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# EET 307 Power Electronic 1

## Laboratory: The Controlled half-wave rectifier converter

1.0 Objectives
1.1 To familiarize the calculation of some parameters by using calculation and PE Curve.
1.2 To understand the basic principle of half-wave rectifier with R and RL load.
1.3 To analyze the waveforms of the half-wave rectifier circuit.
1.4 To compare the some parameters between calculation and simulation measurement.

2.0 Background

A rectifier is an ac to dc converter. The aim of a rectifier may to produce an output that is purely dc,
or the purpose may to be produce a voltage or current waveform that has a specified dc components.
A way to control the output of a half-wave rectifier is to use an SCR. Figure 1 shows a basic
controlled half-wave rectifier with a resistor load. Two conditions must be met before the SCR can
conduct:

## 1. The SCR must be forward-biased (𝑣𝑆𝐶𝑅 > 0).

2. A current must be applied to the gate of the SCR.

The SCR will not begin to conduct as soon as the source becomes positive. Conduction is delayed
until a gate current is applied, which is the basis for using the SCR as a means of control. Once the
SCR is conducting, the gate current can be removed and the SCR remains on until the current goes to
zero.

## The average (dc) voltage across the load resistor in figure, is

EET 307 Power Electronic 1

1 𝜋 𝑉𝑚
𝑉𝑜 = 2𝜋 ∫𝛼 𝑉𝑚 sin(𝜔𝑡) 𝑑(𝜔𝑡) = 2𝜋
(1 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛼)...............................................(1)

2 ⁄
The power absorbed by resistor is 𝑉𝑟𝑚𝑠 𝑅 , where the rms voltage across he resistor is computed from

1 2𝜋
𝑉𝑟𝑚𝑠 = √2𝜋 ∫0 [𝑉𝑚 sin(𝜔𝑡)]2 𝑑(𝜔𝑡).

𝑉𝑚 𝛼 sin⁡(2𝛼)
𝑉𝑟𝑚𝑠 = √1 − + ...........................................(2)
2 𝜋 2𝜋

A controlled half-wave rectifier with a RL load is shown in Figure 2. The current is the sum of the
forced and natural responses, and equation applies:
𝑉𝑚
𝑖(𝜔𝑡) = 𝑖𝑓 (𝜔𝑡) + 𝑖𝑛 (𝜔𝑡) = 𝑍
sin(𝜔𝑡 − 𝜃) + 𝐴𝑒 −𝜔𝑡/𝜔𝜏 ..........................................(3)

## The constant A is determined from the initial condition⁡𝑖(𝛼) = 0;

𝑉𝑚
𝑖(𝛼) = 0 = sin(𝛼 − 𝜃) + 𝐴𝑒 −𝛼/𝜔𝜏
𝑍
𝑉𝑚
𝐴 = [− sin(𝛼 − 𝜃] = 𝑒 𝛼/𝜔𝜏 ...........................................(4)
𝑍

## Substituting for A and simplifying,

𝛼−𝜔𝑡
𝑉𝑚
𝑍
[sin(𝜔𝑡 − 𝜃) − sin(𝛼 − 𝜃) 𝑒 𝜔𝜏 ] , for⁡𝛼 ≤ 𝜔𝑡 ≤ 𝛽
𝑖(𝜔𝑡) = { ............................(5)
0⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡, otherwise

## Figure 2: A basic controlled rectifier circuit with RL load.

The extinction angle, β or known as cut-off angle is defined as the angle at which the current returns
to zero. When 𝜔𝑡 = 𝛽,
𝑉𝑚
𝑖(𝛽) = 0 = 𝑍
[sin(𝛽 − 𝜃) − sin(𝛼 − 𝜃) 𝑒 (𝛼−𝛽)⁄𝜔𝜏 ]......................................(6)
EET 307 Power Electronic 1

## The average (dc) output voltage is

1 𝛽 𝑉𝑚
𝑉𝑜 = 2𝜋 ∫𝛼 𝑉𝑚 sin(𝜔𝑡) 𝑑(𝜔𝑡) = 2𝜋
(𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛼 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛽).........................................(7)

## The average current is computed from

1 𝛽
𝐼𝑜 = 2𝜋 ∫𝛼 𝑖(𝜔𝑡)𝑑(𝜔𝑡)...........................................(8)

2
where 𝑖(𝜔𝑡) is defined in Eq. (5). Power absorbed by the load is 𝐼𝑟𝑚𝑠 𝑅, where the rms current is
computed from

1 𝛽
𝐼𝑟𝑚𝑠 = √2𝜋 ∫𝛼 𝑖 2 (𝜔𝑡)𝑑(𝜔𝑡).........................................(9)

Figure 3 shows the relationship between parameters in basic waveforms controlled half-wave rectifier
analysis.

Figure 3:Firing Angle α, Position Max Current θ, extinction Angle β, Conduction Angle δ

## [Ref: Daniel W. Hart, ‘Power Electronics’ McGrawhill, 2011]

3.0 Experiment
EET 307 Power Electronic 1

3.1 In this experiment, you will run the half-wave rectifier in Figure 1 for given parameters in
Table 1 & 2. You are required to prepare some calculation, appropriate necessary table for
record result and graphs as following instruction.
Table 1
Line Voltage [Vrms]@50Hz Resistance [Ω] Firing Angle [o]
230 100 50
230 75 50
230 50 50
230 25 50

Table 2
Line Voltage [Vrms]@50Hz Resistance [Ω] Firing Angle [o]
230 100 25
230 100 50
230 100 100
230 100 150

3.2 Observe and record the waveforms (for two cycle) of input voltage,𝑉𝑆 , output voltage Vo,
output current, 𝐼𝑜 , and SCR voltage, 𝑉𝑆𝐶𝑅 (for the parameter in table 1 and 2). Calculate
(pre-lab) the average output voltage, average output current, output power and input power

Check point: Get verification from Lab Instructorfor your calculation and measurement result
in appropriate format.

3.3 Repeat the above procedure with parameters in Table 2 and substitute R load with RL
load; R = 100 Ω and L= 100 mH. (Hint: use an appropriate PECurve to calculate a certain
parameters). Record the waveforms of voltage, 𝑉𝑆 ,⁡output voltage, 𝑉𝑜 ,⁡output current, 𝐼𝑜 ,⁡
voltage across resistor, 𝑉𝑅, voltage across inductor, 𝑉𝐿, and SCR voltage, 𝑉𝑆𝐶𝑅 .

Check point: Get verification from Lab Instructor for your calculation and measurement
result in appropriate format.

3.4 Add a freewheeling diode as shown in Figure 4 for ac-dc rectifier with Vs 230 V, R =100
Ω, L=100 mH, α = 50˚. Observe and record the waveforms of input voltage, Vs, output
voltage Vo, output current, Io, SCR voltage, 𝑉𝑆𝐶𝑅 , average output voltage, average output
current, output power and input power factor.

## Figure 4: Ac-dc rectifier with freewheeling diode.

4.0 Discussion
EET 307 Power Electronic 1

4.1 Explain the operation circuit in Figure 1, discuss the waveforms that obtain for
parameters in Table 1 and the result from your measurement compare to your
calculation. Give your comment on the effect of changing the load resistor value on
the output voltage, current, output power and input power factor.
4.2 Discuss the waveforms that obtain for parameters in Table 2 and the result from your
measurement compare to your calculation. Give your comment on the effect of
changing the firing angle on the output voltage, current, output power and input
power factor.
4.3 Explain the operation circuit in Figure 2. Discuss the waveforms that obtain for
parameters in instruction 3.3 and the result from your measurement compare to your
calculation. Give your comment on the effect of changing the firing angle on the
output voltage and current, voltage across resistor, 𝑉𝑅, voltage across inductor, 𝑉𝐿, and
SCR voltage, 𝑉𝑆𝐶𝑅 , output power and input power factor.
4.4 Explain the operation circuit in Figure 4, discuss the waveforms that obtain for
parameters in instruction 3.4 and discuss the effects of freewheeling diode to the ac-
dc rectifier.

## 5.0 Design Question

You are required to design a circuit that will deliver 200W from a 230V rms 50 Hz ac source.
A load consists of a series-connected resistance and inductance𝑅 = 5⁡𝛺, 𝐿 = 10⁡𝑚𝐻. Shows
all related calculation and verify your design with simulation result.