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SHORT WORKS ON SRI NISARGADATTA MAHARAJ AND SRI RAMANA MAHARSHI

By Pradeep Apte aptep@yahoo.com apte98@gmail.com

The Simple Teaching of Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj
Excerpted from dialogue No.16 (Desirelessness, the Highest Bliss) from ‘I AM THAT’ M: Why not turn away from the experience to the experiencer and realise the full import of the only true statement you can make: 'I am'? Q: How is it done? M: There is no 'how' here. Just keep in mind the feeling 'I am', merge in it, till your mind and feeling become one. By repeated attempts you will stumble on the right balance of attention and affection and your mind will be firmly established in the thought-feeling 'I am'. Whatever you think, say, or do, this sense of immutable and affectionate being remains as the ever-present background of the mind. Q: And you call it liberation? M: I call it normal. What is wrong with being, knowing and acting effortlessly and happily? Why consider it so unusual as to expect the immediate destruction of the body? What is wrong with the body that it should die? Correct your attitude to your body and leave it alone. Don't pamper, don't torture. Just keep it going, most of the time below the threshold of conscious attention. Q: How does one go beyond the mind? M: There are many starting points -- they all lead to the same goal. You may begin with selfless work, abandoning the fruits of action; you may then give up thinking and end in giving up all desires. Here, giving up (tyaga) is the operational factor. Or, you may not bother about any thing you want, or think, or do and just stay put in the thought and feeling 'I am', focussing 'I am' firmly in your mind. All kinds of experience may come to you -- remain unmoved in the knowledge that all perceivable is transient, and only the 'I am' endures. Q: I cannot give all my life to such practices. I have my duties to attend to. M: By all means attend to your duties. Action, in which you are not emotionally involved and which is beneficial and does not cause suffering will not bind you. You may be engaged in several directions and work with enormous zest, yet remain inwardly free and quiet, with a mirror-like mind, which reflects all, without being affected.

Q: Is such a state realisable? M: I would not talk about it, if it were not. Why should I engage in fancies? Your own self is your ultimate teacher (sadguru). The outer teacher (Guru) is merely a milestone. It is only your inner teacher, that will walk with you to the goal, for he is the goal. Q: Please tell me which road to self-realisation is the shortest. M: No way is short or long, but some people are more in earnest and some are less. I can tell you about myself. I was a simple man, but I trusted my Guru. What he told me to do, I did. He told me to concentrate on 'I am' -- I did. He told me that I am beyond all perceivables and conceivables -- I believed. I gave him my heart and soul, my entire attention and the whole of my spare time (I had to work to keep my family alive). As a result of faith and earnest application, I realised my self (swarupa) within three years.You may choose any way that suits you; your earnestness will determine the rate of progress. Q: No hint for me? M: Establish yourself firmly in the awareness of 'I am'. This is the beginning and also the end of all endeavour.

The body and world don’t exist
Pradeep Apte (aptep@yahoo.com)
Master: Since you firmly believe that ‘I am the body’, I point towards your body and ask you, whose body is this? Disciple: It’s my body. M: You have certain ideas about everything, all ideas are thoughts and all these we collectively call the mind, whose mind is this? D: It’s my mind. M: You agree then that this body that I pointed out to and the mind I spoke of belong to you? D: Yes. M: That means they are your possessions, they belong to you and you are their possessor? D: Yes. M: If you are their possessor then can you be the possessions? D: No. M: Then you are neither the body nor the mind but their owner or possessor. D: Yes. M: Do you know the owner or the possessor? D: No

M: Which means you do not know who you are? D: No M: Thus if you have no clear knowledge of who you are, all the learning, greatness and power you believe you have are false! Hence the first lesson you have to learn is about your own self, you must know who you are, isn’t it? D: Yes, indeed. M: So your primary task is to launch an enquiry into yourself and know who you are by asking the question: Who am I? D: Yes M: Apart from the reasoning that we began with, is there any way, method or test by which we can determine a particular thing to be ‘not I’ or ‘not me’? D; Please tell me, I don’t know. M: Would it not be to ask as to whether you exist or not in the absence of that particular thing? D: Yes, that would be a convincing way. M: Because if you exist regardless of that particular thing being or not it’s ‘not you’. D: Agreed. M: Your body with all its processes going on, we call it the gross body, while all that you have in mind we call it the subtle body. D: Dreams as well? M: While you are awake you know both the gross and the subtle body and when you are dreaming it is only the subtle body that is operating and giving you all the experiences. D: And in deep sleep? M: In deep sleep the body and world do not exist, the mind has subsided and with it go both the body and the world. D: It’s a total blank! M: You may say so, but your own existence as ‘I am’ was always there. This existence of the ‘I am’ is experienced by one and all. D: How so? It was a total blank! M: Then how do say you slept well or were fast asleep without any content – which you are now calling a blank? D: I experienced it, I know it. M: Which means you were there in spite of the blank. D: Yes, I was there. M: The body and the world weren’t there but you were there, which means the body and the world don’t exist but you always do.

D: The body and the world did not exist for me but for others they did and they’d tell me so when I woke up, so how can you say that the body and world don’t exist? M: Existence and consciousness go together; there cannot be one without the other. The knowledge that you slept is the evidence of your existence in that time. Did you have to ask others that you slept or not? It’s your very own experience independent of others and proves your existence in deep sleep. D: Yes, it’s my own experience, and nobody else can give true evidence of my being asleep M: Which means your existence is self-evident. If the body and the world too have such an undeniable existence and consciousness why do they (the body and world) need the evidence of others to prove that they existed in deep sleep? D: Their existence is not self-evident. M: Right, because the evidence of others is needed to do so. I have already said that existence without consciousness is no existence at all, and since the knowledge that the body and the world exist in deep sleep is not selfevident, we can positively assert that their existence is false. Thus, because no one deny that he existed in deep sleep, one’s own existence in sleep and the non-existence of the body there must be accepted by all. D: Then what about the body and world in the waking and dream states? M: According to the following logical inference: ‘That which seems to exist at one time and not at another time is actually non-existent even when it seems to exist’, the body and world are non-existent during the time of their seeming existence, that is during waking and dream states. D: What sort of body do we have in deep sleep? M: In deep sleep, the ego (ahankara – the mind in the form of attachments) is still alive in the very subtle form of tendencies (vasanas); it is this form which is that base and cause for the rising of the subtle and gross bodies, and therefore it is called the causal body. Even in death, it is in this causal body that we exist. This causal body is not destroyed by the death of the gross body. The reason for asserting that even this causal body is not ‘I’ is that we exist there to know even that state to be alien to us. There our existence alone is real, and we cannot be the form (darkness or ignorance) which we assume there. Just as we rejected the gross body of the waking state as ‘I am not this body’, even though it appeared to be ‘I’, and just for the same reason we rejected the subtle body of the dream state as ‘not I’, let us now also reject this causal body (darkness or ignorance) of deep sleep as ‘not I’, since it is only a form which comes on us and goes. Therefore having firmly eliminated all these three bodies as ‘not I, not I’, what then remains, that

knowledge, the consciousness (chit) of our existence (sat) alone is ‘I’ or the ‘I am’. (Created from ‘The path of Sri Ramana : Part One’)

A simple method to abide in the ‘I am’
By Pradeep Apte
(aptep@yahoo.com) I humbly offer salutations to my Guru Sri Nisargadatta maharaj who made me correctly understand the meaning of God: “Just hold on to the knowledge ‘I am’, your sense of ‘being’ or ‘presence’. This feeling that ‘you are’ is the God in you, let it be you guide or Guru, there is nothing else to be done.” This statement loudly rung a bell in my mind as I recollected the words Sri Brahmachaitanya Gondavlekar Maharaj: “The quality of ‘being’ or ‘presence’ is common to all objects living or non-living, with form or without form. Thoughts are formless but their ‘presence’ is very much there. This ‘being’ is ‘Nama’, the name of God which I which I strongly recommend you all to recite.” In Maharashtra, Sri Gondavlekar Maharaj (1845-1913) was one of the great exponents of the practice of ‘Namasmarana’ which means remembering God by reciting or chanting his name. I had read his teachings several years back, even before knowing Sri Nisargadatta maharaj. According to Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj the 'I am', 'being' or ‘presence’ is common to all objects, living or non-living. It is the composition of the object in terms of the five elements and three qualities that determines whether the 'I am', 'being' or 'presence' is known or expressible to it. The 'I am', 'being' or 'presence' is a reflection of the Absolute and holding on to it one can realize the Absolute.

The teachings of both these masters are quite similar which thus lead us to an ancient and simple practice or ‘Sadhana’ of ‘Namasmarana’. If one investigates one shall find that the teachings of not only these two masters but almost all the masters are quite similar and all bring you to the doorstep of God. The reason, at least for me, was quite simple, my intellect or understanding only went up to a certain point and could go no further. There was something definitely missing in all this and that was devotion! Without surrender to the divine you could never possibly expect yourself on your own to go beyond the intellect and realize the Absolute. If you are nurturing any such expectations you are still on an ego trip that you always go on for achieving anything in your day to day living as an individual. I thought, repeating the Name of God? This is something insane! But then, in all this that you have been doing so far, has sanity paid off? No, so why not insanity for a change? And see the grace of my Guru, I didn’t have to wait long he had all the answers for me. Let us see what he had to say in this matter: “Constant repetition of words (Japa) is a kind of madness but deliberate madness. All repetitiveness is tamas, but repeating the name of God is a satwa-tamas due its higher purpose. Because of the satwa the tamas will wear out and will take the shape of detachment, relinquishment, aloofness, immutability. Tamas becomes the firm foundation on which integrated life can be lived. The purpose of Japa is to conserve oneself, that means the knowingness (the knowledge ‘I am’) is to be returned. Japa in Marathi means to guard, to protect. You should protect your beingness by Japa.” He further said: “When you are initiated into a spiritual discipline with a sacred name, it means that it represents you ‘Ultimate True Nature’. Be one with the sacred name completely, then it will give you all the mystical knowledge necessary for your spiritual evolution. It will awaken you into your ‘Eternal

Awareness’. This is the mystic key-word of the Navanath Sampradaya, the traditional order of the nine Gurus. Before the emanation of any words ‘I’ already exists: later I say mentally ‘I am’. The word free and the thought free state is the Atman. The Atman per se is self sufficient but when it clings to the body, ‘treatments’ such as mental and physical recreation or occupation are necessary, without which the Atman cannot be tolerated by a person. For spiritual evolution, which is a requisite in the detachment of Atman from body identity, various disciplines have been recommended; the best is ‘Namasmarana’ – recitation of a holy name of God. But here God means the indwelling principle within you – the Atman, which is given various names. These represent the ‘inner God’ who will respond no matter which name of God you chant. Japa (using beads of rosary) is an occupation to the hands but it is the inner God you are supposed to invoke. The keynote of recitation is to confirm this ‘I-am-ness’ within itself. The merging of beingness within itself is the very fount of bliss.” Another great exponent of ‘Namasmarana’ from Kerala Swami Ramdas (1884-1963) was bestowed by the grace of the master of masters Sri Ramana Maharshi in 1922, about this experience he said: "The Maharshi, turning his beautiful eyes towards Ramdas, and looking intently for a few minutes into his eyes as though he was pouring into Ramdas his blessings through those orbs, nodded his head to say he had blessed. A thrill of inexpressible joy coursed through the frame of Ramdas, his whole body quivering like a leaf in the breeze." In that ecstatic state he left Maharshi's presence and went to spend nearly a month in a cave on the slopes of Arunachala in constant chanting of Ramnaam. This was the first occasion that he went into solitude and during this period of solitude he never bathed, shaved, or cut his hair. When he ate, he only ate very little. After twentyone days, when he came out of the cave he saw a strange, allpervasive light: everything was Ram and only Ram.

Swami Ramdas says about the Name of God: “God and His Name are not distinct from one another. Name is God Himself. The moment we think of the Name, our mind is filled with the presence of God. There is no easier way of focusing thought upon God than taking constantly His Name. When we repeat the Name aloud, we feel our heart is flooded with the ecstasy of love, because the sound of the Divine Name awakens the heart to the bliss and love of God. Although the mental repetition of the Name is held to be far more efficacious than the verbal repetition, still the rare experience of sweetness and joy derived by uttering the Name aloud is incomparable. When the entire being of the devotee thrills with rapture to the music of the Name he realizes that the Name is Brahman. God is both, manifest and unmanifest. The Name stands for such a God. Here the unmanifest is the all-pervading, infinite, immutable, tranquil and static spirit of God. The manifest is the entire universe of name, form and movement with all its beings, creatures and things. The Name stands for this all-inclusive and all-transcendent Godhead, who is both personal and impersonal. The Divine Name is thus the beginningless source of all creation and the creation itself. God, the absolute, is the nameless Name. The Name can free the soul from bondage. The Name can take it to the highest consummation of spiritual life. The Name can grant a blind soul Divine sight. The Name can bless an individual with a universal vision full of sublimity. The Name can lift the soul to inconceivable heights of God-realization. The power of the Name is invincible. A mind which is considered to be unconquerable, by the soothing influence of the Name becomes, docile, yielding and submissive. The mind itself is transformed into God by the power of the Name. He who takes refuge in the Name can work wonders. Death itself will stand in awe of him. He can command all the forces of

nature and direct them, to bring about a spiritual awakening in the hearts of men. The Name can make a human being an embodiment of eternal love and joy. The Name can convert an individual into a Cosmic Reality - an ignorant soul into a very God. Where the Name of God is sung, the atmosphere is permeated with purity, peace and bliss; for the symphony of the Name spreads everywhere the splendour of love. The Name is all-sufficient. The utterance of it is itself meditation. The ecstasy born of it is itself Samadhi. The Name is love, light, power and joy. The writer can vouch for it from his own experience that the Name by itself without any other Sadhana can grant one the fullest vision of God everywhere and may merge him in an ocean of never-ending love and joy. There is no Sadhana, which can be so universally adopted by all people and is at the same time so simple for realizing God, as the Divine Name. It is perfectly true, in the words of a saint, that he who has God's Name always on his tongue is a Jivanmukta, or a liberated soul. So, dear friends, to whatever race, caste, creed or color you may belong, take up the Name of God, and feel the sweet communion with it, and you may depend upon it, your souls through constant bathing in the nectar of the Name will not only be purified but will also be illumined with the omnipresent and omniscient light and love of God. This practice of taking the Name will lead the unyielding spirit of man to complete surrender to the omnipotent power and will of God. In the earlier stages when the Name is repeated with earnestness, faith and concentration, the face and the body of the devotee will shine with a peculiar lustre, his mind will be filled with wisdom and heart with love. This is due to the predominance of Satwa Guna in the devotee. Later when the repetition is continued with the same zeal; he will behold the universe before him as the very expression of God. Becoming one with God, he will have the vision of God everywhere Thus, verily the Name is God Himself.”

Throwing aside all dry polemics let us just try to constantly recite the name of God. You may choose any name that you can easily love and identify yourself with. This is the simplest method to abide in the ‘I am’.

Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj: The discipline of disappearance
(Pradeep Apte aptep@yahoo.com)

The most cardinal question in the self-inquiry as prescribed by Sri Nisargadatta maharaj is: What were you before you were born? Quite obviously you did not exist! You were not there! Or simply you can say ‘I was not’ or ‘nothing’. Presently you know that you are ‘something’ or ‘somebody’ And, quite obviously you also know that a moment would come when you wouldn’t be ‘something’ or ‘somebody’ or you would be ‘nothing’ again. Maharaj stresses on this point, and goes on to say: This is a subtle point, so try to understand it clearly When I say ‘I was not’ prior to conception, then what I mean is, that I was not like the present ‘I am’

But that ‘I’ which could discern this must be there to judge the absence of the present ‘I am’ Further: At first ‘no one’ is. Instantly, one is, and then two. The subject of the talk is: How did these two reduce to one, and finally to nothing? Out of nothingness spontaneously the sense of beingness is felt this is one. Later, when the sense of beingness knows ‘I am’ duality begins. Then after the duality has arisen, the sense of being identifies with the form, and so on. Actually to refer to the sense of being as ‘one’, is not quite correct. Since in this state only the sense of being prevails, where is the need to say even ‘one’? With the appearance of otherness (duality), both no.1 and no.2 appear simultaneously. To say ‘something is’, ‘I’ must be there first. If ‘I’ am not, I cannot say ‘something is’. So the fundamental principle of spirituality is that ‘I must be there, before anything else can be. This ‘I’ is the beingness which is first.

This primordial beingness or the nascent ‘I am’ when it just dawned or appeared has to be caught hold of. It is a state without words or completely non-verbal, you knew that ‘you are’ that’s all! And believe me there is no at single human being who must not have gone through this stage, It is only a question of applying oneself and coming to this purest of the pure ‘I am’ or ‘presence’. An extremely important point made in the above statements is: ‘Actually to refer to the sense of being as ‘one’, is not quite correct. Since in this state only the sense of being prevails, where is the need to say even ‘one’?’ When you are in this state of pure ‘presence’ or the wordless ‘I am’, then it is only the ‘presence’ or the ‘I am’ all over! There is nothing else! In its actuality it is a non-dual state and everything including the ‘I am’ is bound to disappear! And you wouldn’t know that ‘you are’. ********