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Thesis

Thermochronology, geochronology and geochemistry of the Western


and Central cordilleras and Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia:
the tectonic evolution of NW South America

VILLAGOMEZ DIAZ, Diego

Abstract

Ce projet de thèse présente des données géochronologiques (U-Pb de zircon),


thermochronologiques (40Ar/39Ar, traces de fission et (U-Th)/He dans des apatites et des
zircons) et géochimiques de différents types de roches se situant dans les cordillères
occidentale, centrale, et dans la vallée de Cauca-Patía de la Colombie, de la frontière
équatorienne méridionale à la prolongation septentrionale des cordillères, ainsi que des
données thermochronologiques de basse température de roches provenant de la Sierra
Nevada de Santa Marta (nord de la Colombie). On essaye de caractériser le cadre tectonique
dans lequel les principales unités géologiques ont été formées et d'interpréter l'histoire de
refroidissement dans les cordillères centrale et occidentale colombienne, qui sont en lien avec
les événements tectoniques du Crétacé inférieur au Miocène tardif. Les évidences présentées
nous permettent d'identifier l'origine des événements de refroidissement et contraint les forces
qui ont modelé les Andes colombiennes.

Reference
VILLAGOMEZ DIAZ, Diego. Thermochronology, geochronology and geochemistry of the
Western and Central cordilleras and Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia: the
tectonic evolution of NW South America. Thèse de doctorat : Univ. Genève, 2010, no. Sc.
4277

Available at:
http://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:14270

Disclaimer: layout of this document may differ from the published version.

[ Downloaded 26/12/2015 at 17:28:01 ]


UNIVERSITÉ DE GENÈVE FACULTÉ DES SCIENCES
Département de Minéralogie Prof. Urs Schaltegger
Dr. Richard Spikings

Thermochronology, geochronology and geochemistry of the


Western and Central cordilleras and Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta,
Colombia: The tectonic evolution of NW South America.

THÈSE

présentée à la Faculté des sciences de l’Université de Genève


pour obtenir le grade de Docteur ès sciences, mention sciences de la Terre

par

Diego VILLAGÓMEZ DÍAZ


de
Quito (Équateur)

Thèse N° 4277

GENÈVE

2010
Contents
Acknowledgments vii
Thesis Abstract xi
Résume étendu xv

Chapter 1 1
Introduction 1
References 3

Chapter 2 5
Geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic evolution of the Western and Central cordilleras of Colombia
5
Abstract 5
1 Introduction 6
2 Geological Framework 8
2.1 Continental Crust of the Central Cordillera: Autochthonous terranes. 8
2.2 Terranes within the Romeral Fault System: The Quebradagrande and Arquía Complexes 9
2.3 Exotic terranes in the Cauca-Patía Valley 9
2.4 Exotic terranes in the Western Cordillera and the coastal ranges 10
3 Sampling and methods 12
3.1 Zircon U–Pb geochronology 12
3.2 40
Ar/ Ar geochronology
39
12
3.3 Whole rock geochemistry 12
4 Results U–Pb LA-ICP-MS 13
4.1 Autochthonous units 13
4.1.1 Pre-Jurassic metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Tahami Terrane 13
4.1.2 Jurassic–Cretaceous Intrusive rocks of the Tahami terrane 13
4.2 Late Cretaceous allochthonous rocks exposed in the Cauca-Patía Valley and the Western Cor-
dillera 18
5 Results: Ar/ Ar
40 39
18
5.1 Autochthonous rocks of the Tahami Terrane 18
5.2 Allochthonous rocks of the Western Cordillera and the Cauca-Patía Valley 19
6 Results: Whole rock geochemistry 21
6.1 Jurassic to Cretaceous magmatism within the Tahami Terrane 21
6.2 Para-autochthonous rocks entrained within the Romeral Fault Zone 21
6.2.1 Igneous rocks of the Quebradagrande Complex 21
6.2.2 Arquía Complex 28
6.3 Allochthonous rocks of the Caribbean–Colombian Oceanic Province exposed in the Western Cor-
dillera (Volcanic Fm.) and the Cauca-Patía Valley (Amaime Fm.) 29
6.4 Arc-related rocks within the oceanic plateau rocks 30
7 Interpretations and discussion 30
7.1 Pre-Early Cretaceous paleo-continental margin 30
7.2 Early Cretaceous para-autochthonous terranes 31
7.3 Late Cretaceous allochthonous oceanic terranes 34
7.4 Tertiary arc rocks in the Western Cordillera 35
8 Conclusions 35
References 38
Appendix 1. Field observations 43
Appendix 2. Description of samples used for U-Pb and Ar/ Ar datation and whole rock geochemistry
40 39

44

Appendix 3. Analytical techniques 46

iii
U–Pb zircon dating 46
40
Ar/39Ar 47
Appendix 4. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon data 48
Appendix 5. 40Ar/39Ar incremental step-heating results 53

Chapter 3 57
Thermal and tectonic history of the Central and Western cordilleras of Colombia, a thermochronological
study 57
Abstract 57
1 Introduction 58
2 Geological Framework 58
3 Previous work 61
3.1 Analytical techniques and the recovery of thermal histories 62
3.1.1 40Ar/39Ar analysis 62
3.1.2 Fission track (FT) analysis 62
3.1.3 (U-Th)/He analysis 62
3.1.4 Recovery of thermal histories 63
550-200°C 63
200-40°C 63
4 Results: Ar/ Ar
40 39
65
Consideration of the feldspar Ar/ Ar age spectra
40 39
65
4.1 40
Ar/39Ar data from the Central Cordillera (Tahami Terrane and Arquía Complex) 67
4.1.1 Northern Colombia: 7°N-5°N 67
4.1.2 Central Colombia: 4°55’N–3°15’N 67
Eastern flank of the Central Cordillera, north of the Ibagué Fault 67
Eastern flank of the Central Cordillera, south of the Ibagué Fault 67
Western flank of the Central Cordillera 72
4.2 40
Ar/39Ar data from Late Cretaceous accreted mafic rocks of the Western Cordillera and the
Cauca-Patía Valley (Calima Terrane) 73
4.2.1 Central Colombia (4°55’N–3°15’N) 73
5 Results: Fission track (FT) data 73
5.1 Fission track data from the Central Cordillera (Tahami Terrane and Quebradagrande Complex)
74
5.1.1 Northern Colombia: 7°N -5°N 74
Western flank of the Central Cordillera, Manizales–Medellín traverse 74
Central altiplano, Yarumal–Sonsón traverse 74
Eastern flank of the Central Cordillera, San Luis–Fresno traverse 75
5.1.2 Central Colombia: 4°45’N–3°30’N 75
Eastern flank of the Central Cordillera, La Línea-Ibagué-Venadillo region 75
Western Flank of the Central Cordillera, Armenia–Pijao region 79
5.1.3 Southern Colombia: 1°30’N-1°00’N 79
Traverse across the Central Cordillera between the towns of Pasto and Mocoa 79
5.2 Fission track data from Late Cretaceous and younger accreted mafic rocks of the Western Cordill-
era and the Cauca–Patía Valley (Calima and Chocó–Panamá terranes) 79
5.2.1 Northern Colombia: 7°N-5°N 79
Eastern flank of the Western Cordillera, Ciudad Bolívar region 79
5.2.2 Central Colombia: 4°45’N–3°30’N 79
Eastern flank of the Western Cordillera, Cali–Roldanillo region 79
Cauca-Patía Valley 79
5.2.3 Southern Colombia: 1°N-0° 79
Eastern flank of the Western Cordillera, Ricaurte region 79

iv
6 Results: (U-Th)/He 80
6.1 Northern Colombia: 7°N–5°N 80
6.1.1 Central Cordillera 80
Western Flank 80
Altiplano Antioqueño 80
Eastern Flank 80
6.1.2 Western Cordillera 80
6.2 Central Colombia: 4°45’N–3°30’N 80
6.2.1 Central Cordillera 80
6.3 Southern Colombia: 1°30’N–1°00’N 80
6.3.1 Central Cordillera 80
6.3.2 Western Cordillera 83
7 Thermal histories of rocks of the Colombian Andes 83
7.1 Central Cordillera between 7°N and 5°N 83
7.1.1 Antioquia Batholith and the Cajamarca Complex. 83
7.1.2 The Sonsón Batholith 84
7.2 Central Cordillera between 4°45’N and 3°30’N 86
7.2.1 South of the Ibagué Fault 86
7.2.2 North of the Ibagué Fault 86
7.3 Central Cordillera between 1°30’N and 1°00’N 86
7.4 Western Cordillera 86
8 Interpretation: Crustal Exhumation and tectonic evolution 88
8.1 Early Cretaceous 89
8.1.1 145–130 Ma: Berriasian–Hauterivian (Figure 9b) 89
8.1.2 130–100 Ma: Barremian–Albian (Figures 9c and 9d) 90
8.2 Late Cretaceous 90
8.2.1 100–75 Ma: late Albian to middle Campanian 90
8.2.2 Campanian–Maastrichtian 92
8.3 Paleocene–middle Eocene 92
8.4 Middle Eocene–late Oligocene 93
8.5 Oligocene–Pliocene 93
8.6 Significance of the Ibagué Fault 94
Conclusions 95
References 96
Appendix 1. Description of samples used for 40Ar/39Ar, fission track and (U-Th)/He dating 103
Appendix 2. 105
40
Ar/39Ar 105
Appendix 3. 40Ar/39Ar incremental step-heating results 106

Chapter 4 113
Vertical tectonics at a continental crust-oceanic plateau, plate boundary zone: Low temperature
thermochronology of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia 113
Abstract 113
1. Introduction 114
2. Geological Framework 114
3. Methodology and Previous Work 116
3.1 Previous thermochronological studies of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta 116
3.2 Low-temperature thermochronology 116
4. Results 117
4.1 South of the Sevilla Lineament (Sierra Nevada Province) 117
4.1.1 Rocks from southern and eastern regions of the Sierra Nevada Province 117
4.1.2 Rocks located within the deformation zone associated with the Santa Marta - Bucaramanga Fault

v
118
4.2 North of the Sevilla Lineament: Santa Marta and Sevilla Provinces 118
4.3 Santander Massif 120
5. Periods of Cooling 120
5.1 South of the Sevilla Lineament (Sierra Nevada Province) 122
5.1.1 Rocks located in southern and eastern regions of the Sierra Nevada Province 122
5.1.2 Rocks located within the deformation zone associated with the Santa Marta - Bucaramanga fault
122
5.2 North of the Sevilla Lineament 122
5.3 Santander Massif 125
6. Exhumation of rocks within the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta 125
6.1 The Sierra Nevada Province 125
6.2 The Santa Marta and Sevilla Provinces 126
6.3 Trends in exhumation across the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta 126
7.0 Regional Correlations and Discussion 127
7.1 65-50 Ma 127
7.2 50-40 Ma 129
7.3 40-30 Ma 129
7.4 30 – 16 Ma 130
8. Why is the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta currently at 5775m? 131
9. Conclusions 131
References 133
Appendix 1 137
Appendix 2 138

Chapter 5 141
Conclusions 141

vi
Acknowledgments
The biggest thanks go to Richard Spikings for hundreds of reasons, among them for having given
me the opportunity to do this PhD, accompanying me to most of the places in Colombia (and Ecuador),
for getting funds for extra analyses that were not contemplated in the original proposal, for providing
technical support during analyses, for always posing critical questions, giving constructive reviews to this
manuscript and for improving the written English of this text. This work would have not been possible
without the permanent help of Urs Schaltegger, who managed to get extra funding and stimulated
interesting discussions and exchange of ideas at the group meetings. Big thanks to both of them.
James Pindell is thanked for several valuable discussions last year during and after the excellent congress
in Cardiff, which stimulated me to have a more regional perspective. I am especially grateful to Dave Chew
for his help during the first years of my life as PhD student. Both James and Dave, along with Francois
Bussy, are extremely appreciated for having accepted to be members of the jury and for their input.
This work would not have been the same without the help of Tomas Magna (formerly UNIL, currently
University of Münster) and for his commitment to this project. I am very grateful to Massimo Chiarada for
his help during analyses and for always being ready to discuss data. It is impossible to forget the help from
several researchers from the University of Geneva: Maria Ovtcharova, Blair Schoene, Kalin Kouzmanov,
Georges Gorin. Mike Dungan is thanked for his help during all these years and for his fantastic work as
President of the EDSM.
Philip Schütte should be an anonymous co-author of this thesis with hundreds of good discussions where
ideas flowed. He permanently posed critical questions and he helped me to test each of my hypotheses.
Aleksandar Miskovic is thanked for his example on how a thesis must be done and for his friendship. Aldo
Bendezú is extremely acknowledged for helping with all sorts of problems. Special thanks go to Roelant
Van der Lelij for the last years when we shared similar tasks (attending congresses and field trips, installing
and maintaining labs, etc.) and to Ryan Cochrane for his positive input to this project. Big-time thanks to
Julie Bourquin for her friendship and for spending a lot of time translating the abstract of this thesis into
French. Jacqueline Berthoud is gladly remembered and acknowledged for her help during the first and
most difficult moments of my career.
Fieldwork was always challenging and it would not have been successful without the support of Andreas
Kammer (UNAL, Bogotá) and Wilfried Winkler (ETH, Zürich). Alejandro Beltrán is gratefully acknowledged
for his support as a field assistant and for countless adventures in the “real Colombia”. Andrés Mora
(Ecopetrol), Luis Quiroz and Agustín Cardona (Smithsonian Institute), César Vinasco (UNAL, Medellín)
and Mauricio Parra (University of Texas) for both their support in the field and for valuable discussions.
My knowledge of the Caribbean and Colombia improved significantly after conversations with Agustín
Cardona, Andrew Kerr and Jim Wright. I was extremely honoured to have been in touch during the last
years with Jorge Julián Restrepo, who is one of the fathers of Colombian geology. Thanks all of them for
their contribution to the success of this project.
My first knowledge as fission tracker was graciously provided by Diane Seward. She and Terry
Seward are thanked for having me as their guest for several weeks in the most beautiful place in Zürich.
Analytical support provided by Alex Ulianov (UNIL) is also acknowledged. Concerning data acquisition and
interpretation, I deeply thank Ray Donelick, who supported lots of questions that I bombarded him with
and which he was always keen to answer and explain. Richard Ketcham is acknowledged for providing us
with such a fantastic tool as HeFTy® and for providing invaluable guidance in several congresses and short
courses. A lot of help came from staff members of the Department, a million thanks to Fabio Capponi,
Frédéric Arlaud, Jean-Marie Boccard. Sofía Saldaña and Ursula Eigenmann.
It is impossible to forget all the help and guidance that I received from former PhD students during my
first years in Geneva, big thanks go to: Daniel, Carolina, Regina, István, Antoine and Ronner. Thanks to all
my colleagues and friends in Geneva – you helped me and I shared fantastic moments with you during
the last years, especially to Mariel, Honza, Miguel, Andrea, Sophia, José, Licia, Flora, Mathieu, Alexandra,
Johannes, Marie Caroline, Jörn, Cyril, Sébastien, Caroline, Afifé.

vii
Countless people whose support and generosity was key to the development of this project: Georgina
Guzmán (Invemar), Germán Ojeda (Ecopetrol), Elizabeth Cortés (Ingeominas). Alberto Núñez Tello and
Jorge Gómez Tapias (Ingeominas) are highly appreciated for helping with sample shipment, as well as for
providing maps and other valuable information. Funding was generously provided by the Swiss National
Science Foundation (project number: 200021-107596), École Doctoral en Sciences des Minéraux (EDSM)
and Schmidheiny Foundation. Support from various institutions and universities for attending conferences
(e.g. Cardiff University; Tectonic Analysis Ltd.; Union College, New York; IRD, France; ETH Zürich) are highly
thanked, as well as the Bourse de la Confédération for supporting an initial project from 2004-2005.
Thanks to Fabián, Gabriela, Alejandro, Bernardo and all my friends from the Hungarian community
living in Geneva (including their non-Hungarian partners) for several unforgettable moments. I remember
with gratitude all the people from the HUG, special thanks to Drs Tribolet, Michel, Piccard, Kappina and
Landis and hundreds of people that I met during this period.
Deepest thanks to my family (in Ecuador, USA and Hungary) for their support during all these years.
Last but not least thanks to the main reason and motivation for this accomplishment, my wife Zsuzsi for
all her support and love.

viii
For Zsuzsi

«In the Andes, we human beings have the condor’s vocations: rise upward, climb the stairways of air, fly
above the clouds, scan the earth below, far below ...

... Still today there is something indomitable and uncontrollable in these mountains that from time to time
unleashes its fury in the form of earthquakes and avalanches, those huaycos that bury whole towns and
sow terror and death in their passing ...

... That is why a landscape as idyllic and rich as this one, this myriad of lights of haughty -but seductive and
overwhelming- Quito, twinkling in the night, cannot be trusted. Because there in the background, massive
and untouchable, stand those mountains of eternal snow, implacable and belligerent»

Mario Vargas Llosa (Peru), Nobel laureate in Literature 2010

Taken from “Andes / Man, the city, and condors” (2001)

ix
x
Thesis Abstract
This thesis presents geochronological, thermochronological and geochemical data from rocks exposed
in the Western and Central cordilleras and the Cauca-Patía Valley of Colombia, extending from the southern
border with Ecuador to the north where basement rocks are buried beneath the southern Caribbean
plains. Low temperature thermochronological methods have also been applied to the Sierra Nevada de
Santa Marta (northern Colombian coast). This abstract provides a summary of the project aims, results,
interpretations and general conclusions.

The Northern Andean Segment (north of 5°S; including Ecuador and Colombia) is unique within the
Andean orogenic chain because it was built by numerous terrane collision and accretion events since
the Early Cretaceous. The accreting terranes retain an oceanic geochemical and lithological character,
and are juxtaposed against the paleo-continental margin across the diffuse, Romeral Fault System, which
entrains anastomosed blocks of allochthonous and para-autochthonous rocks. The temporal framework
for the evolution of the Colombian Andes has been constrained by scarce U-Pb zircon [e.g. Cardona et
al., 2006; Vinasco et al., 2006; Ordoñez-Carmona and Pimentel, 2006], K/Ar, Rb/Sr [see compilation in
Aspden et al., 1987; Restrepo et al., 2009] and apatite (U-Th)/He data [Restrepo-Moreno et al., 2009],
which were interpreted to determine the timing of metamorphism and intrusive magmatism within the
Central Cordillera. This thesis presents new isotopic data including 16 zircon U-Pb ages, 35 multiphase
40
Ar/39Ar ages, apatite and zircon fission track data from 76 rocks and 21 apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages.
In addition, 43 whole-rock geochemical analyses have been performed to characterize the tectonic origin
of significant geological units.

Chapter 1 gives an introduction on the theoretical background and the aims of this thesis.

Chapter 2 focuses on the tectonic origin of major igneous and metamorphic units. The Central
Cordillera of Colombia is built from autochthonous rocks that define the pre-Cretaceous continental margin
(the Tahami Terrane), juxtaposed against a series of para-autochthonous and allochthonous terranes that
accreted during the Cretaceous and which are exposed in the Western Cordillera and the Cauca-Patía
Valley, along the regional-scale Romeral Fault System that extends into Ecuador. We present the first
regional-scale dataset of zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS ages for multiple intrusive and metamorphic rocks of the
autochthonous Tahami Terrane, Early Cretaceous igneous para-autochthonous rocks (Quebradagrande
Complex) and accreted Late Cretaceous oceanic crust of the allochthonous Calima Terrane. The U-Pb
zircon data are complemented by multiphase 40Ar/39Ar crystallization ages. The geochronological data
have been combined with whole rock major oxide, trace element and REE data (XRF and LA-ICP-MS) from
the same units to constrain the tectonic origin of the rock units and terranes exposed in the Central and
Western cordilleras of Colombia. Our data show that metamorphic rocks forming the basement of the
Tahami Terrane, which are exposed in the Central Cordillera consist of a complex assemblage of lower
Paleozoic gneisses that were intruded by Permian granites, which were unconformably overlain by Triassic
sedimentary rocks that subsequently underwent anatexis (Cajamarca Complex). Discrete Precambrian
age populations indicate the Paleozoic-Triassic sedimentary rocks were probably derived from the Guyana
Shield and are native to South America. A distinct peak of U-Pb detrital zircon ages at 220-240 Ma yielded
by the Triassic metasedimentary rocks defines their maximum depositional age. The S-type granites yield
ages as young as 240 Ma, suggesting the high-temperature metamorphic event that partially melted the
sedimentary rocks was related to the disassembly of Pangea, and the initiation of the western Tethys-
Pacific Wilson cycle. Continental arc magmatism spanned the entire Jurassic and is preserved along
the whole length of the Central Cordillera. The youngest pulse of Mesozoic continental arc magmatism
occurred at 145 Ma.

xi
An oceanic marginal basin and intra-oceanic arc, represented by the Quebradagrande Complex formed
during the Early Cretaceous, and its inception may have been caused by back-stepping of the Jurassic slab
due to the introduction of buoyant sea-mounts. The coexistence of both MORB-like gabbros and basalts
in close association with pillowed arc basalts, locally covered by marine sediments with both an oceanic
and continental provenance suggests an oceanic arc origin for the Quebradagrande Complex, with a back-
arc located proximal to the continent. The Quebradagrande Complex accreted against the Tahami Terrane
during the late Aptian, which was accompanied by the obduction of medium-high P–T metamorphic rocks
of the Arquía Complex onto the Cretaceous forearc. The oceanic basement of the Western Cordillera
and the Cauca-Patía Valley (the Calima Terrane) formed above an oceanic hotspot, which generated a
plateau that was intruded by an intra-oceanic arc, forming the Late Cretaceous Caribbean-Colombian
Oceanic Province. Geochronological analyses of the plateau rocks yield an age range of 100-92 Ma. The
remnant ocean basin located between South America and the Caribbean-Colombian Oceanic Province
was consumed via a double-vergent subduction system, giving rise to a continental and oceanic arc. The
Caribbean-Colombian Oceanic Province collided and accreted to South America during ~75-70 Ma along
the Cauca-Almaguer Fault, resulting in the cessation of both arcs and the Paleocene onset of subduction
beneath the accreted oceanic crust.

Chapter 3 focuses on low- and medium-temperature thermochronometers. New multiphase 40Ar/39Ar


data, fission track (zircon and apatite) and (U–Th)/He (zircon and apatite) ages record a complex cooling
history in the Central and Western cordilleras of Colombia that is a function of Early Cretaceous to late
Miocene tectonic events. Alkali-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages obtained from crystalline rocks located to
the south of the laterally extensive Ibagué Fault yielded ages of ~138–130 Ma and are contemporaneous
with the cessation of Jurassic arc-magmatism and a major unconformity within the retro-forearc region of
the Northern Andes. We interpret these ages as cooling driven by exhumation in response to a dynamically
supported upper plate and isostatic rebound during and subsequent to fragmentation of the Jurassic slab.
Oceanward, back-stepping of the slab during the earliest Cretaceous gave rise to the Lower Cretaceous
Quebradagrande oceanic arc sequence. Medium-temperature thermochronometers (biotite and alkali-
feldspar 40Ar/39Ar with closure temperatures >230°C) in rocks of the Central Cordillera (paleocontinental
margin) located north of the Ibagué Fault reveal the presence of a younger cooling event at 107–117 Ma,
which was contemporaneous with hornblende 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages (cooling below 550-500°C) obtained
from medium–high P–T metamorphic rocks of the Arquía Complex, which are probably a relict of the
Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous subduction channel. This previously unidentified cooling event has been
attributed to exhumation driven by the collision and accretion of the Quebradagrande arc against the
continental margin, and the obduction of the subduction channel onto the forearc. Numerical modelling
of low-temperature thermochronometric data (zircon and apatite fission track and (U–Th)/He), acquired
from rocks sampled throughout the Central and Western Cordillera reveals three periods of rapid cooling
since the Late Cretaceous. The earliest phase is recorded by Jurassic and Cretaceous granitoids (Ibagué
and Antioquia Batholith) that were emplaced in the Central Cordillera in Colombia and cooling rapidly
from ~550˚C to ~60˚C during 75–65 Ma. We attribute cooling to exhumation of the continental margin
at an average rate of ~1.6 km/My during ~75-70 Ma, which was forced by the collision and accretion of
the Caribbean-Colombian Oceanic Province in the Campanian. Contemporaneous clastic sedimentation
sourced from rocks of the Central Cordillera fed the retro-foreland basin and the peripheral basin
corroborating observed exhumation. The Central Cordillera exhumed at moderate rates of ~0.3 km/My
during the Eocene (~45–30 Ma), which are also observed over widely dispersed regions along the Andean
chain, and were probably caused by an increase in continent-ocean plate convergence rates. Elevated
exhumation rates in the middle - late Miocene have been identified from the apatite (U-Th)/He data.
The greatest amount of middle - late Miocene exhumation occurred in southern Colombia, and spatially
corresponds with elevated exhumation rates in northern Ecuador. The spatial pattern suggests that
exhumation was a consequence of erosion during and subsequent to rock uplift, in response to collision
and subduction of the buoyant Carnegie Ridge.

xii
Chapter 4 describes how low-temperature thermochronology can help constraining variations on
vertical tectonics at a continental crust-oceanic plateau boundary zone, and how this knowledge can
be used for tectonic reconstructions. We have used apatite fission track data (with U contents obtained
by the LA-ICP-MS method) collected along several traverses and a single vertical profile to quantify the
thermal histories of surface rocks of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM).

The topographically prominent Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is hosted by a faulted block of continental
crust located along the northern boundary of the South American Plate, hosts the highest peak in the
world (~5.75km) whose local base is at sea level, and juxtaposes oceanic plateau rocks of the Caribbean
Plate. Quantification of the amount and timing of exhumation will constrain interpretations of the history
of the plate boundary, and the driving forces of rock uplift along the active margin. The Sierra Nevada
Province of the southernmost Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta exhumed at elevated rates (≥0.2 Km/My)
during 65-58 Ma in response to the collision of the Caribbean Plateau with north-western South America.
A second pulse of exhumation (≥0.32 Km/My) during 50-40 Ma was driven by underthrusting of the
Caribbean Plate beneath northern South America. Subsequent exhumation at 40-25 Ma (≥0.15 Km/My) is
recorded proximal to the Santa Marta–Bucaramanga Fault. More northerly regions of the Sierra Nevada
Province exhumed rapidly during 26-29 Ma (~0.7 Km/My). Further northwards, the Santa Marta Province
exhumed at elevated rates during 30-25 Ma and 25-16 Ma. The highest exhumation rates within the Sierra
Nevada de Santa Marta progressed towards the northwest via the propagation of NW-verging thrusts.
Exhumation is not recorded after ~16 Ma, which is unexpected given the high elevation and high erosive
power of the climate, implying that rock and surface uplift that gave rise to the current topography was
very recent (i.e. ≤1 Ma?), and there has been insufficient time to expose the fossil apatite partial annealing
zone.

Chapter 5 presents a summary of the results, interpretations and conclusions.

References
Aspden, J. A., McCourt, W. J., and Brook, M., 1987, Geometrical control of subduction-related magmatism: the
Mesozoic and Cenozoic plutonic history of Western Colombia: Journal of the Geological Society, v. 144, no.
6, p. 893-905.
Cardona, A., Cordani, U. G., and MacDonald, W. D., 2006, Tectonic correlations of pre-Mesozoic crust from the
northern termination of the Colombian Andes, Caribbean region: Journal of South American Earth Sciences,
v. 21, no. 4, p. 337-354.
Ordóñez-Carmona, O., and Pimentel, M. M., 2002, Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic study of the Puquí complex, Colombian
Andes: Journal of South American Earth Sciences, v. 15, no. 2, p. 173-182.
Restrepo, J. J., Ordoñez-Carmona, O., Martens, U., Correa, A.M., 2009, Terrenos, Complejos y provincias en la
Cordillera Central de Colombia: XII Congreso Colombiano de Geologia, p. 12.
Restrepo-Moreno, S. A., Foster, D. A., Stockli, D. F., and Parra, L. N., 2009, Long-term erosion and exhumation of the
“Altiplano Antioqueño”, Northern Andes (Colombia) from apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology: Earth and
Planetary Science Letters, v. 278, no. 1-2, p. 1-12.
Vinasco, C. J., Cordani, U. G., González, H., Weber, M., and Peláez, C., 2006, Geochronological, isotopic, and
geochemical data from Permo-Triassic granitic gneisses and granitoids of the Colombian Central Andes:
Journal of South American Earth Sciences, v. 21, no. 4, p. 355-371

xiii
xiv
Résume étendu
Ce projet de thèse présente des données La particularité de la zone andine septentrionale
géochronologiques, thermochronologiques et (incluant l’Équateur, la Colombie et le Venezuela) en
géochimiques de différents types de roches se comparaison de la zone andine méridionale (Pérou-
situant dans les cordillères occidentale, centrale, Chili) est que celle-ci comprend de nombreux blocs
et dans la vallée de Cauca-Patía (Figure 1), d’accrétions océaniques allochtones mis en place
de la frontière équatorienne méridionale à la principalement durant le Crétacé, et juxtaposés
prolongation septentrionale des cordillères, ainsi contre la paléo-marge continentale en face du
que des données thermochronologiques de basse système de faille Romeral (Figure 1), une large
température de roches provenant de la Sierra zone faillée abritant des blocs allochtones et para-
Nevada de Santa Marta (nord de la Colombie, autochtones.
Figure 1). Une introduction générale de ce projet
Les rares données géochronologiques et
ainsi que des conclusions sont présentées dans cet
thermochronologiques existantes de K/Ar, Rb/Sr
abstract.
[voir compilation de Aspden et al., 1987; Restrepo
et al., 2009] et de (U-Th)/He dans des apatites
90°W 80°W 70°W 60°W
[Restrepo-Moreno et al., 2009] étaient les seules
Plaque Nord-américaine
contraintes temporelles jusqu’à récemment
20°N
pour cette région, jusqu’à la publication d’études
Plaque Caraïbe
présentant des âges U-Pb de zircon plus précis
[e.g. Cardona et al., 2006; Vinasco et al., 2006;
SNSM
Ordoñez-Pimentel, 2006]. Ces études ont apporté
10°N des contraintes temporelles sur les principales
Plaque de Cocos
CC
Venezuela périodes de métamorphisme et de mise en place
d’intrusion dans la cordillère centrale. Dans ce
e

CO
dg

EC
Ri
s
co

Colombie
travail, de nouvelles données quantitatives sont
Co

VM

présentées (Figure 2), comprenant 16 datations


Plaque Sud-américaine
VCP
0°N
Carnegie Ridge
Equateur 0 Km 400
U-Pb de zircon, 35 âges 40Ar/39Ar dans des phases
Plaque de Nazca
RC minérales distinctes, 108 âges déterminés à partir
-8 km -6 km -4 km -2 km 0 2km 4km
de traces de fission dans des apatites et des zircons,
Bathymétre Altitude
et 21 âges (U-Th)/He d’apatite et de zircon. De
Zone de subduction

Faille
plus, 43 analyses géochimiques de roches totales
Suture Crétacique ont été réalisées, afin de mieux caractériser le
cadre tectonique dans lequel les principales unités
5°N 1
géologiques ont été formées.
2
Terrane Terrane de
de Calima Tahami
R
SF

Géochronologie, géochimie et

3
évolution tectonique des cordillères
80°W 75°W occidentale et centrale de Colombie

Figure 1. Modèle digital du nord-ouest de l’Amérique du Sud Chapitre 2 : La cordillère centrale de Colombie
et des plaques tectoniques voisines, montrant les Cordillères est formée de roches autochtones définissant
et les failles. La suture crétacée d’océan-continent est
la marge continentale pré-Crétacé (Tahami
montrée comme une ligne noire épaisse. L’encart montre le
secteur d’étude plus détaillé, et les trois régions (a, b et c) Terrane), et sont juxtaposées contre une série
sont celles montrées sur la carte géologique de la Figure 2 de blocs tectoniques para-autochtones et
CC: Cordillère Centrale, CO: Cordillère Occidentale, SFR: allochtones qui se sont accrétés durant le Crétacé,
système de faille Romeral, SNSM: Sierra Nevada de Santa formant le système de faille Romeral à l’échelle
Marta, VCP: Vallée de Cauca–Patía, VM: Vallée du Magdalena.
régionale qui s’étend jusqu’en Équateur. Ce travail
présente la première base de données à l’échelle

xv
xvi
70: 39.1±1.3 08: 106.6±16.0
a 54.8±5.8 b 09: 43.0±1.2 07: 6.1±0.2
148: 53.0±4.8 58.1±5.2 153: 69.7±8.6 30.6±5.8 64.9±10.2 06: 46.3±1.2
76°22’ 55.4±5.2 68.9±0.6 66.6±8.0 74°37’ 74.6±13.4 88.3±12.4 35.8±4.6
7°10’ 95: 62.8±6.8 109.8±2.9 81.3±10.6
62.5±5.2 114.1±0.9 148.9±3.4
78: 25.6±2.6 76°48’ 151.8±0.9 109.7±1.3 4°55’
97.1±2.0 159.5±2.4 147.0±0.5 182.6±2.4
54: 74.4±10.6 04:10.6±0.8, 59.2±20.2
94: 61.5±9.4 159.2±5.2
70.4±6.3 67.9±7.4
53: 13.4±1.4 81.8±10.0 02: 32.1±7.2, 63.6±9.4,
72.9±18.8 95.5±1.1 155.6±6.2, 220-600
63: 20.9±1.2
64.1±9.6 26: 6.1±0.2 03: 37.1±7.2
56: 40.1±1.0 13.9±2.4,45.6±7.6
65.5±6.0 74.8±7.4 01: 116.4±0.9
87.2±1.6 67.9±1.6, 79.7±2.5 Ibagué
64: 59.8±10.2 86: 9.3±0.8
50: 440, 62.6±0.7 FI 35.0±8.2
900-1700
Medellín 65: 43.5±4.8

J
58: 31.0±1.4 28: 64.4±3.6 85: 30.5±5.8
80.8±0.3

A
FS
45.2±1.2 05: 7.5±0.4, 59.8±16.8
67: 113.4±22.8 89: 117.2±9.4

FC
58.5±8.0 85.3±18.2, 153.1±2.0,
112.0±3.7

FSJ
62.6±1.1 80: 41.0±6.6 165.0±15.0
72.3±0.3 90: 128.1±6.0
94.6±2.1 81: 103.6±13.0

P
154: 56.6±7.4 102: 46.9±8.1 130.2±2.8¨

FS
179: 51.8±7.4 53.1±5.6 136.4±0.5
108:75.7±1.6
155: 44.3±6.2 82: 11.2±0.3, 68.3±8.2
165: 37.8±5.2 71.4±9.8 91: 41.3±4.2, 90.9±1.4

FSP
41.6±5.4 77.6±10.8, 137.3±0.9,
156: 30.8±0.7 30: 44.8±8.4, 92.1±0.8 Cali 223.8±3.4, 271.9±3.7
166:3.9±0.2 0 km 50
32.8±0.7 48.2±4.8 42: 77.6±5.7, 99.7±1.3
47.9±5.2 3°15’ 84: 134.3±0.7
167: 38.1±5.4 19: 56.2±9.0,220-1200 14: 65.1±10.2 74°37’

FCA
46.4±5.8 km 18: 19.6±4.2 17: 58.1±6.6
0 50 163: 39.6±7.0
176: 64.5±14.6 55.3±5.4 54.2±6.0
237.5±5.5

Falla d
5°00’
160: 69.4±17.2 161: 43.9±4.2
177: 78.6±19.8 Cordillères occidentale et centrale
Quaternaire - Néogène
Crétacé: arc oceanique Crétacé tardif: intrusives d’arc
Paléocène - Éocène (Batholith d’Antioquia et
c (Complexe de
Quebradagrande) pluton de Córdoba)
129: 4.5±0.1 Cordillère occidentale et
1°43’ 9.3±0.2 vallée de Cauca-Patía Crétacé tardif: roches sédi-
Roches métamorphiques
8.2±1.2 mentaires
de moyenne et haute
139: 18.7±7.4 Crétacé tardif: Plateau P-T
112.0±16.6 Océanique (Fms. Volcanic, Crétacé inférieur:
121: 12.3±0.4 (Complexe d’Arquía) roches sédimentaires
133: 3.6±0.2 Barroso et Amaime)
25.8±4.8
Pasto J Granitoïdes Jurassique (Batholite
FS Mocoa 134: 15.9±4.4 Crétacé tardif: roches sedi-
109.2±10.8 mentaires (Fms. Cisneros, d’Ibagué) et roches volcaniques
Penderisco et Espinal) (Fm. Saldaña)
136: 13.7±2.2 Crétacé tardif: roches intrusives Granitoïdes du Permo-Triasique
106.8±13.6
(Batholithe de Buga)
Roches metasédimentaires et
Echantillons (DV#) meta-ignées du Triasique
(e.g. Complexe de Cajamarca)
(U-Th)/He d’apatite et des autres unités
(U-Th)/He de zircon métamorphiques
Traces de fission dans des apatites
EQUATEUR 0 km 50 Traces de fission dans des zircon
40Ar/39Ar dans des feldspaths
0°10’ 40Ar/39Ar dans de la biotite
78°04’ 76°07’ 40Ar/39Ar dans l’hornblende
U-Pb de zircon
régionale d’âges calculés par U-Pb LA-ICP-MS étendu durant tout le Jurassique et est préservé
dans des zircons pour de nombreuses roches sur toute la longueur de la cordillère centrale.
intrusives et métamorphiques du bloc tectonique La poussée la plus jeune de magmatisme d’arc
autochtone Tahami, pour des roches ignées para- continental s’est produite à 145 Ma (Figure 3a).
autochtones du Crétacé inférieur (Complexe
de Quebradagrande) ainsi que pour la croûte
océanique accrétée durant le Crétacé supérieur Un bassin océanique marginal et un arc intra-
formant le bloc tectonique allochtone de Calima. océanique, représenté par le complexe de
Les âges calculés par désintégration d’U-Pb dans Quebradagrande, se sont formés lors du Crétacé
les zircons sont complétés par des âges 40Ar/39Ar inférieur, et leurs origines pourraient provenir
dans différentes phases minérales. Ces données du reculement du slab jurassique en raison de
géochronologiques ont ensuite été combinées l’apparition de monts sous-marins (guyots).
avec les oxydes majeurs de roche totale, les La coexistence de gabbros et de basaltes de
éléments traces et les données REE (XRF et LA-ICP- composition MORB conjointement avec des
MS) des mêmes unités afin de contraindre l’origine basaltes d’arc en coussins, recouvert localement
tectonique des différentes unités de roches et par des sédiments marins ayant une provenance
de blocs tectoniques exposés dans les cordillères océanique, mais également continentale, suggère
centrale et occidentale de Colombie. Nos données une origine d’arc océanique pour le complexe
montrent que les roches métamorphiques formant de Quebradagrande, avec un arrière-arc situé
le socle du bloc tectonique de Tahami, qui affleure proche du continent (Figure 3c). Le complexe de
dans la cordillère centrale, se compose d’un Quebradagrande s’est accrété contre le Terrane de
assemblage complexe de gneiss du Paléozoïque Tahami durant l’Aptien tardif, et fut accompagné
inférieur dans lesquels firent intrusion des granites par l’obduction de roches métamorphiques de
permiens qui furent ensuite recouvert de manière moyenne et haute P-T du complexe de l’Arquía
discordante par des roches sédimentaires du Trias, sur l’avant-arc crétacé (Figure 3d). Le socle
qui subirent par la suite une anatexie (Complexe océanique de la cordillère occidentale et de la
de Cajamarca). Des populations d’âge Précambrien vallée de Cauca-Patía (Terrane de Calima) se
distinctes indiquent que les roches sédimentaires forma au-dessus d’un point chaud océanique, ce
du Paléozoïque-Triasique sont probablement qui généra un plateau qui fut pénétré par un arc
venues du bouclier de Guyana et sont originaire intra-océanique, formant la province océanique
d’Amérique du Sud. Une autre population d’âges Caribéenne-Colombienne du crétacé tardif (Figure
calculées par datation U-Pb dans les zircons 3e). Des analyses géochronologiques des roches
définit l’âge de déposition maximum des roches de ce plateau montre une gamme d’âges de 100-
métasédimentaires à 220-240 Ma. Les granites 92 Ma. Le vestige de ce bassin océanique situé
de type S présentent des âges aussi récents entre l’Amérique du Sud et la province océanique
que 240 Ma, ce qui suggère que l’événement Caribéenne-Colombienne fut consommé à travers
métamorphique de haute température qui aurait un système de subduction à double vergent (Figure
fondu partiellement les roches sédimentaires était 3f), créant un arc continental et océanique. La
lié au démantèlement de la Pangée, et à la création province océanique Caribéenne-Colombienne se
du cycle occidental de Wilson dans le Téthys- heurta puis s’accréta à l’Amérique du Sud pendant
Pacifique. Le magmatisme d’arc continental s’est ~75-70 Ma (Figure 3g) le long de la faille Cauca-

Figure 2 (page précédent) Cartes géologiques des trois régions d’étude dans les cordillères centrales et occidentales
de la Colombie, et la vallée de Cauca-Patía [d’après Gómez et al., 2007], montrant les âges thermochronologiques et
geochronologiques acquis dans cette étude
a) Nord de la Colombie (7°10’N–5°00’N)
b) Colombie Centrale (4°55’N–3°15’N)
c) Sud de la Colombie (1°40N–0°10’N)
Âges: Les couleurs décrivent: les âges d’apatite (U-Th) /He (noir), âges de zircon (U-Th) /He (gras noir), traces de fission
d’apatite (vert), traces de fission de zircon (rouge), 40Ar/39Ar de feldspath (pourpre), 40Ar/39Ar de biotite (jaune), 40Ar/39Ar de
hornblende (brun), U-Pb de zircon (gras vert). Tous les âges sont en million d’années (Ma) et l’erreur est de ±2σ, avec des
codes d’échantillon montrés en bleu (DV##). La faille de Cauca–Almaguer (FCA), la faille San Jerónimo (FSJ) et la faille de
Silvia–Pijao (FSP) forment conjointement le système de faille de Romeral. Autres abréviations présentes : FI: Faille d’Ibagué.

xvii
A: 180-150 Ma W Batholite d’Ibagué E
- Volcanisme d’arc continental

B: 145-130 Ma Proto-Cordillère
- Recul de la subduction Centrale
- Rebound et exhumation de la plaque supérieur discordance majeure

C: 130-115 Ma Arc de Quebradagrande Fm. Caballos


- Arc intra-oceanique proche du continent Complexe d’Arquía

D: 115-105 Ma Complexe d’Arquía


- Fermeture du bassin
- Accrétion de l’arc de Quebradagrande
- obduction de roches métamorphiques de moyenne
et haute P-T
- Exhumation du continent
E: 95-90 Ma Batholite d’Antioquia
- Magmatism d’arc Complexe d’Arquía
- Formation de la province océanique
Caribéenne-Colombienne

F: 90-80 Ma Batholite de Córdoba


- La province océanique Caribéenne-
Batholite de Buga
Colombienne s’approche au continent

G: 75-70 Ma Cordillère Centrale


- Collision oblique et accrétion de la province Fm. Nogales Fm. El Cobre
océanique Caribéenne-Colombienne
- Exhumation de la marge continentale +

H: ~60 Ma Batholite de Sonsón


- Reprise de la subduction

Figure 3. Reconstruction tectonique de la Colombie pendant le 150-60 Ma. Voir le texte pour d’autres détails. Les flèches
noires sont indicatives des périodes d’exhumation.

xviii
Figure 4. Sierra Nevada de Santa
Marta et structures tectoniques
74°W 73°W principales. Code d’échantillon
(en bleu) et âge de traces de
13, 28.6
03, 16.3 fission d’apatite en Ma (noir;
15, 20.2 31, 22.2 Echantillon
01, 20.6 erreurs ±2σ entre 20 et 9%).
08, 24.9 32, 27.6 Les provinces structurales
18, 22.4
Sevilla
42, 40.3 principales sont marquées
Santa Marta FA 43, 59.6 [d’après Tschanz et al., 1974].
LS
04, 24.4 44, 43.3 FA: Faille Aguja LS: Linéament
06, 41.0 11°N
de Sevilla, FSMB: Faille Santa
14, 16.0 Marta-Bucaramanga.
17, 21.6 Sierra
Nevada 35, 40.6
09, 19.3
36, 44.4
23, 26.7 37, 42.5
39, 53.8
25, 24.2
24, 29.8
10°N
FS

26, 23.3 28, 28.6


MB

29, 30.3
Bassin du 0 20 40
Magdalena 30, 25.6
Km

Almaguer, menant à l’arrêt des deux arcs et le modelé les Andes colombiennes occidentales.
commencement paléocène de la subduction sous Les âges de refroidissement d’40Ar/39Ar des
la croûte océanique accrétée (Figure 3h). feldspaths alcalins obtenus à partir de roches
alcalines situées au nord et sud de la faille Ibagué,
étendue latéralement, montrent ~133-139 Ma
(Figure 2) et sont contemporains avec l’arrêt
Histoire thermique et tectonique du magmatisme d’arc d’âge jurassique et avec
post-Jurassique des Andes une discordance majeure au sein de la région
Colombiennes de retro-avant-arc des Andes septentrionales.
Nous interprétons ces âges comme étant dû à un
Le chapitre 3 se concentre sur les refroidissement, suite à une exhumation qui prit
thermochronomètres de basses et moyennes place en réponse à une plaque supérieure soutenue
températures. De nouvelles données d’40Ar/39Ar dynamiquement et un rebond isostatique pendant
dans de différentes phases minérales, ainsi que des et ultérieurement à la fragmentation du slab
âges déterminés à partir des traces de fissions (zircon jurassique (Figure 3b).
et apatite) et des âges (U-Th)/He (zircon et apatite)
Vers l’océan, le recul de la subduction durant
enregistrent une histoire de refroidissement
le début du Crétacé cause la séquence d’arc
complexe dans les cordillères centrale et occidentale
océanique de Quebradagrande (Figure 3c). Les
colombienne, qui sont en lien avec les événements
thermochronomètres de température moyennes
tectoniques du Crétacé inférieur au Miocène
(isotopes d’40Ar/39Ar dans les biotites et les
tardif. Les évidences présentées dans le chapitre
feldspaths alcalins avec des températures de
précèdent conjointement avec les caractéristiques
fermeture >230°C) dans les roches de la cordillères
connues des enregistrements sédimentaires
centrale (marge paléocontinentale) situées au
régionaux dans les Andes septentrionales nous
nord de la faille d’Ibagué montrent la présence
permettent d’identifier l’origine des événements
d’un événement de refroidissement plus récent,
de refroidissement et contraint les forces qui ont
à 107-117 Ma, étant contemporains aux âges

xix
de refroidissement d’40Ar/39Ar de l’hornblende Thermochronologie de la Sierra
(refroidissement en dessous de 550-500°C) Nevada de Santa Marta
obtenus sur des roches métamorphiques de
moyenne et haute P-T du complexe d’Arquía,
Le Chapitre 4 décrit comment la
qui sont probablement une structure résiduelle
thermochronologie de basse température peut
du chenal de subduction du Jurassique
aider à contraindre les variations de tectoniques
tardif – début du Crétacé. Cet événement de
verticales dans une zone frontière entre la croûte
refroidissement antérieur non identifié a été
continentale et le plateau océanique, et comment
attribué à une exhumation poussée par la collision
ces connaissances peuvent être utilisées pour la
et l’accrétion de l’arc de Quebradagrande contre
reconstruction tectonique. Nous avons utilisé des
la marge continentale, et par l’obduction du
données de traces de fission dans des apatites
chenal de subduction sur l’avant-arc (Figure
(obtenues par LA-ICP-MS) collectées le long de
3d). La modélisation numérique des données
plusieurs traverses et une unique coupe vertical
de thermochronométrie de basse température
afin d’estimer les histoires thermales des roches de
(trace de fission et (U-Th)/He dans les zircons et
surface de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM,
les apatites), acquises dans des roches prélevées
Figure 1 and 4).
dans les cordillères occidentale et centrale montre
trois périodes de refroidissement rapide depuis La topographiquement proéminente Sierra
le Crétacé tardif. La phase la plus ancienne est Nevada de Santa Marta est un bloc faillé, isolé et
enregistrée dans les granitoïdes jurassiques et triangulaire de croûte continentale situé le long de
crétacés (Batholites d’Ibagué et d’Antioquia) qui la frontière nord de la plaque Sud Américaine, et
furent mis en place dans la cordillère centrale de abrite le sommet le plus élevé au monde (5.75km)
Colombie et refroidit rapidement de ~550°C à ~60°C dont la base est situé directement au niveau
de 75-65 Ma. Nous expliquons ce refroidissement marin. Sa location avec celle de la zone frontière
par une exhumation de la marge continentale de la plaque Caraïbe méridionale, réunie avec les
à un taux moyen de ~1.6km/My durant ~75- dépressions adjacentes extensives et profondes,
70 Ma, forcé par la collision et l’accrétion de la semble indiquer que toute la limite de plaque se
province océanique Caribéenne-Colombienne déplaçant latéralement est caractérisée par un
durant le Campanien (Figure 3g). La sédimentation mouvement vertical intensif. L’estimation de la
détritique contemporaine prenant sa source quantité et du timing de soulèvement des roches
dans les roches de la cordillère centrale nourrit le et de l’exhumation soutiendrait n’importe quelle
bassin de retro avant-pays et le bassin secondaire interprétation de l’histoire des limites des plaques.
(périphérique), confirmant l’exhumation observée. La province de Sierra Nevada, qui est la partie la
La cordillère centrale s’exhuma à un taux moyen plus méridionale de la Sierra Nevada de Santa
de ~0.3 km/My pendant l’Éocène (~45-30 Ma), ce Marta, a subi une exhumation à des taux élevés
qui est également observé le long de larges régions de ≥0.2 Km/My pendant 65-58 Ma en réponse à
répandues le long de la chaîne andine, et qui fut l’accrétion de la province océanique Caribéenne-
probablement causé par une augmentation du Colombienne à la limite nord-ouest de l’Amérique
taux de convergence des plaques continentale- du Sud. Une seconde impulsion d’exhumation, à un
océanique. Les taux d’exhumation élevés dans taux de ≥0.32 Km/My pris place entre 50-40 Ma
le Miocène moyen et tardif ont été identifiés à dû au sous-charriage de la plaque Caraïbe sous le
partir de données (U-Th)/He dans des apatites. nord de l’Amérique du Sud. Une impulsion plus
Le taux le plus élevée d’exhumation durant le récente, à 40-25 Ma et caractérisée par des taux
Miocène moyen et tardif se produit en Colombie d’exhumation de ≥0.15 Km/My, est enregistrée
méridionale, et correspond spatialement avec proche de la faille de Santa Marta-Bucaramanga
les taux d’exhumation élevés dans le nord de au sein de la province de Sierra Nevada, alors que
l’Équateur. Cette distribution spatiale suggère que les régions plus septentrionales de la province
l’exhumation a été une conséquence de l’érosion de Sierra Nevada, situées proche de l’alignement
lors et ultérieurement au soulèvement des roches, structural de Sevilla, se sont exhumées plus
en réponse à la collision et la subduction de la rapidement pendant la période 26-29 Ma à des taux
dorsale flottante de Carnegie. de ~0.7 Km/My. L’alignement structural de Sevilla
sépare la province de Sierra Nevada de celle de

xx
Santa Marta et de celle du nord de Sevilla. Au nord Restrepo, J. J., Ordoñez-Carmona, O., Martens, U.,
de cet alignement structural de Sevilla, la province Correa, A.M., 2009, Terrenos, Complejos y
provincias en la Cordillera Central de Colombia:
de Santa Marta, densément faillée, s’est exhumée XII Congreso Colombiano de Geologia, p. 12.
à des taux élevés de ≥0.3 Km/My et ≥0.8 Km/My
Restrepo-Moreno, S. A., Foster, D. A., Stockli, D. F.,
pendant 30-25 Ma et 25-16 Ma respectivement, and Parra, L. N., 2009, Long-term erosion and
sans aucune corrélation claire entre le timing exhumation of the “Altiplano Antioqueño”,
d’exhumation et la location. Ce modèle général Northern Andes (Colombia) from apatite (U-
Th)/He thermochronology: Earth and Planetary
montre que le lieu ou le taux d’exhumation était le Science Letters, v. 278, no. 1-2, p. 1-12.
plus élevé a progressé graduellement vers le nord-
Tschanz, C. M., Marvin, R. F., Cruz B, J., Mehnert, H. H.,
ouest au sein de la province de Sierra Nevada, and Cebula, G. T., 1974, Geologic Evolution of
peut-être via l’extension des copeaux tectoniques the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Northeastern
avec une vergence au NW. Les taux d’exhumation Colombia: Geological Society of America
Bulletin, v. 85, no. 2, p. 273-284.
les plus élevés après 30 Ma se retrouvent dans
la province de Santa Marta, suggérant que le Vinasco, C. J., Cordani, U. G., González, H., Weber, M.,
and Pelaez, C., 2006, Geochronological, isotopic,
déplacement le long de l’alignement structural de and geochemical data from Permo-Triassic
Sevilla a peut-être conduit à un découplage partiel granitic gneisses and granitoids of the Colombian
de la province de Sierra Nevada. Les âges les plus Central Andes: Journal of South American Earth
Sciences, v. 21, no. 4, p. 355-371
récents de refroidissement et d’exhumation de
25-16 Ma sont inattendus étant donné l’élévation
importante et le fort pouvoir érosif du climat,
impliquant que l’élévation des roches et de la
surface qui forma la topographie actuelle est
probablement très récente (dans le dernier 1 Ma?)
et le temps d’érosion insuffisant pour permettre
d’exposer la zone d’apatite fossile partiellement
réchauffée.

Références
Aspden, J. A., McCourt, W. J., and Brook, M., 1987,
Geometrical control of subduction-related
magmatism: the Mesozoic and Cenozoic
plutonic history of Western Colombia: Journal of
the Geological Society, v. 144, no. 6, p. 893-905.
Cardona, A., Cordani, U. G., and MacDonald, W. D.,
2006, Tectonic correlations of pre-Mesozoic
crust from the northern termination of the
Colombian Andes, Caribbean region: Journal of
South American Earth Sciences, v. 21, no. 4, p.
337-354.
Gómez, J., Nivia, A., Montes, N.E., Jimenez, D.M.,
Tejada, M.L., Sepulveda, J., Osorio, J.A., Gaona,
T., Diederix, H., Uribe, H., Mora, M., 2007,
Geological map of Colombia. Escala 1:1’000.000.:
Ingeominas, 2nd Edition, Bogota.
Ordóñez-Carmona, O., and Pimentel, M. M., 2002,
Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic study of the Puquí
complex, Colombian Andes: Journal of South
American Earth Sciences, v. 15, no. 2, p. 173-182.

xxi
xxii
Chapter 1
Introduction data for track annealing and He diffusion of Farley
[2002], Reiners et al. [2002] and Ketcham et al.
Thermochronology is the study of the thermal [2007].
histories of minerals, which can in turn be used to
estimate the vertical motion of rocks relative to Within this thesis, we have assigned the
the earth’s surface, assuming that cooling can be cause of cooling to be exhumation when i) we
reliably converted to exhumation. Every isotopic can confidentially show that the sample was not
system behaves as an open system at sufficiently cooling as a result of thermal relaxation of itself,
high temperatures, where isotopes rapidly partition or of a neighbouring rock mass (e.g. pluton and/or
into fluid rich phases and solid phases with lower hydrothermal cell), and ii) periods of cooling were
concentrations of the solute (i.e. daughter isotope). simultaneous with proximal sedimentation [e.g.
Assuming that daughter isotope loss is dominated Ehlers and Farley, 2003].
by thermally activated diffusion, we can define a The Pacific margin of the Northern Andes
temperature range where daughter isotopes are (Colombia and Ecuador) has been an active margin
partially retained within their lattice of origin. for a long time, possibly already since the Proto-
Furthermore, we can also mathematically define a Gondwana whereas by early Carboniferous time it
closure temperature, Tc [Dodson, 1973], which lies was located in an active Gondwana margin [Chew
within the range of daughter isotope retention, and et al., 2008; Cardona et al., 2010]. The Permian
is approximately equivalent to the temperature at collision event in the northernmost Andes was
which ~42% of the daughter isotope is retained. probably related to the assembly of the Pangaea
The assumption that thermal histories can be supercontinent (for a review, see Ramos and
accurately translated into exhumation histories, Alemán [2000]; Vinasco et al., [2006]), which
suggest that thermochronological methods are was followed by a subsequent breakup of the
valuable tools for investigating tectonic processes. supercontinent in Triassic times [Noble et al., 1997;
High temperature thermochronology (Tc >750°C) Vinasco et al., 2006] and the onset of continental
of magmatic rocks can generally be considered arc magmatism in the Jurassic.
as a proxy for crystallization [Harley and Kelly, In contrast to the Central and Southern Andes,
2007; Harley et al., 2007], whereas medium and post-Jurassic subduction in the Northern Andes
low temperature thermochronometers (<750°C) and Central America was interrupted by the
generally reveal information about middle and accretion of multiple oceanic allochthonous and
lower crustal occurrences such as exhumation para-autochthonous terranes [Kerr et al., 1997;
during orogenesis or extension sedimentary Kerr et al., 2004; Spikings et al., in press.]. Those
basin histories, metamorphic processes and terranes, which included back-arcs, an oceanic
hydrothermal alteration. plateau and island arcs, accreted onto the western
Various geo- and thermochronometers with a margin of North and South America during Early-
range of temperatures of partial daughter isotope middle Cretaceous to Late Cretaceous, and are also
retention have been employed in this thesis to exposed around the margins of the Caribbean Plate
elucidate thermal histories within the upper crust. and within Central America [e.g. Sinton et al., 1998;
These are U-Pb in zircon, K/Ar (via 40Ar/39Ar) in Pindell and Kennan, 2009]. Subsequent Paleocene
hornblende, biotite, alkali and calcic feldspar, to Quaternary subduction has been continuous,
fission track in zircon and apatite, and (U-Th)/He giving rise to an extensive arc sequence.
in zircon and apatite. The 40Ar/39Ar data has been During the previous decade, several workers
used to plot single points on transient thermal have studied the geological evolution of the
history paths, and closure temperatures have Eastern and Western Cordilleras of Ecuador, and
been determined using the equation of Dodson constructed a temporal framework for terrane
[1973]. However, integrated thermal history paths accretion and subsequent mountain building
have been obtained from apatite fission track and events. Thermochronological data from those
zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He data using the kinetic

1
studies [Spikings and Crowhurst, 2004; Spikings et 4. Constrain the timing of collision of the Late
al., 2000; 2001, in press] spanned a temperature Cretaceous allochthonous units with the NW South
range of ~380-40°C and was able to resolve a American margin. If these sequences did form part
Late Cretaceous tectonic event related to the of the Caribbean–Colombian Oceanic Province,
accretion of a Late Cretaceous oceanic plateau and then their timing of collision with the South
its overlying arc (Caribbean–Colombian Oceanic American Plate is paramount for reconstructions
Province) onto the South American Plate, and of the Caribbean Plate. This aim is addressed in
younger, post-accretionary events within Ecuador, Chapter 3.
that were driven by major plate rearrangements 5. Quantify the thermochronological response
and the subduction of heterogeneous oceanic of the NW South American plate margin to the
crust. However, all previous thermochronological collision events. How do continental margins
studies in Ecuador yielded post-Campanian cooling tectonically respond to the collision of thickened,
and exhumation histories. relatively buoyant oceanic crust (plateaus)? This
Regardless of the complicated history aim is addressed in Chapter 3.
experienced by rocks exposed in the Colombian 6. Quantify the thermal and tectonic history
Andes, few quantitative data have been published of the Pacific and Caribbean margins of Colombia
[Restrepo-Moreno et al., 2009; Mora et al., 2008; during the Cenozoic (Chapter 3), with an emphasis
Parra et al., 2009] to constrain the evolution of on the topographically prominent massif of the
the north-western corner of the South American
Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Chapter 4). Is the
Plate during the Phanerozoic, and a temporally topography in equilibrium, and what were the
constrained framework for the tectonic evolution main driving forces that exhumed the Colombian
of this region has been almost entirely missing, cordilleras during the Cenozoic?.
which has strongly inhibited accurate models for
the early evolution of the Caribbean Plate. The successful investigation of each of these
aims has permitted a coherent model for the
The main aim of this thesis is to propose a evolution of the rocks of the Colombian Cordilleras
tectonic reconstruction for the northwestern to be presented, which is essential to obtain and
South American Plate since the disassembly of accurate reconstruction, and hence understanding
western Pangaea, based on thermochronological, of the tectonic history of the north-western margin
geochemical, geochronological and field of South America, and the Caribbean and eastern
observations. That primary aim can be broken Pacific plates (Nazca and Cocos) since the Early
down into the following sub-aims: Cretaceous.
1. Locate and characterise (lithologically,
geochronologically and geochemically) Palaeozoic
– Triassic rock units within autochthonous terranes
of the Colombian Central Cordillera, to understand
further the consequences of Pangean formation
and disassembly for proximal South America. This
aim is addressed in Chapter 2.
2. Determine the age and tectonic origin
of Jurassic - Early Cretaceous rocks. Are they
allochthonous or autochthonous to the Guyana
Shield? Did the South American Plate grow by
the accretion of island arcs, subsequent to the
disassembly of Pangea? This aim is addressed in
Chapter 2.
3. Determine the age and tectonic origin of
allochthonous Late Cretaceous sequences. Did
these sequences form part of the Caribbean–
Colombian Oceanic Province? This aim is addressed
in Chapter 2.

2
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the northeast Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Northern Andean crustal evolution: New U-Pb
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Chew, D. M., T. Magna, C. L. Kirkland, A. Miskovic, A. Sobel, L. Quiroz, M. Rueda, and V. Torres (2009),
Cardona, R. Spikings, and U. Schaltegger (2008), Orogenic wedge advance in the northern
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40(3), 259-274, 10.1007/BF00373790. South America in the mantle reference frame:
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Ehlers, T. A., and K. A. Farley (2003), Apatite (U- Publication, James, K., Lorente, M. A. & Pindell,
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206(1-2), 1-14, doi: DOI: 10.1016/S0012-
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of the Andes., in Cordani, U., Milani, E.J., Thomaz
Farley, K. A. (2000), Helium diffusion from Filho, A., and Campos Neto, M.C., eds.,, Tectonic
apatite: General behavior as illustrated by Evolution of South America: Rio de Janeiro,
Durango fluorapatite, J. Geophys. Res., 105, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement,
10.1029/1999jb900348. 635-685.

Harley, S. L., and N. M. Kelly (2007), Zircon Tiny but Reiners, P. W., K. A. Farley, and H. J. Hickes (2002), He
Timely, ELEMENTS, 3(1), 13-18, 10.2113/ diffusion and (U-Th)/He thermochronometry of
gselements.3.1.13. zircon: initial results from Fish Canyon Tuff and
Gold Butte, Tectonophysics, 349(1-4), 297-308,
Harley, S. L., N. M. Kelly, and A. Moller (2007), doi: DOI: 10.1016/S0040-1951(02)00058-6.
Zircon Behaviour and the Thermal Histories
of Mountain Chains, ELEMENTS, 3(1), 25-30, Restrepo-Moreno, S. A., D. A. Foster, D. F. Stockli,
10.2113/gselements.3.1.25. and L. N. Parra (2009), Long-term erosion and
exhumation of the “Altiplano Antioqueño”,
Kerr, A. C., J. Tarney, P. D. Kempton, M. Pringle, and A. Northern Andes (Colombia) from apatite (U-
Nivia (2004), Mafic Pegmatites Intruding Oceanic Th)/He thermochronology, Earth and Planetary
Plateau Gabbros and Ultramafic Cumulates from Science Letters, 278(1-2), 1-12, doi: DOI:
Bolivar, Colombia: Evidence for a ‘Wet’ Mantle 10.1016/j.epsl.2008.09.037.
Plume?, J. Petrology, 45(9), 1877-1906, 10.1093/
petrology/egh037. Sinton, C. W., R. A. Duncan, M. Storey, J. Lewis, and J. J.
Estrada (1998), An oceanic flood basalt province
Kerr, A. C., G. F. Marriner, J. Tarney, A. Nivia, A. D. within the Caribbean plate, Earth and Planetary
Saunders, M. F. Thirlwall, and C. W. Sinton Science Letters, 155(3-4), 221-235, doi: DOI:
(1997), Cretaceous Basaltic Terranes in Western 10.1016/S0012-821X(97)00214-8.
Colombia: Elemental, Chronological and Sr-Nd
Isotopic Constraints on Petrogenesis, J. Petrology, Spikings, R. A., and P. V. Crowhurst (2004), (U-Th)/He
38(6), 677-702, 10.1093/petroj/38.6.677. thermochronometric constraints on the late
Miocene-Pliocene tectonic development of the
Ketcham, R. A., A. Carter, R. A. Donelick, J. Barbarand, northern Cordillera Real and the Interandean
and A. J. Hurford (2007), Improved modeling Depression, Ecuador, Journal of South American
of fission-track annealing in apatite, American Earth Sciences, 17(4), 239-251, doi: DOI:
Mineralogist, 92(5-6), 799-810, 10.2138/ 10.1016/j.jsames.2004.07.001.
am.2007.2281.
Spikings, R. A., P. V. Crowhurst, W. Winkler, and D.
Mora, A., M. Parra, M. Strecker, E. Sobel, H. Villagomez Syn- and post accretionary cooling
Hooghiemstra, V. Torres, and J. Vallejo Jaramillo history of the Ecuadorian Andes constrained by
(2008), Climatic forcing of asymmetric orogenic their in-situ and detrital thermochronometric

3
record, Journal of South American Earth
Sciences, In Press, Accepted Manuscript, doi:
DOI: 10.1016/j.jsames.2010.04.002.

Spikings, R. A., D. Seward, W. Winkler, and G. M. Ruiz


(2000), Low-temperature thermochronology of
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insights from zircon and apatite fission track
analysis, Tectonics, 19, 10.1029/2000tc900010.

Spikings, R. A., W. Winkler, D. Seward, and R. Handler


(2001), Along-strike variations in the thermal and
tectonic response of the continental Ecuadorian
Andes to the collision with heterogeneous
oceanic crust, Earth and Planetary Science
Letters, 186(1), 57-73, doi: DOI: 10.1016/S0012-
821X(01)00225-4.

Vinasco, C. J., U. G. Cordani, H. González, M. Weber, and


C. Pelaez (2006), Geochronological, isotopic, and
geochemical data from Permo-Triassic granitic
gneisses and granitoids of the Colombian
Central Andes, Journal of South American Earth
Sciences, 21(4), 355-371, doi: DOI: 10.1016/j.
jsames.2006.07.007.

4
Chapter 2

Geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic evolution of the Western and


Central cordilleras of Colombia

Diego Villagómez1, Richard Spikings1, Tomas Magna2, Andreas Kammer 3, Wilfried Winkler4, Alejandro Beltrán 4

1
Section of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva. 13 Rue des Maraîchers, 1205 Geneva,
Switzerland (Diego.Villagomez@gmail.com)
2
Institut für Mineralogie, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster. Corrensstrasse 24, D-48149 Münster,
Germany
3
Departamento de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A.A. 14490 Bogotá, Colombia.
4
Geologisches Institut, ETH-Zürich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland.

Abstract

The Central Cordillera of Colombia is built from autochthonous rocks that define the pre-Cretaceous
continental margin (the Tahami Terrane), juxtaposed against a series of para-autochthonous and
allochthonous terranes that accreted during the Cretaceous and which are exposed in the Western
Cordillera and the Cauca-Patía Valley, along the regional-scale Romeral Fault System that extends into
Ecuador. We present the first regional-scale dataset of zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS ages for multiple intrusive and
metamorphic rocks of the autochthonous Tahami Terrane, Early Cretaceous igneous para-autochthonous
rocks (Quebradagrande Complex) and accreted Late Cretaceous oceanic crust of the allochthonous
Calima Terrane. The U-Pb zircon data are complemented by multiphase 40Ar/39Ar crystallization ages. The
geochronological data have been combined with whole rock major oxide, trace element and REE data
(XRF and LA-ICP-MS) from the same units to constrain the tectonic origin of the rock units and terranes
exposed in the Central and Western cordilleras of Colombia. Our data show that metamorphic rocks
forming the basement of the Tahami Terrane, which are exposed in the Central Cordillera consist of a
complex assemblage of lower Paleozoic gneisses that were intruded by Permian granites, which were
unconformably overlain by Triassic sedimentary rocks that subsequently underwent anatexis (Cajamarca
Complex). Discrete Precambrian age populations indicate the Paleozoic-Triassic sedimentary rocks were
probably derived from the Guyana Shield and are native to South America. A distinct peak of U-Pb
detrital zircon ages at 220-240 Ma yielded by the Triassic metasedimentary rocks defines their maximum
depositional age. The S-type granites yield ages as young as 240 Ma, suggesting the high-temperature
metamorphic event that partially melted the sedimentary rocks was related to the disassembly of Pangea,
and the initiation of the western Tethys-Pacific Wilson cycle. Continental arc magmatism spanned the
entire Jurassic and is preserved along the whole length of the Central Cordillera. The youngest pulse of
Mesozoic continental arc magmatism occurred at 145 Ma.
An oceanic marginal basin and intra-oceanic arc, represented by the Quebradagrande Complex formed
during the Early Cretaceous, and its inception may have been caused by back-stepping of the Jurassic slab
due to the introduction of buoyant sea-mounts. The coexistence of both MORB-like gabbros and basalts
in close association with pillowed arc basalts, locally covered by marine sediments with both an oceanic
and continental provenance suggests an oceanic arc origin for the Quebradagrande Complex, with a back-

5
arc located proximal to the continent. The Quebradagrande Complex accreted against the Tahami Terrane
during the late Aptian, which was accompanied by the obduction of medium-high P–T metamorphic rocks
of the Arquía Complex onto the Cretaceous forearc. The oceanic basement of the Western Cordillera
and the Cauca-Patía Valley (the Calima Terrane) formed above an oceanic hotspot, which generated a
plateau that was intruded by an intra-oceanic arc, forming the Late Cretaceous Caribbean-Colombian
Oceanic Province. Geochronological analyses of the plateau rocks yield an age range of 100-92 Ma. The
remnant ocean basin located between South America and the Caribbean-Colombian Oceanic Province
was consumed via a double-vergent subduction system, giving rise to a continental and oceanic arc. The
Caribbean-Colombian Oceanic Province collided and accreted to South America during ~75-70 Ma along
the Cauca-Almaguer Fault, resulting in the cessation of both arcs and the Paleocene onset of subduction
beneath the accreted oceanic crust.

1 Introduction timing of ocean closure and subsequent continent


disassembly. Similar data has been acquired from
the indenting Cretaceous oceanic crust, which
The continental margin of the South American
permits its origin to be assessed. 40Ar/39Ar data
Plate in Colombia has experienced at least one
(hornblende, biotite and plagioclase) has also
complete Wilson cycle since ~600 Ma with the
been acquired from continental arc sequences and
opening and closure of the Iapetus and Rheic
older rocks of continental crust to complement the
oceans, and it is currently undergoing the active
U-Pb zircon data. The geochemical characteristics
margin stage of the Tethys-Pacific Wilson cycle. The
of metamorphosed and non-metamorphosed
northern Andes (north of 5°S) are unique among
magmatic rocks have been acquired to identify
the Andean mountain chain within the Pacific
the tectonic origin of various rock sequences from
Wilson cycle because they include Cretaceous
both the oceanic and continental sequences.
allochthonous terranes that consist of oceanic
crust, whose collision and accretion in the Early This study is the first regional-scale study of
and Late Cretaceous to South America interrupted the rocks exposed in the Central and Western
the classic Andean western Pacific subduction cordilleras of Colombia, which attempts to
system. Regardless of the complicated history combine geochemical data with interpretable
experienced by rocks exposed in the Colombian geochronological data. An improved understanding
Andes, few quantitative data has been published of the ages and tectonic origins of the rocks with
to constrain the evolution of the northwestern both continental and oceanic affinities will provide
corner of the South American Plate during the new information concerning i) the amalgamation
Phanerozoic. We aim to constrain temporally of western Pangea, ii) the disassembly of western
the composition and evolution of the Paleozoic Pangea during rifting in the western Tethys, iii)
– Mesozoic South American Plate boundary, and transition from a passive to an active margin, iv)
the indenting allochthonous Cretaceous rocks by evolution of the active margin and its interruption
geochemical characterization, U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar via the introduction of heterogeneous oceanic
geochronology. crust to the trench, e.g. the collision of the Trans-
American arc and the Caribbean Cretaceous
The U-Pb LA-ICP-MS method has been applied to
Oceanic Province. This improved knowledge of
zircons (both autocrystic and xenocrystic) extracted
the evolution of northwestern South America
from igneous rocks and metasedimentary rocks
contributes to a greater understanding of the
along the Paleozoic – Mesozoic margin of Colombia,
evolution of the Caribbean Plate, which was the
which are exposed in the Tahami Terrane. These
source region for the accreted terranes during the
rocks span the termination of the Iapetus cycle
Early and Late Cretaceous. The interpretations
and the initiation of Tethys-Pacific cycle, and hence
have been partly derived by combining the data
provide information that temporally constrains the
acquired here, with thermochronological data that
depositional ages of the rock sequences, and the
is presented in Chapter 3 of this thesis.
timing of crustal anatexis during high-temperature
metamorphic events, yielding information about the

6
90°W 80°W 70°W 60°W

North American Plate

20°N

Caribbean Plate

SNSM GP

10°N SJ

Cocos Plate SM
CP Venezuela
CC
e

WC
dg

EC
Ri
s
co

Colombia
Co

MV
South American Plate
CPV
0°N
Carnegie Ridge
Ecuador 0 Km 400
Nazca Plate
RC

-8 km -6 km -4 km -2 km 0 2km 4km
Bathymetry Land elevation

Subduction zone
Chocó-
Panamá Faults
Terrane
Cretaceous sutures
OPF

Figure 1. Digital elevation model of northwestern South


5°N a America and surrounding tectonic plates, showing the
PF main cordilleras, faults and the location of the subducting
DF Carnegie Ridge. The Cretaceous ocean-continent suture is
F

shown as a thick black line. Inset shows the study area in


CP

more detail, and the three sample regions (a, b and c) that
b are presented in Figure 2. CC: Central Cordillera, CP: Chocó–
Calima Tahami Panamá Block, CPF: Cali-Patía Fault, CPV: Cauca–Patía Valley,
Terrane Terrane
S

DF: Dabeiba–Garrapatas Fault, EC: Eastern Cordillera, GP:


RF

Guajira Peninsula, MV: Magdalena Valley, OPF: Otú-Pericos


Fault, PeF: Peltetec Fault (Ecuador), PF: Palestina Fault,
RC: Raspas Complex (Amotape Province in Ecuador), RFS:
Romeral Fault System, SJ: San Jacinto belt; SNSM: Sierra
c Nevada de Santa Marta, WC: Western Cordillera.

F
Pe

80°W 75°W
7
2 Geological Framework may have formed via crustal melting during the
Permian assembly of Pangea and its subsequent
fragmentation during the Triassic [Vinasco et al.,
The northern Andes of Colombia comprise three
2006; Cardona et al., 2006].
sublinear topographic ridges, referred to as the
Western, Central and Eastern cordilleras, and the The Eastern Cordillera of Ecuador, which hosts
rocks exposed in each cordillera reveal contrasting the along-strike equivalent rock sequences to those
geological histories. The ridges are separated by exposed in the Tahami Terrane, has been mapped
depressions that become wider towards the north, in considerably more detail [e.g. Aspden et al.,
and include the Cauca Valley and the Magdalena 1992; Litherland et al., 1994; Pratt et al., 2005] and
Valley (Figure 1). is commonly divided into four distinct terranes.
In Colombia, in contrast, all these lithologies have
The basement crystalline rocks of the Colombian
been traditionally grouped into the Tahami Terrane
Andes include distinct allochthonous and terranes
[Restrepo and Toussaint, 1988], which is reported
that are floored by mafic and ultramafic rocks,
as a coherent belt of metamorphic and intrusive
which are thought to have accreted during the
rocks that was uplifted along the Otú-Pericos Fault
Mesozoic. The mafic terranes are exposed within
to the east and the Romeral Fault System to the
the Western Cordillera and the Cauca Valley, and
west (Figures 1 and 2). More recently, localized
are juxtaposed against the para-autochthonous
mapping within the northern Central Cordillera of
and autochthonous paleo-continental margin
Colombia led Restrepo et al. [2009a] to propose
across the regional-scale Romeral Fault System
the existence of distinct Phanerozoic crustal
(Figure 1). This broad faulted zone (up to 30 km
blocks that were metamorphosed at different
wide) corresponds to a ~2000 km long tectonic
times. These blocks are referred to as the Tahami,
suture that extends southwards into Ecuador,
Panzenu and Anacona terranes in the northern
and includes anastomosed zones of mafic and
Central Cordillera [Restrepo et al., 2009a]. Terrane
ultramafic rocks, high-pressure assemblages
amalgamation occurred in the late Paleozoic
and mélange zones. Within Colombia, the suture
[Vinasco et al., 2006; Cardona et al., 2006] in the
zone can be divided into three major branches
wake of the collision of Gondwana and Laurassia to
[Chicangana, 2005], which are the San Jerónimo
form Pangea, and during the Triassic disassembly
Fault, Silvia–Pijao Fault and the Cauca–Almaguer
of Pangea [Aspden et al., 1987; Noble et al., 1997;
Fault, which generally define the break-of-slope of
Pindell, 1993; Vinasco et al., 2006].
the western flank of the Central Cordillera.
The pre-Jurassic metamorphic rocks are
intruded and contact metamorphosed by
2.1 Continental Crust of the Central undeformed Jurassic, calc-alkaline, I-type
granitoids of the Ibagué Batholith (K/Ar biotite
Cordillera: Autochthonous terranes.
and hornblende ages of 140–150 Ma) [Brook,
1974; Vesga and Barrero, 1978], which are partly
Continental crust is exposed within the Central overlain by contemporaneous high-SiO2 volcanic
Cordillera to the east of the easternmost branch rocks of the Saldaña Fm., which represent the
of the Romeral Fault System (the San Jerónimo most voluminous and extensive period of volcanic
Fault; Figures 1 and 2), and west of the Otú-Pericos activity along the western margin of the American
Fault (Figure 1). Restrepo and Toussaint [1988] plates [Pindell et al., 2005]. Subsequently, the
referred to these rocks as the Tahami Terrane, Tahami Terrane in the northern Central Cordillera
which consists of Paleozoic gneisses of the Puqui was intruded by the calc-alkaline, Late Cretaceous
and La Miel units [Ordóñez-Carmona and Pimentel, Antioquia Batholith (83–88 Ma) [Ibañez-Mejía et
2002] that are in unconformable contact with al., 2007], which is a large (7,600 km2; Figure 2a)
metasedimentary and meta-igneous rocks of the dioritic-granitic intrusive sequence. Continental arc
temporally poorly constrained Cajamarca Complex. granites of the Paleocene Sonsón Batholith (65–55
Detailed geological maps of the Central Cordillera Ma; zircon U-Pb) [Ordóñez-Carmona et al., 2001]
are scarce [e.g. Gómez et al., 2007; Cediel and were emplaced through the Antioquia Batholith.
Cáceres, 2003] and show widespread presence of
Published K/Ar and Rb/Sr ages of metamorphic
variably deformed Permo-Triassic granitoids that
and granitic rocks of the Central Cordillera range

8
between 343–57 Ma [see compilation in Aspden Ma) [Bustamante 2008] exposed along the western
et al., 1987; Restrepo et al., 2009a]. Most of these flank of the Central Cordillera (Figure 2a–b). Nivia
ages have been interpreted to record thermal et al. [2006] consider the medium- and high-
events during the early Mesozoic to early Cenozoic pressure metamorphic rocks to be Neoproterozoic
[McCourt et al., 1984; Restrepo et al., 2009a]. continental rocks, based on cross-cutting field
However, the analytical techniques do not provide evidence that was apparently misinterpreted [see
parameters that can be used to constrain the time Restrepo et al., 2009b].
and degree of partial resetting of the Rb/Sr and The origin and timing of peak metamorphism
K/Ar isotopic systems, and hence the geological of the Arquía Complex is poorly constrained.
relevance of the ages is uncertain. However, Bustamante [2008] using geochemistry,
geothermobarometry and 40
Ar/39Ar
thermochronology in fine-grained white mica
2.2 Terranes within the Romeral Fault propose that the protolith of the blueschist
System: The Quebradagrande and Arquía sequence of the Jambaló unit was basaltic and
Complexes. could have originated at either an island arc or mid-
ocean ridge setting, and was metamorphosed at
~63 Ma. The protolith of the high-pressure rocks of
The San Jerónimo Fault separates continental the Barragán unit originated at a mid-ocean ridge
rocks of the Tahami Terrane from an intensively and equilibrated with blueschist P–T conditions
deformed belt of oceanic volcanic rocks and prior to 120 Ma.
marine to terrestrial sedimentary rocks of the
Quebradagrande Complex (Figure 2a–b). This
complex is in tectonic contact with medium- and
high-pressure metamorphic rocks of the Arquía 2.3 Exotic terranes in the Cauca-Patía
Complex across the Silvia–Pijao Fault. The western Valley
limit of exposures of these units corresponds to
the Cauca–Almaguer Fault. Collectively, the San The Cauca-Patía Valley in Colombia (Figure 1)
Jerónimo, Silvia–Pijao and Cauca–Almaguer faults is located immediately to the west of the Cauca–
(SJF, SPF and CAF in Figure 2) represent the regional- Almaguer Fault and is limited to the west by the
scale Romeral Fault System [Chicangana, 2005], Cali–Patía Fault (Figure 2). The valley’s width varies
which is thought to extend southwards beneath the between 15 km to 30 km, abruptly disappears
Cenozoic volcanic rocks and is probably continuous at ~6ºN, is flat bottomed and it hosts numerous
with the Peltetec fault system in Ecuador [Cediel et Cenozoic intermontane basins that cover most of
al., 2003]. the basement. The basement is exposed to the
The Quebradagrande Complex (Figures 2a- west of the Cauca–Almaguer Fault (Figure 2a–b)
b) consists of unmetamorphosed to low-grade and consists of basalts and gabbros of the Amaime
metamorphosed gabbros, diorites, basalts Fm. and ultramafic cumulate rocks of the Ginebra
and andesites that are covered by marine and and Los Azules Fms, which are consistent with
terrestrial sedimentary rocks of the Abejorral Fm., the strongly positive Bouguer gravity anomalies
which hosts Hauterivian to lower Albian fossils observed in the region (+135 to +75 mgal) [Case et
[González, 1980]. The igneous rocks are considered al., 1971].
to have formed in either a mid-oceanic ridge Aspden et al. [1987] suggested that the
setting [González, 1980], an island arc [Toussaint basement of the Cauca-Patía Valley in Colombia
and Restrepo, 1994] or an ensialic marginal basin defines a Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous ophiolitic
[Nivia et al., 2006]. The Quebradagrande Complex sequence. However, a more recent geochemical
is in faulted contact with isolated tectonic slices study showed that these rocks formed in an
of garnet-bearing amphibolites of the Arquía oceanic plateau setting, and proposed that they
complex (K–Ar hornblende: 113 Ma) [Restrepo and may represent an older, Early Cretaceous segment
Toussaint, 1976] (40Ar/39Ar total fusion hornblende: of terranes composed of similar lithologies within
107 Ma) [Restrepo et al., 2008] and lawsonite- the Western Cordillera [Kerr et al., 1997]. However,
glaucophane schists (the Jambaló and Barragán few radiometric ages have been published for
blueschist complexes; 40Ar/39Ar phengite: 120–60

9
the Amaime and Los Azules Fms, and include a Chocó-Panamá Terrane (Figure 1) is bounded to
groundmass, total fusion 40Ar/39Ar age of 76 Ma the east by the Dabeiba-Garrapatas Fault [Cediel et
[Sinton et al., 1998] and K/Ar ages that range al., 2003] and consists of basalts rocks with similar
between 104–78 Ma [De Souza et al., 1984] geochemical characteristics to the Volcanic and
with potentially disturbed isotopic systems and Barroso Fms [Kerr et al., 1997].
(partially) reset ages. The Buga Batholith intrudes It is generally accepted that the ultramafic and
these sequences, and thus constrains the minimum mafic rocks of the Calima and Chocó-Panamá
age for the mafic basement of the Cauca-Patía terranes exposed in western Colombia form part
Valley. Unfortunately, previous Rb/Sr and K/Ar of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP)
radiometric ages of 114–94 Ma obtained from the [Kerr et al., 1997], which is also referred to as
Buga Batholith [Brook, 1984] are associated with the Caribbean–Colombian Oceanic Province [Kerr
large uncertainties and do not precisely constrain et al., 2004]. Mafic to ultramafic rocks formed
the age of the basement sequence. in response to Late Cretaceous, mantle plume-
related volcanism in the eastern Pacific [Pindell,
1990, 1993; Kerr et al., 1997; Luzieux et al., 2006]
2.4 Exotic terranes in the Western and accreted against northwestern South America
Cordillera and the coastal ranges in the Campanian [e.g. Hughes and Pilatasig,
2002; Jaillard et al., 2004; Spikings et al., 2005;
Vallejo et al., 2009; this study, Chapter 3]. A single
Few detailed descriptions and maps exist for
groundmass 40Ar/39Ar age of 91.7±2.7 Ma has
rocks located to the west of the Cali–Patía Fault,
been acquired from the Volcanic Fm. [Kerr et al.,
within the Western Cordillera and the present-day
1997], which is consistent with fossil evidence
forearc region of Colombia. Restrepo and Toussaint
obtained from intercalated sedimentary rocks.
[1988] group the rocks from the Western Cordillera
Several authors have utilised radiometric and
and the basement of the Cauca-Patía depression
biostratigraphic evidence to show that the plateau
into the Calima Terrane (Figure 1) whereas rocks
rocks exposed in the Caribbean, Colombia and
exposed in the coastal ranges are part of the so-
Ecuador (and elsewhere) ranges between 92 and
called Chocó-Panamá Terrane. The Calima Terrane
88 Ma [Kerr et al., 1997; Kerr et al., 1999; Sinton et
is composed of three Upper Cretaceous sequences
al., 1997, 1998; Luzieux et al., 2006; Vallejo et al.,
of rocks, which are: i) an imbricate sequence of
2009] with a minor pulse at 76–72 Ma [Kerr et al.,
pillow and massive basalts as well as gabbros of
1997].
the Volcanic and Barroso Fms (Figure 2) [Barrero,
1979; Aspden, 1984; Kerr et al., 1997; Sinton et al., Several authors [Sinton et al., 1998; Kerr et al.,
1998], ii) the Bolívar Ultramafic Complex (Figure 2004; Luzieux et al., 2006; Pindell and Kennan,
2b), which is composed of norites, olivine norites 2009] have proposed a similar model for the
and gabbronorites, with incompatible trace generation and migration for the basement of the
element ratios similar to those of the Volcanic Fm. Caribbean–Colombian Oceanic Province, which
[Kerr et al., 2004], and iii) turbidites of the Espinal, invoke an origin at the Galápagos hot spot. In this
Cisneros and Penderisco Fms (Figure 2), which context, Spikings et al. [2001] proposed a model for
consist of a sequence of shales with thin lenses of northwestern South America, where the plateau
limestones and cherts that are occasionally slightly fragmented into several tectonic slices, during and
metamorphosed to slates and phyllites and contain subsequent to its collision with the northwestern
Albian–Maastrichtian radiolarites and ammonites margin of the South American plate.
[Barrero, 1979; Etayo-Serna et al., 1985a]. The

Figure 2 (Next page). Geological maps of the three study regions (see Figure 1) within the Central and Western Cordilleras
of Colombia, and the Cauca-Patía Valley [after Gómez et al. 2007], showing sample locations (sample codes shown in blue;
DV##), the radiometric ages acquired in this study (±2σ error), and the locations of samples analysed for geochemical data. (U-
Pb data shown as detrital zircon peak ages for samples DV19 and DV50). Abbreviations: The Cauca–Almaguer Fault (CAF), San
Jerónimo Fault (SJF) and the Silvia–Pijao Fault (SPF) collectively define the Romeral Fault System, which is s set of Cretaceous
ocean-continent sutures. Other abbreviations, BB: Buga Batholith (Figure 2b), BUC: Bolívar Ultramafic Complex (Figure 2b);
CP: Córdoba Pluton (Figure 2b), CPF: Cauca–Patía Fault, IF: Ibagué Fault, MB: Mande Batholith (Figure 2a), OPF: Otú-Pericos
Fault; PF: Palestina Fault, PP: Piedrancha Pluton (Figure 2c).

10
a b
76°22’ 74°37’
7°10’
78-79 19:220-1200 18:237.5±5.5
Dabeiba OPF 76°48’
4°55’

F
78: 25.6±2.6 159
26:79.7±2.5 PF

OP
02: 220-600
94:95.5±1.1 CPF 155.6±6.2
50: 440, Armenia
900-1700 CP Ibagué IF 04:159.2±5.2
95:97.1±2.0
56: 87.2±1.6 26
87-88 28-29 05:165.0±15.0
PF BUC 153.1±2.0
91:90.9±1.4 90-157
Medellín 158 06:182.6±2.4

F
58: 94.6±2.1

F
07:148.9±3.4

SJ
30:92.1±0.8
147.0±0.5

CA
43 91
30 09:159.5±2.4
74 109 102-103 151.8±0.9

F
108:75.7±1.6 BB

SJF
75 105-106 97 82: 271.9±3.7

SP
156 38-104 99 223.8±3.4
165-167
178 Sonsón 42:99.7±1.3

SPF
110
40
176
39 111 km
MB 174-175 173 0 50
PF OPF 112
171 3°15’
74°37’

CAF
0 km 50

Falla d
5°00’ Central and Eastern Cordillera
Quaternary - Neogene
Cretaceous oceanic arc Late Cretaceous arc intrusives
Paleogene - Eocene (Antioquia Batholith and
(Quebradagrande
Complex) Córdoba pluton)
c Western Cordillera and
Cauca-Patia Valley Upper Cretaceous
Medium-high pressure
1°43’ sedimentary rocks
metamorphic rocks
Upper Cretaceous oceanic (Arquía Complex)
plateau (Volcanic, Barroso Upper Cretaceous
and Amaime Fms) sedimentary rocks

F
Upper Cretaceous sedimentary Jurassic granitoids (Ibagué

CP
122 Pasto Batholith) and volcanic rocks
PP S JF rocks (Cisneros, Espinal and
Penderisco Fms) (Saldaña Fm.)
125-126
Ricaurte 138 Late Cretaceous intrusive Permo-Triassic granitoids
(Buga batholith)
Triassic metasedimentary and
Geochronology meta-igneous rocks (Cajamarca
sample number (DV#) Complex) and older metamorphic
Zircon U/Pb units
Plagioclase 40Ar/39Ar
Biotite 40Ar/39Ar
Hornblende 40Ar/39Ar
ECUADOR 0 km 50

11
Whole rock geochemistry
0°10’
78°04’ 76°07’ sample number (DV#)
Tertiary magmatic rocks with a subduction- details are presented in Appendix 3 and 4.
related origin intrude the Calima and Chocó-
Panamá terranes. The Mande Batholith (U-Pb
zircon age of 42–43 Ma) [Cardona, 2010, pers. 3.2 40
Ar/39Ar geochronology
comm.] and associated volcanic rocks of the
Dabeiba unit (plagioclase 40Ar/39Ar of 43.1±0.4 Ma)
[Kerr et al., 1997] are exposed within the Chocó- Unaltered, inclusion-free hornblende and biotite
Panamá Block in northern Colombia. Within the were separated using a Wilfley table, a Frantz
southern Western Cordillera, Late Tertiary volcanic magnetic separator and partially diluted (with
rocks of the Ricaurte Fm. are likely to have erupted acetone) di-iodomethane. Mineral concentrates
onto the accreted basement of the Calima Terrane, were cleaned in an ultrasonic bath for 5 minutes,
similar to the Eocene Macuchi Fm. in Ecuador [e.g., in distilled water (biotite, plagioclase) and weak
Vallejo et al., 2009]. 5% HNO3(aq) (hornblende). Feldspar concentrates
were separated from quartz by centrifuging at
8000rpm for 5 minutes in sodium polytungstate
with a density of 2.62 g/cm3. Five milligrams of
the freshest crystals were selected by handpicking
3 Sampling and methods using a binocular microscope at 50x magnification.
Samples were loaded into Cu foil packages,
Rocks were sampled along several traverses mounted inside a silica-glass tube and irradiated
(between 7°N and 1°N; Figure 2) that crossed for either 30 hours (Early Cretaceous and older
the Central Cordillera, Cauca-Patía Valley and the samples) or 15 hours (Late Cretaceous and younger
Western Cordillera of Colombia. Appendix 1 and samples) in the CLICIT facility of the TRIGA reactor
2 provide a brief petrographic description and at the Oregon State University. Fish Canyon Tuff
location information for all of the samples analysed sanidine was used as a flux monitor assuming
in this study. U–Pb zircon dating and multiphase a standard age of 28.02±0.28 Ma [Renne et al.,
40
Ar/39Ar analysis (Figures 3a-c and 4; Tables 1 and 1998], and J values were obtained via interpolation
2, respectively) of the main units exposed west along the silica glass tube. Samples were analysed
of the eastern border of the Central Cordillera via incremental heating using a 30W CO2-IR laser,
has been performed to determine their age. We and a stainless-steel extraction line coupled with
have also performed whole rock geochemistry a multi-collector Argus mass spectrometer (GV
(Table 3) on several major magmatic units along Instruments), housed at the University of Geneva
the Colombian cordilleras to constrain the tectonic and equipped with four high-gain (1012 Ω resistivity)
setting in which they formed. Faraday cups for the measurement of 36Ar, 37Ar,
38
Ar, and 39Ar, and a single 1011 Ω-resistivity Faraday
cup for 40Ar measurements. Analytical details are
3.1 Zircon U–Pb geochronology presented in Appendix 3 and 5.

Samples were crushed and milled to <300 μm,


cleaned and density separated using a Wilfley table 3.3 Whole rock geochemistry
and passed through a Frantz magnetic separator.
The dense (>3.32 g/cm3), non-paramagnetic Major oxide and trace element data were
fraction was obtained via gravity separation using acquired from unaltered igneous and metamorphic
di-iodomethane, and subsequently handpicked to rocks to constrain their tectonic origin (Table 3).
select inclusion-free zircons. Zircon crystals were Samples were crushed using a steel jaw crusher
imaged using the SEM-CL facility at the University and powdered using an agate disc mill. Major
of Lausanne. Laser-ablation ICP-MS coupled with and some trace elements were analyzed using a
liquid internal Tl–U normalization was employed Philips PW 2400 XRF spectrometer at the Institute
for U-Pb isotope measurements and the in-house of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, University of
Excel macro, Lamdate tool (J. Košler) was used Lausanne using the Rhodes traces methodology
for offline data reduction together with Isoplot v. [e.g. Schütte, 2009]. Uncertainties estimated from
3.31 for age calculations [Ludwig, 2003]. Analytical repeated measurement of standards are generally

12
<2% (2σ) for major elements and <5% (2σ) for trace A granitoid body located at the eastern border
elements. Selected trace elements and rare earth of the Central Cordillera in central Colombia
element abundances were determined by LA- (DV82; Figure 2b) shows a bimodal histogram age
ICPMS using a 193nm Excimer laser coupled to a distribution with one major peak that yielded a
Perkin Elmer ELAN 6100 DRC quadrupole ICPMS weighted mean age of 271.9±3.7 Ma (MSWD=1.2)
by ablating glass bead fragments (recovered from from euhedral zircons, and a minor peak at ~305
previous XRF analyses) at the Institute of Mineralogy Ma obtained from xenocrystic cores (Figure 3a).
and Geochemistry, University of Lausanne. Euhedral to subhedral zircons from a white mica-
Ninety-second background measurements were bearing granodioritic gneiss that is mapped as
followed by 30–40s of raw data collection, and part of the Cajamarca Complex (DV18; Figure 2b)
measurements were performed in triplicate for each east of the Palestina Fault in central Colombia
sample. Two-σ uncertainties were <8% for REE and yielded a weighted mean average of 237.5±5.5 Ma
selected trace elements. Internal standardization (MSWD=1.6). A quartzite of the Cajamarca Complex
was based on CaO (previously determined by XRF) (DV19) found at the same locality as gneiss DV18
by reference to the NIST SRM610 and SRM612 yielded several detrital U-Pb age sub-populations
glass bead standards. Data reduction, including (n=30) with a major peak at ~240 Ma and less
spike correction, was performed using the Matlab- prominent populations at ~500-600 and ~1000–
based SILLS program [Guillong et al., 2008]. 1200 Ma (Figure 3a). Zircons from a paragneiss of
the Cajamarca Complex (DV02; Figure 3a), located
in central Colombia, east of the Otú-Pericos
Fault (Figure 2b) show several detrital zircon sub-
4 Results U–Pb LA-ICP-MS populations. The small number of analyses (n=12)
inhibits the extraction of useful age populations,
SEM-CL images and summary LA-ICP-MS U–Pb although it is significant that the youngest ages
zircon age data (206Pb/238U) from specific regions of range between 220–270 Ma.
single grains are shown in Figures 3a-c and Table 1.
Detailed LA-ICPMS results are shown in Appendix 4.1.2 Jurassic–Cretaceous Intrusive rocks of the
4 and all errors are reported at the 2σ-level. Tahami terrane
A granite of the Ibagué Batholith (DV09; Figure
2b) exposed within a brittle deformed zone related
4.1 Autochthonous units to the Ibagué Fault within central Colombia yielded
a weighted mean average zircon U–Pb age of
159.5±2.4 (MSWD 0.63; n=20; Figure 3b), which
4.1.1 Pre-Jurassic metamorphic and igneous we consider to approximate the emplacement
rocks of the Tahami Terrane age of the sample. A granodiorite (DV05) of the
Ibagué batholith located within 10km of granite
Pre-Jurassic rock sequences have been
DV09 yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of
previously poorly studied, and hence the source
165.0±15.0 Ma from seven zircon crystals, with
regions for metasedimentary rocks, ages of
an MSWD of 3.6, indicating that it is unlikely that
intrusive sequences and tectonic evolution prior to
they define a single age population. Excluding
the Jurassic are mainly undetermined.
two discordant analyses, which are the youngest
Zircons extracted from a Paleozoic orthogneiss (potentially affected by Pb loss) and the oldest
exposed in Northern Colombia (La Miel Gneiss; (potentially xenocrystic) ages, the 206Pb/238U
DV50; Figure 2a) host complex inherited crystals weighted mean age recalculates to be 166.0±10
and xenocrystic cores (ranging from 900 to 1700 Ma, with an acceptable MSWD of 0.29, that we
Ma with a major peak at 1200 Ma, n=40; Figure 3a) assume as a proxy for magma emplacement.
surrounded by magmatic rims. Two analyses from
Granite DV56 forms part of the large Antioquia
the oscillatory rim zone yielded ages of 440Ma–
Batholith located in the northern Central Cordillera
470Ma, which we interpret as a maximum age for
(Figure 2a) and yields a weighted mean 206Pb/238U
the intrusion.
age of 87.2±1.6 Ma (MSWD 0.81; n=16; Figure 3b).
Granite DV58 also forms part of the Antioquia

13
a) Magmatic Units

14
Weighted
Sample Unit Lithology Period Altitude Latitude Longitude CL characteristics mean

Table 1
206 number
Pb/238U age
of grains
(m) N W (Ma) ±2σ (Ma) ±(%) MSWD
Central Cordillera

presence of xenocrystic cores with borders


of low CL (cathodoluminiscence)
surrounded by OZP (oscillatory zoned
DV82 Permian intrusives granite Permian 1051 4°17'15.5'' 75°13'59.2'' pattern ). Presence of some inclusions 271.9 3.7 1.4 25 1.20
prismatic crystals, local intermediate
Permotriassic magmatic WM granodioritic resorption, alteration of outer rim, presence
DV18 units gneiss Triassic 3292 4°28'19.0'' 75°33'18.1'' of melt inclusions 237.5 5.5 2.3 16 1.60

prismatic crystals, large uniform central

Zircon U-Pb results from Colombia


DV09 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 1354 4°24'29.7'' 75°18'11.8'' zone surrounded by zoned oscillatory 159.6 2.4 1.5 20 0.63
long prismatic crystals with well-defined
DV05 Ibagué Batholith granodiorite Jurassic 1064 4°24'27.7'' 75°16'05.3'' OZP. 165.0 15.0 9.1 7 3.60
short prismatic zircons, absence of
inherited cores, continuous OZP with minor
DV56 Antioquia Batholith granite Late Cretaceous 2192 6°03'19.8'' 75°12'42.7'' resorption in the outer rims 87.2 1.6 1.8 16 0.81
stubby crystals, possible core (antecryst?),
well defined OZP, resorbed (low-CL) outer
DV58 Antioquia Batholith granite Late Cretaceous 1143 6°01'06.3'' 75°08'10.8'' rims 94.6 2.1 2.2 19 2.70

prismatic crystals, well-defined OZP with


DV26 Córdoba Pluton granodiorite Late Cretaceous 1389 4°24'30.9'' 75°41'24.2'' minor resorption textures in outer rims 79.7 2.5 3.1 13 0.27
Western Cordillera and Cauca-Patía Valley

stubby crystals, faintly visible OZP, zones


Volcanic Fm (Palmar hornblende of high-CL in the borders maybe caused by
DV42 Gabbro) gabbro Late Cretaceous 1102 3°37'05.0'' 76°39'15.1'' alteration of the outer rim 99.7 1.3 1.3 16 0.62

Volcanic Fm. (Bolívar big prismatic crystals, well-defined OZP


DV94 complex) pegmatite Late Cretaceous 1032 4°20'25.7'' 76°11'44.0'' and discordant OZP overgrowths 95.5 1.1 1.2 22 0.26
Volcanic Fm. (Bolívar big prismatic crystals, do not show
DV95 complex) pegmatite Late Cretaceous 1198 4°20'02.1'' 76°11'52.0'' recognizable OZP, areas with low-CL 97.1 2.0 2.1 18 1.20
DV30 Buga Batholith tonalite Late Cretaceous 1664 3°54'10.6'' 76°10'50.4'' stubby faceted crystals 92.1 0.8 0.9 43 0.66

stubby crystals with an inner homogenous


DV91 Buga Batholith diorite Late Cretaceous 1117 3°55'31.0'' 76°14'42.4'' domain surrounded by OZP overgrowths 90.2 1.8 2.0 22 2.30
DV108 Espinal Fm. lithic tuff Late Cretaceous 800 3°46'51.8'' 76°38'47.4'' prismatic crystals, well-defined OZP 75.5 1.6 2.1 29 0.56

b) metasediments + metaigneous rocks

Sample Unit Lithology Altitude Latitude Longitude CL characteristics

206
Pb/238U age
populations number
(m) N W (Ma) of grains

zircon interior with re-homogenized high-


CL domains and overgrowth of poorly 440, 800, 1000-
DV50 La Miel gneiss gneiss Paleozoic 1857 6°06'15.6'' 75°38'02.7'' recognizable OZP with low-CL 1400 40
variety of crystal usually showing inherited
cores with OZP which are partially
rebsorbed and surrounded by highly 220-240, 400,
DV02 Cajamarca Complex gneiss Triassic 685 4°46'41.8'' 74°57'54.2'' altered outer rims 600 12
variety of reworked crystals from rounded
to euhedral without OZP and generally low- 220-400, 500-
DV19 Cajamarca Complex quartzite Triassic 3292 4°28'19.0'' 75°33'18.1'' CL 600, 1000-1200 30
Pre-Jurassic metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Tahami Terrane
DV82: Granite - Permian granite DV50: Orthogneiss - La Miel Gneiss
box heights are 2σ
360 10
n=40
320
age (Ma)

8
280
6

Number
206Pb/238U

240 100 μm
100 μm
4
200
271.9±3.7 Ma (MSWD=1.2)
2
160

120 0
200 600 1000 1400 1800 2200

DV18: Orthogneiss - Cajamarca Complex. DV02: Paragneiss - Cajamarca Complex


box heights are 2σ
300 237.5±5.5 Ma (MSWD=1.6) 05DV02_17
8 n=12
280
age (Ma)

260 6

Number
1: 270±10
240
100 μm 4 100 μm
206Pb/238U

220
05DV02_1
200
2
180
1: 367±37
236.2±6.3 Ma (MSWD=0.61)
160 0
200 600 1000 1400 1800 2200
100 μm

DV19: Quartzite - Cajamarca Complex

12
n=30
10
Figure 3a. U-Pb isotopic data acquired from zircons by
Number

8
the LA-ICP-MS method, showing cathodoluminescence
6
images of the representative zircon grains, representative
analysed regions and the 206Pb/238U ages of those regions. 4
Preferred weighted mean ages and their associated MSWD 2
are shown in bold. Effects of excluding certain groups of
0
zircons (potentially influenced by analytically irresolvable 200 600 1000 1400 1800 2200 100 μm
antecrystic components or Pb loss, following the approach Age (Ma)
of Schütte [2009]) from the calculation of the weighted
mean ages is illustrated in the plot (displayed in italics) and
always correspond to statistically acceptable MSWD values
for a single zircon population [Wendt and Carl, 1991]. If
both ages are indistinguishable within error we prefer the
age with larger amount of zircons as more robust (outlined
with green line, see text for further discussion). Data shown
in grey (e.g. sample DV82) is excluded from the calculation
of the weighted mean age based on cathodoluminescence
images and the older nature of the ages, suggesting they may
relate to xenocrystic and antecrystic material. Error bars and
weighted mean uncertainties correspond to analytical error
at the 2σ level. Data acquired from Pre-Jurassic metamorphic
and igneous rocks of the Tahami Terrane. Left: Weighted
mean 206Pb/238U age plots; right: age histograms (40 Ma bins)
and distribution curves for metasedimentary and magmatic
(inherited cores) samples. All diagrams generated using the
Isoplot v.3.31 Excel macro [Ludwig, 2003].

15
Jurassic-Cretaceous Intrusive rocks of the Tahami Terrane
DV09: Granite - Ibagué Batholith
box heights are 2σ
190
0.029 180
age (Ma)

170
160

206Pb/238U
0.025
150
140
206Pb/238U

50 μm 0.021
130

110
159.6±2.4 Ma (MSWD=0.63) 0.017
0.06 0.14 0.22
90 207Pb/235U

DV05: Diorite - Ibagué Batholith


box heights are 2σ
230 0.034 

165±15 Ma (MSWD=3.6)
210 0.030 190
age (Ma)

206Pb/238U
190
0.026 170
170
150
206Pb/238U

150 100 μm 0.022


130
130
0.018
110 166.0±10.0 Ma (MSWD=0.29) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
207Pb/235U
90

DV56: Granite - Antioquia Batholith


box heights are 2σ
115
87.2±1.6 Ma (MSWD=0.81) 0.018 110
105
0.016
age (Ma)

95 90
206Pb/238U

0.014
85 50 μm 0.012
206Pb/238U

70
75 0.010

65 0.008
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3
55
207Pb/235U

DV58: Granite - Antioquia Batholith


box heights are 2σ
0.017
130 104
94.6±2.1 Ma (MSWD=2.7) 0.016
age (Ma)

120
93.5±1.5 Ma (MSWD=1.3) 0.015 96
206Pb/238U

110
0.014 88
Figure 3b. Jurassic to
206Pb/238U

100 100 μm Cretaceous intrusive


0.013
90 80 rocks of the Tahami
0.012 Terrane. The same
80 0.05 0.09 0.13 0.17 statistical criteria as
70 207Pb/235U previous figure are
applied for the weighted
DV26: Granodiorite - Córdoba Pluton mean 206
Pb/238U
box heights are 2σ ages. Also shown
79.7±2.5 Ma (MSWD=0.27)
100 90 are U‐Pb Concordia
0.0135 diagrams (error ellipses
90 correspond to 1σ error)
age (Ma)

206Pb/238U

80
of magmatic zircons
80 0.0115
50 μm 70 dated by LA-ICP-MS.
206Pb/238U

70 All diagrams generated


0.0095 using the Isoplot v.3.31
60 0.00 0.08 0.16 Excel macro [Ludwig,
207Pb/235U 2003].
50

16
Late Cretaceous allochthonous rocks
DV42: Hb-gabbro - Volcanic Fm. (Palmar Gabbro)
box heights are 2σ
0.020
99.7±1.3 Ma (MSWD=0.62)
130 120
120 0.018
110
age (Ma)

206Pb/238U
110 0.016 100
200 μm
206Pb/238U

100 90
0.014
90 80
0.012
80 0.00 0.08 0.16 0.24
207Pb/235U
70
DV94: Pegmatite - Bolívar Ultramafic Complex
box heights are 2σ
120 0.0175
95.5±1.1 Ma (MSWD=0.26)
108
110 0.0165
age (Ma)

100

206Pb/238U
0.0155
100
0.0145 92
206Pb/238U

200 μm
90 0.0135
84
80 0.0125
0.00 0.08 0.16 0.24
207Pb/235U
70
DV95: Pegmatite - Bolívar Ultramafic Complex
box heights are 2σ

115
97.1±2.0 Ma (MSWD=1.2) 0.0175
110
0.0165
age (Ma)

105
206Pb/238U

0.0155 100
0.0145
95 90
206Pb/238U

200 μm 0.0135
85 0.0125 80
0.0115
75
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
207Pb/235U
65
DV30: Tonalite - Buga Batholith
box heights are 2σ
108 0.0175
- 

92.1±0.8 Ma (MSWD=0.66) 108


104 0.0165
age (Ma)

100 0.0155 100


206Pb/238U

96 0.0145 92
92 0.0135
206Pb/238U

100 μm 84
88 0.0125
84 76
0.0115
80 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16 0.20 0.24
207Pb/235U
76
DV91: Diorite - Buga Batholith
box heights are 2σ
0.020 Figure 3c. Late Cretaceous
115
90.2±1.8 Ma (MSWD=2.3) 0.018 110 allochthonous rocks of the Calima
105 0.016 Terrane. The same statistical
age (Ma)

206Pb/238U

95 0.014 90
criteria as previous figure are
85 0.012 applied for the weighted mean
100 μm 70
206Pb/238U

0.010 206
Pb/238U ages. Also shown are
75
65
0.008 U‐Pb Concordia diagrams (error
0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 ellipses correspond to 1σ error) of
90.6±1.3 Ma (MSWD=0.38)
55 207Pb/235U
magmatic zircons dated by LA-ICP-
DV108: Lithic tuff - Espinal Fm. MS. All diagrams generated using
box heights are 2σ
95 the Isoplot v.3.31 Excel macro
0.014 90
75.5±1.6 Ma (MSWD=0.56) [Ludwig, 2003].
85 0.013
age (Ma)

80
206Pb/238U

0.012
75 0.011 70
206Pb/238U

100 μm 0.010
65 60
0.009
55 0.008
0.03 0.05 0.07 0.09 0.11
207Pb/235U
45

17
Batholith (Figure 2a) and yields a weighted mean of 75.5±1.6 Ma (Figure 3c; MSWD = 0.56; n=29),
age of 94.6±2.1 Ma from 19 grains, and an MSWD which represents a maximum depositional age for
of 2.7 indicating it is unlikely that they define a the Espinal Fm. This age corroborates the presence
single U-Pb age population. Excluding the youngest of Upper Cretaceous radiolarites [Barrero, 1979;
age (potentially reflecting Pb loss) and three older Aspden, 1984; Etayo-Serna, 1985b].
grains (ranging from 100 to 110 Ma, which may Magmatic zircon crystals from a tonalite (DV30)
be xenocrystic), we obtain an age of 93.5±1.5 Ma of the Buga Batholith, which intrudes the Amaime
with a statistically acceptable MSWD of 1.3 (n=15). Fm. and crops out within the Cauca-Patía Valley,
As both ages are indistinguishable, we consider west of the Romeral Fault System (Figure 2b)
94.6±2.1 Ma to be a more robust estimate for the yielded a weighted mean U-Pb age of 92.1±0.8
timing of crystallization and emplacement. Ma (MSWD=0.66; n=43; Figure 3c). Similarly, a
Euhedral, zoned zircons from the small Córdoba diorite (DV91) of the same intrusion, located within
pluton (granodiorite DV26; Figure 2b and 3b), ~7km of sample DV30, yielded a less precise but
which intrudes the Quebradagrande Complex indistinguishable age of 90.2±1.8 (MSWD=2.3;
along the western flank of the Central Cordillera in n=22; Figure 3c).
central Colombia, yielded a weighted mean age of
79.7±2.5 Ma (n=13; Figure 3b), which is considered
to represent the time of intrusion emplacement.
5 Results: 40Ar/39Ar
4.2 Late Cretaceous allochthonous rocks Summary argon isotope data acquired from
exposed in the Cauca-Patía Valley and the hornblende, biotite and plagioclase are shown in
Western Cordillera. Figure 4 and Table 2, and all errors are reported at
the 2σ-level.
A hornblende-gabbro (Palmar gabbro unit;
DV42) that is mapped as part of the Volcanic Fm.
(Figure 2b) yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U 5.1 Autochthonous rocks of the Tahami
age of 99.7±1.3 Ma (Figure 3c), with a statistically Terrane
acceptable MSWD of 0.62 (n=16). Large (>400
μm) euhedral zircon crystals extracted from
A majority of hornblendes extracted from
two hornblende and biotite-bearing pegmatites
diorites and granites of the Jurassic Ibagué Batholith
exposed in the Bolívar Ultramafic Complex (Figure
in the Central Cordillera in central Colombia yielded
2b) yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of
plateau ages (Figure 4) according to the definition
95.5±1.1 Ma (DV94; Figure 3c; MSWD= 0.26; n=22)
of Lanphere and Dalrymple [1978]. Hornblende
and 97.1±2.0 Ma (DV95; Figure 3c; MSWD=1.2;
extracted from granite DV04 yielded a weighted
n=18). Both the Palmar gabbro and the Bolívar
mean plateau age of 159.2±5.2 Ma (80% of the 39Ar
Ultramafic Complex form part of the magmatic
released) with no evidence of excess 40Ar. Similar
sequence of the Calima Terrane [Nivia, 2001],
Late Jurassic ages were obtained from granitoids
which is exposed in the Western Cordillera and is
DV05 (U-Pb zircon age 166.0±10.0 Ma; this study)
widely considered to represent a detached sliver
and DV07, which yielded mean weighted plateau
of the Caribbean–Colombian Oceanic Province
ages of 153.1±2.0 Ma (85% of the 39Ar released)
[Kerr et al., 2004].
and 148.9±3.4 Ma (50% of the 39Ar released),
A medium-grained lithic tuff (DV108) of the with non-radiogenic 40Ar/36Ar ratios that overlap
marine Espinal Fm. located within the central with the currently accepted atmospheric value
Western Cordillera (Figure 2b) consisting of of 295.5 [Steiger and Jager, 1977]. Hornblende
hemipelagic turbidites, limestones and tuffs, which from granite DV06 yielded a disturbed, stair-case
lie unconformably on top of the plateau rocks of the age spectrum with low temperature step-ages of
Caribbean–Colombian Oceanic Province [Moreno- ~140 Ma that increase to ~180 Ma in the highest
Sánchez and Pardo-Trujillo, 2002, 2003] yielded temperature steps. The hornblende was unaltered
zoned euhedral zircons with a weighted mean age and free of inclusions, and we tentatively interpret

18
the age spectrum to be a consequence of Ar loss A single 40Ar/39Ar hornblende age obtained from
during either slow cooling, or post-crystallization a gneiss of the Cajamarca Complex (DV02), located
reheating at some point during the Cretaceous. proximal (hundreds of meters) to the contact
The oldest age of ~180 Ma may approximate the with the intruding Ibagué Batholith in central
timing of crystallization, although it predates the Colombia (Figure 2b) yielded a weighted plateau
U-Pb zircon ages acquired from other samples of age of 155.6±6.2 Ma (>50% of 39Ar released;
the Ibagué Batholith. Figure 4), which has a non-radiogenic 40Ar/36Ar
intercept (MSWD 1.22) that is indistinguishable
Biotite from granite DV07 of the Ibagué
from atmospheric Ar. The 40Ar/39Ar hornblende age
Batholith yielded a 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of
is significantly younger than the youngest U-Pb
147.0±0.5 Ma (>50% of 39Ar released; Figure 4),
age (~220 Ma; this study) obtained from detrital
which is indistinguishable from its hornblende
zircons, and it is likely that it was reset by thermally
age of 148.9±3.4 Ma. The 40Ar/36Ar ratio of the
activated diffusion during intrusion of the Ibagué
non-radiogenic component for the biotite age is
Batholith.
extremely imprecise due to clustering of the data
close to the radiogenic-axis, and hence we do not A Permian granitoid body (DV82) located at the
consider the inverse isochron to be useful. The eastern border of the Central Cordillera in central
indistinguishable hornblende and biotite ages Colombia (Figure 2b), which gave a zircon U-Pb age
suggest the sample cooled rapidly from >550°C to of 271.9±3.7 Ma (this study), yielded a disturbed
<300°C (closure temperature of hornblende and 40
Ar/39Ar age spectrum with a total fusion age
biotite, respectively) [McDougall and Harrison, of 225.3±1.1 Ma (hornblende; Figure 4) that is
1999] during 147-150 Ma, which may have been significantly younger than its emplacement age.
a consequence of thermal relaxation subsequent
to magmatic emplacement of the sample. Granite
DV09 of the Ibagué batholith yielded a weighted 5.2 Allochthonous rocks of the Western
mean age of 151.8±0.9 Ma over the flattest region
Cordillera and the Cauca-Patía Valley
of a disturbed age spectrum where individual step
ages differ by less than 1% and account for ~70%
of the total 39Ar released. The same sample yielded Plagioclase separated from groundmass of
a zircon U–Pb age of 159.5±2.4 Ma, suggesting the andesite (DV78) of the Eocene [Kerr et al., 1997]
biotite age may record slow cooling via thermal Dabeiba Fm., which forms part of the Dabeiba
relaxation, subsequent to intrusion during the Late Volcanic Arc located along the eastern flank of the
Jurassic. northern Western Cordillera, yielded a total fusion

Weighted Inverse
40
Stratigraphic elevation Latitude N Longitude W mean age ± Total Fusion Isochron Ar/36Ar
1
Sample Unit Lithology Age (m) d°m's'' d°m's'' Phase 2σ (Ma) obs MSWD Age±2σ (Ma) Age±2σ (Ma) intercept MSWD2
Central Cordillera
DV02 Cajamarca Complex gneiss Triassic 685 4°46'41.8'' 74°57'54.2'' Hbl 155.6±6.2 P 2.11 151.2±3.8 164.6±9.0 261.3±30.7 1.22
DV04 Ibagué Batholith gabbro-diorite Jurassic 933 4°47'00.2'' 74°58'31.4'' Hbl 159.2±5.2 P 2.26 157.5±4.6 155.0±18.3 331.0±65.9 2.80
DV05 Ibagué Batholith granodiorite Jurassic 1064 4°24'27.7'' 75°16'05.3'' Hbl 153.1±2.0 P 0.48 149.2±2.8 155.4±6.0 260.5±38.7 0.48
DV06 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 1277 4°24'08.9'' 75°17'40.3'' Hbl 182.6±2.4 DS 4.19 171.2±1.0 185.0±12.2 261.1±86.9 7.59
DV07 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 1363 4°24'25.4'' 75°18'04.5'' Hbl 148.9±3.4 P 1.43 146.4±2.9 148.6±10.8 298.8±11.1 1.90
DV07 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 1363 4°24'25.4'' 75°18'04.5'' Bt 147.0±0.5 P 2.03 141.3±0.4 145.9±5.7 334.6±217.6 2.56
DV09 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 1354 4°24'29.7'' 75°18'11.8'' Bt 151.8±0.9 P 25.88 147.9±0.4 154.0±0.6 65.9±41.4 3.60
DV82 Permian granites granite Triassic 1051 4°17'15.5'' 75°13'59.2'' Hbl 223.8±3.4 DS 8.18 225.3±1.1 106.7±120.0 1899±1593 6.26
Western Cordillera
Eocene-
DV78 Dabeiba Fm. andesite Oligocene 470 7°00'54.9'' 76°18'29.5'' Pl n/a TF n/a 25.6±2.6 n/a n/a n/a

39
P: plateau, >3 contiguous heating steps that span >50% Ar released (the age is the weighted mean age of the plateau),
39
DS: Disturbed Spectrum over a region that contains >3 contiguous heating steps that span > 50% Ar released, and individual step ages differ by less than 5%;

TF: Total fusion age


n/a: Not Applicable
1
Mean Square of Weighted Deviates of the weighted mean age
2
Mean Square of Weighted Deviates of the inverse isochron linear regression
Mineral abbreviations: Hbl: hornblende, Bt: botite, Pl: plagioclase

Table 2
40
Ar/39Ar age results

19
a) Central Cordillera

DV04-Hbl: Diorite, Jurassic Ibagué Batholith DV02-Hbl: Gneiss, Triassic Cajamarca Schist
Inverse Isochron: 155.0±18.3 Ma Inverse Isochron: 164.6±9.0 Ma
40Ar/36Ar intercept: 331±65.9 40Ar/36Ar intercept: 261.3±30.7

/ 40Ar (10-3)
Weighted Plateau

/ 40Ar (10-3)
260 4 500 Weighted plateau 4 MSWD: 1.22
Total Fusion: 157.5±4.6 Ma MSWD: 2.80

Age (Ma)
Total Fusion: 151.2±3.8 Ma
Age (Ma)

220 3 400 3
180 300
2 155.6±6.2 Ma 2
140
200

36Ar
1 1

36Ar
100 159.2±5.2 Ma 100
60
0 20 40 60 80 100 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0 20 40 60 80 100 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10

DV05-Hbl: Granodiorite, Jurassic Ibagué Batholith DV82-Hbl: Granite, Permian granite


Age: 106.7±120.0 Ma
Inverse Isochron: 155.4±6.0 Ma 340 40Ar/36Ar intercept: 1899±1593

/ 40Ar (10-3)
40Ar/36Ar intercept: 260.5±38.7 4 MSWD: 6.26
280 Weighted Plateau 4

Age (Ma)
/ 40Ar (10-3)

MSWD: 0.48
240 Total Fusion: 149.2±2.8 Ma 223.8±3.4 Ma
Age (Ma)

3 260 3
200 153.1±2.0 Ma
160 2 2
120 180
1

36Ar
1 Disturbed spectrum
80
36Ar

Total Fusion: 225.3±1.1 Ma


40 100
0 20 40 60 80 100 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06
0 20 40 60 80 100 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10
39Ar / 40Ar

DV07-Hbl: Granite, Jurassic Ibagué Batholith b) Western Cordillera


Inverse Isochron: 148.6±10.8 Ma
Weighted plateau 40Ar/36Ar intercept: 298.8±11.1 DV78-Pl: Andesite, Dabeiba Fm.
/ 40Ar (10-3)

300 Total Fusion: 146.4±2.9 Ma 4 MSWD: 1.90


Age (Ma)

240 3 Total Fusion age: 25.6±2.6 Ma


148.9±3.4 Ma
180 50
2
Age (Ma)

120
1 30
36Ar

60
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 10

0 20 40 60 80 100
Cumulative 39Ar Released (%)
DV06-Hbl: Granite, Jurassic Ibagué Batholith
200 Age: 185.0±12.2 Ma
40Ar/36Ar intercept: 261.1±86.9
4
/ 40Ar (10-3)

180 MSWD: 7.59


Age (Ma)

3
160 182.6±2.4 Ma
140 2

120 Disturbed spectrum 1


36Ar

Total Fusion: 171.2±1.0 Ma


100
0 20 40 60 80 100 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

DV07-Bt: Granite, Jurassic Ibagué Batholith


Inverse Isochron: 145.9±5.7 Ma
40Ar/36Ar intercept: 334.6±217.6
4
/ 40Ar (10-3)

160 MSWD: 2.56


Age (Ma)

3
120 147.0±0.5 Ma
2
80
Weighted plateau 1
36Ar

Total Fusion: 141.3±0.4 Ma


40
0 20 40 60 80 100 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10

DV09-Bt: Granite, Jurassic Ibagué Batholith


180 Inverse Isochron: 154.0±0.6 Ma
40 36
/ 40Ar (10-3)

Ar/ Ar intercept: 65.9±41.4


4 MSWD: 3.60 Figure 4. 40Ar/39Ar age spectra and associated inverse isochron
Age (Ma)

140 3
151.8±0.9 Ma plots for hornblende (hbl), biotite (bt) and plagioclase
100 2 (pl) from rocks located in the a) Central Cordillera, and b)
36Ar

Weighted plateau
Total Fusion: 147.9±0.4 Ma
1 Western Cordillera. See text for further discussion on MSWD
60
0 20 40 60 80 100 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10
values and robustness of the data. All errors are ±2σ.
Cumulative 39Ar Released (%) 39Ar / 40Ar

20
age of 25.6±2.6 Ma (Figure 4) from a disturbed Central Cordillera: Subduction related rocks
age spectrum. The Dabeiba Fm. forms part of the
1000
Chocó-Panamá Terrane, which is also considered Saldaña Fm.
to be underlain by oceanic plateau material [Kerr et Antioquia Batholith

Rock/Primitive Mantle
al., 1997]. Our age is distinguishably younger than 100 Córdoba Pluton
Sonsón Batholith
a plagioclase 40Ar/39Ar age of 43.1±0.4 Ma obtained
by Kerr et al. [1997] from the same rocks. 10

6 Results: Whole rock


geochemistry 0.1
Rb Ba Th U K Nb Ta La Ce Sr Nd P Hf Zr Sm Ti Tb Y Tm Yb

1000
Forty-three samples exposed in the Western
and Central cordilleras of Colombia were selected
for a reconnaissance study of whole-rock major and 100

Rock/Chondrite
trace elements (Table 3) to determine their most
likely tectonic origin. Our interpretations are mainly 10
based on relatively immobile high-field-strength
elements (HFSE) and rare earth elements (REE),
1
given that the less compatible light ion-lithophile La Ce Pr Nd Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
elements (LILE) are susceptible to remobilization
during alteration and metamorphism, which Figure 5. Primitive-mantle-normalized spider diagram and
is most prevalent in rocks sampled from the C1 chondrite-normalized REE plot of samples from acidic-
Quebradagrande and Arquía complexes. intermediate igneous rocks sampled from the autochthonous
Tahami Terrane in the Central Cordillera of Colombia.
Normalization values are from Sun and McDonough [1989].

6.1 Jurassic to Cretaceous magmatism


within the Tahami Terrane

Major oxide and trace element data (Figure 6.2 Para-autochthonous rocks entrained
5) have been acquired from i) a rhyolite of the within the Romeral Fault Zone
Jurassic Saldaña Fm. (DV138), which is considered
to be contemporaneous and likely the extrusive
equivalent of continental arc rocks of the Ibagué
6.2.1 Igneous rocks of the Quebradagrande
Batholith [Toussaint, 1995], ii) intrusive rocks of the
Complex
Late Cretaceous Antioquia Batholith (DV58; zircon
U-Pb age spans 94-87 Ma), iii) the Late Cretaceous Basalts and gabbros (DV43, DV48, and DV173;
Córdoba Batholith (DV26; zircon U-Pb age of SiO2 wt% 46 to 50; MgO wt% 6 to 9) of the
79.7±2.5 Ma), and iv) the Paleocene (DV156; zircon Quebradagrande Complex (Figure 2b-c) located
U-Pb ages span 65–55 Ma) [Ordóñez-Carmona et along the western flank of the Central Cordillera
al., 2001] Sonsón Batholith. All of the sampled are characterized by flat- to positive slopes on
rocks are classified as granites and granodiorites chondrite-normalized REE plots (La/YbN 0.59-
(total alkali-silica classification) [Le Bas et al., 0.76; Figure 6a) and high Zr/Th ratios (>650) that
1986], with SiO2 values ranging between 60 and are indicative of a depleted mantle source origin
70%, and fall into the calc-alkaline field on an AFM such as at a mid-oceanic ridge. Negative Nb–Ta
diagram, corroborating LREE enrichment ((La/Yb)N and Ti anomalies are not present suggesting that
8.81 to 11.46). Multi-element plots reveal negative these rocks are not petrogenetically related to
Nb–Ta and Ti anomalies and are indicative of a subduction zone magmatism.
subduction-related origin (Figure 5). A group of basaltic andesites and andesites

21
Table 3
Concentration of major and trace element in various lithologies of igneous and metamorphic rocks in Colombia

Samples Method DV38 DV39 DV40 DV74 DV75 DV102


Volcanic Fm. Volcanic Fm. Volcanic Fm.
Unit Volcanic Fm. Volcanic Fm. Volcanic Fm. (Barroso Fm.) (Barroso Fm.) (Zabaletas Stock )

Lithology Diabase Gabbro Dolerite Basalt Basalt Gabbro-diorite


Latitude N 3°46'23.6'' 3°27'48.3'' 3°28'40.9'' 6°00'07.0'' 5°53'43.4'' 3°49'10.6''
Longitude W 76°44'23.9'' 76°35'13.5'' 76°38'47.7'' 75°47'34.2'' 75°54'05.8'' 76°36'00.7''

SiO2 % XRF 47.07 49.89 50.16 49.15 50.12 62.90


TiO2 % XRF 1.27 1.47 1.08 0.96 0.97 1.76
Al2O3 % XRF 15.28 12.99 13.82 14.28 13.81 13.05
Fe2O3 % XRF 11.48 13.91 11.87 10.85 10.27 3.19
MnO % XRF 0.20 0.20 0.19 0.34 0.18 0.04
MgO % XRF 7.37 5.78 7.55 8.39 7.70 5.14
CaO % XRF 11.18 10.25 11.53 9.36 13.27 6.03
Na2O % XRF 2.53 2.17 2.14 3.01 1.88 5.64
K2O % XRF 0.95 0.04 0.13 0.05 0.07 0.09
P2O5 % XRF 0.09 0.13 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.17
LOI % XRF 2.25 3.34 1.34 3.51 2.01 1.61
Cr2O3 % XRF 0.04 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.00
NiO % XRF 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.00
Total % XRF 99.71 100.18 99.92 100.03 100.44 99.60
Cr ppm XRF-Rho 261 51 203 324 430 3
Ni ppm XRF-Rho 106 57 110 134 137 21
Cu ppm XRF-tr n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Zn ppm XRF-Rho 92 107 90 81 75 14
Ga ppm ICP-MS 85.15 17.86 18.06 37.01 15.21 16.20
Sc ppm ICP-MS 50.21 47.87 55.42 52.47 46.04 41.84
V ppm ICP-MS 343.72 425.60 359.86 323.32 299.05 450.21
Co ppm ICP-MS 44.03 43.51 46.19 42.23 38.78 7.95
Cs ppm ICP-MS 0.28 0.09 0.17 0.25 0.06 0.04
Ba ppm ICP-MS 466.62 15.14 34.45 162.38 21.12 13.72
Rb ppm ICP-MS 10.48 1.05 1.45 1.15 1.34 1.52
Th ppm ICP-MS 0.26 0.38 0.24 0.19 0.38 0.50
K ppm XRF 7871 321 1065 401 569 735
Nb ppm ICP-MS 2.94 5.29 3.39 2.87 5.23 7.29
Ta ppm ICP-MS 0.32 0.40 0.39 0.16 0.34 0.50
Sr ppm ICP-MS 130.51 59.05 111.56 91.91 103.62 25.71
P ppm ICP-MS 383.89 548.40 344.44 336.87 342.13 729.88
Zr ppm ICP-MS 63.61 71.89 47.73 42.20 46.44 133.43
Hf ppm ICP-MS 1.56 2.05 1.29 1.08 1.34 3.78
Ti ppm XRF 7617 8807 6446 5726 5815 10556
Y ppm ICP-MS 23.15 29.06 18.73 17.61 15.63 42.65
Pb ppm ICP-MS 1.20 0.70 0.62 3.31 0.52 1.24
U ppm ICP-MS 0.12 0.13 0.34 0.08 0.07 0.07
La ppm ICP-MS 2.89 4.26 2.90 2.28 3.87 3.82
Ce ppm ICP-MS 8.30 10.78 8.67 6.67 9.66 11.03
Pr ppm ICP-MS 1.33 1.82 1.28 0.97 1.47 1.78
Nd ppm ICP-MS 7.84 7.99 7.27 5.18 7.11 10.48
Sm ppm ICP-MS 1.96 3.06 2.51 1.51 1.82 3.62
Eu ppm ICP-MS 0.97 1.02 0.73 0.62 0.64 1.01
Gd ppm ICP-MS 3.08 3.30 2.55 2.24 1.89 5.08
Tb ppm ICP-MS 0.64 0.86 0.55 0.38 0.43 0.91
Dy ppm ICP-MS 4.10 5.58 3.67 3.26 2.85 6.85
Ho ppm ICP-MS 0.85 1.25 0.65 0.67 0.61 1.60
Er ppm ICP-MS 2.55 3.36 2.44 1.91 1.74 4.56
Tm ppm ICP-MS 0.43 0.51 0.61 0.29 0.22 0.77
Yb ppm ICP-MS 2.38 3.90 2.04 1.98 1.93 4.92
Lu ppm ICP-MS 0.42 0.51 0.27 0.29 0.30 0.70
YbN 13.99 22.96 12.02 11.66 11.35 28.92
(La/Yb)N 0.87 0.78 1.02 0.82 1.44 0.56
(La/Sm)N 0.95 0.90 0.75 0.97 1.37 0.68
Sr/Y 5.64 2.03 5.96 5.22 6.63 0.60
Nb/La 1.02 1.24 1.17 1.26 1.35 1.91

XRF analysis: Rho=Rhodes program, tr=trace element program.


All analyses performed at the University of Lausanne.

22
Table 3. (continued)

Samples DV103 DV104 DV105 DV106 DV109 DV110 DV111

Unit Volcanic Fm. Volcanic Fm. Volcanic Fm. Volcanic Fm. Volcanic Fm. Amaime Fm. Amaime Fm.

Lithology Basalt Basalt Basalt Gabbro Basalt Basalt Basalt


Latitude N 3°48'57.5'' 3°46'46.6'' 3°46'31.0'' 3°46'04.0'' 3°47'43.6'' 3°33'20.0'' 3°25'07.4''
Longitude W 76°36'31.8'' 76°43'24.3'' 76°41'55.3'' 76°40'38.9'' 76°38'01.4'' 76°11'10.0'' 76°11'10.7''

SiO2 49.68 46.86 43.60 49.80 49.32 49.27 49.59


TiO2 1.03 1.03 2.51 0.99 1.20 0.84 0.84
Al2O3 13.66 15.01 12.73 13.81 14.15 14.23 14.36
Fe2O3 11.42 11.43 18.92 9.40 12.64 11.12 10.55
MnO 0.17 0.18 0.24 0.16 0.20 0.19 0.18
MgO 8.16 8.31 6.56 9.45 7.61 8.25 9.04
CaO 10.39 12.80 8.27 9.96 10.37 11.29 12.73
Na2O 2.86 1.89 2.99 3.56 2.56 2.62 1.55
K2O 0.12 0.22 0.06 0.11 0.13 0.45 0.08
P2O5 0.08 0.09 0.23 0.07 0.10 0.07 0.07
LOI 2.94 2.62 2.94 3.07 2.16 1.91 1.39
Cr2O3 0.04 0.06 0.01 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.07
NiO 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02
Total 100.56 100.51 99.07 100.41 100.50 100.33 100.47
Cr 208 394 39 180 245 377 443
Ni 130 149 42 131 136 147 147
Cu n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Zn 83 89 190 59 101 75 76
Ga 21.24 68.09 31.93 17.93 18.36 15.06 13.84
Sc 51.55 48.83 43.34 51.48 52.04 50.64 49.29
V 344.76 311.87 540.16 300.82 392.19 348.21 296.38
Co 43.45 48.47 49.63 40.36 45.35 41.50 44.55
Cs 0.03 0.12 0.78 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.05
Ba 60.24 316.12 92.76 38.63 24.88 20.47 15.82
Rb 1.45 2.46 1.33 1.78 1.64 11.95 1.20
Th 0.20 0.16 0.79 0.13 0.20 0.18 0.22
K 967 1860 483 885 1056 3746 655
Nb 3.32 2.65 10.69 2.25 3.75 2.49 3.54
Ta 0.23 0.21 0.73 0.16 0.25 0.15 0.20
Sr 144.73 213.79 43.12 75.39 96.64 90.91 82.80
P 338.91 382.52 1016.27 296.14 427.02 299.66 301.25
Zr 44.74 44.87 147.82 35.25 52.17 38.19 39.14
Hf 1.21 1.39 4.36 0.98 1.27 0.99 1.04
Ti 6168 6188 15064 5927 7214 5057 5025
Y 18.38 18.59 50.40 15.45 21.97 17.60 15.51
Pb 0.37 0.54 0.96 0.43 0.54 0.74 9.07
U 0.09 0.08 0.21 0.06 0.10 0.06 0.07
La 2.60 2.42 8.26 1.85 3.14 1.99 2.82
Ce 6.89 6.88 22.14 5.29 8.29 5.99 6.96
Pr 0.97 1.07 3.34 0.86 1.20 0.86 0.94
Nd 5.97 6.56 18.21 4.20 6.15 4.96 4.87
Sm 2.20 2.30 5.59 1.85 2.21 1.90 1.56
Eu 0.62 0.78 1.67 0.73 0.89 0.59 0.64
Gd 2.34 2.85 7.27 2.36 3.45 1.91 1.95
Tb 0.52 0.51 1.36 0.46 0.60 0.46 0.40
Dy 3.47 3.50 9.36 2.85 4.18 2.89 2.69
Ho 0.72 0.71 1.87 0.62 0.80 0.68 0.55
Er 2.04 2.03 5.67 1.91 2.41 1.86 1.88
Tm 0.32 0.28 0.89 0.26 0.35 0.30 0.26
Yb 2.10 1.85 6.01 1.65 2.88 1.97 2.27
Lu 0.31 0.32 0.83 0.30 0.39 0.36 0.30
YbN 12.33 10.86 35.34 9.73 16.93 11.57 13.36
(La/Yb)N 0.89 0.94 0.99 0.80 0.78 0.73 0.89
(La/Sm)N 0.76 0.68 0.95 0.65 0.92 0.68 1.17
Sr/Y 7.88 11.50 0.86 4.88 4.40 5.17 5.34
Nb/La 1.28 1.10 1.29 1.21 1.19 1.25 1.25

23
Table 3. (continued)

Samples DV112 DV26 DV58 DV138 DV156 DV30 DV91

Unit Amaime Fm. Córdoba Pluton Antioquia Batholith Saldaña Fm. Sonsón Batholith Buga Batholith Buga Batholith

Lithology Basalt Granodiorite Granite Rhyolite Granite Granodiorite Diorite


Latitude N 3°18'36.2'' 4°24'30.9'' 6°01'06.3'' 1°06'45.0'' 5°45'14.3'' 3°54'10.6'' 3°55'31.0''
Longitude W 76°11'36.7'' 75°41'24.2'' 75°08'10.8'' 76°50'18.6'' 75°18'00.5'' 76°10'50.4'' 76°14'42.4''

SiO2 49.36 60.30 70.08 63.68 68.34 67.60 50.99


TiO2 0.96 0.65 0.24 0.45 0.44 0.28 0.31
Al2O3 14.13 16.98 17.05 16.03 14.78 14.47 13.50
Fe2O3 10.22 5.55 1.69 3.66 3.76 5.24 9.38
MnO 0.16 0.09 0.03 0.09 0.07 0.09 0.17
MgO 8.95 1.68 0.69 1.21 1.94 2.58 10.84
CaO 11.95 5.61 3.31 2.94 3.62 5.57 11.31
Na2O 2.41 5.00 3.38 4.26 3.35 3.38 1.31
K2O 0.19 0.68 1.14 3.96 3.03 0.72 0.17
P2O5 0.09 0.19 0.06 0.12 0.10 0.07 0.04
LOI 1.80 2.68 1.95 2.83 0.46 0.45 2.30
Cr2O3 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.09
NiO 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02
Total 100.30 99.42 99.61 99.24 99.91 100.46 100.42
Cr 456 10 18 9 43 53 618
Ni 176 6 4 5 11 19 164
Cu n.d. n.d. 2.00 18.00 4.00 n.d. n.d.
Zn 72 45 41 56 58 41 69
Ga 17.49 78.81 16.25 15.60 15.65 41.53 19.75
Sc 52.29 8.07 4.49 8.67 11.70 18.90 51.84
V 311.95 112.06 29.23 76.45 89.91 127.30 196.70
Co 44.72 9.56 2.88 6.57 8.31 12.34 47.41
Cs 0.08 2.11 2.20 3.44 5.69 0.38 1.66
Ba 24.39 414.28 174.69 1435.74 743.51 203.89 65.31
Rb 4.13 19.60 43.38 97.07 109.77 12.19 3.97
Th 0.50 3.18 9.30 6.58 13.96 1.00 0.41
K 1549 5654 9441 32904 25120 5950 1379
Nb 4.92 2.28 4.43 5.56 6.04 1.73 0.63
Ta 0.29 0.18 0.40 0.30 0.58 0.27 0.07
Sr 101.23 402.02 214.81 525.66 267.59 195.79 148.66
P 385.71 849.27 256.71 508.74 434.39 304.11 170.56
Zr 50.73 307.70 101.54 176.13 133.41 65.78 24.56
Hf 1.32 6.61 2.96 4.57 3.79 1.75 0.78
Ti 5769 3908 1410 2679 2625 1671 1874
Y 18.19 12.84 12.66 18.55 19.49 9.17 7.09
Pb 0.71 2.69 15.42 10.36 10.62 1.62 0.60
U 0.20 1.37 1.83 1.93 4.22 0.40 0.11
La 3.80 15.42 19.25 25.38 28.71 4.54 1.70
Ce 9.06 29.17 33.72 47.93 54.81 10.23 4.09
Pr 1.25 3.24 3.28 5.09 5.93 1.36 0.58
Nd 7.36 14.41 10.86 18.24 21.59 5.82 3.04
Sm 1.79 2.20 1.86 3.42 4.09 2.59 0.62
Eu 0.63 1.10 1.23 0.90 0.70 0.48 0.38
Gd 2.34 2.27 1.81 3.01 3.63 1.84 1.06
Tb 0.44 0.31 0.29 0.46 0.55 0.31 0.21
Dy 2.79 2.07 1.87 2.83 3.06 2.05 1.22
Ho 0.70 0.49 0.39 0.58 0.63 0.50 0.28
Er 2.15 1.49 1.27 1.89 1.83 1.46 0.88
Tm 0.28 0.23 0.19 0.30 0.32 0.26 0.16
Yb 1.97 1.26 1.43 1.92 1.80 1.23 1.05
Lu 0.28 0.26 0.21 0.31 0.29 0.27 0.15
YbN 11.58 7.38 8.41 11.32 10.57 7.22 6.16
(La/Yb)N 1.39 8.81 9.66 9.46 11.46 2.65 1.17
(La/Sm)N 1.37 4.52 6.69 4.80 4.54 1.13 1.79
Sr/Y 5.56 31.30 16.96 28.34 13.73 21.36 20.96
Nb/La 1.29 0.15 0.23 0.22 0.21 0.38 0.37

24
Table 3. (continued)

Samples DV78 DV79 DV122 DV125 DV126 DV165 DV167

Unit Dabeiba Fm. Dabeiba Fm. Ricaurte arc Ricaurte arc Ricaurte arc Mande Bath Mande Bath

Lithology Andesite Basaltic andesite Porphyritic basalt Andesite Andesite Diorite Granodiorite
Latitude N 7°00'54.9'' 7°00'54.2'' 1°12'08.1'' 1°16'33.6'' 1°13'17.5'' 5°46'04.7'' 5°46'15.1''
Longitude W 76°18'29.5'' 76°18'16.0'' 77°58'42.2'' 78°05'40.1'' 78°03'44.5'' 76°14'56.3'' 76°14'51.1''

SiO2 52.09 50.00 49.85 49.52 56.92 60.69 60.05


TiO2 0.62 0.93 0.65 0.69 0.54 0.58 0.56
Al2O3 17.08 17.19 18.27 15.65 15.05 16.01 16.25
Fe2O3 7.87 9.43 9.86 8.97 7.11 6.93 7.06
MnO 0.18 0.30 0.11 0.14 0.22 0.16 0.15
MgO 2.38 2.73 4.87 8.67 4.22 2.79 2.76
CaO 5.85 9.12 8.63 9.83 9.24 6.12 5.94
Na2O 4.73 2.57 3.00 1.86 4.65 3.17 3.17
K2O 3.94 2.67 1.10 0.62 0.35 2.00 2.35
P2O5 0.43 0.48 0.17 0.11 0.09 0.14 0.15
LOI 4.59 4.02 2.87 3.47 0.98 0.59 0.68
Cr2O3 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.00 0.00
NiO 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00
Total 99.76 99.43 99.37 99.58 99.38 99.18 99.11
Cr 8 7 49 240 71 12 8
Ni 4 4 23 93 22 5 4
Cu n.d. n.d. 112 41 17 72 64
Zn 83 98 87 71 60 57 57
Ga 101.80 97.95 16.49 13.26 11.60 13.60 15.19
Sc 17.78 27.70 30.03 35.30 30.50 19.08 21.13
V 216.79 268.00 380.63 252.85 274.89 171.66 187.73
Co 17.37 25.08 27.07 33.45 20.93 15.20 15.71
Cs 0.92 0.60 0.38 0.55 0.07 0.61 0.81
Ba 578.28 527.64 106.46 54.80 194.79 433.06 586.88
Rb 75.91 59.79 24.86 12.40 4.84 37.36 43.34
Th 1.74 1.53 0.73 0.59 0.76 5.60 3.89
K 32708 22145 9110 5128 2877 16587 19540
Nb 4.54 5.92 0.64 0.99 0.63 2.14 2.37
Ta 0.29 0.36 0.04 0.06 0.03 0.14 0.10
Sr 661.32 809.26 481.34 294.86 221.94 403.20 415.76
P 1873.43 2093.77 720.45 463.31 388.88 607.32 650.10
Zr 91.12 85.54 47.99 35.43 39.01 168.87 147.19
Hf 2.43 1.93 1.38 1.14 1.20 4.57 4.15
Ti 3717 5579 3900 4165 3264 3456 3334
Y 21.61 22.52 15.55 14.26 13.72 27.61 34.99
Pb 4.17 3.01 2.63 1.07 2.07 2.66 8.11
U 1.00 0.77 0.21 0.14 0.29 1.62 0.97
La 13.94 12.02 7.36 4.64 5.63 19.41 19.64
Ce 28.19 26.13 17.45 11.31 13.10 39.43 43.79
Pr 3.67 3.51 2.63 1.78 1.93 5.31 6.29
Nd 17.19 14.09 12.07 8.84 8.81 22.36 26.86
Sm 4.21 3.64 3.02 2.35 2.02 4.96 6.21
Eu 1.17 1.24 0.99 0.79 0.73 1.14 1.26
Gd 4.19 4.30 2.93 2.63 2.31 4.72 6.03
Tb 0.60 0.62 0.45 0.41 0.34 0.75 0.95
Dy 3.81 4.11 2.67 2.57 2.16 4.26 5.75
Ho 0.80 0.77 0.60 0.50 0.52 0.95 1.24
Er 2.34 2.47 1.72 1.58 1.31 2.75 3.52
Tm 0.32 0.33 0.24 0.21 0.18 0.41 0.52
Yb 2.23 2.30 1.55 1.58 1.20 2.97 3.32
Lu 0.32 0.33 0.23 0.23 0.20 0.44 0.55
YbN 13.12 13.53 9.13 9.31 7.04 17.49 19.54
(La/Yb)N 4.48 3.75 3.40 2.10 3.38 4.68 4.24
(La/Sm)N 2.14 2.13 1.57 1.27 1.80 2.53 2.04
Sr/Y 30.60 35.93 30.95 20.67 16.18 14.60 11.88
Nb/La 0.33 0.49 0.09 0.21 0.11 0.11 0.12

25
Table 3. (continued)

Samples DV43 DV48 DV159 DV171 DV173 DV174 DV175 DV176


Quebradagrande Quebradagrande Quebradagrande Quebradagrande Quebradagrande Quebradagrande Quebradagrande Quebradagrande
Unit complex complex complex complex complex complex complex complex

Lithology Gabbro Gabbro-diorite Andesite Andesite Basalt Basaltic andesite Basaltic andesite Diorite
Latitude N 6°05'36.8'' 6°07'07.7'' 4°55'36.7'' 5°20'51.0'' 5°23'31.7'' 5°24'49.4'' 5°24'49.4'' 5°27'16.0''
Longitude W 75°39'09.0'' 75°43'59.5'' 75°37'25.7'' 75°28'53.0'' 75°28'26.8'' 75°28'30.3 75°28'30.3'' 75°28'28.2''

SiO2 50.45 46.19 60.40 58.87 48.20 57.58 51.05 64.91


TiO2 1.52 1.46 0.77 0.70 1.63 0.74 0.87 0.42
Al2O3 13.67 15.23 17.16 17.79 14.19 17.06 18.01 17.22
Fe2O3 11.56 10.14 5.63 5.05 11.26 5.42 7.67 2.97
MnO 0.21 0.16 0.08 0.08 0.19 0.08 0.12 0.06
MgO 7.30 8.99 2.91 3.07 6.18 3.16 6.00 2.39
CaO 9.70 14.01 5.37 3.90 8.79 3.50 5.45 2.13
Na2O 3.37 2.18 4.22 5.85 3.11 6.04 3.28 6.27
K2O 0.09 0.04 1.85 1.08 0.92 0.99 2.70 0.94
P2O5 0.13 0.09 0.24 0.19 0.17 0.21 0.21 0.17
LOI 2.40 1.69 0.56 2.63 4.66 4.43 3.64 2.02
Cr2O3 0.02 0.07 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.06 0.01
NiO 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00
Total 100.43 100.25 99.19 99.22 99.33 99.21 99.07 99.50
Cr 128 506 73 54 220 43 394 51
Ni 67 127 23 33 81 27 112 34
Cu n.d. n.d. 16 29 31 36 37 2
Zn 103 37 89 63 97 68 89 40
Ga 13.99 18.71 19.59 21.55 14.99 19.82 23.80 16.87
Sc 43.83 50.88 13.64 11.61 41.99 13.33 25.43 7.65
V 343.00 414.68 149.73 138.30 377.47 156.38 195.78 73.41
Co 38.05 43.08 13.05 14.62 39.97 14.12 30.38 8.83
Cs 0.23 0.13 1.85 0.38 0.50 0.27 0.50 0.22
Ba 8.07 12.46 1133.10 761.73 912.54 522.27 1243.06 243.13
Rb 1.27 2.18 49.09 12.55 22.05 14.52 35.38 15.94
Th 0.10 0.19 5.26 2.54 0.15 2.63 2.50 3.83
K 729 326 15354 8970 7675 8248 22390 7808
Nb 1.74 3.09 4.81 9.71 2.23 10.53 10.36 17.14
Ta 0.16 0.20 0.29 0.59 0.15 0.56 0.50 0.98
Sr 99.01 281.88 597.40 655.65 241.17 466.31 1012.34 517.68
P 553.76 386.14 1041.44 849.66 748.66 917.20 924.80 726.81
Zr 87.95 135.28 119.65 127.21 97.85 138.26 136.74 109.65
Hf 2.51 3.67 3.19 3.27 2.70 3.36 3.35 2.88
Ti 9127 8781 4589 4201 9769 4409 5197 2525
Y 33.61 44.79 20.28 11.94 37.30 13.41 16.92 7.76
Pb 1.16 0.97 10.55 3.70 0.72 5.66 2.73 2.88
U 0.04 0.24 2.16 1.19 0.19 1.15 1.18 1.38
La 2.93 5.46 20.85 16.79 3.96 18.61 16.29 20.03
Ce 10.04 16.12 37.62 35.68 12.23 40.10 36.45 36.09
Pr 1.55 2.66 5.10 4.49 2.09 5.01 4.73 3.77
Nd 9.34 14.25 20.10 18.41 11.02 20.71 20.24 13.35
Sm 3.33 4.92 4.61 3.90 3.74 4.42 4.51 2.20
Eu 0.90 1.62 1.23 1.17 1.40 1.42 1.51 0.67
Gd 4.85 6.35 3.92 3.27 5.40 3.63 3.99 1.98
Tb 0.87 1.04 0.54 0.47 0.97 0.43 0.54 0.23
Dy 6.03 7.67 3.12 2.42 6.21 2.41 2.86 1.33
Ho 1.23 1.85 0.67 0.50 1.40 0.45 0.58 0.30
Er 3.59 4.96 1.86 1.21 4.10 1.25 1.60 0.77
Tm 0.54 0.85 0.27 0.22 0.60 0.21 0.22 0.12
Yb 3.57 4.77 1.77 1.25 3.72 1.35 1.43 0.74
Lu 0.53 0.73 0.28 0.22 0.57 0.21 0.22 0.12
YbN 21.02 28.06 10.44 7.38 21.89 7.94 8.42 4.38
(La/Yb)N 0.59 0.82 8.43 9.60 0.76 9.89 8.17 19.29
(La/Sm)N 0.57 0.72 2.92 2.78 0.68 2.72 2.33 5.87
Sr/Y 2.95 6.29 29.46 54.90 6.47 34.77 59.82 66.71
Nb/La 0.59 0.57 0.23 0.58 0.56 0.57 0.64 0.86

26
Table 3. (continued)

Samples DV178 DV28 DV29 DV87 DV88 DV90 DV157 DV158


Quebradagrande
Unit complex Arquía Complex Arquía Complex Arquía Complex Arquía Complex Arquía Complex Arquía Complex Arquía Complex
Garnet white mica
Lithology Basalt amphibolite Garnet amphibolite Mica schist Amphibolitic schist Amphibolite Garnet amphibolite Amphibolitic schist
Latitude N 5°37'05.7'' 4°22'47.1'' 4°22'47.1'' 4°18'15.1'' 4°18'02.9'' 4°15'51.4'' 4°17'13.1'' 4°17'50.4''
Longitude W 75°30'16.3'' 75°43'09.0'' 75°43'09.0'' 75°46'58.5'' 75°46'41.1'' 75°47'23.9'' 75°47'05.7'' 75°46'46.5''

SiO2 51.63 48.71 47.33 47.02 49.30 48.15 51.46 46.90


TiO2 0.62 2.18 1.13 1.88 1.65 1.92 2.23 2.25
Al2O3 17.82 14.37 19.16 15.40 14.57 14.50 13.06 13.43
Fe2O3 7.96 11.97 8.33 12.20 11.13 12.16 12.90 13.69
MnO 0.16 0.20 0.28 0.18 0.18 0.20 0.20 0.21
MgO 3.30 8.07 5.86 6.76 7.42 7.87 6.01 7.56
CaO 9.97 9.69 12.02 12.35 10.27 10.37 8.38 9.87
Na2O 2.04 2.32 1.36 2.56 3.24 3.28 4.04 3.33
K2O 1.12 0.35 0.33 0.17 0.06 0.15 0.16 0.11
P2O5 0.39 0.22 0.04 0.18 0.15 0.17 0.19 0.21
LOI 4.03 1.52 4.06 1.81 1.73 1.26 0.53 1.50
Cr2O3 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.03 0.04
NiO 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02
Total 99.07 99.63 99.96 100.54 99.75 100.07 99.19 99.11
Cr 61 204 357 279 293 334 176 300
Ni 22 73 159 102 94 99 49 141
Cu 118 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. 19 4
Zn 90 203 156 99 90 60 120 122
Ga 17.37 24.42 64.25 11.41 15.92 17.70 17.58 19.24
Sc 19.62 49.15 34.63 41.10 44.90 46.36 37.73 38.68
V 209.73 425.12 315.26 281.49 358.53 325.31 433.78 429.61
Co 19.19 36.92 44.34 37.36 38.03 38.07 34.64 45.13
Cs 1.47 0.46 1.02 0.07 0.06 0.14 0.08 0.12
Ba 296.18 60.89 299.73 3.13 9.24 33.91 12.25 15.71
Rb 21.85 4.72 6.26 0.55 0.46 1.33 0.92 1.54
Th 3.60 0.18 1.25 0.05 0.35 0.29 0.26 0.18
K 9318 2943 2708 1386 489 1230 1321 899
Nb 2.57 3.13 4.57 1.55 2.87 3.45 2.51 2.62
Ta 0.16 0.21 0.28 0.07 0.20 0.42 0.16 0.14
Sr 1868.44 140.55 269.35 137.51 119.49 94.27 69.41 130.11
P 1716.44 945.43 167.47 771.37 643.24 732.53 824.72 902.56
Zr 69.99 134.81 95.71 32.55 99.16 39.70 137.33 136.95
Hf 1.99 3.59 2.77 1.17 2.60 1.00 3.68 3.60
Ti 3738 13045 6786 11243 9896 11482 13355 13460
Y 16.79 46.21 24.59 22.09 35.26 17.21 48.47 49.71
Pb 8.25 6.64 12.35 0.33 0.58 0.47 2.01 0.58
U 1.33 1.31 1.04 0.05 0.11 0.28 0.10 0.10
La 13.82 4.97 6.09 1.09 4.22 2.81 5.00 5.20
Ce 29.99 15.57 13.70 5.40 12.91 6.82 16.73 17.48
Pr 3.86 2.67 1.87 1.12 2.07 1.21 2.79 2.88
Nd 17.02 15.27 9.05 6.79 11.73 5.12 15.40 15.98
Sm 3.77 4.67 2.49 2.62 3.97 1.52 5.32 5.37
Eu 1.09 2.01 0.97 0.98 1.29 0.61 1.66 1.68
Gd 3.15 7.03 3.02 3.50 4.98 3.20 7.20 7.23
Tb 0.50 1.25 0.55 0.65 0.92 0.40 1.32 1.34
Dy 2.73 8.44 4.57 4.26 6.19 3.42 8.34 8.30
Ho 0.60 1.91 0.89 0.82 1.22 0.78 1.79 1.84
Er 1.66 5.44 2.40 2.56 3.95 2.09 5.14 5.42
Tm 0.25 0.68 0.41 0.29 0.54 0.32 0.74 0.75
Yb 1.74 4.93 3.00 2.28 3.60 2.62 5.08 5.20
Lu 0.26 0.71 0.37 0.32 0.55 0.32 0.72 0.76
YbN 10.23 29.02 17.63 13.39 21.17 15.43 29.88 30.60
(La/Yb)N 5.70 0.72 1.46 0.34 0.84 0.77 0.71 0.72
(La/Sm)N 2.36 0.69 1.58 0.27 0.69 1.20 0.61 0.63
Sr/Y 111.27 3.04 10.95 6.23 3.39 5.48 1.43 2.62
Nb/La 0.19 0.63 0.75 1.42 0.68 1.23 0.50 0.50

27
a) Quebradagrande Complex b) Arquía Complex

1000 1000
Quebradagrande arc Arquía Complex
Quebradagrande MORB
Rock/Primitive Mantle

Rock/Primitive Mantle
100 100

10 10

1 1

0.1 0.1
Rb Ba Th U K Nb Ta La Ce Sr Nd P Hf Zr Sm Ti Tb Y Tm Yb Rb Ba Th U K Nb Ta La Ce Sr Nd P Hf Zr Sm Ti Tb Y Tm Yb

1000 100.0
Rock/Chondrite

Rock/Chondrite
100 10.0

10 1.0

1 0.1
La Ce Pr Nd Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu La Ce Pr Nd Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu

1.6
seamounts
1.4 E-MORB
Figure 6. Primitive-mantle-normalized spider diagram, C1
1.2
chondrite-normalized REE plots of para-autochthonous
rocks of the Central Cordillera of Colombia. Normalization 1.0
MORB
Nb/La

values are from Sun and McDonough [1989]. a) Igneous rocks 0.8
from the Quebradagrande Complex. b) Basic metamorphic 0.6
rocks from the Arquía Complex, bottom right: tectonic
0.4
discrimination diagram (Nb/La v (La/Sm)N) [John et al., 2010]. continental arc
0.2 oceanic
arc
0.0
0.0 0.50 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
(La/Sm)N

(DV159, DV171, DV174, DV175, DV178; SiO2 wt%


51 to 60; MgO wt% 2 to 6) and a diorite (DV176; 6.2.2 Arquía Complex
SiO2 wt% 64; MgO wt% 2) are less altered and Garnet-bearing amphibolites of the Arquía
metamorphosed than basalts and gabbros. These Complex located along the western flank of the
magmatic rocks differ distinctly from the previous Central Colombia display significant scatter in LILE
group because they yield negative Nb–Ta and (Figure 6b), which is indicative of remobilization
Ti anomalies on a primitive-mantle normalized via alteration processes. The amphibolites yield
multi-element plot (Figure 6a) suggesting they (La/Sm)N <0.6 and are mostly characterized by
are petrogenetically related to subduction. These the absence of negative Nb–Ta and Ti anomalies,
rocks are strongly depleted in Y (<20 ppm) and precluding a subduction-related origin.
HREE, enriched in Sr (>400 ppm), and thus qualify
as adakitic in composition [Richard and Kerrich, High-field-strength element concentrations
2007]. While Sr contents may be partly influenced were utilised to define both a mid-oceanic ridge
by metasomatism, uniformly elevated Sr contents and seamount-type origin [Bosch et al., 2002; John
and the absence of negative Eu anomalies (Figure et al., 2010] in medium to high P–T amphibolites
6a) suggest that parental melts to these rocks and eclogites located along-strike of the Arquía
evolved at high pressures outside the stability field Complex in southern Ecuador (the Raspas Complex
of plagioclase. in the Amotape province). The Raspas Complex lies

28
within the same structural position as the Arquía show evidence of LILE remobilization due to
Unit, relative to the juxtaposing Paleozoic rocks and metasomatism (locally prehnite-pumpellyite facies)
it is likely that it is equivalent to the Arquía Complex but show constant geochemical characteristics,
in Colombia. Tectonic discrimination based on Nb/ such as flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns
La v (La/Sm)N (Figure 6b) [after John et al., 2010] and a lack of subduction-related signatures such
suggests that the protolith of the amphibolites of as absence of negative Nb–Ta and Ti anomalies
the Arquía Complex may also be mid-ocean ridge in a primitive mantle-normalized plot (Figure 7a).
basalts and hot-spot related rocks. Samples from the Volcanic Fm. in the Western
Cordillera show 0.68<(La/Sm)N<0.95 (Table 3) with
the exception of a single basalt DV75 ((La/Sm)
6.3 Allochthonous rocks of the N
=1.37). Similarly, rocks from the Amaime Fm. in
the Cauca-Patía Valley have the same ratios with
Caribbean–Colombian Oceanic Province
the exception of slight LREE enrichment for basalt
exposed in the Western Cordillera (Volcanic DV112 ((La/Sm)N=1.37). Thus, the Amaime Fm.
Fm.) and the Cauca-Patía Valley (Amaime and Volcanic Fm. appear to be petrologically and
Fm.) geochemically identical.
These geochemical characteristics have been
We present data from several basalts and well documented by several authors in Western
gabbros collected along the Western Cordillera Colombia [Kerr et al., 1997, 2004] and Western
(Volcanic Fm. in Central and Southern Colombia, Ecuador [e.g. Mamberti et al., 2003] as typical
which is locally called the Barroso Fm. in Northern of most of the basalts forming the basement of
Colombia) and basalts from the Cauca-Patía the Caribbean–Colombian Oceanic Province (the
Valley (Amaime Fm.) (Figure 2). All these samples plateau rocks).

a) Western Cordillera and the Cauca-Patía Valley: b) Western Cordillera and the Cauca-Patía Valley:
Volcanic Fm. and Amaime Fm. Subduction related magmatic rocks
1000 1000
Volcanic Fm. Buga Batholith
Rock/Primitive Mantle

Amaime Fm. Dabeiba Fm.


Rock/Primitive Mantle

100 100 Mande Batholith


Ricaurte Fm.

10 10

1 1

0.1 0.1
Rb Ba Th U K Nb Ta La Ce Sr Nd P Hf Zr Sm Ti Tb Y Tm Yb Rb Ba Th U K Nb Ta La Ce Sr Nd P Hf Zr Sm Ti Tb Y Tm Yb

100.0 1000
Rock/Chondrite
Rock/Chondrite

10.0 100

1.0 10
Hauff et al. (2000)
Kerr et al. (1997)
0.1 1
La Ce Pr Nd Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu La Ce Pr Nd Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu

Figure 7. Primitive-mantle-normalized spider diagram and C1 chondrite-normalized REE plots of allochthonous rocks of the
Western Cordillera and the Cauca-Patía Valley of Colombia. Normalization values are from Sun and McDonough [1989]. a)
Mafic rocks from the Western Cordillera (Volcanic Fm.) and the Cauca- Patía Valley (Amaime Fm.). Previous works taken from
Kerr et al. [1997] and Hauff et al. [2000]. b) Intermediate–acidic igneous rocks that intrude and cover the Volcanic and Amaime
Fms.

29
Cordillera. These rocks were in turn intruded by
Permian granites at ~270 Ma, and all the Paleozoic
6.4 Arc-related rocks within the oceanic sequences are unconformably overlain by Triassic
plateau rocks metasedimentary rocks that have been partially
melted and are grouped into the Cajamarca
Complex.
Several intermediate – acidic intrusive and
volcanic rocks exposed in the Western Cordillera The La Miel orthogneiss may be equivalent to
and the Cauca-Patía Valley yield subduction-related lower Paleozoic granites exposed in the Santander
sequences These include the i) Late Cretaceous Massif (SM; Figure 1) of the Eastern Cordillera
Buga Batholith (zircon U-Pb 92-90 Ma; this study; of Colombia (e.g. Ocaña Batholith) [Ordóñez-
Figure 2b), ii) the Mande Batholith (zircon U-Pb Carmona et al., 2006]. Inherited and older zircon
42-43 Ma, Figure 2a) [Cardona, 2010, pers.comm.], U-Pb age populations within the La Miel Fm. and
which intrudes the Chocó-Panamá Terrane in the the Cajamarca Complex of 500–600 Ma and 1000–
northern Western Cordillera, and iii) andesitic lavas 1200 Ma show that these rocks were sourced from
and volcanic breccias of the Dabeiba (northern Precambrian terranes that were intruded and
Western Cordillera; Figure 2a) and Ricaurte Fms metamorphosed during the late Neoproterozoic
(southern Western Cordillera; Figure 2c). Brasiliano Orogeny (assembly of Gondwana)
[Cawood, 2005], and the Grenvillian Sunsas
Primitive mantle normalized multi-element
Orogeny (assembly of Rodinia) [Tassinari and
plots of these rocks yield negative Nb-Ta and
Macambira, 1999]. The source terranes are likely to
Ti anomalies, and (La/Sm)N values of 1.13-2.53
have been located in the east, and currently form
(Figure 7b), which are typical of subduction zone
part of the Guyana Shield [e.g. Chew et al., 2008]
processes. All of them plot in the calc-alkaline field
or alternatively, correspond to basement inliers
on an AFM diagram. The Buga Batholith yields a
encountered in the Northern Andes of Colombia,
lower enrichment in LREE, with a (La/Sm)N ratio
Ecuador and Perú [Cardona et al., 2010].
of 1.13-1.79, similar to values ((La/Sm)N ratio of
1.08-2.99) for the contemporaneous (U-Pb zircon Permian granites have been found along the
age of ~87 Ma) [Van der Lelij et al., in press] island- eastern flank of the Central Cordillera (granite
arc rocks of the Aruba Batholith in the Caribbean DV82; 15 km south of Ibagué; Figure 2b) and in the
region [White et al., 1999]. absence of geochemical data or detailed geological
mapping we propose that they form part of the
Permian S-type granite belt that is sporadically
dispersed along the Central Cordillera of Colombia
7 Interpretations and discussion [Gómez et al., 2007; Vinasco et al., 2006] and formed
during the assemblage of Pangea [e.g., Cardona et
al., 2006; Vinasco et al., 2006]. The final stages
of amalgamation of Pangea took place by late
Permian–Early Triassic time [Vinasco et al., 2006;
7.1 Pre-Early Cretaceous paleo- Cawood and Buchan, 2007; Cardona et al., 2010],
continental margin based on geochronological data acquired from
metamorphic rocks and peraluminous syntectonic
The new U–Pb zircon LA-ICPMS ages of intrusive rocks that formed within a collisional
autochthonous rocks exposed in the Central setting between 280 and 250 Ma [Vinasco et al.,
Cordillera of Colombia, west of the Otú–Pericos 2006].
Fault, shows that the Tahami Terrane consists of a Precambrian rocks that are now located
variety of geological units with widely varying ages within Central America may represent part of the
that have not been properly described or mapped protolith for the variably foliated metasedimentary
[e.g. Restrepo et al., 2009a]. The oldest rocks rocks of the Cajamarca Complex (220–240 Ma)
identified within the Tahami Terrane are early that are likely to have been deposited during
Paleozoic rocks of the La Miel Fm. (orthogneisses), the Triassic rifting between South America and
which were intruded at a maximum time of North America. The sedimentary sequences are
~440–470 Ma and are exposed in the Central temporally equivalent to syn-rift deposits observed

30
in eastern North America, which were deposited
during the fragmentation of Pangea [Pindell, 1993].
Continental break-up was accompanied by high 7.2 Early Cretaceous para-
geothermal gradients and the formation of S-type autochthonous terranes
granitoids (e.g. the white mica-bearing granodioritic
gneiss DV18; 237.5±5.5 Ma) that were emplaced Nivia et al. [2006] describe medium to high P–T
syntectonically along shear zones proximal to the rocks of the Arquía Complex as a Neoproterozoic
borders of the American continental blocks (e.g. continental block that rifted away from the
the Triassic Tres Lagunas granite and Sabanilla continental margin, resulting in the deposition and
Migmatite in Ecuador) [Litherland et al., 1994; eruption of rocks of the Quebradagrande Complex
Chew et al., 2008]. This event could have been within a continental marginal basin. The age of
responsible also for thermal resetting of the isotopic the protolith to the Arquía Complex has not been
systems in older rocks (e.g. Permian granite DV82 constrained but it is unlikely to be Precambrian
yielded a 40Ar/39Ar total fusion age of 225.3±1.1 based on cross-cutting field evidence [see Restrepo
Ma). Rifting and crustal anatexis has been dated at
et al., 2009b]. Our geochemical data, combined
~220-230 Ma in Colombia and Ecuador [Litherland with geochemical and isotopic data from other
et al., 1994; Aspden et al., 1992; Noble et al., 1997; authors [e.g., Bustamante, 2008] suggests that
Vinasco et al., 2006; Cardona et al., 2006: Chew et the protolith of the medium to high P–T rocks of
al., 2008], and may have extended diachronously the Arquía Complex formed within a mid-ocean-
as far south as southern Peru, where extension- ridge setting, although the T-MORB like, chondrite-
related intrusions yield Late Triassic–Early Jurassic normalized REE plots (Figure 6b) suggest they
U-Pb zircon ages of ~190–230 Ma [Miskovic et al., may also contain components of hot-spot related
2009]. material.
The onset of subduction in Colombia and Ecuador The Arquía Complex may be an along-strike
subsequent to Triassic rifting and the opening of equivalent of high-pressure rocks that are
the western Tethys Ocean was previously poorly exposed in the Raspas Complex of the Amotape
constrained [Jaillard et al., 1995]. The new U–Pb Province in southern Ecuador, where a MORB
and 40Ar/39Ar ages obtained from undeformed, calc- and seamount protolith is inferred for eclogites
alkaline I-type granitoids of the Ibagué Batholith and blueschists [John et al., 2010]. Lu–Hf garnet
suggest that subduction-related magmatism was ages and geobarometric studies on the Raspas
occurring along the Colombian margin by 180 Ma, Complex indicate they experienced prograde,
and probably lasted until ~147 Ma (oldest and high-pressure metamorphism at ~130 Ma at
youngest 40Ar/39Ar age obtained in this study for temperatures of ~600°C [Arculus et al., 1999; John
the Ibagué Batholith). A similar range hornblende et al., 2010]. Furthermore, the structural positions
and biotite K/Ar ages were obtained by Sillitoe et al. of the Raspas and Arquía complexes are extremely
[1982] and Brook [1984] from the Ibagué Batholith similar because i) both sequences are tectonically
and other small intrusive bodies. We suggest that juxtaposed against an arc, and ii) both sequences
Jurassic continental arc magmatism ceased at ~145 are strongly foliated, and are located within
Ma, and its sudden termination was due to back- the suture zone linked to the accretion of the
stepping of the subduction zone towards the west Caribbean–Colombian Oceanic Province. Younger
possibly caused by the introduction of buoyant phengite 40Ar/39Ar ages of 129–123 Ma [Gabriele,
seamounts into the Jurassic trench resulting in slab 2002; Bosch et al., 2002] and zircon fission track
break-off (see Chapter 3). The tectonic position ages of ~70 Ma [Spikings et al., 2005] from the
and geochronological data acquired from the Raspas Complex reflect subsequent cooling
Quebradagrande Complex (section 7.2) suggests through 350-300°C and ~250°C, respectively.
it formed above a new, east-dipping subduction Similarly, we propose that 40Ar/39Ar ages of 117-107
zone that initiated oceanward of the Jurassic slab. Ma (Chapter 3) obtained in the Arquía Complex
Westward retreat of the subduction zone is also represent cooling ages following emplacement
depicted in the paleo-reconstruction of Pindell and exhumation during the Early Cretaceous.
and Kennan [2009], who refer to the back-arc
basin as the Colombian Marginal Seaway (Figure We propose that the Arquía Complex consists
8a) [Pindell, 1993]. of rocks with a MORB and T-MORB affinity that

31
were metamorphosed at high- to medium P–T dyke located close to the San Jerónimo Fault
conditions in an east-dipping subduction zone, (Figure 2a) overlaps with proposed fossil ages for
which gave rise to the Quebradagrande Complex. this unit (Hautevarian – early Albian) [González,
Obduction and accretion of the Arquía Complex 1980]. Assuming the fossil ages are correct, the
onto the Quebradagrande Arc and the continental dyke intruded during the waning stage of arc
margin occurred during closure of the back-arc magmatism (the closure of the back-arc basin)
basin during ~117 and ~107, which gave rise to and syntectonically with the formation of the San
significant rock uplift and exhumation of these Jerónimo Fault [Kammer, 2007, pers. comm.]. The
sequences (Figure 8c; see also Chapter 3). San Jerónimo Fault is located to the east of the
Quebradagrande Complex and formed during the
The Quebradagrande Complex is tectonically
accretion of the complex onto the continent, which
juxtaposed against the Arquía Complex to the
occurred between 117–107 Ma (Figure 8c), based
west and Jurassic and colder continental crust
on thermochronological data (this study, Chapter
to the east, and is characterized by both MORB
3).
and arc-related rocks. Continent derived, quartz-
rich sedimentary rocks within the back-arc (e.g., Evidence for an intra-oceanic subduction
Abejorral Fm.; Aptian–middle Albian age) [Etayo- related origin for the Quebradagrande Complex
Serna, 1985a; Toussaint, 1996] become more in contrary to an ensialic marginal basin proposed
volcanogenic towards the arc [Gómez-Cruz et al., by Nivia et al. [2006] includes: i) low SiO2 and
1995], and cover the volcanic sequences. These low K arc rocks, as well as the presence of rocks
rocks are probably comparable with those located with N- to T-MORB signatures, ii) the majority of
within the Alao region of Ecuador, and the Celica– the eruption took place in submarine conditions
Lancones basin in southern Ecuador (the Albian giving rise to pillowed basalts, and sedimentary
Alamor Fm.) [Jaillard et al., 2009]. rocks were mainly deposited in a marine setting
[Etayo-Serna, 1985a; Nivia et al., 2006] and iii) the
Gómez-Cruz et al. [1995] showed that the
absence of continental basement to the west of
sedimentary input observed in the Quebradagrande
the San Jerónimo fault and the lack of continent-
Complex is characterized by continental-
derived detritus to the west of the back-arc
derived material in the eastern side (siliclastic
[Gómez-Cruz et al., 1995; Restrepo et al., 2009b].
conglomerates and sandstones), while the western
Furthermore, the proposition of Nivia et al. [2006]
side was solely sourced from basaltic–andesitic
that the protolith of the Arquía Complex was
volcanic rocks, indicating that the arc environment
continental crust should be reconsidered given
was not isolated from the South American Plate,
the geochemical evidence presented in this work
by, for example, an un-filled oceanic trench.
(section 6.2.2). The absence of forearc rocks is
Conspicuous pillow basalts and marine deposits
enigmatic, although we suggest that some may be
within the Quebradagrande Complex reveal the
tectonically buried beneath the Arquía Complex,
presence of a marine environment. We support an
and may also have been indiscriminately mapped
oceanic back-arc setting for the Quebradagrande
as the Arquía Complex. For example, the Sabaletas
Complex (Figures 8a-b), however no forearc
greenschists (whole rock K/Ar 127±5 Ma) [Toussaint
material has been confirmed west to the arc.
et al., 1978] exposed west of Medellín, displays a
A reliable radiometric minimum age of the lower metamorphic grade (greenschist facies) than
Quebradagrande Complex (U-Pb zircon age the Arquía Complex s.s. and have a sedimentary
of 112.6±3.1 Ma; MSWD=2.3; sample DV176) and volcanic, mafic protolith [García et al., 2007;
[Cochrane, unpublished data] from a dioritic Giraldo et al., 2007].

Figure 8 (next page). Proposed paleotectonic reconstructions during Cretaceous time modified and simplified from Pindell
and Kennan [2009]. Relative paleopositions of North and South America from Pindell and Kennan [2009]. Reference frames:
a-b) North-America, c-f) Indo-Atlantic (hot spot reference frame of Müller et al. [1993]). Relative convergence direction: CA/
HS: Caribbean Plate/Hot spot, CA/NA: Caribbean Plate/North America, CA/SA: Caribbean Plate/South America. Abbreviations:
AB: Antioquia Batholith, AC: Arquía Complex, BB: Buga Batholith, CCOP: Caribbean–Colombian Oceanic Province, NOAM:
North American Plate, QGC: Quebradagrande Complex, RC: Raspas Complex in Ecuador, SOAM: South American Plate, T–C:
Tangula–Curiplaya intrusions. The Early Cretaceous Trans-American Arc is show as dark grey, Late Cretaceous arc is shown as
medium grey and the CCOP is shown in purple.

32
a) 130 Ma d) 100 Ma
-80° -70° -60° -50° -40°
20°
-110° -100° -90° -80° NOAM Plate
30°

NOAM Plate
(fixed) 10°

20° Proto-
CA/NA Caribbean

mi

ha
CCOP ?
Tr

Ta
an

Colombian CA/HS
s-

mi
Marginal QGC,
Am

10°
ha
Seaway AC
er

Ta SOAM
ica

Plate
n

SOAM
Ar

Farallón -10°
Plate
c

CA/SA
Plate QGC

Early Cretaceous arc Early Cretaceous arc
(Trans-American arc) (Trans-American arc)
-20°

b) 125 Ma e) 95-85 Ma
-80° -70° -60° -50° -40° -80° -70° -60° -50° -40°
20° 20°
NOAM Plate
(fixed)
Caribbean
Plate Proto-
10° Caribbean
CA/NA CCOP subduction 10°
zone
BB
AB
CA/HS SOAM

i
Plate

am
0° CA/SA 0°

h
Ta
Depositation of
i
am

Santa Marta schist


h
Ta

T-C protolith, San Jacinto


Farallon QGC metasedimentary
SOAM -10° rocks. -10°
Plate ?
Plate
Early Cretaceous
Early Cretaceous arc arc
(Trans-American arc) Late Cretaceous arcs
-20° -20°

c) 117-107 Ma f) 75-70 Ma
-80° -70° -60° -50° -40° -90° -80° -70° -60° -50°
20° 30°
NOAM Plate

10° 20°
Proto-
Caribbean

CA/NA Caribbean
Plate CA/NA
0° CCOP 10°
Caribbean
CA/SA
i

Plate
Taham

CA/HS
a

i
lim

am

AC QGC
Ca

CA/HS
Ta

-10° 0°
RC SOAM
Early Cretaceous arc Early Cretaceous SOAM
Plate arc
(Trans-American arc) Plate
Late Cretaceous arcs
CA/SA
-20° -10°

33
Based on the above exposed evidence we 7.3 Late Cretaceous allochthonous
favour the idea of an oceanic marginal basin oceanic terranes
bordered to the west by the Trans-American arc as
the origin of part of the Quebradagrande Complex,
Mafic basement rocks exposed west of the
as suggested by Pindell [1993]. Pindell [1993],
Cauca–Almaguer Fault in the Cauca-Patía Valley
Pindell and Kennan [2009] referred to the tract
(Amaime Fm.) and in the Western Cordillera
of water that separated the palaeo-continental
(Volcanic Fm.) share similar petrographic and
margin from the Quebradagrande arc rocks as the
geochemical characteristics, consistent with them
Colombian Marginal Seaway, which was a back-arc
forming part of an oceanic plateau [see also Kerr
basin sequence located proximal to the continental
et al., 1997]. Geochronological zircon U-Pb data
margin. Figures 8a–b show the tectonic setting
from the Palmar gabbro (99.7±1.3 Ma) and the
during the Early Cretaceous according to Pindell
Buga batholith (~90-92 Ma) which intrudes the
[1993], where the marginal basin is flanked by the
Amaime Fm. constrain the ages of these rocks to
Trans-American Arc that formed above an east-
92–100 Ma, suggesting that they define a single
dipping subduction zone that extended along the
oceanic plateau sequence, that forms part of the
western margin of the North American and South
Caribbean–Colombian Oceanic Province. The
American plates (see reconstruction in Pindell and
U-Pb zircon age of 99.7±1.3 Ma obtained from the
Kennan [2009]).
Palmar gabbro (Volcanic Fm.) is the oldest reliable
Any reconstruction of the Caribbean Plate age obtained for the basement of the Western
in the Cretaceous must take into account a Cordillera of Colombia and the entire Caribbean–
subduction polarity reversal that terminated Colombian Oceanic Province within Colombia, and
east-dipping subduction (which gave rise to the could be interpreted as a proxy for the earliest
Trans-American Arc), and initiated a west-dipping time of its formation (Figure 8d).
subduction zone beneath the Caribbean Plate.
Subduction of proto-Caribbean crust below the
Current models suggest the reversal occurred at
plateau rocks of the Caribbean–Colombian Oceanic
either ~90 Ma [Burke, 1988; Kerr et al., 2003; Van
Province generated an intra-oceanic arc sequence
der Lelij et al., in press.] or 120–100 Ma [Pindell
that is sporadically preserved within Colombia
et al., 2005]. Aptian obduction and exhumation
(Figure 2b) as the Buga Batholith (U-Pb zircon
of medium-high P–T metamorphic rocks is widely
90–92 Ma; Cauca-Patía Valley) and the Espinal
observed in the Caribbean [Pindell et al., 2006],
Fm. (U-Pb zircon ~75 Ma; Western Cordillera). The
Colombia (this study; Chapter 3) and Ecuador
Late Cretaceous Buga Batholith (Figure 8e) slightly
(Raspas Complex; Figure 8c) [John et al., 2010].
predates intrusions with similar geochemical
An Aptian age for polarity reversal [Pindell et al.,
characteristics in Ecuador (Pujilí Granite; U-Pb
2005] would be coincident with the accretion of
zircon 85.5±1.4 Ma) [Vallejo et al., 2006] and Aruba
the Quebradagrande and Arquía complexes onto
(Aruba Batholith; U-Pb zircon 87.0±0.9 Ma) [Van
the Colombian continental margin (~117–107 Ma;
der Lelij et al., in press.], both of which intrude
Figure 8c; see also Chapter 3). We suggest that
hot-spot related mafic rocks of the Caribbean–
accretion of the southern segment of the Trans-
Colombian Oceanic Province and erupted above
American arc, assisted by oblique subduction
a west-dipping subduction zone [e.g. Hughes and
of the Farallón Plate [Pindell and Kennan, 2009]
Pilatasig, 2002; Spikings et al., 2005; Vallejo et al.,
beneath the arc could have triggered the polarity
2009]. The Pujilí Granite in Ecuador is considered to
flip observed in the Caribbean (Figure 8c). However,
form part of the Río Cala Arc, which yields 40Ar/39Ar
alternative driving forces for obduction could
ages of 85–72 Ma and erupted above oceanic-
include a rapid increase in convergence rates and
plateau rocks prior to its collision with the South
we are unable to prove or disprove the timing of
American Plate [Vallejo et al., 2009]. The U-Pb
subduction reversal.
zircon age of intercalated tuffs within the mainly
sedimentary Espinal Fm. corroborates Campanian–
Maastrichtian fossil ages [Etayo-Serna, 1985b], and
the presence of euhedral zircon crystals reveals the
presence of a coeval volcanic source that may have
erupted during waning stages of arc magmatism

34
above a west-dipping subduction zone, prior to its northwestern Colombia within the San Jacinto
collision with the continent. We propose that the deformed belt (Figure 1; Cansona Fm.) [Guzmán
Aruba, Buga and Pujilí batholiths formed within an et al., 2004], the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta
arc sequence that was related to a common, west- (Figure 1; Santa Marta Schist) [Cardona et al.,
dipping subduction zone that circumnavigated a 2009], the present-day southern Caribbean (Bahía
large part of the Caribbean–Colombian Oceanic Honda schists in the Guajira Peninsula; Figure
Province. 1), which have been denominated as the Ruma
Metamorphic zone by MacDonald et al. [1971]. We
Late Cretaceous subduction of the Proto-
suggest that these Upper Cretaceous sedimentary
Caribbean oceanic crust (Figure 8d) below the
sequences were deposited prior and during the
South American Plate gave rise to the Antioquia
collision of the Caribbean–Colombian Oceanic
and Córdoba Batholiths (U-Pb zircon 95–80
Province (Figure 8e) with Northern South America,
Ma). The along-strike continuity of the Late
which proceeded diachronously along the northern
Cretaceous, continental magmatic arc towards
margin [e.g. Van der Lelij et al., in press.].
Ecuador is uncertain, as it is only documented in
southernmost Ecuador with the emplacement of
the Tangula Batholith and minor associated plutons
(e.g. Curiplaya intrusion, U–Pb zircon 92.0±1.0 Ma; 7.4 Tertiary arc rocks in the Western
Figure 8d) [Schütte, 2009]. In addition, siliciclastic Cordillera
rocks of the Yunguilla Fm. in Ecuador, deposited
during the Campanian–Maastrichtian along the A post-collisional calc-alkaline arc (e.g. the
paleocontinental margin reveal the presence of a Paleocene Sonsón Batholith) established in the
minor volcanic source (72.4±6.4 Ma) [Vallejo et al., Central Cordillera of Colombia at 65–55 Ma
2009], which may have been coeval. The northern (zircon U-Pb) [Ordóñez-Carmona et al., 2001].
prolongation of this subduction zone beneath Trenchward migration of magmatism is recorded
northern South America may correspond to the in the Oligocene with the emplacement of the
proto-Caribbean trench (Figure 8e) and subduction Piedrancha pluton and extrusion of the Ricaurte
zone [Pindell et al., 1988, 2006]. volcanics in the southern Western Cordillera
Thermochronological, geochronological and (Figure 2c). Eocene-Oligocene magmatic rocks
sedimentological data from Colombia suggests the exposed in the Northern Western Cordillera of
Caribbean–Colombian Oceanic Province (which Colombia (Mande batholith and Dabeiba volcanic;
hosts an oceanic-plateau that is intruded by an Figure 2a) were formed in the trailing edge of the
arc sequence) accreted to continental margin of Caribbean–Colombian Oceanic Province (Chocó-
South America at some point between 75 and 70 Panamá Terrane) [Duque-Caro, 1990] and accreted
Ma (Figure 8f; see also Chapter 3), resulting in the to northwestern South America at some point
cessation of east-facing arc magmatism above the between the late Miocene–Pliocene (Chapter 3).­
Caribbean–Colombian Oceanic Province at ~75 Ma
and the onset of rapid exhumation in Northern
Central Cordillera of Colombia (see Chapter 3 for
a more detailed discussion). Upper Cretaceous 8 Conclusions
sedimentary rocks of the Nogales Fm. along the
western flank of the Central Cordillera in Colombia,
and the Yunguilla Fm. along the western flank of 1. Zircon U-Pb age dating of metamorphic
the Eastern Cordillera of Ecuador unconformably rocks of the Tahami terrane shows that the
overlay rocks of the accreted Caribbean–Colombian basement of the Central Cordillera consists of a
Oceanic Province. The suture zone is represented complex assemblage of lower Paleozoic gneisses
by the Cauca–Almaguer Fault (the westernmost intruded by Permian granites, which are equivalent
branch of the Romeral Fault System), which has to rocks exposed in the Santander Massif,
severely dismembered the entrained rocks of the suggesting they may define dispersed regions of
Arquía Complex and the partly overlying Nogales a common terrane. We propose that the Permian
Fm. Upper Cretaceous metasedimentary rocks granitoids formed during the amalgamation of
equivalent to the Nogales Fm. are widespread in Pangea.

35
arc and highly oblique subduction of the Farallón
Plate beneath both American plates [Pindell et
2. Triassic rocks within the Tahami Terrane
al., 2005] may have been responsible for the
consist of variably deformed metasedimentary
abandonment of the east-dipping subduction zone
and meta-intrusive rocks that we group into
and could have given rise to the disputed polarity
the Cajamarca Complex. Zircon U-Pb analyses
reversal of the subduction zone in the Aptian.
of the metasedimentary sequence yield a
maximum depositional age of ~220–240 Ma, and
represent a maximum age for high-temperature 6. Zircon U-Pb data obtained from the
metamorphism and anatexis. White mica bearing allochthonous Late Cretaceous rocks, combined
granodioritic gneisses host zircons with U-Pb ages with whole rock geochemistry show that the
of ~220–240 Ma, implying that sedimentary rocks basement rocks of the Calima terrane form part
deposited during the disassembly of Pangea were of the Caribbean–Colombian Oceanic Province
accompanied by migmatization along major shear and range in age between 100 and 92 Ma. Mafic
zones. oceanic rocks exposed in the Cauca–Patía Valley
(Amaime Fm.) and the Western Cordillera (Volcanic
Fm.) probably form part of the same Cretaceous
3. Subsequent to Triassic rifting, arc
oceanic plateau.
magmatism commenced along the Colombian
margin at ~180 Ma and lasted until ~145 Ma.
The sudden termination of magmatism was 7. We propose that the remnant oceanic
contemporaneous with the initiation of an oceanic crust located between the converging Caribbean
back-arc basin (the Quebradagrande Complex) in Cretaceous Oceanic Province and South America
the Early Cretaceous, close to the paleocontinent, was consumed via a divergent, double subduction
and hence it is plausible to propose that slab system that gave rise to an island arc through the
stepped oceanwards to form the so-called Trans- oceanic plateau and a continental arc through
American arc [Pindell, 1993]. northwestern South America. The island arc
system includes the Buga Batholith in Colombia,
and probably also the Pujilí Granite in Ecuador and
4. Geochemical analyses of the medium-high
the Aruba batholith in Aruba [Vallejo et al., 2009;
P–T rocks of the Arquía Complex yield N-NORB
Van der Lelij et al., in press]. The continental arc
and T-MORB characteristics that may indicate the
included the Antioquia Batholith and Córdoba
presence of seamounts. These signatures have also
pluton in Colombia. We propose that some
been obtained from the Peltetec Unit and Raspas
of the Upper Cretaceous clastic sedimentary
Complex in Ecuador [John et al., 2010; Spikings,
sequences found along the continental margin
2010, pers. comm.], which are probably along-
(e.g. metasedimentary rocks of the Cansona Fm. in
strike equivalent rock sequences. We propose that
the San Jacinto belt and the Santa Marta schist in
these rocks represent an exhumed fragment of the
the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta; Figure 1) were
subduction channel that was responsible for the
sourced from the continent and deposited in the
Trans-American arc.
forearc.

5. Closure of the Early Cretaceous oceanic


8. Lateral accretion of the Caribbean–
back-arc basin during ~117–107 Ma and final
Colombian Oceanic Province (oceanic plateau
accretion onto the paleocontinent along the
rocks and its associated arc-sequences) took place
San Jerónimo Fault led to the obduction of the
between 75–70 Ma along the Cauca–Almaguer
Arquía Complex. Widespread Early Cretaceous
Fault. This accretion led to rapid exhumation of the
exhumation of high-pressure rocks is observed west
paleocontinental margin and the cessation of both
of the Trans-American arc in the circum-Caribbean
arcs.
region [Pindell and Kennan, 2009]. We envisage
that the accretion of the southernmost segment of
the Trans-American arc onto northwestern South
America, as well as the drastic lengthening of the

36
9. Subduction beneath the accreted
Caribbean–Colombian Oceanic Province (Calima
Terrane in Colombia) and the paleocontinent
resumed in the Early Tertiary, forming Paleocene
arc rocks (e.g. Sonsón Batholith). Eocene arc rocks
of the Dabeiba arc probably formed along the
trailing edge of the Caribbean–Colombian Oceanic
Province and may have collided with northwestern
South America during the middle Miocene–
Pliocene [Duque-Caro, 1990; Mann and Corrigan,
1990].

37
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42
a) Northern Colombia
Traverse Geological Units Field observations

Schist and gneisses of the Cajamarca Complex in tectonic contact with granitic gneisses of La Miel forming
the Tahami terrane which is in turn intruded by the Antioquia Batholith. The host rocks show evidence of
contact metamorphism. The Antioquia Batholith in the region varies from hornblende-bearing granodiorite,
diorite to minor granites. There is not apparent structural control in the emplacement of the Batholith and
major faults bordering the Cordillera do not tectonically displace the major intrusive body which form a nearly
1) Central Cordillera: east of Medellín Cajamarca Complex, Antioquia Batholith circular outcrop pattern except in its westernmost part where tectonic deformation is more intense.

Andesites, basalts and gabbros of the Quebradagrande Complex often showing sea-floor metamorphism. It is
topped by siliclastic sediments of the Abejorral Fm. to the east whereas to the west the sedimentary cover
2) Central Cordillera: south of Medellín Quebradagrande Complex, Abejorral Fm. consist of immature sediments with clast of basic and intermediate volcanic rocks.
Volcanic Fm. (locally named as Barroso Fm.), Late Basalts and gabbros of the Volcanic Fm. covered by Late Cretaceous marine sediments of the Espinal Fm.
Cretaceous Espinal Fm., Tertiary Mande batholiths (locally named Penderisco Fm.) which are intruded by diorites of the Mande batholith and locally covered by
3) Western Cordillera and Dabeiba volcanics. volcanics of the Dabeiba Fm.

b) Central Colombia
Traverse Geological Units Field observations
Appendix 1. Field observations

Exposures of the Cajamarca Complex varies from a dominant quartzites, fine-medium greenschist (meta-
arenites) to metapelites. and non reported orthogneisses (La línea) and non-reported Permian granites (15
Km. south of Ibagué). To the east, the Cajamarca complex is intruded by the Jurassic Ibagué Batholith that
4) Central Cordillera: eastern flank Cajamarca Complex, Ibagué Batholith consist of middle-coarse grained granodiorites and granites. Intense faulting and deformation in the area.

The Quebradagrande Complex correspond to pillowed basalts and basaltic andesites intruded by fine grain
gabbroic feeder dikes, locally topped with marine sediments. It is in intense tectonic contact to the west with
Quebradagrande and Arquía Complexes intruded by garnet bearing-amphibolites and amphibolitic schists of the Arquía Complex. Rocks of the Quebradagrande
5) Central Cordillera: western flank small plutons Complex are locally intruded by small dioritic plutons (e.g. Córdoba pluton).
The best exposures of the Amaime Fm. consisting of basalts and gabbros and thin lenses of ultramafic rocks
6) Cauca-Patía Valley Amaime Fm. and Buga batholith (Ginebra Fm.) intruded by the dioritic Buga batholith.

Ultramafic rocks of the Bolívar Ultramafic Complex in the Eastern border of the Cordillera consisting of
gabbros, norites, locally intruded by coeval hornblende and biotite bearing pegmatites. The Volcanic Fm.
consisting of predominant massive basalts is in tectonic contact with more restricted gabbroic sheets bodies
Volcanic Fm, Bolívar Ultramafic complex and Late (e.g. Palmar gabbro). All those igneous sequences are in contact with turbidites, shales and tuffs of the
7) Western Cordillera Cretaceous Espinal Fm. Espinal Fm. which locally are weakly metamorphosed (Cisneros Fm).

c) Southern Colombia
Traverse Geological Units Field observations
Granites and granodiorites of the Ibagué Batholith in tectonic contact with acidic lavas and breccias of the
8) Central Cordillera Jurassic Ibagué batholith and Saldaña Fm. volcanics Saldaña Fm.
Basalts of the Volcanic Fm. intruded by quartz-diorites of the Tertiary Piedrancha pluton and locally covered
9) Western Cordillera Volcanic Fm., Ricaurte Fm., Piedrancha pluton by andesites and andesitic breccias of the Tertiary Ricaurte Fm.

43
Sample Lithology Texture Minerals Alteration Observations Analyses performed

44
metamorphic quartz, hornblende, idiomorphic
titanite, plagioclase (few kfspar), muscovite. Fresh rock. Few plagioclase slightly
DV02 Gneiss gneissic Accesories: epidote, rounded zircon chloritized. U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar
Probably plagioclase have inclusion of
holocrystalline seriate texture, coarse Hornblendes very fresh. plagioclase are pyroxenes. Smalls cracks filled with a
40
DV04 Gabbro-diorite to medium grained gabbro-diorite Subhedral crystals of hornblende, biotite, quartz slighty argillized. yellow unkown material. Ar/39Ar

Plagioclase, Kfspar, Hornblende: coarse-subhedral


crystals of Kfspar, zoned plagioclase. Subhedral
Phaneritic- coarse-medium grained crystals of hornblende. Accesories: apatite, zircon, plagioclase zoned, hornblendes with
DV05 Granodiorite seriate texture granodiorite monazite Fresh rock inclusions of plagioclase U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar
Phaneritic, coarse-grained bt-Hbl Kfspar, plagioclase, quartz, hornblende, biotite. Biotite weakly altered by chlorite, illite. Feldpars present parallel albite and
40
DV06 Granite granite Accesories: titanite, zircon, apatite Hornblende are very fresh carlsbad twinning Ar/39Ar
plagioclase present parallel albite and
Quartz, kfspar, biotite, plagioclase, hornblende. carlsbad twinning sometimes. Kfspar show
40
DV07 Granite Phaneritic Accesories: epidote, apatite, titanite, zircon, rutile Fresh rock. Biotite weakly chloritized typical Carlsbad. Ar/39Ar

Quartz, plagioclase, kfspar, biotite, hornblende. hornblende unaltered. plagioclase slightly plagioclase present parallel albite and
DV09 Granite Micro-phaneritic Accesories: apatite, zircon, epidote, magnetite. altered to illite. carlsbad twinning U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar
whole rock geochemistry

WM granodioritic Quartz, plagioclase, Kfspar, muscovite. Accesories: muscovite altered to chlorite, plagioclase
DV18 gneiss granoblastic zircon, apatite, chiastollite, staurolite (?), pyrite slightly altered to illite U-Pb

Muscovite and plagioclase replaced by finer


Quartz, plagioclase, muscovite (relicts), strongly second generation of muscovite (sericite?).
DV19 Quartzite porphyroblastic altered garnet (?). Accesories: rounded zircons Minor chlorite. Presence of sulphides U-Pb
plagioclase present Carlsbad and albite
coarse grained, inequigranular, Quartz, plagioclase, kfspar, hornblende. Accesories: illite slightly altering plagioclase. Presence twinning. Consertal intergrowth of quartz in
40
DV26 Granodiorite holocrystalline zircon, apatite, magnetite and titanite of carbonates in microfractures (weathering) cummulates. Geochemistry, U-Pb, Ar/39Ar
hornblende, quartz, feldspar. Accesories: white
Garnet white mica, titanite (?), garnet, few small zircons, apatite, syn-kinematic garnet, foliation wrapped
40
DV28 mica amphibolite porphyroblastic epidote fresh rock around the porphyroblast Geochemistry, Ar/39Ar

Garnet hornblende, quartz, feldspar. Accesories: titanite,


DV29 amphibolite porphyroblastic muscovite (primary), porphyroblast of garnet. hornblende slightly altered by illite syn-kinematic garnet Geochemistry

plagioclase, quartz, hornblende. Accesories:


DV30 Tonalite phaneritic epidote, biotite, magnetite, monazite, zircon, apatite illite weakly altering plagioclase. Geochemistry, U-Pb
chlorite, epidote, illite altering plagioclase.
DV38 Diabase phaneritic (relictic) plagioclase, hornblende, pyroxenes. Epidotes (?) Geochemistry
relicts of plagioclase, pyroxenes, vesicles filled with low-T alteration (presence of celadonite:
DV39 Gabbro phaneritic (relictic) celadonite. phillosilicate filling vesicles) Geochemistry
Plagioclase, pyroxenes. Accesories: quartz, Ti- chlorite and argillitization moderately altering
DV40 Basalt poikilitic , microphaneritic oxide, magnetite plagioclase. Geochemistry
Hornblende hornblende, plagioclase, pyroxene, quartz (?). plagioclase altered by illite, chlorite. Two hornblende generations, one fresh the
DV42 gabbro phaneritic Accesories: titanite, zircon, monazite Presence of carbonates other slightly altered. U-Pb

micro-phaneritic, poikilitic plagioclase, hornblende. Accesories: Ti-oxide,


DV43 Gabbro (hornblendes containing plagioclase) magnetite plagioclase moderately altered by illite Geochemistry
moderate argillitization altering feldspar and
DV48 Gabbro-diorite phaneritic hornblende, plagioclase, accesories: quartz, kfspar hornblendes Geochemistry

DV50 Gneiss gneissic quartz, kfspar, hornblende, white mica, zircons feldspars altered to illite and chlorite U-Pb
quartz, kspar (orthoclase and microcline), Weak alteration, very few chlorite altering
plagioclase, biotite, accesories: hornblende, apatite, biotite, muscovite and cores of some microcline (with typical twin) and orthoclase
DV56 Granite porphyritic zircon, rutile plagioclase showing Carlsbad twinning. U-Pb
quartz, plagioclase, kfspar, accesories: hornblende,
DV58 Granite phaneritic biotite, titanite, zircon very weak illite altering plagioclase Geochemistry, U-Pb

plagioclase, . Hornblende, medium-grained plagioclase slightly argillitized and


fenocrystals of pyroxenes, Olivine (3%) fractured choritized. The sample is cut by severals
seriated basalt highly dissected by groundmass consisting of pyroxenes and veins filled with quartz-plag and others with Fast cooling textures, probably flowing
DV74 Basalt veins plagioclase (+olivine?). a green material (actinolite?). textures, brecciation Geochemistry
Appendix 2. Description of samples used for U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar datation and
Sample Lithology Texture Minerals Alteration Observations Analyses performed

pyroxenes and plagioclase. Fine matrix consisting of


plagioclase, pyroxene. Accesories: olivine, slightly altered by philosilicates, crossed by
DV75 Basalt microporphyritic magnetite few veins of epidote, quartz presence of vesicles, Geochemistry
plagioclase slightly altered by illite.
plagioclase, hornblende, pyroxenes. Accesories: Hornblendes maybe slightly altered to
40
DV78 Andesite porphyritic magnetite, apatite, quartz chlorite Geochemistry, Ar/39Ar
plagioclase, hornblende, pyroxenes. Accesories:
DV79 Basaltic andesite microphaneritic apatite, rutile celadonite Geochemistry
plagioclase, fedspar, quartz. Accesories:
hornblende, zircon, apatite, titanite, monazite, Weakly altered by illite, chlorite, and few
40
DV82 Granite phaneritic magnetite, rutile carbonates (weathering) U-Pb, Ar/39Ar
hornblende, quartz, feldspar. Accesories: white
DV87 Mica schist porphyroblastic mica, titanite (?), garnet fresh rock syn-kinematic garnet. Geochemistry
Amphibolitic
DV88 schist porphyroblastic hornblende, quartz, feldspar. Accesories: garnet fresh rock Geochemistry
presence of cracks, not filled veins.
euhedral, hornblende, plagioclase, quartz. plagioclase (albite & carlsbad twinning).
subhedral pyroxenes (Hyperstene). Accesories: Some Hornblendes have inclusions of
Appendix 2. (continued)

DV91 Diorite Phaneritic monazite, zircon, apatite. Slight chloritic alteration. quartz Geochemistry, U-Pb
DV94 Pegmatite Pegmatitic plagioclase, hornblende fresh rock U/Pb
DV95 Pegmatite Pegmatitic plagioclase, biotite fresh rock U/Pb
hornblende, plagioclase, accesories: quartz, allanite
40
DV102 Gabbro-diorite phaneritic (?), titanite, zircon, monazite fresh rock lot of titanite Geochemistry, Ar/39Ar
plagioclase, pyroxenes. Accesories: hornblende,
DV103 Basalt microphaneritic apatite, magnetite, quartz (?) chlorite and illite replacing plagioclase Geochemistry

DV104 Basalt microphaneritic plagioclase, pyroxenes, relicts of hornblende (?) chlorite and illite replacing plagioclase Geochemistry
plagioclase, pyroxenes, hornblende (?). Vitreous relatively fresh rock, pyroxenes slightly
DV105 Basalts porphyritic matrix altered highly vesicular filled with celadonite Geochemistry
DV106 Gabbro phaneritic pyroxene, plagioclase. moderately altered to illite, chlorite Geochemistry
Plagiocalses, kfspar, quartz, hornblendematrix Presence of calcite veins. V. well sorted
consisting of plagioclase, calcite. Accesories: and euhedral-subeuhedral xtals. Small
DV108 Lithic tuff porphyritic zircons fresh rock zircons. U-Pb
Sample present quartz filled veins and
plagioclase, hornblende relicts of pyroxenes, plagioclase are slightly altered to illite and close to these veins chloritization of
DV109 Basalt porphyritic floating in a mass consisting of plagioclase pyroxenes are chloritized. pyroxenes is higher Geochemistry

plagioclase, pyroxens, relicts of hornblende (?), plagioclase are weakly altered to illite and
DV110 Basalt porphyritic floating in a mass consisting of plagioclase pyroxenes are chloritized. Geochemistry
DV111 Basalt aphanitic plagioclase, pyroxenes, hornblende (?) smectite, illite, cut by quartz veins Geochemistry
Pyroxenes replaced to illite and clays. Cut
DV112 Basalt aphanitic plagioclase, pyroxenes. by quartz veins Geochemistry
phenocryst: hornblende, plagioclase, matrix:
DV125 Andesite porphyritic plagioclase, pyroxenes, phillosilicates and chlorite fragmented crystal Geochemistry
phenocryst: hornblende, plagioclase, matrix:
DV126 Andesite porphyritic plagioclase, pyroxenes, phillosilicates and chlorite fragmented crystal Geochemistry

plagioclase, kfspar, quartz, biotite, hornblende. moderate altered to illite, chlorite,


DV138 Rhyolite porphyritic Accesories: rutile, zircon, apatite, monazite carbonate. flow structures Geochemistry
kfspar, quartz, plagioclase. Accesories: apatite,
DV156 Granite phaneritic zircon fresh rock Geochemistry
Garnet hornblende, quartz, plagioclase, garnet. Accesories:
DV157 amphibolite porphyroblastic zircon, titanite(?), apatite, rutile fresh metamorphic titanite or sillimanite (?) Geochemistry
Amphibolitic hornblende, quartz, feldspar, garnet Acc:
DV158 schist porphyroblastic metamorphic titanite (?) fresh euhedral horblendes, not elongated Geochemistry
DV165 Diorite phaneritic plagioclas, biotite, hornblende, pyroxene fresh rock Geochemistry

plagioclase, hornblende, quartz, biotite, kfspar. Very fresh hornblende. Biotite weakly
DV167 Granodiorite phaneritic Accesories: apatite, zircon (rounded?), rutile altered by chlorite. Geochemistry

45
plagioclase, quartz, kfspar, relicts of hornblende.
Accesories: titanite, zircon, apatite, rutile, monazite, plagioclase moderately altered to sericite
DV176 Diorite porphyritic altered biotite and illite. Presence of carbonate Geochemistry
Appendix 3. Analytical techniques 10 Hz for rastering and 4 Hz for spot, respectively.
Helium was used as a carrier gas (~1.1 L/min) of the
ablated material from the ablation cell. Raw data
were processed through the software LAMDATE,
U–Pb zircon dating built by J. Košler. This allows a correction of data
by the intercept method [Sylvester and Gadheri,
Zircons were extracted from several kilograms 1997].
of rock samples by conventional means. The sub-
External correction of laser-induced Pb/U
300 µm fraction was processed using a Wilfley
fractionation was monitored by repeated
table and the Wilfley heavies were then passed
measurements of two reference zircons with
through a Frantz magnetic separator at 1 A.
known ages, Plešovice (337.13 ± 0.37 Ma) [Sláma et
The non-paramagnetic portion was afterwards
al., 2008] and 91500 (1065.4 ± 0.3 Ma) [Wiedenbeck
placed in a filter funnel with di-iodomethane
et al., 1995]. The ages measured during this study
(methyleniodide). The resulting heavy fraction was
for Plešovice zircon show a reasonable precision,
then passed again through the Frantz magnetic
accuracy and reproducibility (337.3 ± 2.8 Ma; 2σ;
separator at full current and a side slope of 10º.
n = 66), consistent with recommended values. The
All zircons were handpicked in ethanol using a
91500 zircon standard reproduced at 1076.0 ± 13.0
binocular microscope in order to prove they are
Ma (2σ; n = 11) which is in excellent agreement
inclusion-free and suitable for isotope analysis.
with recommended values.
Zircon grains were mounted into epoxy resin
blocks and polished to obtain flat surfaces. This
was followed by cathodoluminiscence imaging
PL standard
of individual zircon grains with SEM microscope box heights are 2σ

to unravel the internal structures of grains. Elan 380 337.3±2.8 Ma (MSWD=0.64)

6100 DRC ICPMS (Perkin Elmer) coupled with 360


age (Ma)

193-nm Ar-F Geolas 200M Excimer-based laser 340

ablation (Lambda Physik), housed at the University


206Pb/238U

320
of Lausanne, was used for U–Pb isotope analysis. 300
Instrumental mass fractionation was corrected 280
using Tl–U tracer solution (natural Tl mixed with
artificial 233U–236U; 236U/233U = 0.8450 and 205Tl/233U
PL standard
= 1.2) aspirated through an Apex desolvating box heights are 2σ
400
nebulizer. Tracer solution was mixed online with 337.5±4.7 Ma (MSWD=0.65)
380
sample aerosol before reaching the plasma; this is
age (Ma)

360
similar to approach used earlier [Horn et al., 2000;
340
Košler et al., 2002] and follows the methodology
206Pb/238U

320
described elsewhere [Bussien et al., 2008, Chew et
300
al., 2008]. Masses measured were: 201Hg (flyback),
280
202
Hg, 203Tl, 204Pb, 205Tl, 206Pb, 207Pb, 233U, 235U, 236U,
238
U, 249UO, 252UO and 254UO. Oxides have been
91500 standard
reconverted to elemental intensities and added box heights are 2σ
1220
to the corresponding isotopes. No common-Pb 1180
1076±13 Ma (MSWD=1.00)

correction was applied considering very low 204Pb


age (Ma)

1140
intensities and negligible effect on the final ages. 1100
206Pb/238U

Due to differing grain sizes, both rastering and spot 1060

mode were applied. Typically, rastering acquisition 1020


980
consisted of 1400 readings, comprising ~350 blank
940
and solution readings and ~1050 data readings,
whereas spot acquisition comprised ~200 blank and Weighted mean ages of Plešovice standard [PL, 336.45±0.3 Ma, Sláma et al., 2008]
solution readings and ~500 data readings. Output and 91500 standard [1065.4±0.3 Ma, Wiedenbeck et al., 1995], which yielded statisti-
cally acceptable MSWD of the weighted mean 206Pb/238U suggesting analytical random

laser energy varied between 120 and 160 mJ/pulse errors are estimated correctly.

with a 30-µm beam diameter at a repetition rate of

46
40
Ar/39Ar

Samples were placed in small pits within a


copper planchette and were heated by rastering
around the pit area. Usual degassing consisted
of 10-14 temperature steps. Blanks for all Ar
isotopes were measured prior to every third
incremental heating experiment step and
comprise the following ranges: 36Ar: 0.7–5.2 x
10-17 mol; 37Ar: 0.25–1.1 x 10-16 mol; 38Ar: 0.7–7.4
x 10-17 mol; 39Ar: 0.17–2.0 x 10-16 mol; 40Ar: 0.54–
1.4 x 10-14 mol. The released gas fraction was
purified for six minutes using two hot getters (at
0.45A and 1.45A). Purified gas was then allowed
to diffuse for 50 seconds into the static-vacuum
multi-collector Argus mass spectrometer (GV
Instruments). The mass spectrometer is equipped
with four high-gain (1012 Ω resistivity) Faraday
cups for the measurement of 36Ar, 37Ar, 38Ar, and
39
Ar, and a single 1011 Ω-resistivity Faraday cup for
40
Ar measurements. The high stability of Faraday
baseline measurements rendered it unnecessary
to record baselines for each analysis. Isotopic
mass/charge ratios were collected using 12
cycles, which were then exponentially regressed
to determine the abundance of individual Ar
isotopes prior to fractionation in the source unit.
Raw data was crunched by using the ArArCalc Excel
macro of Koppers [2002] and corrected for i) mass
discrimination, which in turn was measured via
analyzing clean air-standards in double-air pipette
mode (the final mass discrimination factor was
0.989±0.001 per atomic mass unit), ii) radioactive
decay of 37Ar and 39Ar as well as for nucleogenic
interference from Ca-, K-, and Cl-derived isotopes.
Propagated systematic errors comprise decay
constant, mass discrimination, and J value
uncertainties. All errors are reported at 2σ level.

47
Appendix 4. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon data
DV02

Grain
Isotopic ratios Ages
207 235 206 238 207 235 206 238 207 206
Pb/ U ± 2σ Pb/ U ± 2σ Rho Pb/ U ± 2σ Pb/ U ± 2σ Pb/ Pb ± 2σ

05DV02_1 0.4495 0.0617 0.0586 0.0060 0.37 376.9 43.2 367.1 36.5 438.0 204.0
05DV02_1-2 0.4231 0.0977 0.0590 0.0135 0.50 358.2 69.7 369.8 82.4 283.9 60.3
05DV02_13 0.4386 0.1005 0.0587 0.0103 0.38 369.3 70.9 367.9 63.0 378.0 329.5
05DV02_14 0.4427 0.2287 0.0586 0.0287 0.47 372.2 161.0 366.9 174.7 405.2 366.4
05DV02_3 0.4973 0.1246 0.0596 0.0056 0.19 409.9 84.5 373.3 33.9 621.4 501.4
05DV02_12 0.5595 0.0816 0.0586 0.0062 0.36 451.2 53.1 367.0 37.7 906.9 207.2
05DV02_13-2 0.3067 0.0741 0.0409 0.0079 0.40 271.6 57.6 258.3 48.7 388.2 328.6
05DV02_15-2 0.3064 0.0799 0.0376 0.0071 0.36 271.4 62.1 238.0 44.0 570.4 392.2
05DV02_17 0.3037 0.0122 0.0430 0.0016 0.46 269.3 9.5 271.6 9.7 249.0 37.8
05DV02_16 0.4804 0.1212 0.0636 0.0058 0.18 398.4 83.1 397.5 35.3 403.8 526.2
05DV02_7 0.6100 0.0623 0.0734 0.0031 0.21 483.5 39.3 456.4 18.7 614.5 200.5
05DV02_15 0.7874 0.0631 0.0945 0.0066 0.44 589.7 35.9 581.9 39.1 619.7 83.1

DV05

Grain
Isotopic ratios Ages
207 235 206 238 207 235 206 238 207 206
Pb/ U ± 2σ Pb/ U ± 2σ Rho Pb/ U ± 2σ Pb/ U ± 2σ Pb/ Pb ± 2σ

05DV05_5 0.3323 0.2572 0.0255 0.0022 0.05 291.3 196.0 162.4 13.5 1565.1 1378.7
05DV05_6 0.2409 0.1553 0.0261 0.0052 0.15 219.2 127.1 166.4 32.7 832.6 1278.1
05DV05_8 0.1868 0.4082 0.0263 0.0054 0.05 173.9 349.2 167.6 34.1 260.3 4996.2
05DV05_13 0.7106 0.7065 0.0284 0.0053 0.09 545.1 419.4 180.4 33.0 2667.4 1617.7
05DV05_17 0.1519 0.0450 0.0224 0.0020 0.15 143.6 39.7 143.1 12.7 151.6 661.1
05DV05_18-2 0.6818 3.2375 0.0267 0.0044 0.02 527.9 1954.6 170.1 27.3 2738.9 7466.4
05DV05_20 0.1831 0.1841 0.0286 0.0018 0.03 170.7 158.0 181.6 11.5 22.4 2409.1

DV09

Grain
Isotopic ratios Ages
207
Pb/235U
206
Pb/238U
207
Pb/235U
206
Pb/238U
207
± 2σ ± 2σ Rho ± 2σ ± 2σ Pb/206Pb ± 2σ

05DV09_4 0.1684 0.0384 0.0245 0.0025 0.22 158.0 33.4 156.3 15.5 184.5 476.7
05DV09_4-2 0.1703 0.0404 0.0258 0.0012 0.10 159.7 35.1 164.2 7.6 92.4 551.1
05DV09_5 0.1779 0.0218 0.0254 0.0011 0.17 166.3 18.8 161.5 6.8 352.5 244.4
05DV09_6 0.1781 0.0185 0.0253 0.0017 0.33 166.4 15.9 161.0 10.9 244.2 179.5
05DV09_6-2 0.1726 0.0275 0.0255 0.0019 0.24 161.7 23.8 162.2 12.2 154.2 328.2
05DV09_8 0.1581 0.0513 0.0229 0.0036 0.24 149.1 45.0 146.2 22.9 194.6 658.9
05DV09_8-2 0.1741 0.0477 0.0240 0.0031 0.23 163.0 41.2 152.7 19.4 315.2 550.0
05DV09_9 0.1672 0.0428 0.0254 0.0039 0.30 157.0 37.2 161.8 24.8 84.9 482.3
05DV09_10 0.1751 0.0437 0.0247 0.0015 0.12 163.8 37.8 157.6 9.3 371.5 516.8
05DV09_11-2 0.1792 0.0521 0.0260 0.0028 0.18 167.4 44.9 165.5 17.4 194.2 628.7
05DV09_12 0.1594 0.0287 0.0253 0.0017 0.19 150.2 25.1 161.3 10.9 -21.7 402.4
05DV09_16 0.1550 0.0436 0.0235 0.0031 0.23 146.3 38.3 149.6 19.4 93.0 589.0
05DV09_17 0.1615 0.0344 0.0231 0.0023 0.23 152.0 30.1 147.3 14.3 342.9 400.8
05DV09_18 0.1790 0.0516 0.0261 0.0031 0.21 167.2 44.4 165.9 19.7 185.6 609.9
05DV09_23 0.1762 0.0702 0.0248 0.0029 0.14 164.8 60.6 157.8 17.9 382.9 810.6
05DV09_7 0.0251 0.0008 159.8 5.2
05DV09_9-2 0.0257 0.0025 163.7 16.0
05DV09_11 0.0243 0.0012 154.9 7.8
05DV09_18-2 0.0258 0.0018 164.0 11.3
05DV09_19 0.0240 0.0046 152.6 28.7

DV18

Grain
Isotopic ratios Ages
207
Pb/235U
206
Pb/238U
207
Pb/235U
206
Pb/238U
207
± 2σ ± 2σ Rho ± 2σ ± 2σ Pb/206Pb ± 2σ

05DV18_1-3 0.2731 0.0465 0.0386 0.0021 0.16 245.2 74.1 244.2 25.6 254.4 743.0
05DV18_3 0.2947 0.0164 0.0416 0.0014 0.31 262.2 25.7 262.5 17.6 259.6 201.6
05DV18_4 0.2898 0.0294 0.0404 0.0030 0.37 258.4 46.3 255.3 37.3 286.3 314.5
05DV18_5 0.2639 0.0912 0.0372 0.0013 0.05 237.8 146.6 235.5 16.3 260.6 1580.0
05DV18_10 0.2782 0.0198 0.0376 0.0020 0.38 249.2 31.4 237.9 24.9 357.7 211.7
05DV18_11 0.2870 0.1618 0.0403 0.0020 0.04 256.2 255.4 255.0 24.4 267.0 2578.0
05DV18_12-2 0.2851 0.0413 0.0417 0.0023 0.19 254.7 65.3 263.1 28.7 178.1 623.9
05DV18_13 0.2867 0.0530 0.0391 0.0025 0.17 255.9 83.7 247.2 31.2 336.4 786.0
05DV18_13-2 0.2484 0.0495 0.0350 0.0038 0.27 225.2 80.6 221.6 47.3 263.6 768.3
05DV18_17 0.2605 0.0165 0.0361 0.0019 0.42 235.0 26.6 228.7 23.9 298.6 158.2
05DV18_20 0.2719 0.0246 0.0371 0.0014 0.21 244.2 39.2 235.1 17.4 332.7 372.5
05DV18_21 0.2500 0.0216 0.0355 0.0023 0.38 226.5 35.1 224.7 28.7 245.3 262.9
05DV18_14 0.3800 0.0688 0.0362 0.0010 0.08 327.0 50.6 229.0 6.4 1100.3 357.7
05DV18_23 0.3075 0.0449 0.0382 0.0025 0.22 272.2 34.8 242.0 15.2 541.4 286.5
05DV18_24-2 0.3110 0.0524 0.0383 0.0028 0.22 275.0 40.6 242.3 17.4 563.0 330.6
05DV18_9 0.3057 0.0556 0.0345 0.0013 0.10 270.8 43.3 218.4 7.9 753.1 376.3

48
Appendix 4. (continued)
DV19

Grain
Isotopic ratios Ages
207 235 206 238 207 235 206 238 207 206
Pb/ U ± 2σ Pb/ U ± 2σ Rho Pb/ U ± 2σ Pb/ U ± 2σ Pb/ Pb ± 2σ

05DV19_1 0.2794 0.0324 0.0385 0.0036 0.41 250.2 51.5 243.4 44.9 313.8 309.6
05DV19_2 0.2793 0.0678 0.0366 0.0077 0.43 250.1 107.6 231.6 95.4 427.2 545.7
05DV19_3 0.8381 0.1256 0.1037 0.0141 0.45 618.1 138.8 636.0 164.1 553.1 279.2
05DV19_4 0.8021 0.0768 0.0946 0.0055 0.30 598.0 86.6 582.9 64.5 655.9 327.6
05DV19_5 0.2852 0.0374 0.0375 0.0039 0.40 254.7 59.0 237.3 48.8 418.6 351.3
05DV19_6 1.9202 0.1783 0.1828 0.0145 0.43 1088.1 124.0 1082.5 158.2 1099.5 192.8
05DV19_7 1.7798 0.1236 0.1756 0.0063 0.26 1038.1 90.3 1042.9 69.4 1028.0 240.2
05DV19_8 0.4088 0.0270 0.0552 0.0022 0.30 348.0 39.0 346.6 27.1 357.3 237.4
05DV19_10 0.2604 0.0412 0.0374 0.0050 0.42 235.0 66.4 236.6 61.9 219.4 395.5
05DV19_11 1.2858 0.1501 0.1277 0.0140 0.47 839.4 133.4 774.5 160.4 1015.3 159.8
05DV19_12 0.2610 0.0295 0.0374 0.0032 0.38 235.5 47.5 236.4 39.8 225.8 340.2
05DV19_13 1.1902 0.1426 0.1277 0.0086 0.28 796.1 132.2 774.8 97.8 856.1 412.3
05DV19_14 0.3507 0.0128 0.0488 0.0014 0.39 305.2 19.3 307.3 17.3 289.5 103.3
05DV19_15 0.2758 0.0199 0.0376 0.0019 0.36 247.3 31.7 237.9 24.0 337.4 230.6
05DV19_16 1.7695 0.1503 0.1708 0.0111 0.38 1034.4 110.2 1016.3 122.7 1072.8 218.4
05DV19_17 0.6485 0.0339 0.0785 0.0030 0.37 507.5 41.7 487.1 36.0 600.8 153.7
05DV19_18 0.3199 0.0343 0.0444 0.0024 0.25 281.8 52.8 279.9 29.0 297.9 425.6
05DV19_19 0.3485 0.0347 0.0487 0.0019 0.19 303.6 52.2 306.4 22.9 282.1 420.0
05DV19_20 0.2553 0.0299 0.0364 0.0031 0.36 230.8 48.4 230.7 38.3 231.9 375.5
05DV19_23 0.2626 0.0301 0.0367 0.0037 0.44 236.8 48.4 232.3 45.7 280.8 254.8
05DV19_25 0.2377 0.0535 0.0372 0.0058 0.34 216.6 87.7 235.2 71.5 18.2 783.6
05DV19_26 0.3296 0.0438 0.0432 0.0045 0.39 289.2 66.9 272.5 55.5 427.1 369.2
05DV19_28 0.3643 0.0738 0.0422 0.0032 0.19 315.4 109.8 266.2 39.4 697.4 800.5
05DV19_29 2.1658 0.0334 0.1976 0.0021 0.35 1170.1 21.4 1162.5 22.8 1184.3 43.8
05DV19_30 0.7195 0.0913 0.0881 0.0090 0.40 550.4 107.8 544.3 106.9 575.7 325.6
05DV19_31 0.2704 0.0308 0.0370 0.0032 0.37 243.0 49.2 234.5 39.2 325.8 343.4
05DV19_32 0.7714 0.0927 0.0897 0.0084 0.39 580.6 106.3 553.9 99.9 686.3 318.7
05DV19_33 0.2644 0.0558 0.0380 0.0068 0.42 238.2 89.7 240.2 84.2 218.0 521.7
05DV19_34 0.2507 0.0241 0.0366 0.0026 0.37 227.2 39.1 231.5 32.4 182.9 299.8
05DV19_35 1.7350 0.1061 0.1744 0.0091 0.42 1021.6 78.8 1036.2 99.4 990.4 131.5

DV26

Grain
Isotopic ratios Ages
207 235 206 238 207 235 206 238 207 206
Pb/ U ± 2σ Pb/ U ± 2σ Rho Pb/ U ± 2σ Pb/ U ± 2σ Pb/ Pb ± 2σ

05DV26_1 0.0846 0.0149 0.0127 0.0004 0.09 82.4 27.9 81.5 5.4 110.8 816.2
05DV26_1-2 0.0785 0.0149 0.0119 0.0005 0.11 76.7 28.1 76.5 6.5 83.4 879.0
05DV26_2 0.0869 0.0148 0.0127 0.0005 0.12 84.6 27.6 81.5 6.8 172.2 768.5
05DV26_4-2 0.0806 0.0110 0.0120 0.0005 0.15 78.7 20.7 76.9 6.5 134.0 612.2
05DV26_4 0.0905 0.0124 0.0124 0.0010 0.28 88.0 23.1 79.6 12.2 320.1 516.4
05DV26_3 0.0866 0.0402 0.0128 0.0012 0.10 84.3 75.1 82.1 14.7 147.8 2133.7
05DV26_6 0.0829 0.0297 0.0129 0.0007 0.07 80.9 55.7 82.4 8.8 37.8 1694.0
05DV26_5 0.0893 0.0323 0.0125 0.0008 0.09 86.8 60.2 80.0 10.7 278.3 1627.6
05DV26_8 0.0864 0.0534 0.0122 0.0017 0.11 84.1 99.8 78.0 21.6 260.9 2767.7
05DV26_14 0.0929 0.0255 0.0120 0.0011 0.16 90.2 47.5 77.1 13.5 452.0 1156.7
05DV26_20 0.0884 0.0420 0.0124 0.0012 0.11 86.0 78.4 79.4 15.8 273.8 2129.8
05DV26_21 0.0851 0.0419 0.0122 0.0016 0.13 82.9 78.4 78.1 20.2 224.8 2194.6
05DV26_11 0.1062 0.0412 0.0129 0.0013 0.13 102.5 75.7 82.4 16.6 600.4 1622.7

DV30

Grain
Isotopic ratios Ages
207 235 206 238 207 235 206 238 207 206
Pb/ U ± 2σ Pb/ U ± 2σ Rho Pb/ U ± 2σ Pb/ U ± 2σ Pb/ Pb ± 2σ

05DV30_11-2 0.08910 0.01691 0.01354 0.00100 0.19 86.7 15.8 86.7 6.3 86.2 414.9
05DV30_19 0.09341 0.02184 0.01362 0.00132 0.21 90.7 20.3 87.2 8.4 182.2 496.0
05DV30_1 0.11511 0.02065 0.01391 0.00110 0.22 110.6 18.8 89.1 7.0 603.6 348.6
05DV30_25-2 0.11504 0.01953 0.01396 0.00088 0.19 110.6 17.8 89.4 5.6 594.5 341.6
05DV30_15-2 0.10613 0.01502 0.01399 0.00054 0.14 102.4 13.8 89.6 3.4 412.5 304.3
05DV30_16 0.11463 0.01560 0.01399 0.00087 0.23 110.2 14.2 89.6 5.5 582.1 263.3
05DV30_8 0.09595 0.02557 0.01402 0.00121 0.16 93.0 23.7 89.7 7.7 178.3 587.6
05DV30_17-2 0.12107 0.01812 0.01406 0.00082 0.20 116.0 16.4 90.0 5.2 689.4 293.9
05DV30_2-2 0.09277 0.01958 0.01416 0.00181 0.30 90.1 18.2 90.6 11.5 76.0 398.8
05DV30_1-2 0.09362 0.01679 0.01420 0.00086 0.17 90.9 15.6 90.9 5.5 91.0 400.2
05DV30_18-2 0.11208 0.01352 0.01420 0.00064 0.19 107.9 12.3 90.9 4.0 501.0 246.6
05DV30_14-2 0.09328 0.01453 0.01422 0.00052 0.12 90.6 13.5 91.0 3.3 77.8 359.9
05DV30_13 0.09486 0.02220 0.01425 0.00102 0.15 92.0 20.6 91.2 6.5 113.0 525.7
05DV30_23 0.09924 0.02443 0.01425 0.00185 0.26 96.1 22.6 91.2 11.8 217.7 483.7
05DV30_6 0.17906 0.02968 0.01426 0.00122 0.26 167.3 25.6 91.3 7.7 1448.6 270.5
05DV30_2 0.09265 0.01281 0.01427 0.00066 0.17 90.0 11.9 91.3 4.2 54.2 310.9
05DV30_25 0.10963 0.01643 0.01428 0.00088 0.21 105.6 15.0 91.4 5.6 439.9 303.9
05DV30_16-2 0.09439 0.01976 0.01428 0.00135 0.23 91.6 18.3 91.4 8.6 95.6 442.2
05DV30_3-2 0.09215 0.01770 0.01430 0.00097 0.18 89.5 16.5 91.5 6.2 35.4 430.2
05DV30_13-2 0.13176 0.01734 0.01431 0.00071 0.19 125.7 15.6 91.6 4.5 830.3 254.3
05DV30_22-2 0.13140 0.01806 0.01432 0.00066 0.17 125.4 16.2 91.6 4.2 824.4 270.4
05DV30_10 0.11396 0.01526 0.01432 0.00091 0.24 109.6 13.9 91.7 5.8 518.5 258.4
05DV30_17 0.09378 0.01856 0.01435 0.00060 0.11 91.0 17.2 91.9 3.8 68.9 460.1
05DV30_6-2 0.10258 0.01761 0.01437 0.00078 0.16 99.2 16.2 92.0 5.0 276.0 372.8
05DV30_5 0.09330 0.01329 0.01439 0.00070 0.17 90.6 12.3 92.1 4.4 50.2 319.9
05DV30_19-2 0.11993 0.01775 0.01441 0.00069 0.16 115.0 16.1 92.3 4.4 616.0 302.3
05DV30_9-2 0.11002 0.01969 0.01444 0.00107 0.21 106.0 18.0 92.4 6.8 423.2 363.6
05DV30_15 0.12747 0.02257 0.01444 0.00074 0.15 121.8 20.3 92.4 4.7 743.0 358.2
05DV30_22 0.12831 0.03204 0.01444 0.00108 0.15 122.6 28.8 92.4 6.9 756.8 502.6
05DV30_20 0.12826 0.01988 0.01445 0.00104 0.23 122.5 17.9 92.5 6.6 754.8 289.5
05DV30_24 0.09507 0.01586 0.01445 0.00107 0.22 92.2 14.7 92.5 6.8 84.8 354.7
05DV30_4-2 0.09484 0.02304 0.01447 0.00131 0.19 92.0 21.4 92.6 8.3 76.0 535.4
05DV30_11 0.09860 0.01538 0.01452 0.00092 0.20 95.5 14.2 92.9 5.8 159.3 333.5
05DV30_12 0.11970 0.01894 0.01457 0.00074 0.16 114.8 17.2 93.2 4.7 588.9 325.1
05DV30_18 0.10015 0.01660 0.01457 0.00071 0.15 96.9 15.3 93.3 4.5 188.0 368.6
05DV30_7 0.11322 0.01578 0.01465 0.00068 0.17 108.9 14.4 93.7 4.3 455.0 291.4
05DV30_14 0.11804 0.02077 0.01467 0.00080 0.15 113.3 18.9 93.9 5.1 542.9 365.7
05DV30_9 0.14122 0.06442 0.01468 0.00130 0.10 134.1 57.3 93.9 8.2 921.8 919.8
05DV30_21-2 0.09726 0.02181 0.01494 0.00135 0.20 94.2 20.2 95.6 8.6 60.3 489.0
05DV30_4 0.12891 0.03133 0.01500 0.00081 0.11 123.1 28.2 96.0 5.2 685.6 505.7
05DV30_21 0.14756 0.02017 0.01505 0.00078 0.19 139.8 17.8 96.3 5.0 960.7 258.5
05DV30_12-2 0.15409 0.02181 0.01506 0.00071 0.17 145.5 19.2 96.3 4.5 1047.4 269.3
05DV30_3 0.11968 0.02126 0.01508 0.00062 0.12 114.8 19.3 96.5 3.9 512.9 379.9

49
Appendix 4. (continued)
DV42

Grain
Isotopic ratios Ages
207 235 206 238 207 235 206 238 207 206
Pb/ U ± 2σ Pb/ U ± 2σ Rho Pb/ U ± 2σ Pb/ U ± 2σ Pb/ Pb ± 2σ

05DV42_1 0.2302 0.0345 0.0162 0.0007 0.15 210.3 57.0 103.8 9.5 1675.2 528.1
05DV42_2 0.1175 0.0032 0.0154 0.0002 0.20 112.8 5.9 98.6 2.2 423.6 112.2
05DV42_3 0.1362 0.0253 0.0150 0.0008 0.15 129.6 45.2 95.7 10.5 808.1 741.9
05DV42_4 0.1048 0.0089 0.0153 0.0011 0.44 101.2 16.4 97.9 14.4 179.4 195.6
05DV42_5 0.1088 0.0236 0.0157 0.0010 0.14 104.9 43.3 100.4 12.6 207.3 964.6
05DV42_6 0.1032 0.0183 0.0153 0.0012 0.23 99.7 33.8 97.6 15.5 150.5 744.3
05DV42_7 0.1406 0.0243 0.0173 0.0012 0.20 133.5 43.3 110.3 15.3 570.5 688.8
05DV42_8 0.1034 0.0254 0.0150 0.0010 0.14 99.9 46.7 95.7 12.8 202.3 1094.6
05DV42_10 0.0997 0.0124 0.0150 0.0010 0.27 96.5 23.0 96.1 13.0 104.6 493.9
05DV42_12 0.1380 0.0433 0.0159 0.0010 0.10 131.3 77.3 101.9 12.1 703.1 1311.7
05DV42_13 0.1317 0.0247 0.0168 0.0008 0.13 125.6 44.3 107.5 10.0 483.4 802.0
05DV42_14 0.1022 0.0033 0.0157 0.0002 0.15 98.8 6.0 100.4 2.0 61.1 145.7
05DV42_15 0.0854 0.0532 0.0157 0.0014 0.07 83.2 99.5 100.3 17.8 -382.5 3202.1
05DV42_16 0.1277 0.0246 0.0156 0.0009 0.15 122.0 44.3 99.6 11.1 584.3 800.3
05DV42_17 0.1125 0.0141 0.0149 0.0009 0.25 108.2 25.8 95.1 11.9 408.6 486.2
05DV42_18 0.1461 0.0630 0.0146 0.0013 0.11 138.5 111.5 93.3 16.9 1005.0 1709.1

DV50

Grain
Isotopic ratios Ages
207 235 206 238 207 235 206 238 207 206
Pb/ U ± 2σ Pb/ U ± 2σ Rho Pb/ U ± 2σ Pb/ U ± 2σ Pb/ Pb ± 2σ

05DV50_1 2.5793 0.3409 0.2116 0.0170 0.30 1294.8 193.4 1237.4 181.1 1391.2 402.4
05DV50_2 1.7404 0.0962 0.1731 0.0081 0.42 1023.6 71.3 1029.2 89.2 1011.8 118.5
05DV50_3 0.5959 0.0543 0.0772 0.0057 0.41 474.6 69.1 479.6 68.5 450.4 235.3
05DV50_4 0.5946 0.0991 0.0727 0.0110 0.46 473.8 126.2 452.3 132.7 579.0 298.7
05DV50_5 1.9507 0.1392 0.1861 0.0067 0.25 1098.7 95.8 1100.0 72.3 1096.1 247.3
05DV50_6 1.9180 0.2682 0.1828 0.0226 0.44 1087.4 186.7 1082.2 246.3 1097.7 261.8
05DV50_7 2.1051 0.3146 0.1793 0.0159 0.30 1150.5 205.8 1063.2 173.7 1319.0 466.6
05DV50_8 1.9077 0.1006 0.1848 0.0056 0.29 1083.8 70.3 1093.3 61.4 1064.7 173.1
05DV50_9 2.0184 0.0341 0.1915 0.0021 0.33 1121.7 22.9 1129.6 23.2 1106.6 50.5
05DV50_10 1.8451 0.2506 0.1656 0.0216 0.48 1061.7 178.9 988.0 239.3 1216.4 146.2
05DV50_11 2.0412 0.1301 0.1916 0.0105 0.43 1129.3 86.9 1129.8 114.1 1128.5 128.1
05DV50_12 2.0957 0.0299 0.1964 0.0019 0.33 1147.4 19.6 1155.8 20.0 1131.6 42.5
05DV50_13 1.1590 0.2164 0.1248 0.0065 0.14 781.5 203.5 758.1 74.3 848.7 745.7
05DV50_14 1.8594 0.2020 0.1669 0.0145 0.40 1066.8 143.5 995.1 160.1 1216.4 257.1
05DV50_15 1.9270 0.0848 0.1853 0.0033 0.20 1090.5 58.8 1096.1 35.8 1079.4 161.5
05DV50_16 1.7462 0.1142 0.1715 0.0058 0.26 1025.7 84.4 1020.2 64.2 1037.6 225.5
05DV50_17 2.1357 0.0826 0.1822 0.0036 0.25 1160.4 53.5 1079.3 38.8 1315.3 129.4
05DV50_17-2 2.0756 0.1100 0.1882 0.0088 0.44 1140.8 72.6 1111.4 95.8 1197.1 96.9
05DV50_18 1.9293 0.1238 0.1833 0.0071 0.30 1091.3 85.8 1084.8 77.5 1104.3 204.4
05DV50_19 1.7167 0.1323 0.1763 0.0068 0.25 1014.8 98.9 1047.0 74.9 946.0 272.9
05DV50_19-2 1.6761 0.1031 0.1672 0.0087 0.42 999.5 78.2 996.8 95.9 1005.6 134.0
05DV50_20 2.2945 0.2357 0.1953 0.0170 0.42 1210.6 145.3 1150.0 183.3 1320.3 211.6
05DV50_21 2.3289 0.0291 0.2146 0.0017 0.32 1221.1 17.8 1253.1 18.1 1165.1 38.3
05DV50_22 2.9104 0.2604 0.2294 0.0145 0.35 1384.6 135.2 1331.5 152.4 1467.4 240.1
05DV50_23 1.6617 0.1580 0.1679 0.0146 0.46 994.0 120.6 1000.4 161.6 980.1 154.7
05DV50_24 2.0481 0.1698 0.2016 0.0069 0.21 1131.7 113.1 1184.0 73.9 1032.7 305.2
05DV50_25 2.4542 0.1177 0.2149 0.0073 0.35 1258.7 69.2 1254.7 77.1 1265.5 132.9
05DV50_26 2.2561 0.2419 0.2044 0.0187 0.43 1198.7 150.9 1198.7 200.2 1198.6 220.4
05DV50_26-2 2.1926 0.2052 0.1905 0.0150 0.42 1178.7 130.6 1124.1 162.3 1280.3 197.6
05DV50_27 1.8071 0.2673 0.1825 0.0095 0.18 1048.0 193.4 1080.7 104.1 980.6 563.6
05DV50_28 2.0681 0.0683 0.1904 0.0051 0.40 1138.3 45.2 1123.6 54.8 1166.4 77.6
05DV50_29 2.3979 0.0384 0.2191 0.0021 0.30 1242.0 23.0 1277.1 22.3 1181.5 50.6
05DV50_30 1.6858 0.0769 0.1673 0.0064 0.42 1003.2 58.1 997.0 70.6 1016.8 100.8
05DV50_31 1.6656 0.1064 0.1654 0.0056 0.27 995.5 81.1 986.5 62.0 1015.5 219.5
05DV50_32 2.0511 0.0809 0.1935 0.0060 0.39 1132.7 53.9 1140.2 64.6 1118.2 98.0
05DV50_33 4.6437 0.3294 0.3043 0.0144 0.33 1757.2 118.5 1712.4 142.3 1810.8 192.1
05DV50_34 2.1560 0.1665 0.1935 0.0104 0.35 1167.0 107.1 1140.6 112.0 1216.4 218.9
05DV50_35 1.4448 0.1142 0.1518 0.0063 0.26 907.7 94.9 910.9 70.6 899.9 277.5
05DV50_36 2.0731 0.1424 0.1973 0.0073 0.27 1140.0 94.1 1161.0 78.5 1100.0 231.7
05DV50_37 2.4076 0.1935 0.2098 0.0104 0.31 1244.9 115.3 1227.6 110.5 1274.8 247.1

DV56

Grain
Isotopic ratios Ages
207
Pb/235U ± 2σ
206
Pb/238U ± 2σ Rho
207
Pb/235U ± 2σ
206
Pb/238U ± 2σ
207
Pb/206Pb ± 2σ

05DV56_2-2 0.1032 0.1470 0.0125 0.0027 0.07 99.8 135.3 80.2 17.0 597.7 3048.8
05DV56_13-2 0.0818 0.0235 0.0129 0.0028 0.38 79.9 22.0 82.6 18.0 0.8 446.2
05DV56_20-2 0.0913 0.0137 0.0131 0.0014 0.37 88.7 12.8 83.7 9.2 223.6 235.8
05DV56_23 0.1039 0.0463 0.0131 0.0009 0.08 100.3 42.6 84.2 5.9 503.5 969.1
05DV56_21 0.0865 0.0452 0.0132 0.0016 0.11 84.2 42.3 84.3 9.9 82.9 1208.7
05DV56_8-2 0.0796 0.0767 0.0132 0.0018 0.07 77.7 72.1 84.6 11.1 -127.9 2358.9
05DV56_6 0.0889 0.0177 0.0132 0.0015 0.28 86.4 16.5 84.7 9.4 135.2 386.1
05DV56_10-2 0.0857 0.0201 0.0133 0.0011 0.17 83.5 18.8 85.1 6.9 38.5 525.9
05DV56_15 0.0909 0.0060 0.0133 0.0006 0.31 88.4 5.6 85.3 3.5 173.1 119.8
05DV56_16 0.0981 0.0074 0.0136 0.0008 0.40 95.1 6.8 87.3 5.2 293.2 104.1
05DV56_14 0.1156 0.0135 0.0138 0.0005 0.15 111.1 12.3 88.6 3.2 624.3 239.2
05DV56_12 0.1091 0.0342 0.0140 0.0017 0.20 105.1 31.3 89.7 11.1 469.6 636.3
05DV56_5 0.0943 0.0526 0.0142 0.0012 0.08 91.5 48.8 90.9 7.6 105.4 1304.3
05DV56_1 0.0971 0.0432 0.0142 0.0024 0.19 94.1 40.0 91.0 15.6 173.8 957.8
05DV56_9 0.1749 0.0531 0.0146 0.0021 0.24 163.7 45.8 93.3 13.4 1361.2 513.0
05DV56_10-3 0.0914 0.0189 0.0146 0.0010 0.16 88.8 17.6 93.5 6.2 -34.2 474.9

50
Appendix 4. (continued)
DV58

Grain
Isotopic ratios Ages
207
Pb/235U ± 2σ
206
Pb/238U ± 2σ Rho
207
Pb/235U ± 2σ
206
Pb/238U ± 2σ
207
Pb/206Pb ± 2σ

05DV58_3 0.0851 0.0098 0.0133 0.0004 0.14 83.0 18.3 85.4 5.7 13.8 529.5
05DV58_13-2 0.0975 0.0049 0.0137 0.0003 0.24 94.5 9.0 88.0 4.3 262.2 199.8
05DV58_11 0.1307 0.0119 0.0139 0.0004 0.16 124.7 21.4 88.8 5.2 878.8 356.4
05DV58_19 0.0972 0.0095 0.0141 0.0007 0.25 94.2 17.6 90.2 8.8 196.6 393.2
05DV58_8 0.1130 0.0149 0.0142 0.0005 0.12 108.7 27.3 90.8 5.8 520.8 562.8
05DV58_12 0.1054 0.0245 0.0142 0.0011 0.17 101.8 45.0 91.0 14.3 362.7 985.9
05DV58_13 0.1273 0.0276 0.0145 0.0010 0.15 121.6 49.8 92.7 12.2 733.6 875.5
05DV58_15 0.1077 0.0165 0.0145 0.0010 0.22 103.8 30.3 92.7 12.5 367.0 621.4
05DV58_9 0.1058 0.0218 0.0146 0.0012 0.20 102.1 40.0 93.5 15.2 308.7 860.3
05DV58_7 0.1023 0.0170 0.0146 0.0012 0.25 98.9 31.3 93.7 15.7 226.7 660.1
05DV58_14 0.1014 0.0119 0.0147 0.0007 0.20 98.1 21.9 93.9 8.6 202.5 500.5
05DV58_4 0.1011 0.0245 0.0147 0.0011 0.16 97.8 45.1 94.3 14.3 185.4 1068.1
05DV58_5 0.1029 0.0196 0.0148 0.0011 0.20 99.5 36.1 94.7 14.2 214.5 811.3
05DV58_20 0.1230 0.0112 0.0148 0.0004 0.15 117.8 20.3 94.8 5.1 612.1 377.2
05DV58_18 0.0997 0.0042 0.0150 0.0002 0.13 96.5 7.7 95.8 2.0 113.5 192.1
05DV58_17 0.1299 0.0194 0.0154 0.0008 0.17 124.0 34.8 98.6 10.0 643.2 602.3
05DV58_2 0.1054 0.0030 0.0154 0.0002 0.26 101.8 5.5 98.8 2.9 173.3 112.7
05DV58_16 0.1375 0.0123 0.0158 0.0005 0.17 130.8 21.9 101.3 5.9 707.4 357.7
05DV58_10 0.4919 0.0855 0.0176 0.0013 0.21 406.2 116.4 112.4 16.1 2849.8 515.2

DV82

Grain
Isotopic ratios Ages
207
Pb/235U ± 2σ
206
Pb/238U ± 2σ Rho
207
Pb/235U ± 2σ
206
Pb/238U ± 2σ
207
Pb/206Pb ± 2σ

05DV82_4-2 0.2457 0.0585 0.0333 0.0074 0.47 223.0 47.7 211.0 46.2 351.6 192.3
05DV82_15-2 0.2589 0.0650 0.0367 0.0083 0.45 233.8 52.5 232.1 51.5 250.4 252.7
05DV82_23 0.3063 0.0630 0.0399 0.0080 0.49 271.3 49.0 252.0 49.4 441.3 109.4
05DV82_18-2 0.2935 0.0336 0.0405 0.0039 0.42 261.3 26.4 256.1 24.1 308.3 142.1
05DV82_2-2 0.3007 0.0307 0.0415 0.0036 0.43 267.0 24.0 261.9 22.3 311.9 121.6
05DV82_20 0.3398 0.0258 0.0415 0.0026 0.41 297.0 19.5 262.0 15.8 581.8 96.6
05DV82_6-2 0.4076 0.1187 0.0415 0.0057 0.24 347.2 85.6 262.2 35.4 963.5 523.9
05DV82_15 0.2980 0.0512 0.0417 0.0057 0.40 264.8 40.0 263.5 35.4 276.9 236.8
05DV82_8-2 0.2848 0.0910 0.0418 0.0088 0.33 254.4 71.9 264.1 54.2 166.2 563.3
05DV82_4 0.3486 0.0353 0.0419 0.0030 0.35 303.7 26.6 264.3 18.6 618.0 154.5
05DV82_11-2 0.2996 0.0295 0.0419 0.0032 0.38 266.1 23.1 264.6 19.6 279.0 145.2
05DV82_3-2 0.3013 0.0560 0.0419 0.0024 0.16 267.4 43.7 264.8 15.1 290.8 403.4
05DV82_7-2 0.3031 0.0293 0.0420 0.0031 0.38 268.8 22.9 265.0 19.2 301.9 143.0
05DV82_18 0.3231 0.0289 0.0422 0.0030 0.40 284.3 22.2 266.7 18.8 431.9 118.5
05DV82_10-2 0.3088 0.0223 0.0425 0.0022 0.35 273.3 17.3 268.6 13.5 313.6 115.6
05DV82_13 0.3075 0.0498 0.0428 0.0027 0.19 272.2 38.7 270.2 16.7 289.8 340.9
05DV82_21 0.3202 0.0138 0.0431 0.0012 0.34 282.1 10.6 272.1 7.7 365.5 71.8
05DV82_17-2 0.3060 0.0263 0.0432 0.0031 0.42 271.1 20.4 272.6 19.3 258.1 106.8
05DV82_11 0.3423 0.0363 0.0434 0.0029 0.32 298.9 27.5 273.6 18.0 501.6 180.9
05DV82_10 0.3180 0.0285 0.0437 0.0028 0.36 280.3 22.0 275.7 17.3 318.8 143.1
05DV82_21-2 0.3264 0.0364 0.0437 0.0044 0.45 286.8 27.8 275.9 27.3 376.7 106.0
05DV82_19-2 0.3110 0.0336 0.0440 0.0043 0.45 275.0 26.0 277.5 26.4 253.9 108.5
05DV82_12 0.3588 0.0240 0.0458 0.0019 0.32 311.3 17.9 288.9 11.9 482.8 114.1
05DV82_3 0.3316 0.0536 0.0464 0.0064 0.42 290.8 40.9 292.6 39.3 275.9 195.2
05DV82_8 0.3486 0.0493 0.0469 0.0042 0.32 303.7 37.1 295.6 26.0 366.4 245.9
05DV82_22 0.3664 0.0378 0.0471 0.0035 0.36 317.0 28.1 296.9 21.7 467.9 156.8
05DV82_24 0.4483 0.0514 0.0476 0.0022 0.20 376.1 36.1 299.8 13.5 877.7 217.4
05DV82_16 0.3754 0.0301 0.0477 0.0014 0.18 323.7 22.2 300.6 8.5 493.2 164.9
05DV82_12-2 0.3508 0.0191 0.0479 0.0015 0.29 305.3 14.4 301.7 9.3 332.8 100.9
05DV82_19 0.3435 0.0214 0.0482 0.0019 0.32 299.8 16.2 303.3 11.6 273.4 110.9
05DV82_25 0.3411 0.0253 0.0485 0.0019 0.26 298.0 19.1 305.2 11.5 242.1 145.8
05DV82_17 0.3606 0.0254 0.0492 0.0019 0.27 312.6 19.0 309.3 11.7 337.6 133.5

DV91

Grain
Isotopic ratios Ages
207
Pb/235U ± 2σ
206
Pb/238U ± 2σ Rho
207
Pb/235U ± 2σ
206
Pb/238U ± 2σ
207
Pb/206Pb ± 2σ

05DV91_2 0.0930 0.0080 0.0132 0.0004 0.19 90.3 7.4 84.4 2.7 249.8 183.2
05DV91_8-3 0.0911 0.0168 0.0132 0.0020 0.41 88.5 15.6 84.8 12.8 191.1 243.3
05DV91_18 0.0891 0.0063 0.0134 0.0008 0.44 86.7 5.9 85.8 5.3 110.4 80.9
05DV91_22 0.0910 0.0277 0.0135 0.0034 0.42 88.4 25.8 86.1 21.7 151.2 394.7
05DV91_25 0.0921 0.0071 0.0139 0.0009 0.44 89.5 6.6 89.0 6.0 103.1 88.1
05DV91_8-2 0.0952 0.0084 0.0140 0.0008 0.33 92.3 7.8 89.5 5.2 166.4 153.2
05DV91_9 0.0877 0.0248 0.0140 0.0017 0.21 85.4 23.1 89.7 10.6 -35.1 620.8
05DV91_7 0.0909 0.0315 0.0141 0.0009 0.09 88.4 29.3 89.9 5.5 46.6 813.9
05DV91_8 0.0938 0.0084 0.0141 0.0009 0.37 91.0 7.8 90.3 6.0 110.6 140.2
05DV91_12 0.1019 0.0297 0.0141 0.0037 0.45 98.5 27.4 90.3 23.3 301.9 300.5
05DV91_17 0.0953 0.0052 0.0142 0.0006 0.38 92.5 4.8 90.6 3.7 140.8 82.6
05DV91_3-2 0.0950 0.0078 0.0142 0.0004 0.19 92.1 7.3 91.0 2.8 122.5 180.3
05DV91_4 0.0967 0.0132 0.0142 0.0010 0.26 93.8 12.2 91.1 6.4 161.4 273.5
05DV91_5-2 0.0939 0.0098 0.0142 0.0007 0.24 91.1 9.1 91.1 4.5 91.2 216.3
05DV91_11 0.0993 0.0117 0.0143 0.0013 0.37 96.1 10.8 91.4 8.0 215.0 181.7
05DV91_6-2 0.0947 0.0083 0.0144 0.0008 0.30 91.9 7.7 92.2 4.8 84.3 167.9
05DV91_20-2 0.0936 0.0086 0.0144 0.0010 0.39 90.8 8.0 92.2 6.6 54.8 136.8
05DV91_15 0.0937 0.0201 0.0144 0.0023 0.38 90.9 18.7 92.2 14.9 56.3 333.0
05DV91_24 0.0929 0.0232 0.0144 0.0034 0.47 90.2 21.6 92.3 21.7 35.2 189.3
05DV91_10 0.0922 0.0083 0.0146 0.0010 0.37 89.6 7.7 93.5 6.2 -13.7 144.6
05DV91_21 0.0964 0.0162 0.0147 0.0013 0.27 93.4 15.0 94.0 8.4 77.6 337.4
05DV91_23 0.0938 0.0084 0.0155 0.0006 0.22 91.0 7.8 99.3 3.9 -119.5 197.0

51
Appendix 4. (continued)
DV94

Grain
Isotopic ratios Ages
207
Pb/235U ± 2σ
206
Pb/238U ± 2σ Rho
207
Pb/235U ± 2σ
206
Pb/238U ± 2σ
207
Pb/206Pb ± 2σ

05DV94_17 0.0955 0.0610 0.0141 0.0008 0.04 92.6 113.2 90.0 9.8 160.1 2980.7
05DV94_3 0.1048 0.0236 0.0142 0.0010 0.15 101.2 43.4 91.0 12.4 349.4 971.1
05DV94_8 0.0930 0.0124 0.0142 0.0008 0.21 90.3 23.1 91.2 10.1 67.5 577.5
05DV94_20 0.1094 0.0172 0.0144 0.0007 0.16 105.4 31.4 92.0 9.2 419.0 663.0
05DV94_9 0.1229 0.0163 0.0146 0.0008 0.20 117.7 29.4 93.6 9.9 637.7 521.9
05DV94_5 0.1286 0.0172 0.0146 0.0007 0.18 122.9 31.0 93.6 8.9 734.6 529.6
05DV94_12 0.1074 0.0543 0.0147 0.0014 0.09 103.5 99.6 93.9 17.6 331.9 2253.1
05DV94_6 0.1075 0.0221 0.0147 0.0010 0.16 103.7 40.5 93.9 12.4 334.7 880.2
05DV94_4 0.0973 0.0205 0.0147 0.0008 0.13 94.3 38.0 94.0 10.2 101.5 963.6
05DV94_11 0.0906 0.0216 0.0147 0.0013 0.18 88.1 40.2 94.3 16.2 -79.2 1086.9
05DV94_7 0.1714 0.0335 0.0147 0.0011 0.18 160.6 58.1 94.4 13.4 1299.2 707.6
05DV94_16 0.1125 0.0141 0.0148 0.0007 0.19 108.3 25.7 94.8 9.0 416.4 516.9
05DV94_15 0.1178 0.0303 0.0148 0.0012 0.15 113.1 55.0 94.8 14.7 517.3 1075.6
05DV94_14 0.1160 0.0068 0.0149 0.0002 0.10 111.5 12.3 95.1 2.2 477.8 252.4
05DV94_19 0.1008 0.0337 0.0149 0.0011 0.11 97.5 62.1 95.1 13.7 155.9 1527.2
05DV94_1 0.1201 0.0265 0.0149 0.0013 0.19 115.1 48.0 95.4 16.1 544.3 888.9
05DV94_10 0.1130 0.0166 0.0150 0.0006 0.14 108.7 30.3 95.7 7.9 403.0 631.5
05DV94_23 0.0989 0.0073 0.0150 0.0002 0.11 95.8 13.4 95.7 3.1 97.2 338.4
05DV94_22 0.1145 0.0065 0.0150 0.0002 0.11 110.1 11.9 96.1 2.5 424.0 247.9
05DV94_13 0.1163 0.0053 0.0150 0.0002 0.12 111.7 9.7 96.3 2.0 454.9 197.2
05DV94_21 0.1424 0.0632 0.0153 0.0011 0.08 135.2 112.3 97.7 14.6 858.2 1815.8
05DV94_18 0.1082 0.0298 0.0155 0.0007 0.09 104.3 54.7 99.4 9.3 217.5 1258.3

DV95

Grain
Isotopic ratios Ages
207
Pb/235U
206
Pb/238U
207
Pb/235U
206
Pb/238U
207
± 2σ ± 2σ Rho ± 2σ ± 2σ Pb/206Pb ± 2σ

05DV95_1 0.1361 0.0340 0.0138 0.0010 0.14 129.6 60.8 88.5 12.1 968.9 980.8
05DV95_6 0.1482 0.0324 0.0140 0.0009 0.14 140.4 57.3 89.8 11.2 1112.2 836.4
05DV95_10 0.0905 0.0616 0.0141 0.0013 0.07 88.0 114.7 90.1 16.9 32.6 3228.3
05DV95_18 0.1790 0.0493 0.0141 0.0009 0.12 167.2 84.9 90.3 11.5 1467.5 1017.1
05DV95_21 0.0925 0.0323 0.0142 0.0007 0.07 89.9 60.0 90.6 9.1 69.0 1642.5
05DV95_20 0.1448 0.0990 0.0145 0.0009 0.05 137.3 175.7 92.7 11.4 1000.0 2765.7
05DV95_19 0.1274 0.0440 0.0146 0.0008 0.08 121.8 79.2 93.4 9.9 719.3 1447.9
05DV95_16 0.1562 0.0331 0.0146 0.0006 0.10 147.4 58.1 93.7 7.5 1131.7 827.8
05DV95_3 0.1108 0.0176 0.0147 0.0010 0.22 106.7 32.2 93.9 13.0 403.8 639.9
05DV95_5 0.1377 0.0370 0.0147 0.0007 0.09 131.0 66.0 94.2 8.9 864.3 1095.8
05DV95_14 0.2444 0.0658 0.0148 0.0010 0.13 222.0 107.3 94.6 12.8 1955.4 929.6
05DV95_23 0.1996 0.0650 0.0151 0.0008 0.08 184.7 110.0 96.6 10.0 1544.4 1208.4
05DV95_2 0.1988 0.0258 0.0151 0.0004 0.10 184.1 43.8 96.7 4.9 1537.2 479.6
05DV95_7 0.0877 0.1007 0.0151 0.0013 0.04 85.3 188.0 96.7 16.0 -223.5 5766.1
05DV95_22 0.2654 0.1022 0.0157 0.0010 0.08 239.0 164.0 100.5 12.8 1993.0 1349.7
05DV95_11 0.0898 0.0299 0.0158 0.0004 0.04 87.3 55.6 101.3 5.6 -278.8 1685.9
05DV95_15 0.0913 0.0394 0.0161 0.0004 0.03 88.7 73.4 102.8 5.4 -276.5 2192.9
05DV95_12 0.1938 0.0403 0.0161 0.0005 0.08 179.9 68.5 102.9 6.5 1367.8 790.3

DV108

Grain
Isotopic ratios Ages
207
Pb/235U ± 2σ
206
Pb/238U ± 2σ Rho
207
Pb/235U ± 2σ
206
Pb/238U ± 2σ
207
Pb/206Pb ± 2σ

05DV108_13 0.0709 0.0101 0.0104 0.0011 0.36 69.5 19.2 66.7 13.7 169.3 462.0
05DV108_24 0.0710 0.0123 0.0111 0.0011 0.28 69.6 23.4 70.9 13.7 26.8 691.1
05DV108_14-2 0.0622 0.0144 0.0112 0.0008 0.15 61.3 27.6 71.7 10.2 -329.8 1135.5
05DV108_2-2 0.0768 0.0119 0.0112 0.0009 0.26 75.1 22.5 71.9 11.7 178.7 613.8
05DV108_11-2 0.0770 0.0111 0.0113 0.0004 0.12 75.3 20.9 72.3 5.0 170.6 652.5
05DV108_25-2 0.0870 0.0119 0.0113 0.0008 0.25 84.7 22.1 72.5 9.6 443.0 528.0
05DV108_21 0.0790 0.0110 0.0114 0.0009 0.28 77.2 20.7 73.0 11.1 210.1 537.9
05DV108_9 0.0736 0.0132 0.0114 0.0010 0.25 72.1 25.0 73.0 13.0 41.0 743.2
05DV108_3-2 0.0752 0.0108 0.0114 0.0007 0.20 73.6 20.4 73.4 8.5 81.8 622.8
05DV108_7-2 0.0732 0.0095 0.0115 0.0007 0.23 71.8 18.0 73.5 8.6 15.1 556.3
05DV108_25 0.0898 0.0110 0.0115 0.0006 0.20 87.3 20.4 73.6 7.3 481.6 492.4
05DV108_3 0.0756 0.0097 0.0115 0.0006 0.21 74.0 18.3 73.7 7.9 85.4 550.0
05DV108_10 0.0852 0.0110 0.0115 0.0007 0.24 83.0 20.6 73.7 9.2 359.9 509.0
05DV108_22 0.0744 0.0100 0.0115 0.0007 0.23 72.9 19.0 73.9 9.0 39.6 575.9
05DV108_19 0.0796 0.0118 0.0116 0.0006 0.18 77.7 22.2 74.6 8.0 174.9 643.4
05DV108_14 0.0766 0.0109 0.0117 0.0006 0.19 74.9 20.5 74.8 8.0 79.1 623.3
05DV108_5 0.0926 0.0126 0.0117 0.0009 0.27 89.9 23.5 75.0 11.1 507.1 503.9
05DV108_16-2 0.0865 0.0138 0.0117 0.0007 0.19 84.2 25.8 75.2 9.2 349.2 665.4
05DV108_8 0.0805 0.0112 0.0118 0.0008 0.24 78.6 21.0 75.9 10.2 160.4 565.2
05DV108_23 0.0757 0.0120 0.0119 0.0009 0.25 74.1 22.6 76.1 12.1 6.9 657.7
05DV108_16 0.0776 0.0147 0.0120 0.0010 0.22 75.9 27.7 76.7 13.0 51.1 806.3
05DV108_12 0.0749 0.0166 0.0120 0.0006 0.12 73.4 31.3 76.9 8.0 -40.2 1042.4
05DV108_6 0.0784 0.0108 0.0121 0.0006 0.18 76.6 20.3 77.3 7.6 54.9 612.8
05DV108_8-2 0.0780 0.0117 0.0121 0.0009 0.25 76.3 22.1 77.5 11.7 36.4 622.9
05DV108_20 0.0817 0.0127 0.0121 0.0007 0.19 79.8 23.8 77.8 9.3 138.2 671.4
05DV108_15 0.0801 0.0097 0.0122 0.0005 0.17 78.2 18.2 78.3 6.3 76.1 541.6
05DV108_17-2 0.0832 0.0113 0.0123 0.0004 0.13 81.2 21.1 78.7 5.4 154.3 613.2
05DV108_18 0.0817 0.0131 0.0125 0.0006 0.15 79.7 24.6 80.2 7.9 67.5 726.8
05DV108_20-2 0.0844 0.0140 0.0129 0.0005 0.13 82.3 26.2 82.9 6.9 66.0 764.4

52
Appendix 5. 40
Ar/39Ar incremental step-heating results
DV02-hornblende
J = 0.0074520 ± 0.0000075
40
Step Ar/39Ar ±2σ
37
Ar/39Ar ±2σ
36
Ar/39Ar ±2σ 40
Ar (R)/39Ar(K) ±2σ
40
Ar (moles) 40
Ar (R) % 39
Ar (K) % K/Ca ±2σ Age (Ma) ±2σ
1 172.88883 9.66254 29.03107 12.66551 0.48899 0.03936 31.26625 8.78389 3.09E-16 17.73 0.53 0.01 0.01 377.9 191.6
2 147.99866 3.49379 22.03907 4.35126 0.38832 0.01773 35.49630 4.64659 5.51E-16 23.63 1.12 0.02 0.01 423.4 98.8
3 80.03354 0.78578 10.76330 1.93811 0.23480 0.00707 11.57223 1.99882 7.13E-16 14.35 2.69 0.04 0.01 149.2 49.5
4 22.67999 0.05863 14.65103 0.89195 0.04222 0.00171 11.45814 0.51554 7.27E-16 50.02 9.65 0.03 0.00 147.8 12.8
5 23.17654 0.11852 8.11924 0.76989 0.04488 0.00211 10.60469 0.62922 5.99E-16 45.51 7.81 0.05 0.01 137.2 15.7
6 19.48310 0.05636 12.13480 0.74049 0.02784 0.00097 12.30348 0.29718 8.43E-16 62.63 13.04 0.04 0.00 158.3 7.3
7 14.33940 0.04688 11.39328 0.78452 0.00977 0.00170 12.43415 0.51125 4.41E-16 86.05 9.27 0.04 0.01 159.9 12.6
8 15.97559 0.03673 12.18796 0.72639 0.01609 0.00094 12.26997 0.28698 9.11E-16 76.17 17.20 0.03 0.00 157.8 7.1
9 16.80469 0.04527 10.38345 0.61863 0.02743 0.00104 9.57614 0.31237 8.48E-16 56.59 15.23 0.04 0.00 124.4 7.8
10 19.08478 0.05261 10.33329 0.64751 0.02887 0.00086 11.43981 0.26282 7.72E-16 59.53 12.21 0.04 0.01 147.6 6.5
11 18.82274 0.06589 10.64235 0.72569 0.03058 0.00115 10.69283 0.34758 7.01E-16 56.40 11.24 0.04 0.01 138.3 8.7
Weighted plateau: Steps 4-8 56.98 155.6 6.2
4.0%

DV04-hornblende
J = 0.0076566 ± 0.0000077
40
Step Ar/39Ar ±2σ
37
Ar/39Ar ±2σ
36
Ar/39Ar ±2σ 40
Ar (R)/39Ar(K) ±2σ
40
Ar (moles) 40
Ar (R) % 39
Ar (K) % K/Ca ±2σ Age (Ma) ±2σ
1 27.32945 0.33127 7.07110 2.04139 0.05551 0.00520 11.53074 1.54636 2.93E-16 41.99 3.64 0.06 0.03 152.6 39.3
2 27.61495 0.43904 8.85321 2.32232 0.06163 0.00610 10.15279 1.80526 2.26E-16 36.55 2.78 0.05 0.03 135.1 46.3
3 28.01447 0.26914 4.66279 2.23381 0.05141 0.00433 13.22673 1.29357 2.75E-16 47.07 3.34 0.09 0.09 174.0 32.5
4 21.20459 0.17804 7.43679 1.88725 0.03921 0.00576 10.24708 1.71550 2.60E-16 48.08 4.17 0.06 0.03 136.3 43.9
5 26.73056 0.36918 6.34925 3.13231 0.05422 0.00782 11.25182 2.32880 2.08E-16 41.91 2.64 0.07 0.07 149.1 59.2
6 22.61103 0.23058 11.44108 1.55900 0.03325 0.00392 13.78458 1.17682 2.66E-16 60.49 3.98 0.04 0.01 181.0 29.4
7 17.85079 0.09851 10.95602 1.21553 0.02680 0.00258 10.86480 0.77520 3.58E-16 60.42 6.79 0.04 0.01 144.2 19.8
8 16.87733 0.06139 11.44887 0.84254 0.01858 0.00165 12.37533 0.49849 4.97E-16 72.76 9.98 0.04 0.01 163.3 12.6
9 13.80570 0.03053 10.38477 0.63896 0.01043 0.00093 11.61429 0.28309 9.27E-16 83.54 22.76 0.04 0.01 153.7 7.2
10 14.17663 0.02899 9.91102 0.62768 0.01035 0.00073 11.97061 0.22283 8.98E-16 83.88 21.48 0.04 0.01 158.2 5.6
11 15.17326 0.03545 10.82366 0.66471 0.01208 0.00082 12.53701 0.25061 8.26E-16 82.02 18.44 0.04 0.00 165.4 6.3
Weighted plateau: Steps 7-11 79.44 159.2 5.2
3.2%

DV05-hornblende
J = 0.0073211 ± 0.0000073
40
Step Ar/39Ar ±2σ
37
Ar/39Ar ±2σ
36
Ar/39Ar ±2σ 40
Ar (R)/39Ar(K) ±2σ
40
Ar (moles) 40
Ar (R) % 39
Ar (K) % K/Ca ±2σ Age (Ma) ±2σ
1 37.24920 1.43179 14.37473 6.55626 0.08560 0.01355 13.20394 3.98865 1.11E-16 35.10 0.63 0.03 0.03 166.5 96.1
2 25.16287 0.25787 4.44496 2.25553 0.05952 0.00388 7.94457 1.15355 2.58E-16 31.48 2.17 0.10 0.10 102.0 28.8
3 24.90937 0.22033 7.72622 2.09569 0.05436 0.00356 9.49669 1.06372 2.70E-16 37.93 2.29 0.06 0.03 121.3 26.3
4 21.58938 0.21430 8.88053 1.55548 0.03299 0.00573 12.60696 1.70864 2.35E-16 58.05 2.29 0.05 0.02 159.3 41.3
5 18.30718 0.15956 7.12571 1.37700 0.03581 0.00450 8.32028 1.33849 2.28E-16 45.23 2.63 0.06 0.02 106.7 33.3
6 17.56405 0.13903 8.54324 1.26031 0.02445 0.00381 11.06904 1.13891 2.78E-16 62.66 3.34 0.05 0.01 140.6 27.8
7 16.71243 0.09363 10.40551 1.35708 0.01990 0.00298 11.72401 0.89615 3.02E-16 69.66 3.82 0.04 0.01 148.6 21.8
8 14.85316 0.04243 10.63331 0.77226 0.01381 0.00144 11.68583 0.43383 5.72E-16 78.11 8.12 0.04 0.01 148.1 10.6
9 13.80728 0.01133 9.90744 0.58312 0.00857 0.00037 12.12894 0.12089 1.79E-15 87.26 27.38 0.04 0.01 153.5 2.9
10 13.38750 0.01592 9.30883 0.55036 0.00685 0.00043 12.16467 0.13530 1.64E-15 90.30 25.83 0.05 0.01 153.9 3.3
11 13.36335 0.01946 8.73094 0.52515 0.00734 0.00068 11.94384 0.20718 1.36E-15 88.85 21.51 0.05 0.01 151.2 5.0
Weighted plateau: Steps 7-11 86.66 153.1 2.0
1.3%

DV06-hornblende
J = 0.0076890 ± 0.0000077
40
Step Ar/39Ar ±2σ
37
Ar/39Ar ±2σ
36
Ar/39Ar ±2σ 40
Ar (R)/39Ar(K) ±2σ
40
Ar (moles) 40
Ar (R) % 39
Ar (K) % K/Ca ±2σ Age (Ma) ±2σ
1 20.84088 0.07629 3.07844 0.66514 0.03573 0.00145 10.54270 0.43190 5.21E-16 50.48 2.16 0.14 0.06 140.6 11.1
2 14.24854 0.01809 5.44993 0.37188 0.01055 0.00056 11.59879 0.16937 1.38E-15 81.10 8.35 0.08 0.01 154.1 4.3
3 14.16416 0.01467 4.52503 0.27437 0.00842 0.00034 12.06353 0.10325 1.98E-15 84.91 12.02 0.09 0.01 160.0 2.6
4 14.25971 0.01282 4.57604 0.29878 0.00711 0.00043 12.55259 0.13007 1.59E-15 87.76 9.60 0.09 0.01 166.2 3.3
5 14.41430 0.02049 5.25556 0.33457 0.00884 0.00049 12.25505 0.14848 1.17E-15 84.72 6.97 0.08 0.01 162.5 3.8
6 14.43717 0.01661 4.59103 0.33746 0.00850 0.00066 12.32072 0.19716 1.17E-15 85.08 6.99 0.09 0.01 163.3 5.0
7 14.72367 0.02138 4.76416 0.38055 0.00786 0.00048 12.81215 0.14769 1.44E-15 86.74 8.44 0.09 0.01 169.5 3.7
8 16.01281 0.01383 3.55304 0.22552 0.00871 0.00032 13.74657 0.09840 2.61E-15 85.64 14.06 0.12 0.02 181.3 2.5
9 15.33439 0.01341 2.41367 0.15648 0.00512 0.00025 14.03219 0.07587 2.51E-15 91.36 14.12 0.18 0.02 184.8 1.9
10 15.21787 0.01207 3.71251 0.21154 0.00601 0.00022 13.76429 0.06927 3.05E-15 90.22 17.29 0.12 0.01 181.5 1.7
Disturbed plateau: Steps 8-10 45.48 182.6 2.4
1.3%

DV07-hornblende
J = 0.0075266 ± 0.0000075
40
Step Ar/39Ar ±2σ
37
Ar/39Ar ±2σ
36
Ar/39Ar ±2σ 40
Ar (R)/39Ar(K) ±2σ
40
Ar (moles) 40
Ar (R) % 39
Ar (K) % K/Ca ±2σ Age (Ma) ±2σ
1 32.38395 2.97871 36.98247 15.95916 0.06042 0.06833 17.85943 20.74594 3.61E-17 53.78 0.20 0.01 0.01 227.5 496.6
2 180.99221 20.14551 31.01041 25.84500 0.44681 0.09294 48.95805 23.93175 1.45E-16 27.05 0.15 0.03 0.06 566.0 474.9
3 28.06513 0.18261 6.64622 1.01621 0.06922 0.00361 7.60901 1.06350 4.16E-16 27.11 2.70 0.00 0.00 100.5 27.3
4 75.35201 1.61089 3.80504 5.49718 0.21302 0.01651 12.73279 4.72967 2.99E-16 16.85 0.72 0.11 0.33 165.1 117.2
5 24.42875 0.23716 3.58809 1.74478 0.04591 0.00482 11.16815 1.43368 2.89E-16 45.61 2.15 0.12 0.12 145.6 35.9
6 18.44142 0.13218 0.75507 1.17898 0.02585 0.00333 10.80064 0.99098 3.37E-16 58.57 3.33 0.00 0.00 141.0 24.9
7 16.80187 0.07991 5.98183 0.80212 0.02390 0.00194 10.24497 0.57953 4.16E-16 60.73 4.48 0.07 0.02 134.0 14.6
8 14.43208 0.03447 6.28388 0.46070 0.00988 0.00109 12.05404 0.32532 7.23E-16 83.17 9.08 0.07 0.01 156.7 8.1
9 13.82448 0.02839 5.93357 0.60388 0.01202 0.00129 10.77819 0.38593 6.49E-16 77.65 8.51 0.07 0.01 140.7 9.7
10 13.16948 0.02086 5.98858 0.38550 0.00846 0.00085 11.18196 0.25448 1.08E-15 84.57 14.84 0.07 0.01 145.8 6.4
11 17.41873 0.11612 4.67651 1.13134 0.02213 0.00187 11.27872 0.56598 3.24E-16 64.55 3.38 0.09 0.04 147.0 14.2
12 14.38146 0.04487 6.03161 0.53215 0.01062 0.00100 11.76069 0.30227 6.63E-16 81.44 8.36 0.07 0.01 153.0 7.5
13 13.41062 0.01930 6.11683 0.40502 0.00806 0.00049 11.55129 0.15036 1.11E-15 85.78 15.04 0.07 0.01 150.4 3.8
14 19.54474 0.02297 6.14437 0.35448 0.03044 0.00032 11.07446 0.09937 2.92E-15 56.43 27.07 0.07 0.01 144.4 2.5
Weighted plateau: Steps 9-13 50.13 148.9 3.3
2.2%

53
Appendix 5. (continued)
DV07-biotite
J = 0.0073566 ± 0.0000074
40
Step Ar/39Ar ±2σ
37
Ar/39Ar ±2σ
36
Ar/39Ar ±2σ 40
Ar (R)/39Ar(K) ±2σ
40
Ar (moles) 40
Ar (R) % 39
Ar (K) % K/Ca ±2σ Age (Ma) ±2σ
1 8.78767 0.02339 0.06612 0.33292 0.01874 0.00098 3.25561 0.29169 3.59E-16 37.05 0.71 6.50 65.48 42.7 7.6
2 8.55346 0.00663 0.01094 0.08889 0.01126 0.00027 5.22473 0.07905 1.80E-15 61.08 3.65 0.00 0.00 68.0 2.0
3 10.93782 0.00761 0.05674 0.05593 0.00736 0.00014 8.76048 0.04336 3.50E-15 80.09 5.54 0.00 0.00 112.7 1.1
4 11.91279 0.00663 0.10726 0.04066 0.00469 0.00012 10.52545 0.03672 5.35E-15 88.35 7.77 0.00 0.00 134.5 0.9
5 12.11216 0.00676 0.09263 0.02497 0.00259 0.00007 11.34468 0.02142 6.48E-15 93.66 9.26 0.00 0.00 144.6 0.5
6 12.24408 0.00683 0.08429 0.02899 0.00249 0.00007 11.50591 0.02054 7.20E-15 93.97 10.18 0.00 0.00 146.6 0.5
7 12.31002 0.00736 0.09076 0.03437 0.00261 0.00009 11.53630 0.02901 5.97E-15 93.71 8.39 0.00 0.00 147.0 0.7
8 12.36605 0.00665 0.09002 0.03025 0.00265 0.00009 11.58340 0.02618 7.94E-15 93.67 11.11 0.00 0.00 147.5 0.6
9 12.24158 0.00686 0.10919 0.03111 0.00247 0.00010 11.51116 0.03038 6.48E-15 94.03 9.17 0.00 0.00 146.6 0.7
10 12.19353 0.00663 0.07738 0.02528 0.00212 0.00007 11.56708 0.02080 9.11E-15 94.86 12.94 0.00 0.00 147.3 0.5
11 12.40929 0.00684 0.14552 0.03128 0.00181 0.00008 11.87401 0.02457 7.12E-15 95.69 9.93 0.00 0.00 151.1 0.6
12 12.30409 0.00655 0.13480 0.02904 0.00148 0.00008 11.86497 0.02552 8.06E-15 96.43 11.34 0.00 0.00 151.0 0.6
Weighted plateau: Steps 6-10 51.80 147.0 0.5
0.3%

DV09-biotite
J = 0.0073785 ± 0.0000074
40
Step Ar/39Ar ±2σ
37
Ar/39Ar ±2σ
36
Ar/39Ar ±2σ 40
Ar (R)/39Ar(K) ±2σ
40
Ar (moles) 40
Ar (R) % 39
Ar (K) % K/Ca ±2σ Age (Ma) ±2σ
1 13.58994 0.14821 1.31114 1.15047 0.02834 0.00440 5.32187 1.30297 1.47E-16 39.13 0.17 0.33 0.58 69.5 33.4
2 11.15582 0.01819 0.16433 0.31584 0.02040 0.00082 5.14013 0.24473 6.67E-16 46.07 0.93 2.62 10.06 67.2 6.3
3 11.75874 0.01384 0.37710 0.11343 0.01021 0.00030 8.73959 0.08878 1.37E-15 74.32 1.81 0.00 0.00 112.7 2.2
4 11.96355 0.00856 0.27165 0.07166 0.00458 0.00023 10.60956 0.06823 2.45E-15 88.68 3.18 0.00 0.00 136.0 1.7
5 12.09457 0.00731 0.15171 0.03875 0.00394 0.00011 10.92925 0.03409 4.72E-15 90.36 6.06 0.00 0.00 139.9 0.8
6 12.14513 0.00738 0.14060 0.04147 0.00267 0.00014 11.35633 0.04197 5.06E-15 93.51 6.47 0.00 0.00 145.2 1.0
7 12.09974 0.00770 0.14735 0.04611 0.00175 0.00015 11.58143 0.04391 4.82E-15 95.72 6.18 0.00 0.00 147.9 1.1
8 12.11118 0.00758 0.13446 0.03842 0.00170 0.00014 11.60666 0.04307 5.21E-15 95.83 6.68 0.00 0.00 148.2 1.1
9 12.16956 0.00636 0.07338 0.01683 0.00138 0.00005 11.76101 0.01692 1.09E-14 96.64 13.88 0.00 0.00 150.1 0.4
10 12.12979 0.00649 0.08501 0.01660 0.00091 0.00006 11.86019 0.01903 9.36E-15 97.78 11.99 0.00 0.00 151.3 0.5
11 12.11995 0.00654 0.12865 0.01826 0.00083 0.00010 11.87253 0.02954 7.57E-15 97.96 9.70 0.00 0.00 151.5 0.7
12 12.11105 0.00633 0.07542 0.01922 0.00081 0.00007 11.87029 0.02257 9.30E-15 98.01 11.93 0.00 0.00 151.5 0.6
13 12.12624 0.00613 0.04282 0.01219 0.00058 0.00003 11.95360 0.00981 1.64E-14 98.58 21.02 0.00 0.00 152.5 0.2
Weighted plateau: Steps 9-13 68.51 151.8 0.9
0.6%

DV66-biotite
J = 0.0075059 ± 0.0000075
40
Step Ar/39Ar ±2σ
37
Ar/39Ar ±2σ
36
Ar/39Ar ±2σ 40
Ar (R)/39Ar(K) ±2σ
40
Ar (moles) 40
Ar (R) % 39
Ar (K) % K/Ca ±2σ Age (Ma) ±2σ
1 17.52913 0.22181 0.20670 2.44687 0.01313 0.00539 13.64917 1.61180 1.42E-16 77.87 0.21 0.17 0.42 176.0 39.6
2 18.04445 0.01936 0.33900 0.10439 0.00393 0.00026 16.88315 0.07878 2.85E-15 93.56 4.01 0.00 0.00 215.3 1.9
3 18.67966 0.01022 0.10514 0.03316 0.00585 0.00011 16.94896 0.03517 9.53E-15 90.73 12.94 0.00 0.00 216.0 0.8
4 18.91809 0.01159 0.13981 0.04744 0.00723 0.00011 16.77977 0.03427 7.51E-15 88.70 10.07 0.00 0.00 214.0 0.8
5 17.83536 0.00988 0.10547 0.03067 0.00442 0.00009 16.52942 0.02962 9.40E-15 92.68 13.35 0.00 0.00 211.0 0.7
6 17.98693 0.00970 0.10069 0.04131 0.00483 0.00008 16.55871 0.02558 9.93E-15 92.06 13.99 0.00 0.00 211.3 0.6
7 19.91067 0.01113 0.05074 0.03397 0.01249 0.00011 16.21757 0.03346 9.65E-15 81.45 12.29 0.00 0.00 207.2 0.8
8 22.09563 0.01361 0.06009 0.04720 0.02297 0.00014 15.30732 0.04179 9.05E-15 69.28 10.38 0.00 0.00 196.2 1.0
9 18.77262 0.01179 0.06994 0.05092 0.01340 0.00016 14.81144 0.04932 6.61E-15 78.90 8.92 0.00 0.00 190.2 1.2
10 19.25295 0.01125 0.09635 0.06654 0.01888 0.00016 13.67164 0.04692 6.37E-15 71.01 8.39 0.00 0.00 176.2 1.2
11 17.82329 0.01680 0.05763 0.10141 0.01802 0.00020 12.49664 0.06084 3.83E-15 70.11 5.45 0.00 0.00 161.7 1.5
Total fusion age 202.7 0.5
0.2%

DV82-hornblende
J = 0.0074788 ± 0.0000075
40
Step Ar/39Ar ±2σ
37
Ar/39Ar ±2σ
36
Ar/39Ar ±2σ 40
Ar (R)/39Ar(K) ±2σ
40
Ar (moles) 40
Ar (R) % 39
Ar (K) % K/Ca ±2σ Age (Ma) ±2σ
1 277.88512 60.34501 4.07039 15.83806 0.08793 0.08412 252.91197 60.25875 1.73E-16 90.76 0.05 0.11 0.82 1915.5 562.4
2 248.65724 5.15416 2.04682 2.26501 0.34148 0.01211 147.75022 4.23049 1.06E-15 59.42 0.36 0.00 0.00 1342.8 54.2
3 42.67498 0.18194 0.27965 0.34152 0.05571 0.00213 26.23704 0.63728 1.13E-15 61.47 2.21 1.54 3.75 323.2 14.4
4 27.51436 0.07695 1.68920 0.32298 0.04290 0.00094 14.98500 0.27934 1.37E-15 54.40 4.13 0.25 0.10 191.6 6.8
5 18.17140 0.01876 3.30667 0.18847 0.01075 0.00037 15.28705 0.11148 2.41E-15 83.94 11.02 0.13 0.01 195.3 2.7
6 21.58793 0.03164 4.80553 0.27442 0.01138 0.00059 18.65974 0.17922 2.06E-15 86.16 7.92 0.09 0.01 235.7 4.2
7 19.54662 0.01810 4.08185 0.21468 0.00744 0.00026 17.71426 0.08137 4.10E-15 90.38 17.44 0.11 0.01 224.4 1.9
8 19.33673 0.01561 3.96929 0.20411 0.00654 0.00023 17.76169 0.07163 4.60E-15 91.61 19.79 0.11 0.01 225.0 1.7
9 18.95048 0.02243 3.95120 0.21106 0.00731 0.00046 17.14352 0.13855 2.64E-15 90.22 11.60 0.11 0.01 217.6 3.3
10 18.18126 0.01241 3.73569 0.19469 0.00717 0.00014 16.39388 0.04695 5.57E-15 89.94 25.48 0.11 0.01 208.6 1.1
Disturbed plateau: Steps 7-9 48.83 223.8 3.4
1.5%

DV30-hornblende
J = 0.0039687 ± 0.0000040
40
Step Ar/39Ar ±2σ
37
Ar/39Ar ±2σ
36
Ar/39Ar ±2σ 40
Ar (R)/39Ar(K) ±2σ
40
Ar (moles) 40
Ar (R) % 39
Ar (K) % K/Ca ±2σ Age (Ma) ±2σ
1 153.35860 7.94472 0.93727 32.36578 0.46551 0.03605 15.88334 8.36533 2.46E-16 10.35 0.42 0.46 31.66 110.3 112.7
2 95.37899 9.06468 46.65072 36.72433 0.23406 0.04481 26.21405 12.11855 1.25E-16 27.48 0.34 0.05 0.06 178.6 157.2
3 60.85369 2.60290 10.88255 12.30516 0.13538 0.01587 20.84839 4.56197 1.95E-16 34.26 0.85 0.06 0.22 143.4 60.3
4 29.67788 0.35853 2.61441 4.63250 0.05155 0.00537 14.67482 1.62987 2.94E-16 49.36 2.61 0.16 0.58 102.1 22.1
5 20.52969 0.06460 16.44925 1.43716 0.02530 0.00194 14.49546 0.59314 6.38E-16 69.83 8.10 0.03 0.00 100.9 8.0
6 17.70239 0.04867 14.14061 1.23284 0.01836 0.00104 13.50778 0.32620 8.40E-16 75.58 12.37 0.03 0.01 94.2 4.4
7 16.57000 0.04296 13.02145 1.21478 0.01759 0.00104 12.49674 0.32586 8.62E-16 74.76 13.58 0.03 0.01 87.3 4.4
8 15.47397 0.04703 12.24401 1.36210 0.01461 0.00113 12.21104 0.35673 6.71E-16 78.26 11.32 0.03 0.01 85.4 4.9
9 14.30561 0.04502 11.89550 1.14150 0.01495 0.00090 10.90234 0.28385 7.80E-16 75.60 14.24 0.04 0.01 76.4 3.9
10 12.85898 0.02635 11.32063 1.04801 0.01495 0.00065 9.39397 0.21202 8.54E-16 72.50 17.35 0.04 0.01 66.0 2.9
11 11.26957 0.02248 8.26582 0.71722 0.01062 0.00063 8.82462 0.19512 8.10E-16 77.87 18.82 0.05 0.01 62.1 2.7
Disturbed plateau: Steps 4-8 47.97 90.5 5.1
5.7%

DV78-plagioclase
J = 0.0039750 ± 0.0000040
40
Step Ar/39Ar ±2σ
37
Ar/39Ar ±2σ
36
Ar/39Ar ±2σ 40
Ar (R)/39Ar(K) ±2σ
40
Ar (moles) 40
Ar (R) % 39
Ar (K) % K/Ca ±2σ Age (Ma) ±2σ
1 17.63346 0.09967 74.75415 5.71047 0.07020 0.00363 2.86375 1.21765 3.23E-16 15.42 6.00 0.01 0.00 20.4 17.3
2 18.79875 0.08645 50.66465 3.99313 0.07099 0.00185 1.83439 0.64605 4.23E-16 9.43 7.50 0.01 0.00 13.1 9.2
3 20.97741 0.08391 55.62533 4.49885 0.07311 0.00189 3.85601 0.68109 5.02E-16 17.69 7.94 0.01 0.00 27.4 9.6
4 20.64759 0.06522 48.45389 3.52535 0.07453 0.00136 2.48255 0.50028 7.30E-16 11.63 11.80 0.01 0.00 17.7 7.1
5 25.92239 0.12853 54.62434 3.93926 0.09137 0.00119 3.30350 0.46639 8.97E-16 12.28 11.49 0.01 0.00 23.5 6.6
6 27.82345 0.10800 60.64642 4.54394 0.09531 0.00164 4.57771 0.61798 8.36E-16 15.78 9.94 0.01 0.00 32.5 8.7
7 28.88066 0.06772 42.67425 3.11226 0.09976 0.00125 2.81041 0.44898 1.18E-15 9.45 13.69 0.01 0.00 20.0 6.4
8 25.07872 0.09981 39.98446 2.94635 0.08477 0.00149 3.23479 0.50121 1.06E-15 12.55 14.18 0.01 0.00 23.0 7.1
9 28.44439 0.07217 43.17152 3.06438 0.08870 0.00113 5.76658 0.41868 1.48E-15 19.68 17.46 0.01 0.00 40.9 5.9
Total fusion age 25.6 2.6
10.3%
Data are baseline and blank corrected, and are corrected for post-irradiation decay of 37Ar (T ½=35.1 days) and 39Ar (T½=269 years).
Mass discrimination value during analyses was 0.989±0.5%.
Correction factors for interfering isotopes have been calculated from 10 analyses of two Ca-glass samples and 22 analyses of two pure K glass samples, and are:
36
Ar/37Ar(Ca)=2.603E-4±2.373E-9, 39Ar/37Ar(Ca)=6.501E-4±7.433E-9 and 40Ar/39Ar(K)=1.547E-2±7.455E-7

54
55
56
Chapter 3

Thermal and tectonic history of the Central and Western cordilleras of


Colombia, a thermochronological study
Diego Villagómez and Richard Spikings

Section of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva. 13 Rue des Maraîchers, 1205 Geneva,
Switzerland (Diego.Villagomez@gmail.com)

Abstract

New multiphase 40Ar/39Ar data, fission track (zircon and apatite) and (U–Th)/He (zircon and apatite)
ages record a complex cooling history in the Central and Western cordilleras of Colombia that is a function
of Early Cretaceous to late Miocene tectonic events. Alkali-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages obtained from
crystalline rocks located to the south of the laterally extensive Ibagué Fault yielded ages of ~138–130 Ma
and are contemporaneous with the cessation of Jurassic arc-magmatism and a major unconformity within
the retro-forearc region of the Northern Andes. We interpret these ages as cooling driven by exhumation
in response to a dynamically supported upper plate and isostatic rebound during and subsequent to
fragmentation of the Jurassic slab. Oceanward, back-stepping of the slab during the earliest Cretaceous
gave rise to the Lower Cretaceous Quebradagrande oceanic arc sequence. Medium-temperature
thermochronometers (biotite and alkali-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar with closure temperatures >230°C) in rocks of
the Central Cordillera (paleocontinental margin) located north of the Ibagué Fault reveal the presence
of a younger cooling event at 107–117 Ma, which was contemporaneous with hornblende 40Ar/39Ar
cooling ages (cooling below 550-500°C) obtained from medium–high P–T metamorphic rocks of the
Arquía Complex, which are probably a relict of the Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous subduction channel.
This previously unidentified cooling event has been attributed to exhumation driven by the collision and
accretion of the Quebradagrande arc against the continental margin, and the obduction of the subduction
channel onto the forearc. Numerical modelling of low-temperature thermochronometric data (zircon and
apatite fission track and (U–Th)/He), acquired from rocks sampled throughout the Central and Western
Cordillera reveals three periods of rapid cooling since the Late Cretaceous. The earliest phase is recorded
by Jurassic and Cretaceous granitoids (Ibagué and Antioquia Batholith) that were emplaced in the Central
Cordillera in Colombia and cooling rapidly from ~550˚C to ~60˚C during 75–65 Ma. We attribute cooling
to exhumation of the continental margin at an average rate of ~1.6 km/My during ~75-70 Ma, which was
forced by the collision and accretion of the Caribbean-Colombian Oceanic Province in the Campanian.
Contemporaneous clastic sedimentation sourced from rocks of the Central Cordillera fed the retro-foreland
basin and the peripheral basin corroborating observed exhumation. The Central Cordillera exhumed at
moderate rates of ~0.3 km/My during the Eocene (~45–30 Ma), which are also observed over widely
dispersed regions along the Andean chain, and were probably caused by an increase in continent-ocean
plate convergence rates. Elevated exhumation rates in the middle - late Miocene have been identified
from the apatite (U-Th)/He data. The greatest amount of middle - late Miocene exhumation occurred in
southern Colombia, and spatially corresponds with elevated exhumation rates in northern Ecuador. The
spatial pattern suggests that exhumation was a consequence of erosion during and subsequent to rock
uplift, in response to collision and subduction of the buoyant Carnegie Ridge.

57
1 Introduction 1984; Mann and Corrigan, 1990]. Previous studies
have been unable to precisely constrain the
timing of collision and accretion of the Caribbean-
Subduction can be summarised as a first
Colombian Oceanic Province and the Chocó–
order, steady-state consequence of plate
Panamá Block with the South American Plate due
tectonics. However, steady-state conditions
to a lack of interpretable geochronological and
within a subduction setting can be disturbed
thermochronological information.
by the introduction of heterogeneous oceanic
crust to the trench via the arrival of island arcs, We have combined hornblende, alkali feldspar
seamounts and oceanic plateaus. The Cretaceous and biotite 40Ar/39Ar, zircon and apatite fission
and Tertiary subduction history of the Northern track (FT) and zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He data to
Andean Segment is unique within the Andean generate high-resolution Cretaceous and Tertiary
chain because it was interrupted by the accretion thermal history paths through ~550°C–40°C
of arc and oceanic plateau rocks, which are not [e.g. Spikings et al., in press] for crystalline and
recognised south of 5°S. This study aims to quantify sedimentary rocks exposed along the Central
i) the timing of accretion of arc and plateau rocks, Cordillera and accreted rocks exposed in the
and ii) the thermal and exhumational response of Western Cordillera. These paths have been used
the buttressing continental and indenting oceanic to construct exhumation histories through a
rocks to collision, accretion and post-accretion constant geothermal gradient since ~140 Ma.
subduction in Colombia. Those histories have been combined with i)
the sedimentological history of surrounding
Previous studies of the Central Cordillera of
basins, ii) LA-ICP-MS derived U-Pb zircon ages of
Colombia have shown that it consists of Triassic
plutonic rocks (Chapter 2), iii) LA-ICP-MS derived
and older metamorphic rocks of the Tahami
U-Pb ages of detrital zircons extracted from
Terrane (Chapter 2) that were partly melted during
sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks (Chapter
Triassic rifting of Central American basement units
2), and iv) geochemical analyses of intrusive and
away from the northwestern South American
volcanic rocks (Chapter 2), to determine precisely
Plate. Jurassic subduction beneath the Colombian
the timing of collision events, quantify the
margin gave rise to a series of well-documented
exhumational response and constrain the post-
continental arc rocks, although a younger, Early
accretionary history of the Colombian margin.
Cretaceous arc is less well studied and may
Improving our understanding of these processes is
have erupted through either continental [Nivia
useful because they resulted in net crustal growth
et al., 2006] or oceanic basement (Chapter 2),
of the South American Plate and can be used to
with accompanying sedimentation within a
further constrain reconstructions of the southern
marginal basin [e.g. Pindell, 1993], culminating
margin of the Caribbean Plate, and hence the
in compression and basin closure. Subsequent
entire Caribbean region.
subduction was interrupted by the collision of the
Late Cretaceous Caribbean-Colombian Oceanic
Province (oceanic plateau and its overlying
arc) with the Northern Andean Segment at an
undetermined time during the Late Cretaceous– 2 Geological Framework
Early Tertiary [McCourt et al., 1984; Aspden et al.,
1987; Kerr et al., 1997]. The ocean-continent suture Previous work in Colombia divided the region
zone within the Northern Andean Segment is into a continental and an oceanic province, which
relatively well exposed in Colombia, and is located are juxtaposed across the regional scale Romeral
along the western flank of the Central Cordillera Fault System (Figure 1) that consists of three
[Cediel et al., 2003]. Finally, the Chocó–Panamá major fault branches, which are the San Jerónimo,
block, which probably represents a relict sliver Silvia–Pijao and Cauca–Almaguer Faults (Figure 2).
of the trailing edge of the Caribbean-Colombian
Province, is considered to have collided with The continental province (the Tahami terrane)
the Colombian margin during either the middle is partly composed of a supracrustal sequence
Miocene at ~13 Ma [Duque-Caro, 1990] or the of Paleozoic – early Mesozoic metamorphic and
latest Miocene–early Pliocene [Mann and Burke, intrusive rocks that are exposed in the Central
Cordillera [e.g. Restrepo-Pace, 1992; Cediel et

58
90°W 80°W 70°W 60°W

North American Plate

20°N

Caribbean Plate

SNSM

10°N
Cocos Plate
CP
MMV Venezuela
e

WC
dg

EC
Ri

LB
os

CC
c
Co

Colombia
UMV
South American Plate
CPV
0°N
Carnegie Ridge
Ecuador 0 Km 400
Nazca Plate
RC

-8 km -6 km -4 km -2 km 0 2km 4km
Bathymetry Land elevation

Subduction zone
Chocó-
Panamá
Terrane Faults

Cretaceous sutures
OPF

Figure 1. Digital elevation model of northwestern South


America and surrounding tectonic plates, showing the
a
PF

5°N main cordilleras, faults and the location of the subducting


IF Carnegie Ridge. The Cretaceous ocean-continent suture is
DF
CF shown as a thick black line. Inset shows the study area in
more detail, and the three sample regions (a, b and c) that
b are presented in Figure 2. AzBF: Amazon Border Fault, CC:
Calima Central Cordillera, CP: Chocó–Panamá Block, CF: Cali-Patía
Tahami
Terrane Terrane Fault, CPV: Cauca–Patía Valley, DF: Dabeiba–Garrapatas
S
RF

Fault, EC: Eastern Cordillera, IF: Ibagué Fault; LB: Llanos


Basin, MMV: Middle Magdalena Valley, OB: Oriente Basin
BF (Ecuador), OPF: Otú-Pericos Fault, PeF: Peltetec Fault
Az (Ecuador), PF: Palestina Fault, RC: Raspas Complex (Amotape
Province in Ecuador), RFS: Romeral Fault System, SNSM:
c Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, UMV: Upper Magdalena

F

Valley, WC: Western Cordillera.


Pe

80°W 75°W

59
al., 2003], west of the Otú–Pericos Fault (Figure fusion hornblende age of ~107 Ma, Restrepo et
1). Paleozoic gneisses of the Puqui and La Miel al., 2008; 40Ar/39Ar phengite ages of 120–60 Ma,
Units [Ordoñez-Carmona and Pimentel, 2002] and Bustamante, 2008] are uninterpretable and the
Triassic metasedimentary rocks of the Cajamarca age of the protolith of the Arquía Complex remains
Complex [this study, Chapter 2] are intruded enigmatic.
by variably foliated, Permo-Triassic ages crustal The Arquía Complex is bound to the west by
anatectites [Vinasco et al., 2006; this study, Chapter the Cauca–Almaguer Fault (CAF; Figure 2), which
2], which may have formed during the Permian along with the San Jerónimo and Silvia–Pijao
assembly of Pangea and its subsequent Triassic faults represents the regional-scale Romeral Fault
fragmentation [Vinasco et al., 2006; Cardona et al., System. The Romeral Fault System trends for ~2000
2006]. All these lithologies have been traditionally km along-strike of the western Central Cordillera
grouped into the Tahami Terrane [Restrepo and and is considered to represent a tectonic suture
Toussaint, 1988], which is bordered to the west that entrains a mélange within a zone that is less
by the easternmost branch of the Romeral Fault than 30 km wide.
System (the San Jerónimo Fault). These Paleozoic
and Triassic rocks are intruded by Jurassic calc- Accreted Late Cretaceous mafic and ultramafic
alkaline (continental arc) granitoids of the Ibagué rocks occur to the west of the Cauca-Almaguer
Batholith (U-Pb zircon ages of 160–165 Ma, Fault along the margins of the Cauca–Patía Valley,
Chapter 2) and Late Cretaceous intrusive rocks of the Western Cordillera and the flat forearc region
the Antioquia Batholith (U-Pb zircon ages of 95–84 of the Chocó–Panamá block (Figure 2). Recent
Ma see Chapter 2). geochemical analyses suggest that discontinuous
lenses of mafic and ultramafic volcanic rocks
The San Jerónimo Fault (SJF; Figure 2) separates along the eastern margin of the Cauca–Patía
Paleozoic-Triassic metamorphic rocks of the Valley (Amaime Fm. and the Ginebra Ultramafic
Tahami Terrane within the Central Cordillera Complex) were formed in an oceanic hot-spot
from an intensively deformed belt of oceanic setting [Kerr et al., 1997; this study, Chapter 2].
volcanic and continental marine sedimentary Radiometric analyses of the Amaime Fm. are
rocks of the Quebradagrande Complex, which restricted to K/Ar ages of 104–78 Ma [De Souza
are locally unconformably overlain by quartz- et al., 1984] and a single whole rock, total fusion
rich sedimentary rocks of the Lower Cretaceous 40
Ar/39Ar age of 76.3±1.7 Ma [Sinton et al., 1998],
Abejorral Fm. to the east. Nivia et al. [2006] which are difficult to interprete and hence the
propose that the Quebradagrande Complex was age of the sequence remains undetermined.
formed within a continental marginal basin during The arc-related Buga Batholith intrudes these
the Aptian–Albian, although the absence of sialic sequences and its U-Pb zircon age range of 92-
crust to the west of San Jerónimo Fault, combined 90 Ma (see Chapter 2) constrains the minimum
with a lack of continental-derived detritus to the age for Amaime Fm. Similarly. Mafic volcanic
west of the basin suggest that it was partly isolated rocks and ultramafic cumulates of the Volcanic
from continental input [Restrepo et al., 2009a] Fm. and the Bolívar Ultramafic Complex [Kerr et
and may have formed in an island arc and oceanic al., 2004], respectively, crop out in the Western
marginal basin setting [Pindell and Kennan, 2009; Cordillera (Figure 2) and also yield geochemical
this study, Chapter 2]. signatures that are diagnostic of oceanic hot-spot
The Quebradagrande Complex is in faulted derived material. Radiometric ages of isotropic
contact with isolated tectonic slices of garnet- gabbros and basalts of the Volcanic Fm. yielded
bearing amphibolites, eclogites and lawsonite- ages of 99.7±1.3 Ma (zircon U-Pb; Chapter 2)
glaucophane schist of the Arquía Complex that and 91.7±2.7 Ma [whole rock 40Ar/39Ar; Kerr et
is exposed along the western flank of the Central al., 1997] respectively, suggesting that mafic and
Cordillera in Colombia. These medium-high P–T ultramafic rocks of the Western Cordillera and
metamorphic rocks crop-out between the Silvia- the Cauca-Patía Valley probably form part of the
Pijao and the Cauca Almaguer Faults (Figure 2) same Late Cretaceous Caribbean–Colombian
and have not yielded reliable geochronological Oceanic Province, and are grouped here as the
data. Previous radiometric ages [K/Ar ~113 Ma, Calima Terrane [Restrepo and Toussaint, 1988;
Restrepo and Toussaint, 1976; 40Ar/39Ar total Kerr et al., 1997, 2004]. This interpretation is

60
consistent with that proposed for equivalent rock A paucity of reliable geochronological and
sequences located within the Western Cordillera thermochronological data from the Central and
and flat forearc region of Ecuador, where they are Western cordilleras of Colombia has hampered
grouped into the single Piñón-Pallatanga Terrane previous attempts [Aspden et al., 1987; Vinasco
[Luzieux et al., 2006; Vallejo et al., 2009], which et al., 2006; Cardona et al., 2006; Restrepo et al.,
is considered to represent a relict sliver of the 2009b] to identify the origins of the rocks and to
Caribbean–Colombian Oceanic Province. temporally constrain the principal tectonic events
that assembled the rocks onto the South American
The Dabeiba-Garrapatas Fault separates Early
plate, and caused them to uplift, exhume and cool.
Tertiary, volcanic arc rocks of the Dabeiba Fm.
Previously published thermochronological data
[Cediel et al., 2003] from the Calima Terrane of
can be summarised as:
the Western Cordillera of Colombia (Figure 1).
Kerr et al. [1997] obtained a 40Ar/39Ar plateau age i) Apatite (U-Th)/He data from the northern
of 43.1±0.4 Ma (plagioclase) from a basalt, which Central Cordillera provide evidence for two
is younger than mafic rocks from the Colombian exhumation-related cooling episodes during 45–
cordilleras and the Cauca-Patía Valley, but is 40 Ma at rates of ~ 0.1 mm/y and 25–20 Ma at
similar to ages yielded by arc rocks of the Macuchi rates of ~ 0.24 mm/y [Restrepo-Moreno et al.,
Fm. in Ecuador [Vallejo et al., 2009]. Cretaceous, 2009]. Apatite fission track data in the same region
plume-derived [Kerr et al., 1997a] volcanic rocks yielded ages ranging from ~ 50 to ~30 Ma [Saenz,
(basalts, gabbros and dolerites) crop-out along 2003].
the Pacific coast (Figure 1) and yield whole ii) K/Ar and Rb/Sr ages of metamorphic and
rock and plagioclase 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages granitic rocks of the Central Cordillera range
ranging between 78 – 73 Ma [Kerr et al., 1997]. between 343–57 Ma [see compilation in Aspden
Toussaint and Restrepo [1994] proposed that et al., 1987; Restrepo et al., 2009b]. Most of these
these volcanic rocks form the basement of the ages have been interpreted to record thermal
extensive Chocó–Panamá Terrane (Figure 1) that events during the early Mesozoic and during
underlies the Dabeiba volcanic arc. On the basis ~65–55 Ma [McCourt et al., 1984; Restrepo et al.,
of paleoceanographic and paleobiogeographic 2009b], although the degree of partial resetting is
studies it is believed that the Chocó–Panamá undetermined and hence these data can only be
accreted onto South America during either the used semi-quantitatively.
middle Miocene [12 Ma, Duque-Caro, 1990] or
latest Miocene–early Pliocene [Mann and Burke, iii) Preliminary 40Ar/39Ar data have been obtained
1984; Mann and Corrigan, 1990]. from several basalts in the Western Cordillera and
Chocó Block [Kerr et al., 1997], although a majority
Several authors suggest that the oceanic of mafic complexes and rocks from the Cordilleras
plateau rocks erupted from the Galápagos hot-spot are undated.
[Sinton et al., 1998; Kerr et al., 2003; Luzieux et al.,
2006]. In this context, Spikings et al. [2001] utilised In contrast, a significant quantity of
thermochronological data from the cordilleras of thermochronological data has been generated
Ecuador to modify the tectonic model of Ross and in the hydrocarbon-rich, Eastern Cordillera of
Scotese [1988] and propose a plate reconstruction Colombia. Recent studies by Mora et al. [2008]
for the Caribbean–Colombian Oceanic Province. and Parra et al. [2009] showed that the Eastern
Spikings et al. [2001] suggest that the basement Cordillera was subject to intense shortening and
rocks of the western cordilleras of Ecuador and erosional exhumation during the periods 40–30
Colombia originally formed part of the Caribbean– Ma, ~20 Ma and 6–3 Ma, which led to a rapid
Colombian Oceanic Province, which fragmented eastwards orogenic advance. Earlier apatite fission
during its collision with and accretion onto the track analyses in the southern Eastern Cordillera
South American Plate. of Colombia (Garzón Massif) yielded ages of <10
Ma [Andriessen, 1996], whereas zircon fission
track ages of ~120 Ma from the same region led
the authors [Van der Weil and Andriessen, 1991]
to propose that the region was cooling rapidly
3 Previous work during the Early Cretaceous.

61
A wide disparity exists in published ages for in epoxy, polished and etched using 5.5M HNO3(aq)
the timing of accretion of arc and oceanic plateau for 20 seconds at 21.0±0.5°C in a temperature-
sequences onto the South American Plate margin, calibrated waterbath. Zircon grains were mounted
which range from mid-Cretaceous [Toussaint in Teflon and etched in a eutectic mixture of
and Restrepo, 1994; accretion of Calima terrane NaOH/KOH at 210°C for times between 6 and 40
onto the Tahami terrane] to the Eocene [Gómez hours. The majority of the fission track data were
et al., 2007; accretion of the Caribbean Province obtained using the external detector method
onto South America]. These discrepancies are [Gleadow et al., 1981], although the uranium
clearly related to a lack of agreement on the content of four samples was determined using
tectonic origin of suites of related rock types (e.g. the LA-ICP-MS approach [e.g. Hasebe et al., 2004].
accurate geochronological data), and quantitative Maximum etch-pit diameters (Dpar) were used
data concerning the timing of collision (e.g. to assess the inter-grain variation of annealing
the exhumational response of buttressing and kinetics in apatites in all of the samples, relative to
indenting rocks to accretion). a set of standards that yield widely varying Dpar
and Cl wt% [Carlson et al., 1999]. Separate grain
mounts were irradiated with 252Cf fission fragments
3.1 Analytical techniques and the to enhance the number of confined track-in-tracks
available for length measurement [Donelick and
recovery of thermal histories
Miller, 1991; Donelick et al., 2005]. Further details
are provided in and data are presented in Table 2.
Sample descriptions are presented in Appendix 1.
3.1.1 Ar/39Ar analysis
40

Hand-picked, unaltered hornblende, biotite 3.1.3 (U-Th)/He analysis


and alkali feldspar (when present) separates from
Euhedral, inclusion free and homogeneous
Permian–Cretaceous intrusive rocks and Triassic–
apatites and zircons that lie within a narrow size
Early Cretaceous metamorphic rocks were rinsed
range (44 and 108 µm; measured on a polarizing
in de-ionized water and 5% HNO3 in an ultrasonic
stereomicroscope at 156.25x in transmitted light)
bath, packed in copper foil and irradiated in the
were extracted for (U-Th)/He dating from samples
CLICIT facility of the TRIGA reactor at Oregon State
that had been previously analysed by the fission
University for 30 hours (Early Cretaceous and
track method. Individual grains were packed in
older samples) and 15 hours (Late Cretaceous and
platinum microcrucibles. Helium was degassed
younger samples). Samples were degassed by CO2-
from the apatites and zircons using a CO2–IR laser
IR laser step-heating, and the extracted gas was
at ~950–1000°C and ~1000–1250°C, respectively
gettered in a stainless steel UHV line, after passing
and the exact volume was determined using a
through a cold trap chilled to ~150° Kelvin. Argon
isotopes were analyzed using a GV Instruments quantitatively calibrated 3He spike on a Balzers
quadrupole mass spectrometer at the University
Argus mass spectrometer equipped with four
of Arizona, USA. A second degassing step was
high-gain (1012 Ω) Faraday detectors, and a single
performed to determine if the apatites and
1011 Ω Faraday detector (40Ar). Data reduction was
zircons enclosed any remaining He due to high U
performed using the ArArCALC software [Koppers,
inclusions [Farley and Stockli, 2002]. The apatites
2002]. Sample descriptions are presented in
were subsequently dissolved in HNO3(aq) whereas
Appendix 1. Experimental details are presented in
the zircons were unwrapped and dissolved in a
Appendix 2 and 3 and the data are presented in
spiked HCl-HF solution in high pressure digestion
Table 1.
vessels (bombs). The solution was spiked with
known amounts of 235U and 230Th, and U and Th
3.1.2 Fission track (FT) analysis and Sm concentrations were measured on a
Whole rock samples of Permian-Paleogene high-resolution (single-collector) Element2 ICP-
intrusive rocks and Pre-Jurassic metamorphic MS. The consistency of the analytical equipment
rocks were crushed and zircon and apatite were was regularly monitored by analysing crystals
recovered using conventional heavy liquid and of Durango fluorapatite, with a known age of
magnetic methods. Apatite grains were mounted 31.4 ±0.5 Ma [Solé and Pi, 2005]. Analytical error

62
is estimated to be no higher than 5% (2σ) and [Ketcham et al., 2007] in any given sample, using
lower than the scatter caused by fluid inclusions the HeFTy software [v 1.6.7; Ketcham et al., 2009].
or variable diffusivity of individual grains [e.g., The modelling procedure predicts fission track and
Fitzgerald et al., 2006]. Sample descriptions are (U-Th)/He parameters for various thermal history
presented in Appendix 1. The data are presented paths and compares them with the observed data.
in Table 3. A controlled random search procedure identifies
those thermal histories that most closely match
the analytical data.
3.1.4 Recovery of thermal histories
The temperature range where partial fission
550-200°C track annealing occurs in apatite is known to be
Thermal history information has been a function of the phase composition [Green et
extracted from the 40Ar/39Ar data by estimating al., 1986; Carlson et al., 1999; Barbarand et al.,
the closure temperatures (Tc) of each mineral 2003], cooling rate and possibly the symmetry
phase to the K/Ar system using experimentally group of the mineral [Carlson et al., 1999; Kohn
derived diffusion parameters [see review in and Foster, 1996]. Unannealed track lengths in
McDougall and Harrison, 1999]. Bulk Tc values apatite group mineral phases range between
for hydrous hornblende (spherical diffusion; Do/ ~14.5 and 16.0 µm [e.g. Gleadow et al., 1986;
r2=375) and biotite (plane sheet diffusion; Do/ Carlson et al, 1999], and hence samples that have
r2=342) phases range between ~545–511˚C and mean track lengths in this range, combined with
360–325˚C respectively for cooling rates of 100– narrow track length distributions, experienced
10˚C/My. Natural Ar concentration profiles within rapid cooling from temperatures of ≥120 –100˚C
alkali feldspars are preserved during in vacuo to temperatures of ~≤ 60˚C at the time indicated
heating up to ~1100˚C [Lovera et al., 1991], and by the apatite FT age [e.g. Ketcham et al., 1999,
we have utilised a broad closure temperature of 2007]. Broad track length distributions with
290±60°C for the plateau and flattest regions of shorter mean lengths suggest the sample has
age spectra, assuming the gas has been derived experienced a more complex thermal history,
from the largest lattice domains [e.g. Monié et al., spending a significant amount of time, relative to
1994; Spikings et al., 2001b]. We assume a bulk their apatite FT age within the partial annealing
closure temperature of 300–250°C for plagioclase zone [Gleadow et al., 1986]. Similar principles
[Harrison and McDougal, 1982; Boven, 2001]. apply to the interpretation of zircon FT data.
Those samples which yielded both 40Ar/39Ar However, the lack of a suitable description of the
feldspar and zircon FT ages (Tc 290°C–210°C) annealing kinetics of tracks within zircon inhibits
[Brandon et al., 1998; Bernet and Garver, 2005] the determination of a thermal history from the
gave consistently older 40Ar/39Ar ages, confirming track length distributions. Additionally, wide-
our alkalic and calcic feldspar 40Ar/39Ar closure ranging values for the temperature bounds of the
temperatures. Raman spectroscopy was routinely zircon partial annealing zone have been published
performed to determine the type of feldspar that [see Tagami and O’Sullivan, 2005]. Yamada et al.
was dated. The time of each coordinate (in Ma) is [1995] suggested temperature limits of ~390˚–
determined after evaluation of the age spectrum, 170˚C whereas Tagami and Dumitru [1996] and
and is used to constrain part of a transient time- Tagami et al. [1998] suggested temperature
Temperature path. limits of ~310˚C–230˚C. More recently, Bernet
and Garver [2005] proposed that a useful working
200-40°C approximation of the zircon partial annealing zone
The FT and (U-Th)/He methods have been is 290–210°C. For the purpose of this study, the
applied to zircon and apatite, for the purpose of average value of 250˚C has been plotted against
generating integrated thermal histories between the zircon FT age to produce a single time–
~≥200–40°C [e.g. Gleadow et al., 1986; Farley, temperature point on a thermal history path.
2002]. Potential thermal history solutions have The generation of He from U, Th and Sm
been derived by simultaneously modeling He isotopes via alpha decay forms the basis of (U-
diffusion [Farley, 2000; Reiners et al. 2002; 2004; Th)/He thermochronology [e.g. Zeitler et al.,
Flowers et al., 2009] and fission track annealing 1987; Lippolt et al., 1994; Farley, 2000, 2002]. The

63
64
70: 39.1±1.3
a 54.8±5.8 b 08: 106.6±16.0
148: 53.0±4.8 58.1±5.2 153: 69.7±8.6
76°22’ 55.4±5.2 68.9±0.6 66.6±8.0 74°37’ 09: 43.0±1.2 07: 6.1±0.2 06: 46.3±1.2
7°10’ 30.6±5.8 64.9±10.2 35.8±4.6
74.6±13.4 88.3±12.4 81.3±10.6 4°55’
76°48’ 114.1±0.9 109.8±2.9 109.7±1.3 04:10.6±0.8
54: 74.4±10.6 Yarumal OPF 95: 62.8±6.8

F
70.4±6.3 62.5±5.2 59.2±20.2
PF

OP
53: 13.4±1.4 Altiplano 94: 61.5±9.4 02: 32.1±7.2
72.9±18.8 CPF Venadillo 63.6±9.4
Antioqueño 63: 20.9±1.2 67.9±7.4
81.8±10.0 Armenia La 03: 37.1±7.2
64.1±9.6 línea
74.8±7.4 Roldanillo IF
56: 40.1±1.0 26: 6.1±0.2 CP 01: 116.4±0.9
65.5±6.0 13.9±2.4 Ibagué
64: 59.8±10.2 BUC 86: 9.3±0.8
PF 62.6±0.7 45.6±7.6 IF 35.0±8.2
58: 31.0±1.4 67.9±1.6
45.2±1.2 Medellín 65: 43.5±4.8 85: 30.5±5.8

F
58.5±8.0 80.8±0.3 28: 64.4±3.6

F
SJ
62.6±1.1 San Luis 89: 117.2±9.4 05: 7.5±0.4
67: 113.4±22.8

CA
72.3±0.3 112.0±3.7 59.8±16.8

SJF
80: 41.0±6.6 85.3±18.2
179: 51.8±7.4 90: 128.1±6.0
81: 103.6±13.0

F
154: 56.6±7.4 BB
165: 37.8±5.2 102: 46.9±8.1 130.2±2.8¨

SP
41.6±5.4 53.1±5.6 136.4±0.5
Sonsón 155: 44.3±6.2 91: 41.3±4.2 82: 11.2±0.3
166:3.9±0.2 71.4±9.8

SPF
32.8±0.7 30: 44.8±8.4 68.3±8.2
156: 30.8±0.7 Cali 77.6±10.8
167: 38.1±5.4 MB 48.2±4.8 42: 77.6±5.7 0 km 50 137.3±0.9
46.4±5.8 PF OPF
47.9±5.2 3°15’ 84: 134.3±0.7
19: 56.2±9.0 14: 65.1±10.2 74°37’
176: 64.5±14.6 HP

CAF
0 km 50 163: 39.6±7.0 18: 19.6±4.2 17: 58.1±6.6
Manizales Fresno 54.2±6.0
55.3±5.4

Falla d
5°00’
160: 69.4±17.2 161: 43.9±4.2
177: 78.6±19.8 Central and Eastern Cordillera
Quaternary - Neogene
Cretaceous oceanic arc Late Cretaceous arc intrusives
Paleogene - Eocene (Antioquia Batholith and
c (Quebradagrande
Complex) Córdoba pluton)
129: 4.5±0.1 Western Cordillera and
1°43’ 9.3±0.2 Cauca-Patia Valley Upper Cretaceous
Medium-high pressure
8.2±1.2 sedimentary rocks
metamorphic rocks
139: 18.7±7.4 Late Cretaceous oceanic (Arquía Complex)
112.0±16.6 plateau (Volcanic and Amaime Lower Cretaceous

F
121: 12.3±0.4 AF Fms) sedimentary rocks

CP
25.8±4.8 133: 3.6±0.2
Pasto F Jurassic granitoids (Ibagué
PP SJ Mocoa 134: 15.9±4.4 Upper Cretaceous sedimentary
109.2±10.8 rocks (Cisneros and Espinal Fms) Batholith) and volcanic rocks
Ricaurte (Saldaña Fm.)
136: 13.7±2.2 Late Cretaceous intrusives Permo-Triassic Granitoids
106.8±13.6
(Buga batholith)
BF Triassic metasedimentary
Az sample number (DV#)
and meta-igneous rocks
(e.g. Cajamarca Complex)
Apatite (U-Th)/He
and older metamorphic units
Zircon (U-Th)/He
Apatite Fission track
ECUADOR 0 km 50
Zircon Fission track
Feldspar 40Ar/39Ar
0°10’ Biotite 40Ar/39Ar
78°04’ 76°07’ Hornblende 40Ar/39Ar
Figure 2 (previous page) Geological maps of the three study regions (see Figure 1) within the Central and Western Cordilleras of
Colombia, and the Cauca-Patía Valley [after Gómez et al., 2007b], showing sample locations and the thermochronological ages
acquired in this study. a) Northern Colombia (7°10’N–5°00’N) with an approx. N–S trend. b) Central Colombia (4°55’N–3°15’N)
with an approx. NNE trend, and c) Southern Colombia (1°40N–0°10’N) where the Cordilleras and main faults strike NE. Labels
are apatite (U-Th)/He ages (black), zircon (U-Th)/He ages (black bold), apatite FT ages (green), zircon FT ages (red), feldspar
40
Ar/39Ar (purple), biotite 40Ar/39Ar (yellow), hornblende 40Ar/39Ar (brown). All ages are in Ma and ±2σ error, with sample codes
shown in blue (DV##). The Cauca–Almaguer Fault (CAF), San Jerónimo Fault (SJF) and the Silvia–Pijao Fault (SPF) collectively
define the Romeral Fault System, which is a set of Cretaceous ocean-continent sutures. Other abbreviations, AzBF: Amazonian
Border Fault, AF: Acevedo–Afiladeros Fault, BB: Buga Batholith (Figure 2b), BUC: Bolívar Ultramafic Complex (Figure 2b); CP:
Córdoba Pluton (Figure 2b), CPF: Cali–Patía Fault, HP: Hatillo Pluton (Figure 2a), IF: Ibagué Fault; MB: Mande Batholith (Figure
2a), OPF: Otú-Pericos Fault; PF: Palestina Fault, PP: Piedrancha Pluton (Figure 2c).

concentration of He in apatite and zircon at any 4 Results: 40Ar/39Ar


given time is a function of He diffusivity (apatite,
1.5±0.6 cm2/s; zircon, 0.46+0.87-0.3 cm2/s), activation
Ar/39Ar data has been acquired from several
40
energy of diffusion of He (apatite, 33±0.5 kcal/
traverses in the Colombian Western and Central
mol; zircon 40±0.9 kcal/mol), thermal history,
cordilleras (Table 1), and can be placed into
grain size [e.g. Farley, 2000; Reiners, 2005],
three age groups: i) ~140–130 Ma obtained from
alpha-ejection at domain boundaries, alpha-
alkali feldspars extracted from Jurassic and older
implantation [Farley, 2002] and radiation damage
granitoids located south of the Ibagué Fault within
[particularly in zircons; Flowers et al., 2009]. The
the Central Cordillera (Figure 2), ii) ~115–105 Ma,
quoted values, in combination with grain size,
yielded mostly by alkali feldspars from the Ibagué
corrections for grain geometry related alpha-
Batholith located north of the Ibagué Fault and by
loss (FT correction; Table 3) and corrections for
hornblendes from rocks of the high-medium P–T
radiation damage accumulation and annealing in
metamorphic rocks of the Arquía Complex (Figure
zircons [Flowers et al., 2009] were used to model
2), and iii) ~80–60 Ma from the Late Cretaceous
He diffusion. Modelling of the (U-Th)/He data
Antioquia and Córdoba batholiths, hornblende
followed the approach of Farley [2000] for apatite
from the Arquía Complex near the Silvia–Pijao
and Reiners et al. [2004] for zircons. Wolf et al.
Fault and from Late Cretaceous mafic igneous
[1996] and House et al. [2002] suggest that apatite
rocks of the Western Cordillera (Figure 2). All ages
composition does not influence helium diffusivity.
are reported at ±2σ.
Experimental data and field studies [e.g. Wolf et
al., 1998; Farley, 2002] suggest that all He can be
thermally degassed from apatite at temperatures
Consideration of the feldspar 40Ar/39Ar age
of ~90°C and totally retained at temperatures
spectra
lower than ~40°C over geological time scales. The
temperature range spanning between 90–40°C is All feldspar (alkali and plagioclase) 40Ar/39Ar
referred to as the Apatite Helium Partial Retention analyses obtained here yielded high-precision
Zone (Apatite HePRZ), where a fraction of the He ages for individual heating steps (better than 0.5%
contained in the apatite is lost by diffusion. He at 2σ) step, and contiguous steps within the age
diffusion in zircon has been studied considerably spectra rarely yield plateau regions according to
less [see Reiners et al., 2002; Reiners, 2005] and the definition of Dalrymple and Lanphere [1978;
is highly dependent on the degree of radiation minimum of three contiguous steps spanning
damage [Flowers et al., 2009], crystallographic more than 50% of 39Ar released], because they do
anisotropic diffusion and heterogeneous not overlap within error. However, in a majority
distribution of the parent isotopes [Reiners, 2005]. of cases (e.g. Figures 3b and 3c), ages of individual
The zircon He partial retention zone is considered step ages differ by less than 3%, and the weighted
to span between either ~220–140°C [Reiners et mean ages overlap with ages obtained from
al., 2002, 2004], or ~200–130°C [Stockli and Wolfe, isotope correlation plots, and hence we have
2009]. interpreted them as being meaningful with respect
to interpreting the thermal histories of the rocks.

65
40
Weighted Inverse

66
40
elevation Latitude N Longitude W mean age ± Total Fusion Isochron Ar/36Ar
1
Sample Unit Lithology Stratigraphic Age (m) d°m's'' d°m's'' Phase 2σ (Ma) obs. MSWD Age±2σ (Ma) Age±2σ (Ma) intercept MSWD2

Table 1
Autochthonous terranes - Northern Colombia (7°N-5°N)

DV54 Antioquia Batholith diorite Late Cretaceous 1958 6°19'41.1'' 75°28'49.6'' Hbl 70.4±6.3 DS 25.64 71.0±1.9 64.1±5.4 348.6±38.0 4.33
DV58 Antioquia Batholith granite Late Cretaceous 1143 6°01'06.3'' 75°08'10.8'' Bt 72.3±0.3 P 2.62 71.4±0.2 73.2±0.8 185.0±98.2 2.22

Ar/39Ar age results


DV58 Antioquia Batholith granite Late Cretaceous 1143 6°01'06.3'' 75°08'10.8'' Or 62.6±1.1 P 2.36 63.4±0.5 56.5±8.6 439.2±223.0 1.26
DV70 Antioquia Batholith granodiorite Late Cretaceous 2317 6°58'14.8'' 75°25'33.1'' Bt 68.9±0.6 P 9.34 69.1±0.2 68.6±1.5 329.3±235.3 9.63
DV64 Antioquia batholith granodiorite Late Cretaceous 782 5°58'56.5'' 74°57'19.3'' Pl 62.6±0.7 DS 7.97 63.2±0.3 58.9±9.6 332.3±100.3 8.79
DV65 Cajamarca Complex gneiss Triassic 602 5°59'16.1'' 74°55'34.5'' Bt 80.8±0.3 P 2.03 80.2±0.2 81.9±0.6 182.9±52.8 0.18

Autochtonous terranes - Central Colombia (4°45'N-3°30'N)


South of the Ibagué Fault
DV81 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 919 4°20'16.5'' 75°11'47.6'' Bt 130.2±2.8 P 2.2 127.7±1.6 136.8±10.2 280.7±22.7 2.02
DV81 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 919 4°20'16.5'' 75°11'47.6'' Or 136.4±0.5 P 4.27 134.7±0.3 136.0±16.2 299.6±16.6 5.33
DV82 Permian intrusives granite Permo-Triassic 1051 4°17'15.5'' 75°13'59.2'' Or 137.3±0.9 DS 37.98 137.1±0.3 137.9±7.1 291.6±49.8 44.2
DV84 Permian intrusives granite Permo-Triassic 816 4°13'54.1'' 75°13'01.8'' Or 134.3±0.7 DS 28.06 133.6±0.3 133.0±10.4 319.0±23.4 28.37
North of the Ibagué Fault
DV01 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 1195 4°29'60.1'' 75°08'22.7'' Bt n/a TF n/a 105.3±1.1 n/a n/a n/a
DV01 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 1195 4°29'60.1'' 75°08'22.7'' Or 116.4±0.9 P 7.78 123.2±0.3 112.2±6.3 371.0±108.0 7.78
DV06 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 1277 4°24'08.9'' 75°17'40.3'' Or 109.7±1.3 DS 511 109.4±0.2 91.6±12.9 1244±1200 >100
DV07 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 1363 4°24'25.4'' 75°18'04.5'' Or 109.8±2.9 DS 1050 125.4±0.3 86.4±14.2 725.0±343.0 >100
DV09 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 1354 4°24'29.7'' 75°18'11.8'' Or 114.1±0.9 DS 82 115.1±0.3 108.2±4.1 747.0±349 13.21
DV26 Córdoba Pluton granodiorite Late Cretaceous 1389 4°24'30.9'' 75°41'24.2'' Hbl 67.9±1.6 P 1.76 70.6±1.3 65.9±5.1 319.5±60.2 1.51

Allochthonous terranes

garnet
DV28 Arquía Complex amphibolite Early Cretaceous 1321 4°22'47.1'' 75°43'09.0'' Hbl 64.4±3.6 P 0.65 51.6±3.3 94.8±32.8 205.0±101.9 0.21
Volcanic Fm (Palmar hornblende-
DV42 gabbro) gabbro Late Cretaceous 1102 3°37'05.0'' 76°39'15.1'' Hbl 77.6±5.7 P 0.51 72.4±6.0 80.4±18.1 292.7±17.8 0.59
amphibolitic
DV89A Arquía Complex schist Early Cretaceous 1374 4°16'24.7'' 75°47'22.2'' Hbl 117.2±9.4 P 1.45 100.1±7.0 109.3±20.0 335.0±100.0 1.5
amphibolitic
DV89B Arquía Complex schist Early Cretaceous 1374 4°16'24.7'' 75°47'22.2'' Hbl 112.0±3.7 P 0.6 97.5±3.7 114.1±16.5 287.0±6.70 0.74
DV90 Arquía Complex amphibolite Early Cretaceous 1421 4°15'51.4'' 75°47'23.9'' Hbl 128.1±6.0 P 4.17 121.7±2.9 123.9±16.0 325.5±116.9 3.94
DV91 Buga Batholith diorite Late Cretaceous 1117 3°55'31.0'' 76°14'42.4'' Pl n/a TF n/a 79.2±2.6 n/a n/a n/a
Volcanic Fm. (Bolívar
DV94 complex) pegmatite Late Cretaceous 1032 4°20'25.7'' 76°11'44.0'' Hbl 81.8±10.0 DS 4.16 69.3±4.8 67.6±15.3 340.5±43.7 1.94
Volcanic Fm. (Zabaletas
DV102 stock) gabbro-diorite Late Cretaceous 1379 3°49'10.6'' 76°36'00.7'' Hbl n/a TF n/a 46.9±8.1 n/a n/a n/a

39
P: plateau, >3 contiguous heating steps that span >50% Ar released (the age is the weighted mean age of the plateau),
39
DS: Disturbed Spectrum over a region that contains >3 contiguous heating steps that span > 50% Ar released, and individual step ages differ by less than 3%;
TF: Total fusion age
n/a: Not Applicable
1
Mean Square of Weighted Deviates of the weighted mean age
2
Mean Square of Weighted Deviates of the inverse isochron linear regression
Mineral abbreviations: Hbl: hornblende, Bt: botite, Pl: plagioclase, Or: orthoclase
Minor discordance within the Ar isotope
systematics acquired from some feldspars could 4.1.2 Central Colombia: 4°55’N–3°15’N
be partially due to an underestimation of analytical
errors caused by variations in un-measured Eastern flank of the Central Cordillera, north of
blanks, minor excess 40Ar trapped in different the Ibagué Fault
crystal domains and 39Ar recoil effects caused by Jurassic granitoids of the Ibagué Batholith
the presence of micro-crystalline features with (zircon U-Pb ages span 165-160 Ma; Chapter 2)
varying K-content, such as perthitic lamellae [e.g. located north of the Ibagué Fault consistently
McDougall and Harrison, 1999]. However, for yield Early Cretaceous 40Ar/39Ar ages. Orthoclase
the purposes of this thermochronological study, extracted from four coarse-grained, intermediate
the small age-differences between contiguous to felsic intrusive rocks of the Ibagué Batholith
steps, combined with similar ages obtained from (DV01, DV06, DV07 and DV09; Figure 3b) yielded
different samples the weighted mean ages of discordant 40Ar/39Ar age spectra with weighted
the selected steps (see below) are geologically mean ages of ~115 Ma (DV01 and DV09) and ~109
meaningful. Ma (DV06 and DV07) over the flattest regions of the
age spectra, where contiguous step ages differ by
less than 5%, over >60% of the total 39Ar released.
4.1 40Ar/39Ar data from the Central The weighted mean ages of samples DV01 and
Cordillera (Tahami Terrane and Arquía DV09 overlap with their inverse isochron ages,
which are defined by the same heating steps used
Complex)
to determine the weighted mean ages (Figure 3b),
and thus they are consider useful for constraining
4.1.1 Northern Colombia: 7°N-5°N
the thermal histories of the samples. These ages
The oldest 40Ar/39Ar plateau age obtained in are younger than 40Ar/39Ar ages from samples
the northern Central Cordillera is 80.8±0.3 Ma, located south of the Ibagué Fault (see below).
which was obtained from biotite extracted from a All age spectra reveal evidence for the presence
Triassic gneiss (DV65, Figure 3a) located proximal of excess 40Ar in the first ≤20% of the total 39Ar
to the Late Cretaceous Antioquia Batholith. released. Additional discordance over the flatter
A diorite of the Antioquia Batholith (zircon U-Pb parts of the age spectra is probably due to a
age span 94-87 Ma; Chapter 2) located proximal to combination of i) 39Ar recoil from micro-crystalline
the Romeral Fault System yielded a hornblende, features such as perthitic lamellae, and ii) chemical
weighted mean 40Ar/39Ar age of 70.4±6.3 Ma alteration of the crystals, although this was not
(sample DV54; Figure 3a) from the flattest part of a observed under a petrographic microscope. The
slightly discordant region of the age spectrum. We age spectrum yielded by orthoclase DV09 (Figure
consider the weighted mean age to be geologically 3b) may represent a classic 40Ar loss profile from
meaningful at a semi-quantitatively level because a weighted mean age of 114.1±0.9 Ma towards a
contiguous step-ages differ by less than 5% younger age of ~100–105 Ma.
over ~90% of 39Ar released. Biotites from two Eastern flank of the Central Cordillera, south of
granodiorites of the Antioquia Batholith yielded the Ibagué Fault
plateau 40Ar/39Ar ages of 72.3±0.3 Ma (DV58) and
68.9±0.6 Ma (DV70; Figure 3a). Feldspars extracted Permian and Jurassic granites located south
from granodiorites located at the southernmost of the Ibagué Fault consistently also yield Early
exposure of the batholith yielded discordant age Cretaceous 40Ar/39Ar ages, similar to samples
spectra, albeit with indistinguishable weighted located north of the fault. Biotite and orthoclase
mean ages of 62.6±1.1 Ma (orthoclase; DV58) and extracted from granite (DV81) of the Jurassic
62.6±0.7 Ma (plagioclase; DV64; Figure 3a). Similar Ibagué Batholith yielded plateau ages of 130.2±2.8
to our argument for diorite DV54, we consider Ma and 136.4±0.5 Ma, respectively (Figure 3c).
these ages to be useful at a semi-quantitative Orthoclase from Permian granites (zircon U-Pb age
level because the contiguous step ages differ by of 271.9±3.7 Ma; Chapter 2) of samples DV82 and
less than 3%, over 42% and 60% of the total 39Ar DV84 yielded weighted mean ages of 137.3±0.9
released, respectively. Ma and 134.3±0.7 Ma, respectively, that do not
strictly meet the plateau criteria of Dalrymple and

67
DV65-Bt: Gneiss, Triassic Cajamarca Fm.
100 4
Weighted Plateau Inverse Isochron: 81.9±0.6 Ma

36Ar / 40Ar (10-3)


90 Total Fusion: 80.2 ± 0.2 Ma 40Ar/36Ar intercept: 182.9±52.8
3 MSWD: 0.18
Age (Ma)

80
70 2
80.8±0.3 Ma
60
1
50
40
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0.00 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16
DV54-Hbl: Diorite, Late Cretaceous Antioquia Batholith
400
350 Disturbed spectra Age: 64.1±5.4 Ma
4
Total Fusion: 71.0±1.9 Ma

36Ar / 40Ar (10-3)


40Ar/36Ar intercept: 348.6±38.0
300
3 MSWD: 4.33
Age (Ma)

250
200
2
150
100 70.4±6.3 Ma
1
50
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12

DV58-Bt: Granite, Late Cretaceous Antioquia Batholith


80
4 Inverse Isochron: 73.2±0.8 Ma
70 40Ar/36Ar intercept: 185.0±98.2
36Ar / 40Ar (10-3)

MSWD: 2.22
60 3
Age (Ma)

72.3±0.3 Ma
50
2
40
Weighted Plateau 1
30
Total Fusion: 71.4±0.2 Ma
20
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12

DV58-Or: Granite, Late Cretaceous Antioquia Batholith

Weighted Plateau Inverse Isochron: 56.5±8.6 Ma


100
36Ar / 40Ar (10-3)

40Ar/36Ar intercept: 439.2±223.0


Total Fusion: 63.4±0.5 Ma 3
Age (Ma)

MSWD: 1.26
80 62.6±1.1 Ma
2
60
1
40

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14

DV64-Pl: Granodiorite, Late Cretaceous Antioquia Batholith


4
100 Disturbed spectra Age: 58.9±9.6 Ma
36Ar / 40Ar (10-3)

Total Fusion: 63.2±0.3 Ma 40Ar/36Ar intercept: 332.3±100.3


90 3
Age (Ma)

80 MSWD: 8.79
62.6±0.7 Ma
2
70
60
1
50
40
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14
Figure 3a. 40Ar/39Ar age
spectra and associated
DV70-Bt: Granodiorite, Late Cretaceous Antioquia Batholith
isotope correlation
160 Weighted Plateau Age: 68.6±1.5 Ma diagrams (inverse isochrons)
36Ar / 40Ar (10-3)

3 40Ar/36Ar intercept: 329.3±235.3


Total Fusion: 69.1±0.2 Ma
120 MSWD: 9.63 for various mineral phases
Age (Ma)

68.9±0.6 Ma 2 (abbreviations: Hbl:


80 hornblende, Bt: botite, Pl:
40 1 plagioclase, Or: orthoclase)
extracted rocks located
0 in the northern Central
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12
Cordillera. All errors are ±2σ.
Cumulative 39Ar Released (%) 39Ar / 40Ar

68
DV01-Bt: Granite - Jurassic Ibagué Batholith
140
120
Age (Ma)

100
80
60
40
20 Disturbed spectra
Total Fusion: 105.3±1.1 Ma
0
0 20 40 60 80 100
DV01-Or: Granite - Jurassic Ibagué Batholith
300 Weighted Plateau

36Ar / 40Ar (10-3)


Total Fusion: 123.2±0.3 Ma Age: 112.2±6.3 Ma
3 40Ar/36Ar intercept: 371±108
260
Age (Ma)

MSWD: 7.78
220 2
180 116.4±0.9 Ma
140 1

100
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14
DV06-Or: Granite - Jurassic Ibagué Batholith
160 Disturbed spectra Age: 91.6±12.9 Ma
36Ar / 40Ar (10-3)

40Ar/36Ar intercept: 1244±1200


140 Total Fusion: 109.4 ± 0.2 Ma 3
109.7±1.3 Ma MSWD: >100
Age (Ma)

120 2
100
1
80
60 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 0.00 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16

DV07-Or: Granite - Jurassic Ibagué Batholith


240
Disturbed spectra Age: 86.4±14.2 Ma
36Ar / 40Ar (10-3)

Total Fusion: 125.41±0.26 Ma 3 40Ar/36Ar intercept: 725±343


200
Age (Ma)

MSWD: >100
160 109.8±2.9 Ma 2

120 1

80 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 0.00 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16

DV09-Or: Granite - Jurassic Ibagué Batholith


Age: 108.2±4.1 Ma
36Ar / 40Ar (10-3)

140 Disturbed spectra 3 40Ar/36Ar intercept: 747±349


Total Fusion: 115.1 ± 0.3 Ma
MSWD: 13.21
Age (Ma)

120 2
100 114.1±0.9 Ma 1
80
0 20 40 60 80 100 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14
Cumulative 39Ar Released (%) 39Ar / 40Ar

Figure 3b. idem 3a; central latitudes of the Central Cordillera, north of the Ibagué Fault.

69
DV84-Or: Granite, Permo-Triassic Batholith
200 4
Disturbed spectra Age: 133.0±10.4 Ma

36Ar / 40Ar (10-3)


40Ar/36Ar intercept: 319.0±23.4
180 Total Fusion: 133.6±0.3 Ma 3
MSWD: 28.37
Age (Ma)

160 2
134.3±0.7 Ma

140 1

120
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12

DV82-Or: Granite, Permo-Triassic Batholith


240 4
Disturbed spectra
220 Age: 137.9±7.1 Ma

36Ar / 40Ar (10-3)


Total Fusion: 137.1±0.3 Ma 40Ar/36Ar intercept: 291.6±49.8
200 3
Age (Ma)

MSWD: 44.20
180
160 2
140
1
120
137.3±0.9 Ma
100
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12

DV81-Bt: Granite, Jurassic Ibagué Batholith 4


220 Inverse Isochron: 136.8±10.2 Ma
36Ar / 40Ar (10-3)

Weighted Plateau 40Ar/36Ar intercept: 280.7±22.7


200 Total Fusion: 127.7±1.6 Ma 3
MSWD: 2.02
180
Age (Ma)

160 2
130.2±2.8 Ma
140
1
120
100 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12

DV81-Or: Granite, Jurassic Ibagué Batholith


180 4
Weighted Plateau Age: 136.0±16.2 Ma
36Ar / 40Ar (10-3)

160 Total Fusion: 134.7±0.3 Ma 3


40Ar/36Ar intercept: 299.6±16.6
Age (Ma)

MSWD: 5.33
140
2
120 136.4±0.5 Ma
1
100
0 20 40 60 80 100 0
0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12

Cumulative 39Ar Released (%) 39Ar / 40Ar

Figure 3c. idem 3a; central latitudes of the Central Cordillera, south of the Ibagué Fault.

70
DV26-Hbl: Granodiorite, Late Cretaceous Córdoba Pluton
4
120 Weighted Plateau Inverse Isochron: 65.9±5.1 Ma

36Ar / 40Ar (10-3)


40Ar/36Ar intercept: 319.5±60.2
Total Fusion: 70.6±1.3 Ma 3
100 MSWD: 1.51
Age (Ma)

67.9±1.6 Ma
80
2
60
40 1
20
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12

DV28-Hbl: Amphibolite, Arquía Complex


100
Weighted Plateau 4 Age: 94.8±32.8 Ma
40Ar/36Ar intercept: 205.0±102
80 Total Fusion: 51.6±3.3 Ma
36Ar / 40Ar (10-3)
MSWD: 0.21
3
Age (Ma)

60

64.4±3.6 Ma 2
40

20 1

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0.00 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16 0.20 0.24

DV89A-Hbl : Garnet Amphibolite, Arquía Complex

300 Weighted Plateau 4 Inverse Isochron: 109.3±20.0 Ma


40Ar/36Ar intercept: 335±100
Total Fusion: 100.1 ± 7.0 Ma
36Ar / 40Ar (10-3)

240 MSWD: 1.50


3
Age (Ma)

180 117.2±9.4 Ma
2
120

60 1

0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14

DV89B-Hbl : Garnet Amphibolite, Arquía Complex


4
Weighted Plateau Inverse Isochron: 114.1±16.5 Ma
36Ar / 40Ar (10-3)

300 MSWD: 0.60 40Ar/36Ar intercept: 287±6.70

Total Fusion: 97.5±3.7 Ma 3 MSWD: 0.74


Age (Ma)

200 112.0±3.7 Ma 2

100 1

0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14

Cumulative 39Ar Released (%) 39Ar / 40Ar


Figure 3d. idem 3a; para-authochthonous rocks located along the western flank of the Central Cordillera.

71
DV42-Hbl: Hbl-gabbro, Late Cretaceous Palmar Stock

120 Weighted Plateau 4


Inverse Isochron: 80.4±18.1 Ma
Total Fusion: 72.4±6.0 Ma

36Ar / 40Ar (10-3)


100 40Ar/36Ar intercept: 292.7±17.8
3
Age (Ma)

MSWD: 0.59
80
60 2
40 77.6±5.7 Ma 1
20
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10

DV91-Pl: Diorite, Late Cretaceous Buga Batholith

120 Total Fusion age: 79.2±2.6 Ma

36Ar / 40Ar (10-3)


3
Age (Ma)

100
80 2

60 1
40
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0.000 0.010 0.020 0.030 0.040

DV94-Hbl: Pegmatite, Late Cretaceous Bolívar Ultramafic Complex


4
240 Disturbed spectra Inverse Isochron: 67.6±15.3 Ma
36Ar / 40Ar (10-3)

Total Fusion: 69.3±4.8 Ma 40Ar/36Ar intercept: 340.5±43.7


3
180 MSWD: 1.94
Age (Ma)

81.8±10.0 Ma

120 2

60 1

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10

Cumulative 39Ar Released (%) 39Ar / 40Ar

Figure 3e. idem 3a; the Cauca-Patía Valley and the Western Cordillera. See text for further discussion on the robustness of
the data.

Lanphere [1978]. However, we consider those ages Garnet amphibolites of the high-medium P–T
to be meaningful because contiguous age steps metamorphic rocks of the Arquía Complex, exposed
differ by less than 0.8% over >70% 39Ar released, on the western border of the Central Cordillera,
and the weighted mean ages are indistinguishable within the Romeral Fault System yielded similar
from the inverse isochron ages that also yield 40
Ar/39Ar ages (Figures 2 and 3d) to those found in
atmospheric 40Ar/36Ar intercepts [295.5; Steiger the Jurassic Ibagué Batholith located further east.
and Jager, 1977]. Hornblende extracted from amphibolites (DV89A
and DV89B) sampled from the same outcrop
Western flank of the Central Cordillera yielded indistinguishable plateau ages of 117.2±

72
9.4 Ma and 112.0±3.7 Ma (both representing 60% age of 77.6±5.7 Ma with an indistinguishable
of the total 39Ar released). Hornblende DV89A inverse isochron age of 80.4±18.1 Ma. Hornblende
yielded a humped age spectrum that may be from a pegmatite of the Late Cretaceous Bolívar
diagnostic of 39Ar recoil, and hence we consider Ultramafic Complex (DV94; zircon U-Pb of 95.5±1.1
the plateau age of DV89B (112.0±3.7 Ma) to be Ma; see Chapter 2), located along the eastern flank
the most accurate hornblende age for this region. of the Western Cordillera, yielded a discordant age
Hornblende from garnet amphibolite (DV28) was spectrum with a total fusion age of 69.3±4.8 Ma,
sampled closer to the Silvia–Pijao Fault (Figures which is indistinguishable from its inverse isochron
2 and 3d) than amphibolite DV89B, and yielded age of 67.6±15.3 Ma. The progressive reduction in
a younger plateau 40Ar/39Ar age of 64.4±3.6 Ma, age from low to high temperature heating steps
which is similar to 40Ar/39Ar ages obtained from suggests the discordance may be a consequence
continental basement exposed in the northern of excess 40Ar, although this is un-resolvable from
Central Cordillera (e.g. Antioquia Batholith). the inverse isochron.
A single diorite (DV26) of the Late Cretaceous Plagioclase from a diorite (DV91) of the Buga
Córdoba pluton (zircon U-Pb age of 79.7±2.5 Batholith (zircon U-Pb ages span 92–90 Ma; see
Ma; Chapter 2), located ~ 4 km to the NW of Chapter 2), located within the Cauca–Patía Valley,
sample DV28, yielded a hornblende plateau yields a highly discordant age spectra with a total
40
Ar/39Ar age (Figure 3d) of 67.9±1.6 Ma, with an fusion age of 79.2±2.6 Ma.
indistinguishable inverse isochron age of 65.9±5.1
Ma. Initial steps with older apparent ages of ~75
Ma host excess 40Ar, and hence are inaccurate.
5 Results: Fission track (FT) data
4.2 40Ar/39Ar data from Late Cretaceous Forty-one apatite and thirty one zircon FT ages
accreted mafic rocks of the Western (Table 2) have been obtained from several regions
Cordillera and the Cauca-Patía Valley distributed throughout the Central and Western
(Calima Terrane) cordilleras of Colombia from approximately 1°N­ to
7°N, spanning an elevation range of 431 to 3292
m. Apatite FT ages range from 113.4 Ma to 8.2
The Calima Terrane is commonly used to
Ma, and young towards the south, proximal to the
describe the Colombian component of a series of
Ecuadorian border. All apatite FT ages pass the
oceanic plateau rocks and an overlying arc, which
P(χ2) test with values >5%, indicating that single
collided and accreted to the NW South American
grain ages from any individual sample define a
margin at some point in the Late Cretaceous
single FT age population [Galbraith, 1981; Green,
[Spikings et al., 2001; Villagómez et al., 2008],
1981], and hence their pooled ages are reported.
against the Cauca–Almaguer Fault. Consequently,
Mean track lengths [c-axis projected; Donelick et
the Calima terrane is one component of the larger,
al., 1999; Ketcham et al., 2007b] vary from 15.05
allochthonous Caribbean-Colombian Oceanic
to 13.31 μm. With the exception of two pegmatites
Province, which is also exposed in Ecuador
exposed in the Western Cordillera (DV94 and DV95,
[Pallatanga terrane; Spikings et al., 2001].
with Dpar values of 3.4 and 2.5 μm, respectively),
all Dpar values vary from 2.2 to 1.2 μm without
4.2.1 Central Colombia (4°55’N–3°15’N) any particular trend relative to their apatite FT
With the exception of a single sample (gabbro ages, suggesting that any compositional influence
DV42), mafic crystalline rocks of the allochthonous on annealing is insignificant (Figure 4).
Calima Terrane yield discordant 40Ar/39Ar age Zircon FT ages range from 112.0 Ma to 41.6 Ma,
spectra (Figure 3e), primarily because of the with P(χ2) values >5% except for three samples
prevalence of low-K and high-Ca minerals, which of the metasedimentary rocks of the Cajamarca
inhibit the generation of concordant data. A coarse Complex, which probably host multiple fission
hornblende gabbro of the Volcanic Fm. (Palmar track populations [e.g. Green, 1981]. Individual
gabbro; sample DV42; zircon U-Pb age of 99.7±1.3 age populations (Table 2) have been resolved
Ma; see Chapter 2) yielded a plateau 40Ar/39Ar using the software BINOMFIT [Brandon, 1996]. All

73
age errors are presented at 2σ-level.
16

Mean track length (µm)


No attempt was made to acquire relationships
between age and sample elevation due to a
15
combination of a high spatial density of faulting
and a lack of detailed geological maps within the 14
cordilleras, which would render any age variation
with elevation uninterpretable. 13

12
2.5
5.1 Fission track data from the
Central Cordillera (Tahami Terrane and 2.0

deviation (µm)
Standard
Quebradagrande Complex) 1.5

1.0

0.5
5.1.1 Northern Colombia: 7°N -5°N
0.0
Apatite FT ages show a general decrease with 4.0
increasing distance towards the east, across the
Central Cordillera in northern Colombia, away 3.0
diameter (µm)
Long etch pit

from the Romeral Fault System (Cauca–Almaguer


Fault; Figures 2 and 5). The northern section of the 2.0
Central Cordillera is less structurally dissected than
1.0
more southerly regions, and such a trend provides
clues as to the tectonic evolution of the cordillera. 0.0
0 20 40 60 80 100
Western flank of the Central Cordillera,
AFT age ± 2σ (Ma)
Manizales–Medellín traverse
Apatite FT analyses of rocks sampled from a Central Cordillera: 7°10’N-5°00’N
Central Cordillera: 4°45’N-3°15’N
traverse between Manizales and Medellín, located Western Cordillera
between 8-35km from the Cauca-Almaguer Fault
(Figure 2a) yielded ages of 69.4±17.2 Ma (DV160), Figure 4. Relationship between a) Apatite FT age and mean
78.6±19.8 Ma (DV177), 64.5±14.6 Ma (DV176) and track length, b) Apatite FT age and standard deviation of
track length measurements, and c) Apatite FT age and etch
51.8±7.4 Ma (DV179) from diorites and sandstones
pit diameter (Dpar). The lack of a clear relationship (i.e.
of the Early Cretaceous Quebradagrande increasing age with increasing Dpar) suggests the inter-
Complex, and 74.4±10.4 Ma (DV54) and 72.9±18.8 sample variation in apatite FT age is controlled by variations
Ma (DV53) from two diorites of the Antioquia in thermal histories, and not by variations in track annealing
Batholith (zircon U-Pb age span 94–87 Ma; kinetics.
Chapter 2). These are amongst the oldest apatite
FT ages obtained in the Colombian Andes (Figure
6). Mean apatite FT lengths range between
a prominent, high, broad and flat region of the
15.05±0.64 and 13.43±1.13μm, with diorite DV54
Altiplano Antioqueño (mean elevation of 2500 m).
yielding the longest mean track length. Granite
The Late Cretaceous Antioquia and the Paleocene
from the Paleocene–Eocene Manizales pluton (K/
Sonsón Batholith (65–55 Ma; U-Pb zircon)
Ar biotite age 59–55 Ma; Figure 2a) [Brook, 1984]
[Ordoñez-Carmona et al., 2001] intrude Paleozoic
yielded a zircon FT age of 43.9±4.2 Ma (DV161),
orthogneisses of La Miel and Triassic rocks of the
which is probably a close approximation of its
Cajamarca Complex (Figure 2a) in this region,
crystallization age.
which is 40-75km east of the Cauca–Almaguer
Central altiplano, Yarumal–Sonsón traverse Fault. North of 6°N, the Antioquia Batholith yielded
apatite FT ages of 69.7±8.6 Ma (DV153), 58.5±8.0
Samples were collected along a traverse
Ma (DV58), 54.8±5.8 Ma (DV70) and 53.0±4.8
between Yarumal and Sonsón, which intersects
Ma (DV148), with mean lengths ranging between

74
140 ages of 64.1±9.6 Ma (DV63), 59.8±10.2 Ma (DV64),
western flank 43.5±4.8 Ma (DV65) and 41.0±6.6 Ma (DV80). One
120 spine single sample yielded a mean apatite FT length of
13.69±1.20 μm. These ages are generally younger
AFT age ± 2σ (Ma)

eastern flank
100
than those obtained from the same rock units that
80 are located closer to the Cauca–Almaguer Fault.
The Tertiary Hatillo pluton (53.0±1.8; biotite K/Ar;
60 Figure 2a) [Vesga and Barrero, 1978] yielded an
apatite FT age of 39.6±7.0 Ma (DV163).
40
Zircon FT ages yielded by the Antioquia Batholith
20 and the Hatillo pluton along the eastern flank of
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
the Central Cordillera are 74.8±7.4 Ma (DV63)
Distance eastwards from the
Cauca-Almaguer Fault (km)
and 55.3±5.4 Ma (DV163), respectively, which are
consistently older than their apatite FT ages.
Figure 5. Relationship between apatite FT age (Ma±2σ)
and distance from the Late Cretaceous ocean-continent 5.1.2 Central Colombia: 4°45’N–3°30’N
suture (the Cauca–Almaguer Fault) in the northern Central
Cordillera. The data reveal a general eastward younging Eastern flank of the Central Cordillera, La Línea-
trend, implying that the timing of Tertiary cooling become Ibagué-Venadillo region
progressively younger towards the east.
Apatite FT ages from metasedimentary rocks
of the Cajamarca Complex and granitoids of the
Jurassic Ibagué Batholith exposed along the
14.54±0.92 μm and 14.42±0.75 μm, suggesting eastern flank of the Central Cordillera show
they are slightly annealed. South of 6°N, a single significant variation (Table 2; Figure 2b), and
mica schist of the Cajamarca Complex yielded range between 68.3±8.2 Ma and 19.6±4.2 Ma.
apatite FT ages of 56.6±7.4 Ma whereas granites No geographic trends can be identified within
of the Sonsón Batholith (DV154), 48.2±4.8 Ma the ages, and the large age variation is probably
(DV156) and 44.3±6.2 Ma (DV155), and a single a consequence of dense faulting along dextral
sample yielded a mean length of 14.95±0.71 μm. Palestina fault, the high angle reverse Otú–Pericos
Fault and the dextral Ibagué Fault and their splays
Zircon FT ages show no spatial trend along the [e.g. Restrepo-Pace, 1992; Vargas et al., 2005].
traverse and are 66.6±8.0 Ma (DV153), 65.5±6.0 Indistinguishable apatite FT ages of 30.5±5.8 Ma
Ma (DV56), 58.1±5.2 Ma (DV70) and 55.4±5.2 Ma (DV85), 30.6±5.8 Ma (DV09), 32.1±7.2 Ma (DV02),
(DV148) in the northern section of the traverse. 35.0±8.2 Ma (DV86), 35.8±4.6 Ma (DV06) and
Samples located farther south (Sonsón area) 37.1±5.8 Ma (DV03) have been obtained from
yielded zircon FT ages of 71.4±9.8 Ma (DV155), samples located within the Ibagué and Otú–Pericos
53.1±5.6 Ma (DV154) and 47.9±5.2 Ma (DV156). fault zones (Figure 2b). The youngest apatite FT
These ages are either indistinguishable, or slightly age of 19.6±2.1 (DV18) Ma was obtained from a
older than the apatite FT ages yielded by the same granodioritic gneiss (zircon U-Pb age of 237.5±5.5
samples. Ma, Chapter 2) part of the Cajamarca Complex,
Eastern flank of the Central Cordillera, San Luis– located on the crest of the Central Cordillera (La
Fresno traverse Línea), close to the Palestina Fault. Older AFT ages
of 59.8±16.8 Ma (DV05), 59.2±20.2 Ma (DV04),
Samples from this traverse are located between 64.9±10.2 Ma (DV07), 68.3±8.2 Ma (DV82) were
75-100 km from the Cauca–Almaguer Fault (Figure obtained from less deformed rocks, which less
2a). A Triassic schist of the Cajamarca Complex intense brittle fracturing and faulting. Five of these
(DV67) yielded the oldest (albeit imprecise) apatite samples yielded long to intermediate mean track
FT age of 113.4±22.8 Ma from the cordilleras. lengths between 14.95 and 13.31 μm (Table 2),
Granitoids of the Antioquia Batholith (zircon suggesting they are partially annealed to varying
U-Pb age span 94-87 Ma; Chapter 2) and Triassic degrees.
metasedimentary rocks yielded Tertiary apatite FT
Twelve zircon FT ages obtained from the same

75
Table 2

76
Fission track age results
a) External Detector Method
Pooled MTL±2s (μm)
elevation Latitude N Longitude W RhoS x105 RhoI x105 RhoD x105 FissionTrack c-axis Std. Dev.
2 2
Sample Unit Lithology Stratigraphic Age (m) d°m's'' d°m's'' Grains track/cm track/cm 2 track/cm 2 U (ppm) P(χ ) Age±2σ (Ma) corrected (μm) Dpar±2σ (μm)

Central Cordillera

Northern Colombia (7°N-5°N)


Manizales-Medellín

Apatite

DV53 Antioquia Batholith diorite Late Cretaceous 1958 6°18'39.7'' 75°30'16.3'' 21 1.104 (99) 3.423 (307) 14.591 (15215) 3.3 98 72.9±18.8 13.43±0.32 1.13 1.73±0.06

DV54 Antioquia Batholith diorite Late Cretaceous 1958 6°19'41.1'' 75°28'49.6'' 20 7.593 (325) 24.346 (1042) 14.489 (15215) 19.5 99 74.4±10.6 15.05±0.12 0.64 1.62±0.03

DV160 Quebradagrande Complex diorite Early Cretaceous 1426 5°03'09.2'' 75°34'19.0'' 21 1.838 (86) 6.667 (312) 14.853 (18044) 4.8 78 69.4±17.2

DV176 Quebradagrande Complex diorite Early Cretaceous 1381 5°27'16.0'' 75°28'28.2'' 24 1.501 (106) 5.354 (378) 13.568 (18044) 4.5 100 64.5±14.6

DV177 Quebradagrande Complex (Abejorral Fm.) sandstone Early Cretaceous 2127 5°07'06.5'' 75°27'46.5'' 24 0.875 (88) 2.455 (247) 13.018 (18044) 2.2 100 78.6±19.8

DV179 Quebradagrande Complex (Abejorral Fm.) sandstone Early Cretaceous 1067 5°50'07.1'' 75°35'20.0'' 20 6.446 (283) 27.107 (1990) 12.834 (18044) 30.2 30 51.8±7.4

Zircon

DV161 Manizales pluton granite Paleocene 2735 5°01'34.7'' 75°23'32.8'' 15 78.058 (1608) 53.981 (112) 5.141 (7728) 333.7 60 43.9±4.2
Yarumal-Cisneros-Sonsón

Apatite

DV58 Antioquia Batholith granite Late Cretaceous 1143 6°01'06.3'' 75°08'10.8'' 14 13.973 (306) 61.598 (1349) 15.198 (15215) 46.3 77 58.5±8.0

DV70 Antioquia Batholith granodiorite Late Cretaceous 2317 6°58'14.8'' 75°25'33.1'' 20 12.446 (575) 58.290 (2693) 15.113 (13800) 45.9 84 54.8±5.8 14.54±0.13 0.92 1.89±0.04

DV148 Antioquia Batholith granodiorite Late Cretaceous 1473 6°25'16.3'' 75°23'05.7'' 19 6.403 (849) 32.323 (4286) 15.771 (18044) 24.3 78 53.0±4.8

DV153 Antioquia Batholith granodiorite Late Cretaceous 1360 6°32'24.8'' 75°07'19.0'' 20 4.070 (396) 15.437 (1502) 15.587 (18044) 11.6 39 69.7±8.6 14.42±0.16 0.75 1.31±0.04

DV154 Cajamarca Complex schist Triassic 2276 5°46'42.8'' 75°18'32.0'' 19 11.579 (330) 53.439 (1523) 15.404 (18044) 40.5 36 56.6±7.4

DV155 Sonsón batholith granite Paleocene 2199 5°46'18.2'' 75°17'33.1'' 19 5.564 (281) 32.099 (1621) 15.037 (18044) 25.2 80 44.3±6.2

DV156 Sonsón batholith granite Paleocene 2486 5°45'14.3'' 75°18'00.5'' see below 5 48.2±4.8 14.95±0.17 0.71 1.38±0.03

Zircon

DV56 Antioquia Batholith granite Late Cretaceous 2192 6°03'19.8'' 75°12'42.7'' 20 91.351 (4193) 27.146 (1246) 3.303 (2480) 256.4 5 65.5±6.0

DV70 Antioquia Batholith granodiorite Late Cretaceous 2317 6°58'14.8'' 75°25'33.1'' 15 47.385 (2156) 28.110 (1279) 5.839 (7728) 161.2 58 58.1±5.2

DV148 Antioquia Batholith granodiorite Late Cretaceous 1473 6°25'16.3'' 75°23'05.7'' 14 68.327 (1920) 38.292 (1076) 5.261 (7728) 244.4 9 55.4±5.2

DV153 Antioquia Batholith granodiorite Late Cretaceous 1360 6°32'24.8'' 75°07'19.0'' 15 39.725 (11556) 18.351 (534) 5.221 (7728) 111.8 11 66.6±8.0

DV154 Cajamarca Complex schist Triassic 2276 5°46'42.8'' 75°18'32.0'' 18 61.378 (1381) 35.467 (798) 5.201 (7728) 228.9 47 53.1±5.6

DV155 Sonsón batholith granite Paleocene 2199 5°46'18.2'' 75°17'33.1'' 15 51.111 (1886) 21.545 (795) 5.181 (7728) 136.4 5 71.4±9.8

DV156 Sonsón batholith granite Paleocene 2486 5°45'14.3'' 75°18'00.5'' 13 65.500 (1179) 41.667 (750) 5.161 (7728) 275.4 14 47.9±5.2

San Luis-Pto. Triunfo-Fresno

Apatite

DV63 Antioquia Batholith Qz-rich aplite Late Cretaceous 777 5°58'42.0'' 74°57'31.5'' 18 7.811 (264) 26.331 (890) 12.753 (13800) 22.5 9 64.1±9.6

DV64 Antioquia batholith granodiorite Late Cretaceous 782 5°58'56.5'' 74°57'19.3'' 20 6.982 (192) 25.818 (710) 13.048 (13800) 22.8 98 59.8±10.2

DV65 Cajamarca Complex gneiss Triassic 602 5°59'16.1'' 74°55'34.5'' 19 15.097 (468) 79.548 (2466) 13.490 (13800) 69.2 50 43.5±4.8 13.69±0.29 1.20 1.74±0.06

DV67 Cajamarca Complex mica schist Triassic 610 5°56'14.7'' 74°51'39.0'' 20 4.048 (153) 8.757 (331) 14.523 (13800) 6.8 87 113.4±22.8

DV80 Cajamarca Complex white mica schist Triassic 431 5°55'17.5'' 74°50'08.7'' 20 2.095 (194) 13.251 (1227) 15.260 (13800) 10.8 63 41.0±6.6

DV163 Hatillo pluton granite Paleocene 1100 5°10'43.6'' 74°58'41.6'' 20 1.337 (164) 8.199 (1006) 14.302 (18044) 7.6 97 39.6±7.0

Zircon

DV63 Antioquia Batholith granite Late Cretaceous 777 5°58'42.0'' 74°57'31.5'' 18 79.622 (1895) 36.975 (890) 5.899 (7728) 202.1 83 74.8±7.4

DV163 Hatillo pluton granite Paleocene 1100 5°10'43.6'' 74°58'41.6'' 19 43.69 (1717) 23.893 (939) 5.121 (7728) 157.7 23 55.3±5.4
Table 2 (continued)
Pooled MTL±2s (μm)
elevation Latitude N Longitude W RhoS x105 RhoI x105 RhoD x105 FissionTrack c-axis Std. Dev.
2 2 2
Sample Unit Lithology Stratigraphic Age (m) d°m's'' d°m's'' Grains track/cm 2 track/cm track/cm U (ppm) P(χ ) Age±2σ (Ma) corrected (μm) Dpar±2σ (μm)

Central Cordillera

Central Colombia (4°45'N-3°30'N)


La Línea-Ibagué-Venadillo

Apatite

DV02 Cajamarca Complex gneiss Triassic 685 4°46'41.8'' 74°57'54.2'' 7 6.012 (101) 34.881 (586) 11.593 (6034) 31.0 44 32.1±7.2

DV03 Cajamarca Complex gneiss Triassic 685 4°46'41.8'' 74°57'54.2'' 11 13.209 (247) 59.947 (1121) 10.495 (7215) 29.0 6 37.1±5.8 14.95±0.20 0.76 1.91±0.07

DV04 Ibagué Batholith gabbro-diorite Jurassic 933 4°47'00.2'' 74°58'31.4'' 20 1.149 (47) 3.667 (150) 11.792 (7215) 3.5 100 59.2±20.2

DV05 Ibagué Batholith granodiorite Jurassic 1064 4°24'27.7'' 75°16'05.3'' 21 2.681 (74) 6.957 (192) 9.678 (6474) 8.3 100 59.8±16.8 13.42±0.31 1.15 1.58±0.05

DV06 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 1277 4°24'08.9'' 75°17'40.3'' 19 5.515 (439) 25.98 (2068) 10.641 (6034) 28.3 12 35.8±4.6 13.81±0.43 1.41 1.59±0.16

DV07 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 1363 4°24'25.4'' 75°18'04.5'' 21 7.463 (456) 18.494 (1130) 12.120 (6474) 16.9 13 64.9±10.2 13.82±0.19 0.92 1.59±0.03

DV09 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 1354 4°24'29.7'' 75°18'11.8'' 20 4.884 (147) 28.206 (849) 11.110 (6034) 27.6 60 30.6±5.8 14.07±0.23 0.93 1.53±0.04
WM granodioritic
DV18 Permotriassic magmatic units gneiss Triassic 3292 4°28'19.0'' 75°33'18.1'' 20 1.730 (105) 15.288 (928) 10.754 (7215) 17.0 27 19.6±4.2

DV82 Permian intrusives granite Permo-Triassic 1051 4°17'15.5'' 75°13'59.2'' 20 15.668 (575) 46.567 (1709) 12.831 (7215) 44.5 45 68.3±8.2 13.31±0.28 1.16 2.22±0.06

DV85 Cajamarca Complex schist Triassic 1403 4°27'52.6'' 75°16'23.1'' 20 2.800 (133) 24.947 (1185) 15.998 (13800) 19.2 85 30.5±5.8

DV86 Cajamarca Complex graphitic schist Triassic 1420 4°28'18.0'' 75°16'31.7'' 20 2.274 (88) 17.494 (677) 15.850 (13800) 12.7 79 35.0±8.2

Zircon

DV02 Cajamarca Complex gneiss Triassic 685 4°46'41.8'' 74°57'54.2'' 15 75.636 (832) 27.909 (307) 3.979 (2480) 229.3 6 63.6±9.4

DV05 Ibagué Batholith granodiorite Jurassic 1064 4°24'27.7'' 75°16'05.3'' 8 138.321 (654) 25.169 (119) 2.649 (2480) 310.8 37 85.3±18.2

DV06 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 1277 4°24'08.9'' 75°17'40.3'' 20 176.658 (2101) 37.753 (449) 2.965 (2480) 423.2 78 81.3±10.6

DV07 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 1363 4°24'25.4'' 75°18'04.5'' 20 129.504 (1556) 30.878 (371) 3.597 (2480) 273.5 98 88.3±12.4

DV08 Cajamarca Complex phyllite Triassic 1479 4°24'49.6'' 75°18'46.9'' 30 105.775 (3108) 14.507 (463) 2.723 (2480) 168.0 92 106.6±16.0

DV09 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 1354 4°24'29.7'' 75°18'11.8'' 15 53.305 (629) 15.339 (181) 3.641 (2480) 143.4 67 74.6±13.4

DV14* Cajamarca Complex quartzite Triassic 2185 4°26'18.5'' 75°28'37.5'' 28 102.453 (2078) 32.736 (658) 3.448 (2480) 268.9 0 65.1±10.2 *

DV17* Cajamarca Complex greenschist Triassic 2943 4°27'44.1'' 75°32'15.4'' 44 72.333 (2747) 27.407 (1080) 3.931 (2480) 229.4 2 58.1±6.6 *
WM granodioritic
DV18 Permotriassic magmatic units gneiss Triassic 3292 4°28'19.0'' 75°33'18.1'' 18 94.192 (2444) 34.532 (896) 3.386 (2480) 315.3 9 54.2±6.0

DV19* Cajamarca Complex quartzite Triassic 3292 4°28'19.0'' 75°33'18.1'' 17 92.472 (1646) 36.91 (657) 3.738 (2480) 330.5 0 56.2±9.0 *

DV81 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 919 4°20'16.5'' 75°11'47.6'' 17 128.114 (2242) 23.657 (414) 3.255 (2480) 240.0 26 103.6±13.0

DV82 Permian intrusives granite Permo-Triassic 1051 4°17'15.5'' 75°13'59.2'' 20 129.678 (1740) 27.65 (371) 2.825 (2480) 313.7 98 77.6±10.8

Armenia-Pijao

Apatite

DV26 Córdoba Pluton granodiorite Late Cretaceous 1389 4°24'30.9'' 75°41'24.2'' 20 2.766 (190) 29.229 (2008) 9.214 (6034) 37.7 79 13.9±2.4

Zircon

DV26 Córdoba Pluton granodiorite Late Cretaceous 1389 4°24'30.9'' 75°41'24.2'' 20 94.407 (2152) 33.823 (771) 2.860 (2480) 376.0 5 45.6±7.6

Southern Colombia (1°30'N-1°00'N)

Pasto-Mocoa

Apatite

DV129 Not determ gneissic granodiorite Paleozoic ? 2350 1°10'02.5'' 76°51'32.7'' see below 16 8.21±1.2

DV134 Ibagué Batholith granodiorite Jurassic 1638 1°04'32.5'' 76°43'50.4'' 19 0.694 (56) 12.838 (1036) 17.239 (18044) 8.9 93 15.9±4.4

DV136 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 2260 1°04'21.7'' 76°44'53.5'' see below 58 13.7 ±2.2

DV139 Ibagué Batholith dacitic porphyry Jurassic 1874 1°05'01.8'' 76°47'58.2'' 15 0.705 (28) 10.932 (434) 17.056 (18044) 7.1 94 18.7±7.4

Zircon

77
DV134 Ibagué Batholith granodiorite Jurassic 1638 1°04'32.5'' 76°43'50.4'' 15 129.461 (2641) 38.039 (776) 5.460 (7728) 226.5 9 109.2±10.8

DV136 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 2260 1°04'21.7'' 76°44'53.5'' 15 90.137 (1316) 26.986 (394) 5.440 (7728) 159.3 39 106.8±13.6

DV139 Ibagué Batholith dacitic porphyry Jurassic 1874 1°05'01.8'' 76°47'58.2'' 11 126.104 (971) 35.584 (274) 5.380 (7728) 208.0 11 112±16.6
Table 2 (continued)

78
Pooled MTL±2s (μm)
elevation Latitude N Longitude W RhoS x105 RhoI x105 RhoD x105 FissionTrack c-axis Std. Dev.
Sample Unit Lithology Stratigraphic Age (m) d°m's'' d°m's'' Grains track/cm 2 track/cm 2 track/cm 2 U (ppm) P(χ2) Age±2σ (Ma) corrected (μm) Dpar±2σ (μm)

Western Cordillera and the Cauca-Patía Valley

Northern Colombia (7°N-5°N)


Ciudad Bolívar

Apatite

DV165 Mande Batholith diorite Eocene 799 5°46'04.7'' 76°14'56.3'' 19 3.557 (270) 22.266 (1690) 13.935 (18044) 18.7 18 37.8±5.2 14.46±0.29 1.06 1.36±0.04

DV167 Mande Batholith granodiorite Eocene 782 5°46'15.1'' 76°14'51.1'' 22 3.066 (256) 18.79 (1569) 13.752 (18044) 17.0 100 38.1±5.4 13.47±0.15 0.81 1.17±0.03

Zircon

DV165 Mande Batholith diorite Eocene 799 5°46'04.7'' 76°14'56.3'' 12 15.916 (686) 11.485 (495) 5.081 (7728) 75.8 31.22 41.6±5.4

DV167 Mande Batholith granodiorite Eocene 782 5°46'15.1'' 76°14'51.1'' 15 13.306 (809) 8.536 (519) 5.041 (7728) 54.8 93.25 46.4±5.8

Central Colombia (4°45'N-3°30'N)

Cauca-Patía Valley

Apatite

DV26 Córdoba Pluton granodiorite Late Cretaceous 1389 4°24'30.9'' 75°41'24.2'' 20 2.766 (190) 29.229 (2008) 9.214 (6034) 37.7 79 13.9±2.4

DV30 Buga Batholith tonalite Late Cretaceous 1664 3°54'10.6'' 76°10'50.4'' 19 2.623 (149) 13.891 (789) 13.984 (15215) 11.8 66 44.8±8.4

Zircon

DV26 Córdoba Pluton granodiorite Late Cretaceous 1389 4°24'30.9'' 75°41'24.2'' 20 94.407 (2152) 33.823 (771) 2.860 (2480) 376.0 5 45.6±7.6

DV91 Buga Batholith diorite Late Cretaceous 1117 3°55'31.0'' 76°14'42.4'' 13 192.32 (2404) 80.24 (1003) 2.917 (2480) 901.4 44.98 41.3±4.2

Cali-Restrepo-Roldanillo

Apatite

DV94 Volcanic Fm. (Bolívar complex) pegmatite Late Cretaceous 1032 4°20'25.7'' 76°11'44.0'' 20 4.841 (243) 17.669 (887) 13.073 (15215) 16.1 96 61.5±9.4 13.35±0.41 1.15 3.38±0.20

DV95 Volcanic Fm. (Bolívar complex) pegmatite Late Cretaceous 1198 4°20'02.1'' 76°11'52.0'' 15 28.457 (535) 102.075 (1919) 13.275 (15215) 90.4 11 62.8±6.8 13.82±0.39 1.27 2.49±0.07

Zircon

DV94 Volcanic Fm. (Bolívar complex) pegmatite Late Cretaceous 1032 4°20'25.7'' 76°11'44.0'' 17 18.198 (1414) 9.099 (707) 5.760 (7728) 56.5 49 67.9±7.4

DV95 Volcanic Fm. (Bolívar complex) pegmatite Late Cretaceous 1198 4°20'02.1'' 76°11'52.0'' 20 32.124 (2994) 17.393 (1621) 5.739 (7728) 119.0 40 62.5±5.2

Southern Colombia (1°30'N-1°00'N)

Ricaurte, Pasto-Mocoa

Apatite

DV121 Piedrancha pluton granodiorite Oligocene 1840 1°08'22.5'' 77°51'43.3'' see below 9 35.8±5.8

* Zircon populations

DV14 Cajamarca Complex quartzite Triassic 2185 4°26'18.5'' 75°28'37.5'' 47.0±9.0

DV14 84.3±17.0

DV17 Cajamarca Complex greenschist Triassic 2943 4°27'44.1'' 75°32'15.4'' 39.3±12.0

DV17 63.4±7.4

DV19 Cajamarca Complex quartzite Triassic 3292 4°28'19.0'' 75°33'18.1'' 38.7±18.0

DV19 62.6±9.0

b) LA-ICP-MS method Pooled


Σ(PΩ)±2s 43 238
Elevation Latitude N Longitude W Ca U Fission
Sample Lithology Stratigraphic age (m) d°m's'' d°m's'' Grains Ns Area (cm 2) (10-5 cm 2) bkg:sig bkg:sig U (ppm) P(χ2) Track MTL±2s (μm)

DV156 Sonsón batholith granite Paleocene 2486 5°45'14.3'' 75°18'00.5'' 22 718 1.32E-03 9.24 7.96E-02 4.69E-03 22.80 5 48.2±4.8 14.95±0.17

DV121 Piedrancha pluton granodiorite Oligocene 1840 1°08'22.5'' 77°51'43.3'' 33 175 1.83E-03 4.47 2.27E-02 3.10E-03 7.44 24.7 25.8±4.8

DV129 Not determined gneissic granodiorite Paleozoic ? 2350 1°10'02.5'' 76°51'32.7'' 33 329 1.21E-03 26.53 2.00E-02 1.40E-03 74.16 19.5 8.21±1.2

DV136 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 2260 1°04'21.7'' 76°44'53.5'' 30 179 9.65E-04 8.11 7.02E-02 4.38E-03 27.29 63 13.7 ±2.2

Table 2a) Values in parentheses indicate the number of tracks counted. Samples counted by D. Villagómez (zeta: 340.83±8.02, CN5 glass, apatite; 118.52±3.08, CN1 glass, zircon).
Table 2b) Zeta MS: 12.476±0.368 (DV156 and DV136), 13.201±0.672 (DV121), 13.256±0.689 (DV129)
Fossil tracks were revealed in apatites by etching in 5.5 N HNO 3 (aq) at 21°C for 20 sec. Fossil tracks were revealed in zircons by etching in the eutectic mixture NaOH/KOH at 210°C for periods between 6 and 26 hours.
Induced tracks were reveled in muscovite external detectors by etching in 40% HF (aq) at 20°C for 45 min.
Fission tracks were counted at a magnification of x 1000 (apatite and zircon, dry objective) using computer-controlled Zeiss-Axio-Imager.z1m and motorized Sony stage
Lengths of horizontal confined tracks were measured in apatite grains lying in the plane of crystallographic c axis directly on a LCD screen connected to an high resolution digital camera. System used for counting and measuring length data provided by Autoscan System Pty. Ltd.
* P(χ2)<5% the zircon fission track is the central age. Age of different populations are listed under "zircon populations" and have been resolved using the software BINOMFIT (Brandon, 1996).
samples range between 107 and 54 Ma, with most Cretaceous and younger accreted mafic
of the samples yielding Late Cretaceous ages that rocks of the Western Cordillera and the
display a subtle eastward younging trend (Figure Cauca–Patía Valley (Calima and Chocó–
2b). Traversing eastwards from La Línea, the
Panamá terranes)
zircon FT ages are 56.2±9 Ma (DV19), 54.2±6.0 Ma
(DV18), 58.1±6.6 Ma (DV17), 65.1±10.2 Ma (DV14),
74.6 ±13.4 Ma (DV09), 88.3±12.4 Ma (DV07),
106.6±16.0 Ma (DV08), 81.3±10.6 Ma (DV06), 5.2.1 Northern Colombia: 7°N-5°N
85.3±18.2 Ma (DV05), 77.6±10.8 Ma (DV82),
Eastern flank of the Western Cordillera, Ciudad
103.6±13.0 Ma (DV81) and 63.6±9.4 Ma (DV02).
Bolívar region
With the exception of the metasedimentary rocks
(Cajamarca Complex) DV14, DV17 and DV19, all Two granodiorites (DV167 and DV165) of the
zircon FT ages yield P(χ2) values >5%. Eocene Mande Batholith (U-Pb zircon 43–42 Ma;
Cardona, pers. comm. to DV), located in northern
Western Flank of the Central Cordillera, Colombia, yielded indistinguishable apatite
Armenia–Pijao region FT ages of 38.1±5.4 Ma and 37.8±5.2 Ma and
Apatite and zircon FT ages of 13.9±2.4 Ma and indistinguishable zircon FT ages of 46.4±5.8 Ma
45.6±7.6 Ma, respectively were obtained from a and 41.6±5.4 Ma, respectively.
granite of the Late Cretaceous Córdoba pluton
(DV26; zircon U-Pb age of 79.7±2.5 Ma; Chapter 2) 5.2.2 Central Colombia: 4°45’N–3°30’N
located within the Romeral Fault System (Figure
2b). No useful FT length data were obtained from Eastern flank of the Western Cordillera, Cali–
this sample, such that it cannot be modelled. Roldanillo region
Two pegmatite dykes (DV94, DV95) of the
5.1.3 Southern Colombia: 1°30’N-1°00’N Bolívar Ultramafic Complex (zircon U-Pb 95.5±1.1
and 97.1±2.1 Ma; see Chapter 2), which are
Traverse across the Central Cordillera between considered to represent fractionated melts of the
the towns of Pasto and Mocoa Volcanic Fm. [Kerr et al., 2004], yielded apatite
Four samples of granitoids of the Ibagué FT ages of 61.5±9.4 Ma and 62.8±6.8 Ma, and
batholith located along a traverse between the zircon FT ages of 67.9±7.4 and 62.5±5.2 Ma. These
towns of Pasto and Mocoa in southern Colombia samples yielded partially annealed mean apatite
yielded apatite FT data. Three samples from a FT lengths of 13.35±1.15 μm and 13.82±1.27 μm
single coherent fault block bound by the Acevedo- and large Dpar values of 3.4 μm (DV94) and 2.5
Afiladeros Fault and the Amazonian Border Fault μm (DV95).
(Figure 2c) were collected over an elevation range
Cauca-Patía Valley
of 1630 to 2260 m, and yield a linear relationship
between sample elevation and their apatite FT ages Fission track data have been obtained from
of 15.9±4.4 Ma (DV134), 13.7±2.2 Ma (DV136), and the Buga Batholith (U-Pb zircon span 90-92 Ma;
18.7±7.4 Ma (DV139). The same samples yielded Chapter 2), located west of the Cauca–Almaguer
significantly older zircon FT ages of 109.2±10.8 Ma Fault within the Cauca–Patía Valley in central
(DV134), 106.8±13.6Ma (DV136) and 112±16.6 Colombia (Figure 2b). Two different intrusive
(DV139), which are similar to some of the zircon rocks yielded indistinguishable apatite FT ages
FT ages obtained for the same batholith in central of 44.8±8.4 Ma (tonalite, DV30) and a zircon FT
Colombia (e.g. DV08, DV81). A sample of the same age of 41.3±4.2 Ma (diorite, DV91). A statistically
batholith located west of the Acevedo-Afiladeros useful quantity of apatite FT lengths could not be
Fault (Figure 2c) yielded a younger apatite FT age measured.
of 8.2±1.2 Ma (DV129). No useful FT track length
could be obtained from this traverse. 5.2.3 Southern Colombia: 1°N-0°

Eastern flank of the Western Cordillera, Ricaurte


5.2 Fission track data from Late region

79
A single apatite FT age of 25.8±4.8 Ma (DV121) Batholith, located along the eastern flank of
was obtained from granodiorite of the Miocene the northern Central Cordillera, proximal to the
Piedrancha pluton (K/Ar biotite 23±3 Ma) [Alvarez Palestina Fault (Figure 2a) yielded an apatite (U-
and Linares, 1979], which is located in southern Th)/He age of 20.9±1.2 Ma, which is younger than
Colombia, along the eastern flank of the Western other apatites (U-Th)/He ages obtained from the
Cordillera (Figure 2c). Altiplano Antioqueño.

6.1.2 Western Cordillera


Granite (DV166) of the Eocene Mande Batholith
6 Results: (U-Th)/He (zircon U-Pb ages of 43–42 Ma) [Cardona, 2010,
pers. comm.], which crops out in the northern
Apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He data have been Western Cordillera (Figure 2a), yielded an apatite
obtained from samples dispersed along the Central (U-Th)/He age of 3.9±0.2 Ma, which is the youngest
Cordillera, and from two samples of the Western in northern Colombia. The same sample gave
Cordillera. All apatites and zircons were inclusion a zircon (U-Th)/He age of 32.8±0.7 Ma, which is
free (at a magnification of 156.25x in transmitted significantly older than the apatite age.
light), with spatially unzoned parent isotopes,
as confirmed by a homogeneous distribution of
induced fission tracks. Three aliquots (1 grain per
6.2 Central Colombia: 4°45’N–3°30’N
aliquot) were analysed per sample, and only those
samples which yielded indistinguishable aliquot
ages (±2σ) are presented as weighted mean ages.
6.2.1 Central Cordillera
Apatite (U-Th)/He ages obtained from the
6.1 Northern Colombia: 7°N–5°N central region of the Central Cordillera (Figure 2b)
are younger than those acquired from the north
(Figure 2a). Apatite (U-Th)/He ages obtained
from various intrusive bodies (Table 3) yielded,
6.1.1 Central Cordillera
from west to east, ages of 6.1±0.2 Ma (DV26),
Western Flank 6.1±0.2 Ma (DV07), 7.5±0.4 Ma (DV05), 11.2±0.3
Ma (DV82) and 10.6±0.8 Ma (DV04) whereas a
The youngest apatite (U-Th)/He age obtained in
metasedimentary rock of the Cajamarca Complex
the northern Central Cordillera was 13.4±1.4 Ma
yielded an age of 9.3±0.8 Ma (DV86). Zircon (U-
from a diorite of the Antioquia Batholith (DV53)
Th)/He ages of 43.0±1.2 (DV09) and 46.3±1.2
that crops out along the western flank, proximal to
Ma (DV06) were also acquired from the Ibagué
the Romeral Fault System (Figure 2a).
Batholith, which are within the same range as
Altiplano Antioqueño those obtained from northern Colombia.
Three samples of the Antioquia and Sonsón
batholiths located between 1140 m and 2490m
(Table 3) within the Altiplano Antioqueño region 6.3 Southern Colombia: 1°30’N–1°00’N
of the northern Central Cordillera, yielded apatite
(U-Th)/He ages of 39.1±1.3 Ma (DV70), 31.0±1.4
Ma (DV58) and 30.8±0.7 Ma (DV156), which are 6.3.1 Central Cordillera
the oldest obtained in the cordilleras of Colombia.
The youngest apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages
Zircon (U-Th)/He ages of 45.2±1.2 Ma (DV58) and
in this study have been obtained from the southern,
40.1±1.0 Ma (DV56) have been obtained from
Central Cordillera, close to the Ecuadorian border
samples located at 1140 and 2190 m, respectively.
(Figure 2c). An undetermined gneiss and one
Eastern Flank granodiorite of the Ibagué Batholith located at
elevations between 1400 m and 2350 m yielded
A quartz-rich aplite (DV63) of the Antioquia apatite (U-Th)/He ages of 4.5±0.1 Ma (DV129)

80
Altitude Alpha correction Grain size
Sample Unit Lithology Strat. Age (m) Latitude Longitude (FT) (μm) He (ncc) U (ppm) Th (ppm) Sm (ppm) Age±2σ (Ma)

Northern Colombia (7°N-5°N)

Table 3
Central Cordillera
Apatite
Western Flank
DV53 Antioquia Batholith diorite Late Cretaceous 1958 6°18'39.7'' 75°30'16.3'' 0.75 63.06 0.01 2.59 2.77 22.79 13.7±2.1
0.74 59.08 0.01 4.22 2.65 20.25 8.8±1.3
0.72 55.59 0.01 3.76 3.22 21.68 13.1±1.9
Weighted mean: 13.4±1.4 (a,2)
Altiplano Antioqueño
DV58 Antioquia Batholith granite Late Cretaceous 1143 6°01'06.3'' 75°08'10.8'' 0.76 66.21 0.27 25.29 0.89 56.82 29.9±1.6
0.74 58.72 0.03 3.51 2.26 25.00 33.7±2.6
0.69 49.14 0.54 110.60 3.98 163.76 36.4±1.9
Weighted mean: 31.0±1.4 (a,2)

Apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He age results


DV70 Antioquia Batholith granodiorite Late Cretaceous 2317 6°58'14.8'' 75°25'33.1'' 0.82 89.58 2.79 57.79 71.28 191.59 38.8±1.8
0.80 77.25 1.41 44.76 65.80 155.04 39.3±1.8
0.78 70.95 0.01 0.78 0.75 1.90 27.9±6.4
Weighted mean: 39.1±1.3 (a,2)
DV156 Sonsón batholith granite Paleocene 2486 5°45'14.3'' 75°18'00.5'' 0.80 78.54 0.56 18.87 40.64 239.98 31.0±1.3
0.76 64.95 0.38 24.94 57.63 241.14 29.4±1.3
0.76 64.92 0.38 22.50 52.71 312.55 32.1±1.4
Weighted mean: 30.8±0.7 (a,3)
Eastern Flank
DV63 Antioquia Batholith Qz-rich aplite Late Cretaceous 777 5°58'42.0'' 74°57'31.5'' 0.68 47.58 0.04 12.62 13.26 22.56 19.1±1.7
0.71 53.03 0.38 43.70 125.82 74.90 29.8±1.3
0.73 56.66 0.06 7.97 18.12 19.61 22.7±1.7
Weighted mean: 20.9±1.2 (a,2)
Zircon
Altiplano Antioqueño
DV56 Antioquia Batholith granite Late Cretaceous 2192 6°03'19.8'' 75°12'42.7'' 0.75 52.20 16.16 1451.76 417.05 0.00 41.7±1.5
0.76 54.24 29.02 1720.09 273.06 0.00 57.2±2.0
0.80 66.96 13.63 593.25 120.98 0.00 38.8±1.4
Weighted mean: 40.1±1.0 (z,2)
DV58 Antioquia Batholith granite Late Cretaceous 1143 6°01'06.3'' 75°08'10.8'' 0.86 93.74 68.18 890.05 155.75 0.00 44.2±1.6
0.84 82.41 78.95 1462.59 277.73 0.00 46.8±1.9
0.87 103.96 59.65 328.71 144.91 0.00 70.9±2.6
Weighted mean: 45.2±1.2 (z,2)
Western Cordillera
Apatite
DV166 Mande Batholith diorite Eocene 794 5°46'09.4'' 76°14'51.2'' 0.76 64.49 0.04 21.77 31.50 136.59 3.8±0.2
0.81 83.71 0.06 13.12 24.27 107.59 4.0±0.2
0.74 60.42 0.04 18.79 33.61 169.60 5.8±0.3
Weighted mean: 3.9±0.2 (a,2)
DV166 Mande Batholith diorite Eocene 794 5°46'09.4'' 76°14'51.2'' 0.80 69.03 4.06 176.03 73.01 0.00 33.7±1.3
0.82 76.87 4.39 142.79 57.07 0.00 31.8±1.2

81
0.76 55.85 4.60 415.82 125.06 0.00 33.0±1.3
Weighted mean: 32.8±0.7 (z,3)
Alpha correction Grain size

82
Sample Unit Lithology Strat. Age Latitude Longitude Altitude (FT) (μm) He (ncc) U (ppm) Th (ppm) Sm (ppm) Age±2σ (Ma)

Central Colombia (4°45'N-3°30'N)

Central Cordillera
Apatite
DV04 Ibagué Batholith gabbro-diorite Jurassic 933 4°47'00.2'' 74°58'31.4'' 0.68 47.51 0.01 2.94 11.04 26.87 10.4±1.6
0.70 50.74 0.01 3.00 4.25 20.15 12.2±1.9
0.72 54.16 0.01 5.53 6.03 21.80 10.1±1.1

Table 3 (continued)
Weighted mean: 10.6±0.8 (a,3)
DV05 Ibagué Batholith granodiorite Jurassic 1064 4°24'27.7'' 75°16'05.3'' 0.71 53.96 0.02 10.14 22.67 74.00 7.1±0.6
0.67 46.94 0.15 6.88 6.78 19.76 159.8±8.4
0.67 46.04 0.01 9.80 20.43 62.93 8.0±0.7
Weighted mean: 7.5±0.4 (a,2)
DV07 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 1363 4°24'25.4'' 75°18'04.5'' 0.76 64.78 0.10 28.17 88.56 157.49 6.1±0.3
0.76 64.06 0.10 28.19 91.71 162.33 6.2±0.3
0.76 66.36 0.15 33.02 89.25 133.68 7.8±0.3
Weighted mean: 6.1±0.2 (a,2)
DV26 Córdoba Pluton granodiorite Late Cretaceous 1389 4°24'30.9'' 75°41'24.2'' 0.73 57.02 0.08 37.80 71.49 151.03 6.6±0.3
0.69 48.79 0.05 40.86 76.07 147.42 6.1±0.3
0.69 49.14 0.05 44.29 81.40 156.86 5.6±0.3
Weighted mean: 6.1±0.2 (a,3)
DV82 Permian intrusives granite Permo-triassic 1051 4°17'15.5'' 75°13'59.2'' 0.72 55.63 0.22 56.80 98.87 40.79 13.7±0.6
0.74 59.35 0.43 94.22 243.57 92.81 11.2±0.5
0.78 72.07 0.52 62.94 153.53 76.10 11.1±0.5
Weighted mean: 11.2±0.3 (a,2)
DV86 Cajamarca Complex graphitic schist Triassic 1420 4°28'18.0'' 75°16'31.7'' 0.66 44.67 0.01 11.36 1.44 93.95 9.9±1.7
0.75 62.19 0.00 1.82 0.04 0.53 8.7±1.5
0.65 44.00 0.02 19.63 6.15 120.37 9.4±1.2
Weighted mean: 9.3±0.8 (a,3)
Zircon
DV06 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 1277 4°24'08.9'' 75°17'40.3'' 0.86 98.08 35.74 356.82 228.34 0.00 45.2±1.6
0.86 93.80 22.58 248.13 151.27 0.00 47.7±1.8
0.85 91.55 33.47 379.95 196.02 0.00 50.8±1.9
Weighted mean: 46.3±1.2 (z,2)
DV09 Ibagué Batholith granite Jurassic 1354 4°24'29.7'' 75°18'11.8'' 0.79 63.55 8.64 294.26 196.72 0.00 53.1±2.8
0.77 59.34 2.74 138.77 82.48 0.00 45.3±1.8
0.80 68.51 2.59 91.95 49.81 0.00 41.0±1.6
Weighted mean: 43.0±1.2 (z,2)
and 3.6±0.2 Ma (DV133) respectively. The same
undetermined gneiss (DV129) also yielded a zircon
(U-Th)/He age of 9.3±0.2 Ma.

6.3.2 Western Cordillera


A granodiorite of the Piedrancha pluton
(DV121; Figure 2c), located in the southern
Western Cordillera yielded an apatite (U-Th)/He
age of 12.3±0.4 Ma, which is distinctly older than
apatite (U-Th)/He ages obtained from the Central
Cordillera at similar latitudes.
(a,2)

(a,2)

(a,2)
(z,3)
Age±2σ (Ma)

13.4±0.6
12.3±0.4
10.0±0.4

11.5±0.5
26.2±1.2
4.3±0.2
6.0±0.2
4.7±0.2
4.5±0.1

3.6±0.2
3.6±0.2

9.2±0.4
9.3±0.2
2.5±0.4
3.4±0.7

8.9±0.3

7 Thermal histories of rocks of


Sm (ppm)

the Colombian Andes


581.47
121.04

144.49
124.40
195.93
92.33

68.35
51.35
43.70

0.00
0.00
0.00
Weighted mean:

Weighted mean:

Weighted mean:

Weighted mean:
Th (ppm)

1004.39
263.67
154.02

15.17
25.24
16.38
15.64

73.80
75.57
47.97

13.78
9.96

Good and acceptable fits (Kuiper’s statistic


test with merit values >0.5 and >0.05) thermal
U (ppm)

272.47

204.75
115.44
90.58
59.73

73.83

12.08
12.04
7.39
5.18
5.14

6.09

history solutions have been generated for twelve


samples from the Central Cordillera (Jurassic
He (ncc)

Ibagué, Cretaceous Antioquia and Paleocene


0.24
0.75
0.34

0.01
0.06

0.86
0.01

1.10
0.95

0.16
0.10
0.33

Sonsón batholiths, and metasedimentary rocks of


Alpha correction Grain size

the Triassic Cajamarca Complex) and four from the


108.84

104.42
72.56
76.41
59.13

82.41
61.98
54.49

66.68
71.87

87.47
71.29
(μm)

Western Cordillera (Oligocene Mande Batholith


(U-Th)/He data, numbers in parenthesis indicate number of aliquots (one grain per aliquot) used to calculate the weighted mean; z, zircon; a, apatite.

and the Late Cretaceous Bolívar Ultramafic


Complex). None of the samples were forced to
0.79
0.74
0.78

0.86

0.84
0.75
0.72

0.80
0.81

0.82
0.78
0.85
(FT)

reach surface temperatures prior to the present


76°51'32.7''

76°43'45.7''

76°51'32.7''

77°51'43.3''

day due to a lack of evidence for unconformably


Altitude

overlying sedimentary rocks.


Longitude

1°10'02.5''

1°04'58.2''

1°10'02.5''

1°08'22.5''

7.1 Central Cordillera between 7°N and


Latitude

2350

1397

2350

1840

5°N
Paleozoic ?

Paleozoic ?

Oligocene
Jurassic
Strat. Age

7.1.1 Antioquia Batholith and the Cajamarca


gneissic granodiorite

gneissic granodiorite

Complex.
granodiorite

granodiorite

The good-fit thermal history envelopes for


Lithology

rocks located in the Antioquia Batholith (zircon


U-Pb ages span 94-87 Ma; Chapter 2) reveal an
initial peri­od of high cooling rates that occurred at
Southern Colombia (1°30'N-1°00'N)

Piedrancha pluton

varied times between 77 Ma and 50 Ma (Figure


Ibagué Batholith
Not determ

Not determ

7a). The earliest period of cooling was detected


Western Cordillera
Unit

Central Cordillera

in diorite DV54, which is located close to the


Romeral Fault System and cooled at rates ≥~50°C/
Sample

Apatite

Apatite
DV129

DV133

DV129

DV121
Zircon

My during ~76-65 Ma. Diorite DV54 yields the


longest mean apatite fission track length in the
Table 3 (continued) region (15.05 μm), and indistinguishable ages of

83
Central Cordillera Western
Cordillera
7°10’N-5°00’N 4°45’N-3°15’N 1°30’N- and Cauca-
1°00’N Patía Valley

Apatite (U-Th)/He
Apatite Fission track
140 Zircon (U-Th)/He
Zircon Fission track
Feldspar 40Ar/39Ar
120 Biotite 40Ar/39Ar
Hornblende 40Ar/39Ar
Age ± 2σ (Ma)

100

80

60

40

20

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Analysis
Figure 6. Compilation of thermochronological ages (±2σ) from three regions dispersed along the Central Cordillera, and
throughout the Western Cordillera and Cauca–Patía Valley in Colombia. 40Ar/39Ar ages in the northern Central Cordillera are
never older than Late Cretaceous, whereas they are mainly Early Cretaceous at central latitudes (4°45’N – 3°15’N). Apatite
fission track and (U-Th)/He ages young towards the south, within the Central Cordillera.

70.4±6.3 Ma (hornblende 40Ar/39Ar) and 74.4±10.6 Gneiss DV65 of the Triassic Cajamarca Complex
Ma (apatite FT). Diorite DV53 is also located sampled along the eastern flank of the Central
close to the Romeral Fault System (Figure 7a) Cordillera yields a best-fit envelope with an initial
and cooled rapidly during 75–50 Ma, although no period of cooling commencing at 70–55 Ma, with
good-fits were obtained. Both samples remained a subsequent drop in cooling rate towards the
at approximately constant temperatures during present day. Its biotite 40Ar/39Ar age (80.8±0.3
50-15 Ma, and diorite DV53 subsequently cooled Ma) is distinguishably older than 70 Ma and hence
during 15–0 Ma. Further east, granodiorite DV153 extrapolation to temperatures >120°C is tentative,
yielded a good-fit solution with rapid cooling although it supports elevated cooling rates during
between 75–70 Ma from ~280°C (total annealing the Campanian.
of zircon FT) to 80°C at rates of ≥40°C/My.
Subsequently, moderate cooling occurred during 7.1.2 The Sonsón Batholith
65–50 Ma from 80°C to 60°C at rates of ≥2°C/My,
and no reliable constraints exist below 60°C. The No good-fit solutions were obtained from the
northernmost exposures of the batholith (DV70) Paleocene Sonsón Batholith (zircon U-Pb ages
yielded a good-fit solution after integrating four span 65–55 Ma) [Ordóñez-Carmona et al., 2001]
different thermochronometers (biotite 40Ar/39Ar, although granite DV156 yielded an acceptable-
zircon FT, apatite FT, apatite (U-Th)/He). Granite fit solution (Figure 7a) showing rapid cooling
DV70 cooled rapidly during ~70–50 Ma from from 240°C to 100°C during 55–45 Ma at rates
~320°C to ~100°C at ≥10°C/My, followed by slow of ~ 13°C/My, moderate cooling from ≥100°C to
cooling from 100°C at 45 Ma until 40°C at 25 Ma ~ 40°C between 45 Ma–30 Ma at rates of ~4 °C/
at rates of ~3°C/My and decelerating cooling until My towards the present day. Cooling commencing
the present. at 55 Ma may represent sub-solidus thermal
relaxation of the pluton.

84
DV54 Antioquia Batholith DV70 Antioquia Batholith
0 0
20 Unconstrained 20
40 40
Mean length
60 60
Temperature (°C)

observed: 15.05±0.64 μm
80 best-fit: 15.15±0.72 μm 80
100 100
0.6 N: 118

Temperature (°C)
120 GOF: 0.84 120
140 AFT 140
Measured: 74.4±10.4 Ma Apatite (U-Th)/He
160 Measured: 38.8±1.8 Ma Mean length
Best-fit: 74.9 Ma 0.3 180 Best-fit: 39.0 Ma observed: 14.54±0.94 μm
500 GOF: 0.92 GOF: 0.80
200 best-fit: 14.66±1.03 μm
520
Ar (hbl): 70.4±6.3 Ma 220 AFT
540 0.0 Measured: 54.8±5.8 Ma N: 191
240 0.4 GOF: 0.68
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 4 8 12 16 20 Best-fit: 53.8 Ma
Time (Ma) Length (μm) 260 GOF: 0.74
280 ZFT
Measured: 58.1±5.2 Ma
0.2
300
DV153 Antioquia Batholith 320 Ar (bt): 68.9±0.6 Ma
340 0.0
0
Unconstrained 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 4 8 12 16 20
20 Time (Ma) Length (μm)
40
60
80
100
Temperature (°C)

DV65 Cajamarca Fm.


120 Mean length
observed: 14.41±0.76 μm 0
140 Unconstrained
AFT best-fit: 14.60±0.73 μm
160 40
Measured: 69.7±8.6 Ma
180
Best-fit: 68.1 Ma 0.6 N: 86
200 GOF: 0.94 80
GOF: 0.71
220
Temperature (°C)

240 ZFT 0.3 120


Measured: 66.6±8.0 Ma Mean length
260 observed: 13.67±1.22 μm
160
280 AFT best-fit: 14.12±1.07 μm
Measured: 43.5±4.8 Ma
300 0.0 200 Best-fit: 44.3 Ma N: 69
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 4 8 12 16 20 ?
Time (Ma) Length (μm) GOF: 0.98 0.30 GOF: 0.83
240
Ar (bt): 80.8±0.3 Ma
280 0.15
DV53 Antioquia Batholith
0 320
20 0.00
Temperature (°C)

40 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 4 8 12 16 20
60 Time (Ma) Length (μm)
80
100
120 DV156 Sonsón Batholith
140 Mean length 0
observed: 13.43±1.13 μm 20
160 Apatite (U-Th)/He best-fit: 13.16±1.29 μm
180 40
Measured: 13.7±2.1 Ma
Best-fit: 18.0 Ma N: 50 60
GOF: 0.11
0.30 GOF: 0.11 80
Temperature (°C)

100
AFT Mean length
0.15 120 Apatite (U-Th)/He
Measured: 72.9±18.8 Ma observed: 14.95±0.71 μm
140 Measured: 31.0±1.3 Ma
Best-fit: 56.9 Ma Best-fit: 39.2 Ma best-fit: 14.88±0.91 μm
GOF: 0..09 160 GOF: 0.14
N: 66
0.00 180 0.50 GOF: 0.27
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 4 8 12 16 20 AFT
200 Measured: 48.2±4.8 Ma
Time (Ma) Length (μm) Best-fit: 44.7 Ma
220
GOF: 0.15
240 0.25
260 ZFT
Measured: 47.9±5.2 Ma
280
300 0.00
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 4 8 12 16 20
Time (Ma) Length (μm)

Figure 7a. Northern Central Cordillera: Time-temperature solutions obtained by numerical modelling, using the kinetic
relationship of Flowers et al. [2009] and Reiners et al. [2004] for diffusion of He in zircon, Farley [2000] for the diffusion of
He in apatite and Ketcham et al. [2007] for fission track annealing in apatite. Dark pink areas are envelopes for “good fits”
and green areas are envelopes for “acceptable fits”. The bold line shows the statistically best–fitting solution. Measured and
predicted data (for the best fit model) are shown for comparison. The solutions were considered to be good fits when track
length histograms and model ages passed the Kuiper’s statistic test with values of >0.5, and acceptable with values of >0.05.
GOF: Goodness-of-fit. Further details can be found in the text and dashed lines highlight paths that have been manually
interpolated. Zircon U-Pb ages (Chapter 2)

85
may have been a response to displacement of the
Palestina, Ibagué and Otú–Pericos faults (Figure
7.2 Central Cordillera between 4°45’N 2b).
and 3°30’N Almost all samples taken north of the Ibagué
Fault reveal a period of elevated cooling rates of
≥ 4°C/My during 15-0 Ma, which is more precisely
7.2.1 South of the Ibagué Fault defined by those samples that yielded apatite (U-
Th)/He data. In contrast, a majority of samples
The good-fit envelope of solutions for a Permo-
taken from the Altiplano Antioqueño region of
Triassic granite (DV82) located south of the Ibagué
the northern Central Cordillera did not experience
fault display rapid cooling from >250°C to ~60°C
rapid cooling during the Miocene.
from 80–70 Ma at rates of ≥20 °C/My. Isothermal
conditions prevailed until ~15–10 Ma, when
the sample cooled at rates of ≥ 3°C/My until the
present day. DV82 yielded a broad flat region on 7.3 Central Cordillera between 1°30’N
its 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum (Figure 7b), suggesting it and 1°00’N
cooled rapidly through 290±60°C during ~140–135
Ma. Similarly, plateau and broad, flat regions on the Thermal history solutions have not been
orthoclase 40Ar/39Ar age spectra of granodiorites obtained from rocks located in the southern
(DV81 and DV84) of the Ibagué batholith, located Central Cordillera because they did not yield
south of the Ibagué Fault shows they also cooled apatite FT length data. However, three samples
rapidly through 290±60°C during ~140-135 Ma. of granitoids from the Jurassic intrusives (Ibagué
batholith) located within a single fault block
7.2.2 North of the Ibagué Fault bound by the Acevedo-Afiladeros Fault and the
Amazonian Border Fault (Figure 2c) yielded apatite
Granitoids (DV06 and DV09) of the Ibagué
FT ages which i) are the youngest from the Central
Batholith and gneiss (DV03) of the Cajamarca
Cordillera (Figure 6), ii) yield a weighted mean age
Complex located north of the Ibagué Fault
of ~14 Ma, which is comparable in age with apatite
experienced distinctly different cooling histories
(U-Th)/He ages obtained from central Colombia,
to samples located south of the fault (Figure 7b).
and the timing of the onset of cooling of some
Orthoclase feldspars cooled through 290±60°C
samples in central Colombia. We suggest that
during ~115–110 Ma, and the reduced ages of
these apatite FT ages, when combined with two
individual, low-temperature 40Ar/39Ar heating
Pliocene apatite (U-Th)/He ages, are diagnostic
steps of orthoclase DV09 (Figure 7b) suggests it
of high cooling rates in the southern Central
continued to cool until ~100 Ma, albeit at a reduced
Cordillera since the middle Miocene. Conversely,
rate. Acceptable-fit envelopes for granodiorites
the southern Central Cordillera yields the oldest
DV07 and DV05 reveal elevated cooling rates
zircon FT ages, suggesting it underwent a lower
during a poorly constrained period within the
quantity of exhumation than more northern
Late Cretaceous, which has not been found in the
regions, prior to the Miocene.
good-fit solutions of the remaining samples north
of the Ibagué Fault.
Late Eocene–early Oligocene (45-30 Ma) rapid
7.4 Western Cordillera
cooling of ≥ 9°C/My is shown by all good-fit models
derived from samples located north of the Ibagué
Fault, and is most precisely define by the envelope Good-fit solutions for the Bolívar Ultramafic
for granodiorite DV06, during 45-40 Ma (Figure Complex (DV94 and DV95), located along the
7b) at rates ~24°C/My. Several samples located in eastern margin of the Western Cordillera reveal
this region and also in northern Colombia along rapid cooling from >250°C to 100-80°C during
the eastern flank of the Central Cordillera yield 75–65 Ma at rates of ~15 km/My, followed by
Eocene-Oligocene apatite FT ages (e.g. samples isothermal conditions until 30 Ma (Figure 7c).
DV02, DV03, DV06, DV09, DV65, DV80, DV85, Subsequent, slower cooling (≥2 °C/My) towards the
DV86, DV155, DV156), suggesting that cooling surface commenced during 30-10 Ma. The timing

86
DV03 Cajamarca Complex (N of the