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I. Residential Lighting
A. Energy Considerations
1. Provide means for reducing light levels in all areas. A kitchen during food preparation
does not have the same lighting requirements as kitchen being entered for a
“refrigerator raid”. Low-level lighting provision should be made in all rooms, including
bathrooms. To accomplish this use high-low switches, simple dimmers, multilevel
ballast, and multilevel switching. An ancillary benefit is that ambience can be changed
thereby in multiuse rooms such as dining rooms, family rooms, and finished basements
2. Provide local task lighting for difficult tasks such as the location at which family
accounts are handled
3. Provide switching for accent lighting
4. In large residences consider low-voltage control for its ease of remote control.
Considerable energy savings can be effected in this way
5. Provide time switches for exterior lights
6. Use daylight in areas normally occupied during daylight hours such as kitchens and
living rooms. Consider skylights with built-in artificial lighting for these areas
B. Sources
1. Work and utility areas including kitchens, laundry and workshop—fluorescent of
appropriate color
2. Built-in architectural elements—fluorescent
3. Bedrooms, portable lamps, accent lights—incandescent, tungsten-halogen
4. Circulation areas, stairwells, closets—-incandescent
5. Exterior: for short periods—incandescent; for long periods—HID
6. Bathrooms: general incandescent or warm white fluorescent; mirror lighting—incandescent
7. All rooms—daylight where possible
8. All spaces—use incandescent when source is turned on and off frequently or lighted for
short periods only
C. Recommendations (applicable ro residential occupancies of all types)
1. Use general/task – lighting concept with recommended levels
2. Provide brightness ratios
3. Provide general lighting in all spaces, sufficient for movement and casual seeing. Hallways
require little lighting; Stairs require more. Light stairs from directly above or ahead to create
a shadow directly above or ahead to create a shadow directly above the tread front. Lighting
from front eliminates shadows and can create a safety hazard
4. Do not avoid ceiling lights as is so frequently done. Wide-profile ceiling fixtures provide
general lighting; switch-controlled table lamps do not
D. Fixtures and Luminous Elements
1. Utilize diffuse distribution for general lighting, narrow-distribution downlight for area
and furniture accents, and narrow-distribution, ceiling-recessed incandescent
wallwashers for accenting surfaces such as brick walls
2. Use built-in lighting to the extent possible, including architectural lighting elements. We
believe that this demonstrates integrity of concept. For this reason, we recommend that
the flexibility of track lighting be utilized for accent and task lighting but not for general
lighting or as the lighting system throughout the residence
3. Private residences are the exception to the rule of selecting off-the-shelf items in
preference to specials. The lighting should compliment the architecture and furnishings,
and frequently this can best be accomplished by original designs
E. Architectural Lighting Elements
1. Lighted Cornices
 Cornices direct all their light downward to give dramatic interest to wall coverings,
drapers, murals, etc. May also be used over windows where space above window
does not permit valance lighting. Good for low-ceilinged rooms
2. Lighted Valances
 Valances are always used at windows, usually with draperies. They provide up-light
which reflects off ceiling for general room lighting and down-light for drapery
accent. When closer to ceiling than 10 inches use closed top to eliminate annoying
ceiling brightness
3. Lighted Coves
 Coves direct all light to the ceiling. Should be used only with white or near-white
ceilings. Cove lighting is soft and uniform but lacks punch or emphasis. Best used to
supplement other lighting. Suitable for high-ceilinged rooms and for places where
ceilings heights abruptly change
4. Lighted High Well Brackets
 High wall brackets provide both up and down light for general room lighting. Used
on interior walls to balance window valance both architecturally and in lighting
distribution. Mounting height determined by window or door height
5. Lighted Low Wall Brackets
 Low brackets are used for special wall emphasis or for lighting specific tasks such as
sink, range, reading in bed, etc. Mounting height is determined by eye height of
users, from both seated and standing positions. Length should relate to nearby
furniture groupings and room scale
6. Lighted Soffits
 Soffits over work rease are designed to provide higher level of light directly below.
Usually they are easily installed in furred-down area over sink in kitchen. Also are
excellent for niches over sofas, pianos, built-in desks, etc
 Bath or dressing room soffits are designed to light user’s face. They are almost
always used with large mirrors and counter-top lavatories. Length usually tied to
size of mirror. Add luxury touch with attractively decorated bottom diffuser
7. Lighted Canopies
 The canopy overhang is most applicable to both or dressing room. It provides
excellent general room illumination as well as light to the user’s face
8. Luminous Ceilings
 Totally luminous ceilings provide skylight effect very suitable for interior rooms or
utility spaces, such as kitchens, baths, laundries. With attractive diffuser patterns,
more decorative supports, and color accents they become acceptable for many other
living spaces such as family rooms, dens, etc. Dimming controls desirable
9. Luminous Wall Panels
 Luminous wall panels create pleasant vistas; are comfortable background for seeing
tasks; add luxury touch in dining areas, family rooms and as room dividers. Wide
variety of decorative materials available for diffusing covers
F. Portable Lighting
i. Add drama and individuality to your rooms
ii. Highlight artwork and treasured possessions
iii. Create intriguing shadow patterns
iv. Introduce a glowing decorative touch
1. Decorative Lamps
2. Floor Cans
3. Picture Lights
4. Portable Spots
G. General Lighting
1. Living Rooms, Dens, Family Rooms, and Recreation Rooms
 Dimmer control of general lighting lets you change the atmosphere of a room to suit
your mood easily and quickly
2. Kitchen and Laundry
 Diffusing ceiling fixtures provide light to see into cabinets and drawers for safe,
speedy working
3. Bedrooms
 For housekeeping chords, care of invalids of children and for seeing into drawers
and shallow closets
4. Halls, Foyer, and Stairs
 Overall light for safe passage
5. Switches
 If entrances to a room are more than 3 meters apart, there should be a switch at
each one
H. Incandescent Wall Lighting
1. Open Reflector Downlights
2. Wall Washers
3. Through Lighting
I. Wall Lighting
1. Fluorescent Wall Lighting
2. Cornice Lighting
3. Valance Lighting
4. Valance Brackets
J. Recessed Lighting
1. Shielding
K. Tracklighting
1. Open Downlights – for accent, task and wall lighting. Gives directional light good for
highlight and shadow
2. Lampholder – for decorative accent or general lighting with exposed globe bulbs, 25 to
100 W
3. Wall washers – bathe a wall evenly with light. Uses 100 or 75 or 150 W reflector flood
4. Projector or Low Voltage Spots – provide well controlled beams of light for accent
lighting. Use bulbs recommended by manufacturer
Lighting for the Foyer, Hall and Stairs

i. Welcome guests
ii. Keynote décor
iii. Provide safe passage with well chosen fixtures
L. Accent Lighting
M. Educational Facilities
1. Institutional Buildings
2. Art Rooms
3. Assembly Rooms, Auditoriums
4. Gynasium Lighting
5. Classrooms
6. Lecture Hall Lighting
7. Laboratory Lighting
8. Library Lighting
9. Specialty Room Lighting
10. Corridors and Stairways
N. Commercial Interiors
1. Office Lighting
2. Non-uniform Office Lighting Design Using Ceiling-Mounted Units
3. Non-Uniform Office Lighting Using Furniture-Integrated Luminaires
4. Integrated and Modular Ceilings
O. Lighting and Air-Conditioning
P. Industrial Lighting
1. Industrial Lighting Levels and Sources
2. Industrial illumination Brightness Ratios
3. Industrial Lighting Glare
4. Industrial Lighting Equipment
5. Vertical Surface Illumination
Q. Special Lighting Application Topics
1. Emergency Lighting
2. Building Retrofit
3. Floodlighting
4. Streetlighting
5. Disco-Lighting
R. Insulation and Sound-Proofing