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E4-E5 Technical Architecture Rev date: 18-12-2012

Chapter-4

CAMPUS

PLANNING

Sangeeta Gangwar, Dy. Dir. (BS-Arch.), 9412739231 (m)


E-mail ID: gangwar.sangeeta@gmail.com

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Introduction
IDEAL CAMPUS

The campus is the physical environment created when building is constructed to allow
the idea to flourish. A campus has been compared to a city on a small scale because it
provides most of the needs for the community. Unlike a city, however, the campus is
non-commercial and primarily a place of study. The campus, therefore, ought to be a
closely with unified cluster of buildings with intimate pedestrian open spaces providing a
unique environment for living and studying it should ideally be a quiet, comfortable
oasis apart from the normally
Busy, Noisy, Congested
World in this sense a campus should be more like a residential suburb or dark than a city

Each of these zones requires different and special study design techniques to plan energy
efficient buildings.
The energy requirement of building depend upon various factors like comfort levels,
location of building usage of building etc.

CLIMATE ZONE’S (EXAMPLE)

1. Hot & Dry  Rajasthan

2. Warm & Humid  Sea Costal


(Kerala, Mumbai etc)

3. Moderate  Banglore

4. Cold & Cloudy  Hill’s


(Massurie, Shimla, Nanital)

5. Cold & Sunny  Northern India


Foot Hill, Dehradun etc.

6. Cloudy & Rainy  Chirapunji


North Eastern Region

7. Composite  Like Delhi


Extreme for Weather

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Input Data-Pre Planning Stage

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(1) Sources of household income
• Agnarian • Finance
• Building consts • Amusement recreation
• Manufacture • Professional
• Transport • Others
• Communication • Matrix of number employed and
• Public authority utilization levels of income

(2) Household Expenditure


• Food • Security
• Household goods • Taxes
• Clothing • Health
• Transport • Others
• Fuel • Matrix of expenditure
• Services • Each sector for level of income
• Housing
• Entertainment

Modern data for urban & regional planning information systems (Comp. based)

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Built Environment system the expectations from the building or built environment
are as under:-
1. To provide utility/function, firmness, delight, etc. In/On time and the right price.
2. To provide shelter
3. To admit daylight
4. To exclude/minimize noise
5. To resist snow
6. To exclude rain
7. To resist wind loads
8. To provide ventilation
9. To allow views to create views-prospect
10. To resist soil & hydrostatic pressure
11. To exclude damp
12. To provide external doors for access with security
13. To provide insulation of sound
14. To provide structural safety
15. To provide fire safety
16. To take care of health safety
17. To impart constructional safety
18. To create a desirable environment to perform activities inside and outside the
building so as to improve the efficiency and comfort of the user, with an
aesthetical background.

Hence, one would provide for all these different consideration in architecture.
Creation of an environment inside the building in known as three dimensional
architecture, while creation of the same outside the building is known as two
dimensional architecture.

Design & detail construction data

Openings & Window

Relatively small operating reduce immense radiation. Windows should be shifted


from kech radiation and set high to protect from ground radiation. Openings
should be tight closing as protection against high durnal heat. External shades are
preferred. Openings should be located on S, N, and to A lesser degree, on E side.

Walls
Walls of daytime living area should of heat storing materials; walls of night use
rooms of materials with light heat capacity. E and W walls should preferably be
shaded high reflective qualities are desirable for both hermal and solar radiation.

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Roof
Generally, heat storage insulation is best, which uses the fly-wheel of outgoing
radiation for daily heat balance. However a shaded, ventilated roof is also
applicable, primarily over night user rooms. Water spray or

Shading
Devices should be separate from structure, and exposed to wind convection.

Foundation Basement
Lithosphere type of houses are possible in this zone.

Mechanical Equipment
Equipment should have high operating efficiency in heat producing devices, such
as those for cooking.

Basic component of the campus


Study of trends in campus design case study.
Development plan
Site analysis Climatic factored
Detailed programs
Conceptual Plan
check
check Finalization of Concept

Zoning Plan Building and


service system
Site Layout

Development Plan

Circulation

Landscape Service
Detail Plan

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GROWTH AND CHANGE

Campus design must anticipate, as nearly as possible, the nature of probable growth and
change. Providing flexibility and indeterminacy, is perhaps the greatest challenge to the
Architect. There are three major aspects to growth and change.
(i)First is the overall growth or expansion of facilities caused by increasing
enrollment.

(ii)Second is the differential growth that occurs in various areas of the campus
along with overall growth.

(iii)The third aspect is the internal flexibility required for changing uses of spaces
and services.

A coherence and sense of identity for all parts must be maintained in the design as a
whole while certain parts remain incomplete. To do so demands a discipline, a kind of
pre- designed matrix or systems fabric that will insure order in future development,
without being too restrictive.

SIZE
The ideal size for a campus depends upon individual circumstances.
(i) The demands on the campus
(ii) The location of the campus, the type of instruction, all influence the size.
Experience has shown that when an “ultimate” size was predetermined, the
university often continued to grow beyond what was originally considered
best.
(iii) A major controlling factor is walking distance. Ten minutes from hostel to
classroom is considered a maximum allowable walking distance. Three to
five minutes is optimum. When growth endangers convenience, comfort and
efficiency..

HUMAN NEEDS

In an ideal campus environment, regardless of size, classrooms and living spaces should
be related for the convenience of pedestrian occupants and closely linked to the qualities
of the natural setting.
Since a campus is for people, it must be designed to the measure of man himself, his
physical dimensions, his senses his habits, responses and impulses. Moreover, the mind
of man his intellect, instincts and ambitions, must be satisfied. To merely accommodate

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him is not enough. Students and staff alike should be delighted and inspired if the campus
environment is to fulfill its potential.

Unfortunately, however, few buildings on university campuses in India give little


evidence of having been planned with proper regard for such obvious factors as
(I) prevailing winds,
(II) solar radiation and
(III) Monsoon rains that should have influenced orientation form, use of materials etc.
appropriateness and simple beauty testify more than anything else to the importance of
understanding the needs of man and the careful application of design principles to
campus design problems so that those needs may be met.

1. CONCENTRIC PATTERN OF GROWTH

The central area of “core” of the campus be comes tightly enclosed and successive
rings of development shut in and prevent selective expansion.

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3. THE ZONAL PATTERN OF GROWTH

Typical plan; zones allocated specifically to academic, residential or recreational;


handicapping (something that hinders or is a disadvantage) or something integration of
campus activities.

4. MOLECULAR PATTERN OF GROWTH


Growth accomplished thru addition of self contain units or “molecules,” each a
microcosm of the whole. The campus is complete at each stage of growth, but the system
is perhaps limited to a ‘many centered’ campus rather than a ‘centralized’ type.

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6. LINEAR PATTERN OF GROWTH

The pattern chosen for the University of Bath; the central core can expand at either end
as the University grows; existing elements extend outwards and grow independently of
one another. New ones are added to extensions of the core; which never becomes shut in
as in the concentric pattern.

• Approximate ½ mile diameter (10 minute walking distance)


• Circulation routes
• Lines of expansion
• Specialized academic (mainly lecture rooms)
• General academic (mainly lecture rooms)
• School nuclei
• Restaurant bases
• Core facilities (library, auditorium, theatre, etc)
• Social centers ( students Union, etc.)
• Residential

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CHANGE IN APPROCH AFFECTING FORM

• Scale has been respected and there has been a continuing consistency in roof
lines, missing, relationships and fenestration.
• General consistency has prevailed in selecting materials, in creating a series of
design recalls and themes, and in relating proportion, color and texture.
• Full respect has been given to neighboring buildings and existing spatial qualities
in the sitting of buildings.
• Each new building has been considered as a completing element or further
refinement of spatial order and sequence of campus spaces.
• Each new building and the landscape are blended so the spatial order is strength
ended rather than being disturbed.

EXAMPLE:

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KANPUR


Most important to the Institute was the decision to establish a curriculum designed to
evoke interaction between students and teacher in different disciplines. The old idea of
separating activities and planning divisions was discarded, and planning by function,
rather than by discipline, controls the development of the campus.

NATURE OF THE CAMPUS COMMUNITY


The site is flat with a canal on one side and a transportation route on the other, linking it
to the Industrial centre of Kanpur. The academic complex, centrally located on the site,
a single entity, supported by an infra-structure of buildings, spaces, landscape and service
system. The arrangement provides spatial variety within an ordered unity.
Pedestrian and vehicular traffic are completely segregated to keep the core of the
academic complex free from traffic noise and conflict.
Places of interaction in corridors and courts are provided along the pedestrian movement
system which is on more than one level. The building is harmonious in character utilizing
exposed concrete frames and local naturally exposed red and brick curtain walls. Floors
are mostly of low maintenance terrazzo. The building forms are open with linking
corridors and spaces penetrating through, uniquely providing shelter from an extremely
hot sun, yet allowing welcome breezes.

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The campus provides for 2400 students and 500 staff with the possibility of doubling
the present capacity.
• The residential areas adjoin the academic complex to provide a planned
neighborhood unit with provision for such community needs as
• Shops
• primary school
• Hospital
• Post office and bank.
• The area of the campus is 800 acres.

SIGNIFICANCE FOR TODAY

Most importantly, the Institution established progressive objectives in the beginning.


Secondly. Building program was prepared stating the specific requirements for physical
facilities, proportionate with the needs and objectives of the educational program.
The building program provided for phasing of construction according to the expanding
requirements of the growing institution.

OTHER FACTORS AFFECTING FORM


• The nature of site.
• Climatic conditions.
• Available materials and
• Local Technology.

While pre established patterns of an older campus which must be appreciated and
complemented in further growth, often determine the form and approach; in the design of
new campuses, the educational philosophy or the nature of the site usually has the
greatest influence.

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