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NARRATIVE

PURPOSE

To entertain, instruct or inform the reader by telling a story

E.g. Visual Arts - Write a narrative about a painting

HSIE - Write a narrative about the life of the peasants in Medieval Europe

English - Write a narrative featuring a hero and a villain

LANGUAGE FEATURES

When writing a narrative you should:

• Use verbs

• Use time connectives to show order

• Use descriptive language

• Use proper nouns (e.g. Character Names)

STRUCTURE

COMPONENT EXPLANATION EXAMPLE

Orientation Gives the reader It was a dark and stormy night, two
information about who was figures dressed in black walked
involved, what happened, swiftly along the road. The village
where it happened and when clock struck midnight.
it occured.

Body A series of paragraphs that Suddenly they were bathed in a


move through three stages: bright light. Coming from directly
above...
1. Complication
Their first reaction was...
2. Series of events that
move to a climax Then...

3. Resolution or temporary After their experiences...


resolution

Coda (optional) Tells how the characters These two men would never be the
have changed and exactly same again...
what they learnt from the
experience.
RECOUNT
PURPOSE

To retell events in chronological order. Recounts can be literary or factual.

E.g. English - My Weekend English - My Dragon Adventure

History - Life in Ancient Egypt

LANGUAGE FEATURES

When writing a recount you should:

• Use the past tense

• Use descriptive words

• Use proper nouns

• Use technical language (where appropriate)

• Use time connectives to show the sequence of events (firstly.... secondly.....)

STRUCTURE

COMPONENT EXPLANATION EXAMPLE

Orientation Gives the reader information On Saturday, my brother


about who was involved, what and I went to the movies at
happened, where it happened Bankstown...
and when it occurred.

Body A series of paragraphs that The day started when we


retell the events in chronological rang the movies...
order. You should start a new
paragraph for each event or Dad drove us to Bankstown
aspect of the event. and we met....

Reorientation Gives your personal comment I didn't like the movie but
about the events that you have my older brother really
retold. enjoyed it because...

Overall.....
DISCUSSION
PURPOSE

To present information about different sides of an issue or topic.

E.g. Science - Should scientists use animals to test cosmetics?

LANGUAGE FEATURES

When writing a discussion you should:

• Use words that show cause and effect

• Use persuasive language

• Use modality

STRUCTURE

COMPONENT EXPLANATION EXAMPLE

Opening Statement Presents the main argument and If you believe that we
provides background information should protect animals...
on the topic or issue.
Scientists claim that...
Outlines the different
viewpoints that will be used. Whereas
Environmentalists argue
that...

Body A series of paragraphs that Animals are bred


outline the arguments for and specifically for
against, including evidence for experimentation...
different points of view.
That these animals are
The arguments should be kept poorly in cages is the
supported by evidence such as argument of...
examples and/or quotes.
Scientists need to
devise...

Reinforcement The summing up of all the In short we cannot


arguments and viewpoints satisfy both animal
presented in the discussion. lobbyists and scientists
wishes.....
The writer may offer a
recommendation in favour of one
side.
PROCEDURE
PURPOSE

To give instructions and inform people about how to do something through a


series of steps.

E.g. Maths - Adding, Subtracting, Multiplying and Dividing Fractions.

Geography - Locating information in an Atlas

PD/H/PE - How to play softball

LANGUAGE FEATURES

When writing a procedure you should:

• Use imperatives/commands

• Use technical language

• Use words and phrases to specify time, place, participants etc.

STRUCTURE

COMPONENT EXPLANATION EXAMPLE

Opening Statement State the goal or aim of To locate Sydney on a


the activity. map of Australia and
copy its position onto a
blank map

Equipment List the materials and/or - Atlas - Ruler


equipment required.
- World map - Pen

Method List the steps required 1. Look at index pages of


to complete the goal in an atlas
chronological order.
and locate Sydney,
You should use numbers Australia.
to indicate each new
instruction. 2. .......
RESPONSE
PURPOSE

To summarise, analyse and evaluate an artistic work.

E.g. Visual Arts - Write a response to the success of your artwork.

Music - Review a Top 20 CD

LANGUAGE FEATURES

When writing a Response you should:

• Use descriptive language • Use modality • Use words that show cause and effect •
Use technical language

• Use present tense • Use persuasive language

STRUCTURE

COMPONENT EXPLANATION EXAMPLE

Context Gives background This is the impressive


information about the release
artistic work being
discussed

Description A series of paragraphs After replacing...


describing elements of
the artistic work Arrangements by...

This album explores....

Concluding Statement A paragraph which This is a good purchase


summarises the writers and an outstanding
opinion, and ends with the example of this group's
writers final judgement work.
and/or recommendation
EXPLANATION
PURPOSE

To tell how or why things occur.

E.g. Music - Explain the importance of rhythm in music

Mathematics - Explain the difference between prime and composite numbers

Geography - Explain why we should conserve the Great Barrier Reef

LANGUAGE FEATURES

When writing an explanation you should:

• Use the simple, present tense • Use words showing cause and effect

• Use the passive voice • Use technical language

STRUCTURE

COMPONENT EXPLANATION EXAMPLE

Identifying Statement A general statement Rhythm is...


identifying the topic to
be explained.

Explanation Sequence A series of paragraphs Rhythm is...


that explain how and why
things happen. Regular rhythm
suggests...
This is usually achieved
by discussing cause and Rhythm in nature...
effect and using time
connectives.

Concluding Statement A paragraph which Rhythm is written down


summarises the in music...
explanation.
DESCRIPTION
PURPOSE

To describe the characteristic features of a person, an object, an image or a place.

E.g. Maths - To describe the types and features of angles.

ESL - To describe yourself, your family and your community

LANGUAGE FEATURES

When writing a description you should:

• Use descriptive language

• Use technical language

• Use the present tense

STRUCTURE

COMPONENT EXPLANATION EXAMPLE

Opening Statement General statement or Angles can be seen in two-


definition to identify the dimensional and three-
person or thing being dimensional shapes...
described.

Body A series of paragraphs A triangle has three sides


that describe the and three angles...
characteristic features of
the person or thing. Quadrilaterals have four
sides and four angles...

Polygons have many sides


and the same number of
angles...

Concluding Comment A statement that An angle is made of two


summarises the arms, which meet at a
description (where point called the vertex.
applicable)
EXPOSITION
PURPOSE

To persuade a reader for or against a particular point of view.

E.g. Geography - We need to plant more trees in Australia

Visual Arts - Art is overpriced in Australia

PD/H/PE - Junk food should be banned from all school canteens

LANGUAGE FEATURES

When writing an exposition you should:

• Use words that link arguments • Use time connectives

• Use technical language • Use words showing cause and effect

STRUCTURE

COMPONENT EXPLANATION EXAMPLE

Thesis Presents the writer's The Australian Continent


point of view about a is suffering from...
topic or issue.

Body A series of paragraphs The Aboriginal


that outline and justify inhabitants of Australia...
the arguments that
support the overall Since the European
position of the writer. invasion...

The arguments should be Because Australia was


supported by evidence such a harsh country...
such as examples and/or
quotes. In addition...

Reinforcement The summing up of the The quickest, the


argument. The writer may cheapest and easiest way
offer a solultion or to rectify....
alternative to the topic
of issue.