made of the same material, but one was
formed by cold working and the other by hot working. Explain
what differences we may observe on their behavior between the
R.Becasue the temperature affect directly in the structure of
some material, the ending products can have some small
difference like the shape, the color and even the durability can

6. Why do you think it might be important to know whether a raw

material to be used in a manufacturing process has anisotropic
properties? What about anisotropy in the finished product?
R: Yes,because if a material has a better face to used, in some
products and proceses has to be anisotropic, and also to have a
better products workers have to used the best side or face of the
material, and to know which side don’t use.

7. Explain why the strength of a polycrystalline metal at room

temperature decreases as its grain size increases.
R: Strength increases as more entanglements of dislocations take place with grain
boundaries and with each other. Metals with larger grains have less grain-boundary area
per unit volume, and hence they are not be able to generate as many entanglements at
grain boundaries, thus the strength will be lower.

Chapter 2: Mechanical Behavior, Testing, and Manufacturing Properties

of Materials.

1. On the same scale for stress, the tensile true stress-true strain
curve is higher than the engineering stress-engineering strain.
Explain whether this condition also holds for a compression test.
R. To understand the capacity of a material to support the stresss
and to undesrstand the limits of a material of some
characteristics like strength, and how to used in a correct way to
have more benefits of the material.
2. What are the similarities and differences between deformation
and strain?

R: Deformation is the change of the shape of any object due to the forces acting
upon it. Deformation comes in two forms. They are namely elastic deformation
and plastic deformation. When an exterior stress is applied to a solid body, the
body tends to pull itself apart.
3. Explain the mechanical properties of Strength, Hardness,
Toughness and Stiffness.
Hardness: A material’s ability to withstand friction
Strength: The amount of force necessary for a material to
deform. The higher the force required to change the shape of the
material, the stronger the material is.Toughness: How well the
material can resist fracturing when force is applied. Toughness
requires strength as well as ductility, which allows a material to
deform before fracturing.
4. Draw a sketch of a simple stress-strain diagram and indicate the
important points of the graph

4. Explain the difference between Yield Stress, Ultimate Tensile

Stress and the Module of Elasticity.
Yield stress is before it starts to deform, ultimate tensile stress
is the point where you cant add more force or it will start
fracturing. The module of elasticity is the area where you cans
top applying force and the material will go back or near its
original form.
5. Explain the definition of a ductile and brittle material and
give two examples of each.
Ductile is when a material can change its shape without
breaking, on the other hand, brittle will break with a small
amount of force applied.
6. Which hardness test will you use to measure the hardness
of a thin aluminum foil piece?

7. List and explain briefly the conditions that induce brittle

fracture in an otherwise ductile material.
The conditions can be similar, the difference will be that the
brittle fracture on a material will occur faster that the ductile
material. The reason of this is that the ductile material has more
elasticity and will no fracture until it gets to its UTS.