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Chapter 2

Project Life Cycle

YUSRONIYA EKA PUTRI, ST, MT


Siklus Kehidupan (Life Cycle)
KUPU-KUPU

KEPOMPONG
TELUR ULAT

 Mengalami perubahan bentuk


 Membutuhkan waktu
 Membutuhkan sumber daya
Project Life Cycle

 PROJECT LIFE CYCLE is a collection of generally


sequential and sometimes overlapping project
phases whose name and number are determined
by the management and control needs of the
organization or organizations involved in the
project.
 PMBOK 4th edition - 2008
Siklus Hidup Proyek

 SIKLUS HIDUP PROYEK adalah kumpulan dari


fase-fase proyek yang secara umum berurutan
dan kadang tumpang tindih, yang nama dan
jumlahnya ditentukan oleh manajemen, dan
membutuhkan pengendalian oleh organisasi
yang terlibat pada proyek.
 PMBOK 4th edition - 2008
Siklus Hidup Proyek

Fase Konseptual

Fase Perencanaan & Pemantapan


(Definisi)

Fase Implementasi

Fase Operasi / Utilisasi

Iman Soeharto, 1999


Siklus Hidup Proyek

Defining / Planning /
Penentuan Perencanaan

Delivering / Executing /
Pengiriman Eksekusi

Clifford F. Gray & Erik W. Larson


Intensitas Kegiatan per-tahap

Sumber : PM-BOK
Project Management Process
 Initiating
 Planning Process
 Executing Process
 Controlling Process
Construction Project Life Cycle

Morris, Peter W.G. 1988. Managing Project Interfaces: Key Points for Project Success.
In Cleland and King, Project Management Handbook, 2d ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice Hall
Project Phase & Life Cycle

All projects can be mapped to : Starting


 Starting the project
 Organizing & preparing Organizing &
Preparing
 Carrying out the project work
 Closing the project Carrying Out
PMBOK 4th edition - 2008
Closing
Characteristic of Project Life Cycle

 Cost & staffing levels :


 Low at the start, peak as the work is carried out , drop
rapidly as the project draws to a close
 Stakeholder influence, risk, and uncertainty :
 Greatest at the start, decrease over the life of the
project
 Ability to influence the final characteristics of
project’s product, without significantly
impacting cost :
 Highest at the start, decreases towards completion
PMBOK 4th edition - 2008
Typically Cost & Staffing Levels
Impact on Project Time
TYPICAL LIFE CYCLE PROFILE
• Adding Value versus Cost To Change

TOTAL PROJECT LIFE CYCLE

PLAN ACCOMPLISH

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 PHASE 3 PHASE 4


C
CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT IMPLEMENTATION TERMINATION O
CONCEIVE DEVELOP EXECUTE FINISH S
(C) (D) (E) (F) T

O D
I
P E
N
P C
CONSTRUCTIVE DESTRUCTIVE C
O R ? R
R E
OPPORTUNITY INTERVENTION E
T A
A
U S
S
N I
I
I N
N
T G
G
Y

TIME
The Project Life Cycle (1-2)
Project managers or the organization can divide projects
into phases to provide better management control with
appropriate links to the ongoing operations of the
performing organization
The project life cycle defines the phases that connect
the beginning of a project to its end.
The phases of a project life cycle are not the same as the
Project Management Process Groups.

PMBOK p. 19
18
The Project Life Cycle (2-2)
Project life cycles generally defines :
 What technical work todo in each phase (for example,
in which phase should the architect’s work be
performed?)
 When the deliverables are to be generated in each
phase and how each deliverable is reviewed, verified,
and validated
 Who is involved in each phase (for example,
concurrent engineering requires that the implementers
be involved with requirement and design)
 How to control and approve each phase
PMBOK p. 20
19
Project Life-Cycle

Concept Design Implement Hand over

Concept Project
Conc Des Imp Hand

Design Project
Conc Des Imp Hand

Implementation Project
Conc Des Imp Hand

Commissioning Project
Conc Des Imp Hand
Project Life-Cycles : Showing how each phase can be
sub-devided into its own four sub- phases
Sources : Rory Burke, Project
Management : Planning & Control
Techniques,20p. 36
Product Life-Cycle
Project Life-Cycle Operation Life-Cycle

Pre-Project Concept Design Implement Hand over M Upgrade Disposal

Maintenance Project
Conc Des Imp Hand

Upgrade Project
Conc Des Imp Hand

Product Life-Cycles : Showing product phases and mini project Disposal Project
phases of the maintenance project, Upgrade project and disposal
project. Conc Des Imp Hand

Sources : Rory Burke, Project Management


Planning & Control Techniques, p. 39
21
PRODUCT LIFE-CYCLE

Project Life-Cycle Operation Life-Cycle

Project Management

Pre-Project Concept Design Implement Hand over Operation Disposal


Consultants Lumpsum

Design & Build

Turnkey

Project Management Partnership

BOOT ( Build Own Operate Transfer)

Procurement Life-Cycles : (relating the different types of Sources : Rory Burke, Project Management :
procurement contracts to the Product Life-Cycle) Planning & Control Techniques, p. 40

22
Typical Project Cost and Staffing Level Across
the Project Life Cycle

Total Project Life Cycle

Initial Phase Intermediate Phase (s) Final Phase


Cost and Staffing Level

Time

23PMBOK p. 21
Typical Life Cycle Profiles

Total Project Life Cycle


Plan Accomplish
Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4
Concept Development Implementation Termination
Concive Develop Execute Finish
Increasing Risk

IDR Value
Period when Highest
Risks are Incurred
Period of Highest
Risks Impact

Time

Wideman R.Max
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Typical Project Life Cycle Stages/ Activities

Total Project Life Cycle


Plan Accomplish
Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4
Concept Development Implementation Termination
Concive Develop Execute Finish

1. Gather Data, 1. Apoint Key Team Members 1. Set Up : 1. Finalized Product


2. Identify Need, 3. 2. Conduct Studies 3. Organizing 2. Review & Accept
Establish : Develop Scope Baseline : Communications 3. Settle Final A/C’S
Goals objectives End Product (s) 2. Motivate Team 4. Transfer Product
Basic Economic Quality Standards 3. Detail Technical Responsibility 5.
Feasibilituy Resources Requirement 4. Evaluate Project 6.
Stakehholders Activities Establish : Document result 7.
Risk level 4. Establish : Work Pakages Release/Redirect Resources
Strategy Master Plan Detail Schedule 8. Re assign Project Team
Potential team Budget, Cash Flow Information Control
4. Gues Estimate Resources WBS Policies System
5. Identify Alternative & Procedure Policies & Procedure
5. Assess Risk
6. Present Proposal 5. Procure Goods & Services
6. Conform Justification
7. Obtain Proposal for next 6. Execute work packages
7. Present Project Brief
phase 7. Direct/Monitor/ Forecast/
8. Obtain Approval to
Control
Proceed
Scope,Time,Cost,Quality 8.
Resove Problem
Time

25
Stakeholder’s Influence Over Time

High Influence of stakeholders

Cost of changes

Low
Project Time

PMBOK
26 p. 21
Typical Sequence of Phases in a
Project Life Cycle

Idea Project Management Team


Inputs

Phases INITIAL INTERMEDIATE FINAL

Project Charter Plan Acceptance


Management
Scope Statement Baseline Approval
Outputs Handover
Progress

Project Product
Deliverable

27PMBOK p. 23
Relationship Between the Product &
the Project Life cycles

Upgrade

Divestment
Operation
Product Business
Life Cycle Plan
Product
IDEA

Project
INITIAL INTERMEDIATE FINAL
Life Cycle

PMBOK
28 p. 24
Project Life-Cycle

Delivery System :
Design – bid – build (DBB) :
The owner or owner’s agent produces a set of plans and
specifications in sufficient detail that all component contractors
will have a good understanding of what is required. A contract is
awarded to the lowest cost qualified bidder.

Project Design Bid Build


Proposal

PMBOK 2000 ext const p. 9


29
Project Life-Cycle
Design – build (DB) :
The owner or owner’s agent produces a partial design and or a set of functional
specifications and then hires a contractor to complete the design and construct
the resulting project. Much of the design is performed while construction is in
progress. Further variations include build – operate – transfer (BOT), design –
build – operate – maintain (DBOM) and other similar combinations.

Maintenance or
Partial Design or operation are not
Project
Proposal
Requirements Procurement Design considered a part of the
management of
construction project.
Build Operate

Design – Build – Project Life Cycle

Design – Build – Operte – Transfer Project Life Cycle


PMBOK 2000 ext const p. 10
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