Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 48

Índice

Contenido
Índice ................................................................................................................................................... 2
Present Simple .................................................................................................................................... 3
Present Continuous ............................................................................................................................. 6
Prepositions of Location.................................................................................................................... 11
Will ............................................................................................................................................ 15
Going to ..................................................................................................................................... 16
*Future Predictions ................................................................................................................... 16
Modals of possibility may and might ................................................................................................ 18
Phrasal verbs ..................................................................................................................................... 23
Gerunds ............................................................................................................................................. 25
Comparisons...................................................................................................................................... 27
As…..as............................................................................................................................................... 30
Relative pronouns and relative clauses............................................................................................. 33
TAG Questions ................................................................................................................................... 35
Present perfect/ Pretérito perfecto .................................................................................................. 38
The past simple ................................................................................................................................. 41
Key/Respuestas ................................................................................................................................. 44
Referencias bibliográficas ................................................................................................................. 48

2
Present Simple

We use simple present tense in several different situations. / Usamos el presente en


diferentes situaciones.

Use 1. Repeated Actions:

 Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or regular.
The action can be a daily event, a habit, a hobby, a scheduled event or something
that often happens. / Usamos el Presente Simple para expresar la idea que una
acción es repetida o regular. La acción puede ser un evento diario, un hábito, un
hobby, un evento agendado o algo que ocurre a menudo.

e.g I walk to work every day.


When does the train usually leave?
Ram speaks English very well.
Tom lives in India.

Use 2. Facts or Generalizations:

 We use the Simple Present for statements that are always true. / Usamos el
Presente Simple para hablar de cosas ciertas.

e.g We come from Switzerland.


Summer follows spring.
The moon travels around the earth.

3
Use 3. Future reference:

 This use is often related to timetables and events in the calendar. / Este uso está
relacionado con horarios y eventos por calendario.

e.g The train leaves tonight at 6 PM.


The concert begins at 7.30 and ends at 9.30.
The party starts at 8 o’clock.

Use 4. Observations and declarations:

 We commonly use the Simple Present with other verbs to make observations and
declarations in the course of conversation. / Usamos el Presente Simple con otros
verbos para hacer observaciones y declaraciones en una conversación.

e.g I hope/assume/suppose/promise everything will be all right.


I declare this exhibition open.

FORMING THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE: TO THINK

Affirmative Interrogative Negative


I think Do I think? I do not think
You think Do you think? You do not think
He thinks Does he think? He does not think
She thinks Does she think? She does not think
It thinks Does it think? It does not think
We think Do we think? We do not think.
They think Do they think? They do not think.

4
NOTES ON THE SIMPLE PRESENT, THIRD PERSON SINGULAR:

 In the third person singular, the verb always ends in –s. / Con la tercera persona
singular, el verbo siempre termina en –s.
E.g. He wants, she needs, he gives, she thinks.

 Negative and question forms use DOES (= the third person of the auxiliary 'DO') +
the infinitive of the verb. / En negaciones y preguntas se usa DOES+la forma
infinitiva del verbo.
E.g. He wants ice cream. Does he want strawberry? He does not want vanilla.

 Verbs ending in -y: the third person changes the -y to –ies. / Para verbos
terminados en –y se debe cambiar –y por –ies con la tercera persona.
E.g. fly --> flies, cry --> cries
*Exception: if there is a vowel before the –y/ Excepción: si existe vocal antes de -y
E.g. play --> plays, pray --> prays

 Add -es to verbs ending in:-ss, -x, -sh, -ch. / Agregamos –es a los verbos
terminados en ss, -x, -sh, -ch.
E.g. he passes, she catches, he fixes, it pushes

5
Present Continuous

The present continuous is composed of two parts. / El presente continuo se compone de


dos partes.
The present tense of the verb to be + the present participle of the main verb. / El presente
del verbo to be + el presente participio del verbo principal.
(The form of the present participle is: base+ing, e.g. talking, playing, moving, smiling). / La
forma del presente participio es: base+ing.

Affirmative
Subject + to be + base + ing
She is talking.
Negative
Subject + to be + not + base + ing
She is not (isn't) talking
Interrogative
to be + subject + base + ing
Is She talking?

EXAMPLES: TO GO, PRESENT CONTINUOUS

Affirmative Negative Interrogative


I am going I am not going Am I going?
You are going You aren't going. Are you going?
He, she, it is going He, she, it isn't going Is he, she, it going?
We are going We aren't going Are we going?
You are going You aren't going Are you going?
They are going They aren't going Are they going?

6
Note: alternative negative contractions: I'm not going, you're not going, he's not going

etc.

The present continuous is used: / El presente continuo se usa:

 to describe an action that is going on at this momento. / para describir una acción
que está ocurriendo en ese mismo momento.

E.g. You are using the Internet.


You are studying English grammar.

 to describe an action that is going on during this period of time or a trend. / para
describir una acción que está tomando lugar durante un periodo de tiempo o
como una tendencia.

E.g. Are you still working for the same company?


More and more people are becoming vegetarian.

 to describe an action or event in the future, which has already been planned or
prepared. / Para describir una acción o evento en el future que ya ha sido
planeado o preparado.

E.g. We're going on holiday tomorrow.


I'm meeting my boyfriend tonight.
Are they visiting you next winter?

 to describe a temporary event or situation. / Para describir un evento o situación


temporal.

E.g. He usually plays the drums, but he's playing bass guitar tonight.
The weather forecast was good, but it's raining at the moment.

7
 with "always, forever, constantly", to describe and emphasise a continuing series
of repeated actions./ Para describir y enfatizar una serie de acciones repetidas con
always, forever, constantly".

E.g. Harry and Sally are always arguing!


You're constantly complaining about your mother-in-law!

BE CAREFUL! Some verbs are not usually used in the continuous form. Cuidado! Algunos
verbos no son usados en forma continua.

*VERBS THAT ARE NOT USUALLY USED IN THE CONTINUOUS FORM. Verbos que no son
usados en forma continua.

 The verbs in the list below are normally used in the simple form because they refer
to states, rather than actions or processes. / Los verbos en la lista más abajo son
usados en forma simple pues se refieren a estado más que a acciones y procesos.

SENSES / PERCEPTION to feel (= to think)


to feel* to find (= to consider)
to hear to suppose
to see* to think*
to smell MENTAL STATES
to taste to forget
to imagine
OPINION to know
to assume to mean
to believe to notice
to consider to recognise
to doubt to remember

8
to understand to want
to wish
EMOTIONS / DESIRES MEASUREMENT
to envy to contain
to fear to cost
to dislike to hold
to hate to measure
to hope to weigh
to like OTHERS
to love to look (=resemble)
to mind to seem
to prefer to be (in most cases)
to regret to have (when it means "to possess")*

*EXCEPTIONS
Perception verbs (see, hear, feel, taste, smell) are often used with can: I can see...

 These verbs may be used in the continuous form but with a different meaning. /
Estos verbos pueden ser usados en forma continua pero con significados
diferentes.

E.g. This coat feels nice and warm. (Your perception of the coat's qualities)
John's feeling much better now (his health is improving)

She has three dogs and a cat. (Possession)


She's having supper. (She's eating)

9
I can see Anthony in the garden (perception)
I'm seeing Anthony later (We are planning to meet)

Exercises
Complete the following passage using the present simple or continuous forms of the verbs
in brackets. / Completa el siguiente párrafo usando las formas del presente simple o
continuo de los verbos en paréntesis.

James Black's a famous pianist. He________________ (1. give) two or three concerts
every week. He ________________ (2. travel) a lot and this week he's in New York.
He________________ (3. stay) at an expensive hotel. He's at his hotel now.
He________________ (4. have) his breakfast in the dining−room. He________________
(5. drink) a cup of coffee and he________________ (6. read) a newspaper. James is always
very busy. He________________ (7. play) the piano regularly. He________________ (8.
practice) for four hours every day. He________________ (9. go) to bed late and he always
________________ (10. get up) early. But he sometimes________________ (11. get)
dressed too quickly, and this morning he________________ (12. wear) one blue sock and
one red one!

10
Prepositions of Location

In general, we use/ En general se usa:

• at for a POINT/ Para un lugar específico.

• in for an ENCLOSED SPACE/ Para un lugar cerrado.

• on for a SURFACE/ Para una superficie.

at In on

POINT ENCLOSED SPACE SURFACE

at the corner in the garden on the wall

at the bus stop in London on the ceiling

at the door in France on the door

at the top of the page in a box on the cover

at the end of the road in my pocket on the floor

at the entrance in my wallet on the carpet

at the crossroads in a building on the menu

at the front desk in a car on a page

Look at these examples/ Mire los ejemplos:

• Mark is waiting for you at the coffee shop.

• The shop is at the end of the street.

• My plane stopped at Dubai and Hanoi and arrived in Bangkok two hours late.

• When will you arrive at the office?

11
• Do you work in an office?

• I have a meeting in New York.

• Do you live in Japan?

• Jupiter is in the Solar System.

• The author's name is on the cover of the book.

• There are no prices on this menu.

• You are standing on my foot.

• There was a "no smoking" sign on the wall.

• I live on the 7th floor at 21 Oxford Street in London.

Notice the use of the prepositions of place at, in and on in these standard expressions/
Vea el uso de las preposiciones de lugar at, in y on en éstas expresiones.

at in On

at home in a car on a bus

at work in a taxi on a train

at school in a helicopter on a plane

at university in a boat on a ship

at college in a lift (elevator) on a bicycle, on a motorbike

at the top in the newspaper on a horse, on an elephant

at the bottom in the sky on the radio, on television

at the side in a row on the left, on the right

at reception in Oxford Street on the way

12
More prepositions!!

Position Posición
About Sobre, acerca de
Above Por encima de, más arriba de
Against Contra
Amid(st) Entre, en medio de
Among(st) Alrededor
(a)round Alrededor
At En
Before Antes de
Behind Detrás de
Below Debajo de
Beneath Bajo, debajo de
Beside Al lado de
Between Entre (dos cosas o personas)
In En, dentro de
In front Delante de, frente a
Inside (UK) Dentro de
Inside of (US) Dentro de
Near Cerca de
Next to Al lado de, junto a
Off De, separado de
On Encima
Opposite Enfrente de
Underneath Debajo de (en la parte inferior)
Upon Sobre (preposición de uso (formal)

13
Exercises
Put the preposition that best suits the sentence / Escoja la preposición que mejor se
ajuste a la oración.

1. I read about the pop festival _________________ a magazine.

2. My parents' flat is ___________________the twenty-first floor.

3. Melanie was holding a small bird _______________ her hands.

4. I'll meet you ___________________ the airport.

5. Natasha now lives ______________ 32 Johnson Avenue.

6. I was standing ________________ the counter in the baker's shop, waiting to be

served.

7. London is _____________________ the Thames.

8. There weren't many books _______________ the shelves.

9. The passengers had to stand ________________ a queue.

10. The woman sitting next to me left the train ______________ Chesterfield.

14
Will
Use WILL…. /Usamos Will para….
1. For things that we decide to do now. (Rapid Decisions). / Para hablar de cosas que
decidimos hacer ahora. (Decisiones Rápidas)
This is when you make a decision at that moment, in a spontaneous way. / Cuando
tomamos una decisión en el momento y de forma espontánea.
E.g. I'll buy one for you too.
I think I'll try one of those. (I just decided this right now)

2. When we think or believe something about the future. (Prediction). / Cuando


pensamos o creemos en algo futuro. (Predicción)

E.g. My team will not win the league this season.

I think it will rain later so take an umbrella with you.

Note: You can use both Will and Going to for making future predictions. / Podemos hacer
predicciones futuras usando tanto Will como Going to.

3. To make an offer, a promise or a threat. / Para hacer un ofrecimiento, promesa o


amenaza.

E.g. I'll give you a discount if you buy it right now.

I promise I will behave next time.

I'll take you to the movies if you'd like.

4. You use WON'T when someone refuses to do something. / Usamos WON’T, cuando
rehusamos hacer algo.

E.g. I told him to take out the trash but he won't do it.

My kids won't listen to anything I say.

My car won't start.

15
Going to

The structure BE GOING TO is normally used to indicate the future but with some type of
connection to the present. We use it in the following situations. / La forma Be Going To es
normalmente usada para indicar futuro con alguna conexión con el presente.
1. When we have already decided or we INTEND to do something in the future. (Prior
Plan). / Cuando hemos tomado una decisión o tenemos la intención de hacer algo.
The decision has been made before the moment of speaking. / Hemos tomado la decisión
antes del momento de hablar.

E.g. They're going to retire to the beach - in fact they have already bought a little beach
house.

I'm going to accept the job offer.

2. When there are definite signs that something is going to happen. (Evidence) / Cuando
hay signos evidentes que algo va a ocurrir. (Evidencia)
Something is likely to happen based on the evidence or experience you have. /Algo
posible de ocurrir basado en evidencia o experiencia obtenida.

E.g. I think it is going to rain - I just felt a drop.

I don't feel well. I think I'm going to throw up. (throw up = vomit)

3. When something is about to happen. / Cuando algo está por ocurrir.

E.g. Get back! The bomb is going to explode.

*Future Predictions
As you can see, both Will and Going to can be used for making future predictions without
having a real difference in meaning. / Como puedes ver, tanto Will como Going to pueden
ser usados para hablar de predicciones futuras sin tener una evidencia real de significado.

E.g. The weather report says it will rain tomorrow. (Correct)

The weather report says it is going to rain tomorrow. (Correct)

16
Exercises

Use will-future or going to-future.

1. Lou _____________________ 15 next Wednesday. (to be)

2. They ____________________ a new computer. (to get)

3. I think my mother _____________________ this CD. (to like)

4. Anna's sister _____________________ a baby. (to have)

5. They ___________________ at about 4 in the afternoon. (to arrive)

6. Just a moment. I ___________________ you with the bags. (to help)

7. In 2020 people ____________________ more hybrid cars. (to buy)

8. Marvin _______________________ a party next week. (to throw)

9. We ________________________ to Venice in June. (to fly)

17
Modals of possibility may and might

May and might indicate present or future possibility / May y might indican una posibilidad
en presente o futuro.

Examples:
He might arrive soon.
He may arrive soon.

Subject + modal + basic verb + ... He might arrive soon. / Sujeto + verbo modal +
verbo simple + …. Él podría llegar luego.

May I? Or May we? Are used for polite requests, in the same way as Can I? Or Can we? /
May I? Or May we? Se usan como peticiones formales, de la misma manera que Can I o
Can We?

Example: May I go to the bathroom?

Exercises
Rewrite these sentences using may or might. Where two answers are possible, write them
both/ Reescriba estas oraciones usando may o might. Si cree que dos respuestas son
correctas, indíquelo.

1. Maybe there's some tea in the pot ______________________________________


2. Would you mind if I asked you how old you are? ___________________________
3. Visitors are not allowed to stay in the hospital after ten p.m. _________________
4. Do you think I could have one of these sandwiches? ________________________
5. I think the car is in the station car park. __________________________________
6. Is it all right if I use your phone? ________________________________________
7. Guests are allowed to wear casual dress. _________________________________
8. Maybe she'll move to London. __________________________________________
9. There's a possibility that the show will be cancelled. _________________________
10. Maybe she'll be elected. ___________________________________________

18
Make vs do
When do you use Do? / ¿Cuándo usamos Do?

Do is used as follows / Do se usa de la siguiente manera:

1. Do is used when talking about work, jobs or tasks / Usamos Do cuando nos referimos a
trabajo, empleos o tareas.

Examples:
• Have you done your homework?

• I have guests visiting tonight so I should start doing the housework now.

• I wouldn't like to do that job.

2. Do is used when we refer to activities in general without being specific. In these cases,
we normally use words like thing, something, nothing, anything, everything etc. / Do se
usa cuando nos referimos a actividades en general, sin ser específicos. En estos casos,
generalmente usamos palabras como thing, something, nothing, anything, everything etc.

Examples:
• Hurry up! I've got things to do!

• Don't just stand there – do something!

• Is there anything I can do to help you?

3. We sometimes use Do to replace a verb when the meaning is clear or obvious. This is
more common in informal spoken English / Algunas veces usamos Do para reemplazar al
verbo cuando el significado está claro. Es más común en inglés hablado e informal.

Examples:
• Do I need to do my hair? (do = brush or comb)

• Have you done the dishes yet? (done = washed)

• I'll do the kitchen if you do the lawns (do = clean, do = mow)

Remember: Do can also be as an auxiliary verb (for making questions in the present tense.
-Do you like chocolate?) Here we will be talking about Do as a normal verb / Recuerde que
Do también puede cumplir la función de verbo auxiliar (para hacer preguntas en el tiempo

19
presente – Do you like chocolate?) Aquí estaremos hablando de Do como un verbo, no
como auxiliar.

When do you use make? / ¿Cuándo usamos make?

Make is for producing, constructing, creating or building something new / Make es para
producir, construir o crear algo nuevo.

It is also used to indicate the origin of a product or the materials that are used to make
something /También se usa para indicar el origen de un producto o los materiales que se
usan para hacer algo.

Examples:
• His wedding ring is made of gold.

• The house was made of adobe.

• Wine is made from grapes.

• The watches were made in Switzerland.

We also use make for producing an action or reaction / También se usa make cuando se
produce una acción o una reacción.

Examples:
• Onions make your eyes water.

• You make me happy.

• It’s not my fault. My brother made me do it!

We use make after certain nouns about plans and decisions / Se usa make después de
ciertos sustantivos acerca de planes y decisiones:

Examples: make arrangements. / make a choice.

We use make with nouns about speaking and certain sounds / Usamos make con
sustantivos relacionado con el hablar o producir sonidos.

Examples: make a comment. / make a noise. / make a speech.

20
We use make with Food, Drink and Meals / Se usa make con alimentos, bebestibles y
comidas.

Examples: make a cake. / make a cup of tea. / make dinner.

Here is a list of some common expressions with do and make. The best way to learn them
is through practice / Aquí hay una lista de las expresiones más comunes con do y make. La
mejor forma de aprenderlas es practicarlas o usarlas en contexto.

Do Make
a test a call
a favor a cake
a project a choice
an exam a bed
an assignment a complaint
badly a comment
business a decision
exercise a fortune
good a phone call
harm a presentation
homework a point
housework a profit
nothing an excuse
research friends
something changes
the cleaning corrections
the dishes plans
the shopping tea/coffee
your best lunch/dinner/breakfa
your hair time
st
your job sure
work progress

21
Exercises
Choose “make” or “do” in the correct tense. Use the table above. / Elija “make” o “do” en

el tiempo verbal apropiado. Usa la tabla de la página anterior.

1. You have to ________________ your bed.

2. I’ll ______________________ a comment.

3. She has to __________________ some work.

4. What if we ____________________ a cake?

5. They have ___________________ a fortune.

6. He is _______________________ research on wild animals at the moment.

7. Charles normally ________________ dinner and I normally prepare breakfast.

8. I’m not happy with this product at all. I’m going to ___________________ a complaint.

9. Have you _______________________ your homework, George?

10. I like your offer, Henry. Let’s ___________________________ business.

22
Phrasal verbs

1. A phrasal verb is a verb plus a preposition or adverb which creates a meaning different
from the original verb / Un phrasal verb es un verbo más una preposición o adverbio el
cual crea un significado distinto al del verbo original.

Examples:
 I ran into my teacher at the movies last night. RUN + INTO = MEET/ENCONTRARSE
 He ran away when he was 15. RUN + AWAY = LEAVE HOME/IRSE DE UN LUGAR

More examples of phrasal verbs are / Algunos ejemplos de phrasal verbs:

English Spanish
add up sumar, totalizar
blow up explosionar
bring up criar, educar, plantear
call off cancelar
carry on continuar
come across encontrarse de casualidad
come up with crear, inventar
get along llevarse bien
get away escaparse (viaje)
get up levantarse
give up dejar, rendirse
go on seguir, continuar
hold on esperar
look after cuidar de
look forward esperar (con ansia)
to up
look buscar
make out entender, comprender
pass out desmayarse
pull over Detenerse en la berma (en
put down vehículo)
bajar, soltar
put off posponer
put up with soportar
turn up aparecer
watch out tener cuidado

23
Exercises
Use the phrasal verb to complete the sentence using the table above / Use el phrasal verb
más adecuado para completar la oración. Use la tabla de la página anterior.

1. Please _______________ my baby while I’m out!


a) look up b) turn up c) look after
2. I ___________________ very early this morning.
a) blew out b) got up c) got down
3. I don’t know this word. I’ll ___________________ the word in the dictionary.
a) look up b) look to c) look after
4. I can’t meet this afternoon. Can you __________________ the meeting, please?
a) put out b) cancel in c) put off
5. I need a break from the city. Let’s ____________________ this weekend.
a) get away b) put away c) get off
6. The party was a disaster. Very few people ____________________
a) looked after b) came up with c) Turned up
7. At school I have to ___________________ children’s bad behavior every day.
a) put away b) put up with c) stand up
8. That road is terrible. You’ll have to __________________ for the big holes!
a) get out b) get along c) watch out
9. I don’t smoke anymore. I _______________________ smoking last year.
a) gave up b) gave out c) get out
10. Sorry to interrupt. ________________________ with your work.
a) carry on b) carry out c) call off

24
Gerunds

1. A gerund is a noun made from a verb by adding -ing. The gerund form of the verb
"read" is "reading." You can use a gerund as the subject, the complement, or the object of
a sentence / Al agregarle “-ing” a un verbo, estamos formando un gerundio. La forma
gerundio del verbo “read” es “reading”. Se puede usar el gerundio como el sujeto,
complemento o incluso como el objeto de una oración.

Examples:

• Reading helps you learn English. SUBJECT OF SENTENCE / COMO SUJETO

• Her favorite hobby is reading. COMPLEMENT OF SENTENCE / COMO COMPLEMENTO

• I enjoy reading. OBJECT OF SENTENCE / COMO OBJETO

Gerunds can be made negative by adding "not." / Los gerundios pueden ser negativos
sólo anteponiéndoles “not”.

Examples:

• He enjoys not working.

• The best thing for your health is not smoking.

Exercises
Fill the gaps with gerunds from the brackets / Completa las oraciones con gerundios de
los verbos en paréntesis.

1. She is good at (cry) ___________________

2. Mark is crazy about (sing) __________________

3. She doesn’t like (play) ____________________ cards.

25
4. They’re afraid of (swim) ___________________ in the sea.

5. My father should give up (smoke) ____________________

6. I dream of (build) ___________________________ my own house.

7. You seem interested in (make) __________________ friends.

8. Do not insist on (bring) ___________________ your own beer.

9. (Drive) ________________________ too fast is dangerous.

10. (Save) ______________________ someone else’s life is the most beautiful thing.

26
Comparisons
Comparative adjectives
Comparative adjectives are used when we want to compare two or more nouns. This
means that an adjective changes its form to be used in comparisons. These are the rules /
Los adjetivos comparativos se usan para hacer comparaciones entre dos o más sutantivos.
Esto significa que un adjetivo cambia su forma para poder ser usado en una comparación.
Estas son las reglas:

 For one syllable adjectives, add –er (Remember that it is sometimes necessary to
double the final consonant)
Examples:
Cold/colder, small/smaller, big/bigger

 For adjectives that end in –y, add –ier


Examples:
Pretty/prettier, noisy/noisier, Funny/funnier

 For adjectives with two or more syllables, use more before the adjective
Examples:
Beautiful/more beautiful, dangerous/more dangerous, modern/more modern

 There are some irregular adjectives which change their form completely.
Examples:
Good/better, bad/worse, far/farther

 We use a than with comparative adjectives / Se usa than con los adjetivos
comparativos.
Examples:
 This restaurant is nicer than the Pizza House.
 I had a bigger meal than you.
 The steak is more expensive than the fish.

27
Superlative adjectives
Superlative adjectives are used when we want to compare three or more nouns. Using the
superlative form takes a comparison to the highest degree possible. These are the rules /
Los adjetivos superlativos se usan para hacer comparaciones entre tres o más sustantivos.
Al usar la forma superlativa, se compara al mayor nivel posible: “el más caro”, “la más
bonita”, etc. Estas son las reglas:

 For one syllable words add -est to the word (Remember that it is sometimes
necessary to double the final consonant).
Examples:
Strong/strongest, big/biggest.

 For adjetives ending with a –y, add –iest


Examples:
Crazy/craziest, silly/silliest.

 For adjectives with two or more syllables, use most or least.


Examples:
Most desirable, least expensive.

 There are some irregular adjectives which change their form completely.
Examples:
Good/best, bad/worst

We normally use the before a superlative adjective / Generalmente usamos the antes de
un adjetivo superlativo.

Usain bolt is the fastest runner in the world.


Water is the most important element on earth.

Study the table below for further help / Estudia la tabla de abajo para mayor ayuda.

28
POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
Una sílaba Long Longer(than) (the) longest(of/in)
Hot Hotter(than) (the) hottest(of/in)
Nice Nicer(than) (the) nicest(of/in)
Dos sílabas que Happy Happier(than) (the) happiest(of/on)
terminan en
consonante + Y
Dos o más sílabas Beautiful More (the) most beautiful(of/in)
Good beautiful(than) (the) best(of/in)
Better(than)
Adjetivos Bad Worse(than) (the) worst(of/in)
irregulares Far Father/further(than) (the)
farthest/furthest(of/in)

You can find a list of comparative and superlative adjectives at this website / Puedes
encontrar una lista de adjetivos comparativos y superlativos en esta página web:
http://www.curso-ingles.com/gramatica-inglesa/compar-lista.php

29
As…..as
Another way to compare is to use as ... as. Here are some more examples / Otra forma de
hacer comparaciones es usando as…as. Aquí hay ejemplos:

Examples:
 Our house is as big as yours. / Nuestra casa es tan grande como la tuya.
 It isn't as cold as yesterday / No está tan frío como ayer.
 The chair is not as expensive as the table / La silla no es tan cara como la mesa.
 We aren’t as quick as you / No somos tan rápidos como ustedes.

There are also idiomatic expressions with as…as / También existen expresiones
idiomáticas en inglés con as…as:

Examples:
 As sick as a dog
 As quiet as a mouse
 As hungry as a bear
 As happy as a clam As clean as a whistle

Puedes visitar este sitio para ver más ejemplos:


http://esl.about.com/od/vocabularyreference/a/as_expressions.htm

Exercises
Write sentences with a comparative adjective and than. Use the adjectives in brackets /
Escribe oraciones usando los adjetivos en paréntesis en su forma comparativo y than.

Example:

 The film lasts two and a half hours, but the videotape only two hours. (long)
The film is longer than the videotape.

30
1. The castle was built in 1878 and the library in 1925. (old)

_________________________________________________________________________

2. Claus can lift 90 kilos, but Matthew can lift 120 kilos. (strong)

_________________________________________________________________________

3. Guy is 1.7 metres tall, but Harriet is 1.8 metres. (tall)

_________________________________________________________________________

4. Sayid hasn't many friends. Claire has lots of friends. (popular)

_________________________________________________________________________

5. Mark's car has room for five people, but Sarah's has room for only four. (big)

_________________________________________________________________________

Use the superlative form of the adjectives / Use la forma superlativa de los adjetivos.

Example:

 Melanie / kind person /I know Melanie is the kindest person I know.

1. Friday / busy day / week __________________________________________ of the

week.

2. The Metropole / nice hotel / town _________________________________________

3. this watch / one / cheap / you can buy ______________________________________

4. this Beatles album / good / they ever made __________________________________

5. Alan / successful salesman / company ______________________________________

31
Translate these sentences / Traduzca estas oraciones.

1. Mis hijas son tan altas como yo.


_________________________________________________

2. Chile no es tan grande como Brasil.


______________________________________________

3. La lasaña es tan difícil de hacer como la cazuela.


____________________________________

4. El japonés no es tan fácil como el portugués.


_______________________________________

5. Mis amigos son tan buenos como los tuyos.


________________________________________

32
Relative pronouns and relative clauses

Use defining relative clauses to identify the person, thing or place you are talking about /
Usa oraciones relativas para identificar la persona, cosa o lugar del cual estás hablando.

For example:

 A teacher is someone who socializes with people every day. (Identifies person)
 A tragedy is a film or a play which is sad. (Identifies thing)
 Arica is the place where you can visit “El morro”. (Identifies place)
 That is the song that I used to love. (Identifies object)

Other cases of non-defining relative clauses are. Otros casos de non defining relative
(agrega información sobre el sujeto) clauses son:

 My sister, who is from Arica, speaks Chinese.


 Paris, which is in France, is a beautiful city.
 Temuco, where I spent a year, is a beautiful city as well.

We do not use another pronoun like her or it with the relative pronoun / No usamos otro
pronombre como her o it con el pronombre relativo.

NOT: a woman who they met her NOT -the old castle that we visited it

33
Exercises
Join each pair of sentences together to make one sentence, using who or that. Write the
second sentence as a defining relative clause / Junte cada par de oraciones para hacer
una, usando who o that. Escriba la segunda oración como oración relativa.

1. This is the woman. She gave me my first job.

This is the woman who gave me my first job.

2. He picked up the book. It was on the desk.

________________________________________________________________________

3. The meal was delicious. Tom cooked it.

________________________________________________________________________

4. She's the woman. She telephoned the police.

________________________________________________________________________

5. He's the person. He wanted to buy your house.

____________________________________________________________________

6. We threw out the computer. It never worked properly.

____________________________________________________________________

7. This is the lion. It's been ill recently.

____________________________________________________________________

8. The man was badly injured. He was driving the car.

____________________________________________________________________

9. The children broke my window. They live in the next street.

____________________________________________________________________

10. They sold the cat. It was afraid of mice.

____________________________________________________________________

34
TAG Questions

Tag questions are small phrases or questions at the end of an affirmative or negative
sentence whose general objective is to confirm or deny the contents of this same phrase /
Los “tag questions” son pequeñas frases o preguntas que se colocan al final de una
oración afirmativa o negativa y que generalmente tienen como objetivo confirmar o negar
el contenido de la frase misma. Es el equivalente al ¿cierto?

Form

Three basic rules that you should always remember /Tres reglas básicas que debes
recordar:

1. Tag questions always use auxiliary verbs. The verb “to be” is considered to be an
auxiliary verb for itself and for present and past continuous tenses. / Los tag questions
utilizan siempre los verbos auxiliares. El verbo “to be” es considerado como el verbo
auxiliar para sí mismo y los tiempos continuos del presente y pasado.

2. Affirmative sentences always use negative tag questions. /Con oraciones afirmativas
utilizamos un tag question en negativo.

3. Negative sentences always use affirmative tag questions / Con oraciones negativas
utilizamos un tag question en afirmativo.

Consider the following examples / Considera los siguientes ejemplos:

Positive Sentence+ Negative TAG Negative Sentence+ Positive TAG


You’re from Santiago, aren’t you? That wasn’t very good, was it?

You know how to cook, don’t you? You didn’t do your homework, did you?

Harry will come tonight, won’t he? It hasn’t been a nice has it?

You would do the same for me, wouldn’t You can’t speak French, can you?
you?

35
Note: After I’m ….. , the question tag is: aren’t I?

• I’m in trouble, aren’t I?

Usage

The meaning of a tag question depends on how you say it / El significado de una tag
question depende de como lo digas:

 If your voice goes down, you are not really asking a question, you are only inviting the
listener to agree with you. / Si el tono de voz baja, no es realmente una pregunta sino
se está invitando al interlocutor a estar de acuerdo.
o It’s a nice day, isn’t it?
o Bill doesn’t look very well today, does he?

 If your voice goes up, it is a real question. / Si el tono de voz sube, entonces realmente
es una pregunta.
o You haven’t got a pen, have you?
o You don’t know where Henry is, do you?

Exercises
Write the tag question at the end of the following sentences / Escribe la tag question al
final de las siguientes oraciones.

a. You’re tired, _____________________________________________________?

b. That’s you’re teacher over there, _____________________________________?

c. There were a lot of people there, _____________________________________?

d. I shouldn’t have done that, __________________________________________?

e. We can come back tomorrow, ________________________________________?

f. I’m supposed to be somewhere else, ____________________________________?

36
g. I didn’t pass the exam, _________________________________________________?

h. You wouldn’t do that, __________________________________________________?

i. Max won’t be coming to the party, ________________________________________?

j. You haven’t seen Jenny today, ____________________________________________?

37
Present perfect/ Pretérito perfecto

Form

The present perfect is made with have/has + a past participle verb / El pretérito perfecto
se forma con have/has + verbo en pasado participio.

Use

The present perfect is often used with since and for to talk about situations that began in
the past and continue up to now / El pretérito perfecto a menudo se usa con since y for
para referirse a situaciones que empezaron en el pasado y que continúan hasta ahora.

When we use the present perfect, we see things as happening in the past but having a
result in the present / Cuando usamos el pretérito perfecto, vemos cosas como
sucediendo en el pasado pero teniendo una consecuencia en el presente.

I/you/we/they have washed OR I/you/we/they've washed

He/she/it has washed OR he/she/it's washed

Negative Question
I/you/we/they haven't washed Have I/you/we/they washed?
He/she/it hasn't washed Has he/she/it washed?

The past participle of regular verbs end in –ed / El pasado participio de los verbos
regulares terminan en “-ed”.
The past participle form of irregular verbs varies. (See table below) /El pasado participio
de los verbos irregulares varía. (Ver la tabla más abajo).

Example:

 We've washed the dishes. (They're clean now.)


 The aircraft has landed. (It's on the ground now.)
 We've eaten all the eggs. (There aren't any left.)
 They've learnt the words. (They know the words.)
 You've broken this watch. (It isn't working.)

38
Most common irregular verbs

base past past base past past


form simple participl form simple participle
be was/were been
e lead led led
bear bore born learn learnt learnt
beat beat beaten leave left left
begin began begun lend lent lent
bite bit bitte let let let
blow blew nblown lie lay lain
broadcast broadcast broadcast lose lost lost
break broke broken make made made
bring brought brought mean meant meant
build built buil meet met met
burn burnt burn
t pay paid paid
buy bought bought
t put put put
catch caught caught read read read
choose chose chosen ride rode ridden
come came come ring rang rung
cost cost cost rise rose risen
cut cut cut run ran run
do did done say said said
draw drew drawn see saw seen
dream dreamt dreamt sell sold sold
drink drank drun send sent sent
drive drove kdriven set set set
eat ate eate shoot shot shot
fall fell nfalle show showed shown
feed fed nfed shut shut shut
feel felt felt sing sang sung
fight fought fought sit sat sat
find found foun sleep slept slept
fly flew dflow smell smelt smelt
forget forgot forgotten
n speak spoke spoken
freeze froze frozen spend spent spent
get got got stand stood stood
give gave given steal stole stolen
go went gone stick stuck stuck
grow grew grown swim swam swum
hang hung hung take took taken
have had had teach taught taught

39
hear heard heard tell told told
hide hid hidden think thought thought
hit hit hit throw threw thrown
hold held held wake woke woken
hurt hurt hur wear wore worn
keep kept kept
t win won won
know knew known write wrote written

Exercises
Complete the questions/sentences with the verbs from the box below. Remember to
make use of the past participle form of the verbs /Complete las preguntas/oraciones con
los verbos de la tabla a continuación. Recuerde usar el pasado participio de los verbos.

Tell - read - take - talk - drink - sleep


study - play - be - lose

1. Have you ever _________________________ a book in English?

2. Have you ever ___________________________ the guitar?

3. Have you ever ___________________________ to England?

4. You have _______________________________ an English course this semester

5. She has never ___________________________ a lie.

6. I haven’t _______________________________ coffee since I was a little kid.

7. I have ________________________________ biology for two years.

8. Have you ever __________________________ in a tent before?

9. I have never ___________________________ to someone who doesn’t speak my


language.
10. I have ________________________________ my wallet.

40
The past simple

Positive forms

A regular past form ends in –ed / Un pasado “regular” lleva terminación -ed.

 It happened very quickly.


 The van crashed into the cat.
 I posted the letter yesterday. We once owned a caravan.

Some verbs have an irregular past form / Algunos verbos tienen una forma irregular.

 The car came out of a side road. Vicky rang earlier.


 I won the game.
 I had breakfast at six. The train left on time. We took some photos.

The past simple is the same in all persons except in the past tense of be / El pasado simple
es el mismo en todas las personas excepto en el pasado de be.

I/he/she/it was I was ill last week,

You/we/they were those cakes were nice.

Negative and questions

We use did in negatives and questions / Usamos did en negaciones y en preguntas.

NEGATIVE QUESTION
I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not stop Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they stop?

Or didn't stop

The car did not stop. The driver didn't look to his right.

What did you tell the police? - Nothing. Did you ring home? - Yes, I did.

We do not use a past form such as stopped or rang in negatives and questions.

41
The car didn't stopped and NOT Did you rang?

We also use was and were in negatives and questions / También usamos was o were en
oraciones negativas y en preguntas

NEGATIVE QUESTION
I/he/she/it was not OR wasn't Was I/he/she/it?
You/we/they were OR weren't Were you/we/they?

Example:
 I wasn't very well last week. The gates weren't open.
 Where was your friend last night? Was your steak nice?

Use

We use the past simple for something in the past which is finished / Usamos el pasado
simple para referirnos a algo que finalizó en el pasado.

Example:

 Emma passed her exam last year. We went to the theatre on Friday. Elvis Presley
died in 1977.
 I knew what the problem was. When did you buy this car? - About three years
ago.

Exercises
Complete the newspaper story about a fire. Put in the past simple forms of the verbs /
Complete la noticia sobre un incendio. Use el pasado simple en los verbos en paréntesis.

Two people died (die) in a fire in Ellis Street, Oldport yesterday morning. They (1)
________________ (be) Herbert and Molly Paynter, a couple in their seventies. The fire
(2) __________________ (start) at 3.20 am. A neighbor, Mr. Aziz, (3) _________________
(see) the flames and (4) __________________ (call) the fire brigade. He also (5)
____________________ (try) to get into the house and rescue his neighbors, but the heat

42
(6) _____________________ (be) too great. The fire brigade (7) _____________________
(arrive) in five minutes. Twenty fire-fighters (8) ______________________ (fight) the fire
and finally (9) ________________________ (bring) it under control. Two fire-fighters (10)
_________________________ (enter) the burning building but (11)
_______________________ (find) the couple dead.

43
Key/Respuestas

Present Simple vs Present Continuous


1. gives 7. plays
2. travels 8. practises
3. is staying (= he's staying) 9. doesn't go
4. is having 10. gets up
5. is drinking 11. gets
6. is reading 12. is wearing

Prepositions
1. in 6. at
2. on 7. on
3. in 8. on
4. at 9. in
5. at 10. at

Will/Be going to
1. will be 6. will help
2. are going to get 7. will buy
3. will like 8. is going to throw
4. is going to have 9. are going to fly
5. will arrive 10. is going to rain

May/Might
1. There may/might be some tea in the pot.
2. May I ask you how old you are?
3. Visitors may not be in the hospital after ten p.m.
4. May I have one of these sandwiches?
5. The car may/might be in the station car park

44
6. May I use your phone?
7. Guests may wear casual dress.
8. She may/might move to London.
9. The show might be cancelled.
10. She may/might be elected.

Make and Do
1. make 6. doing
2. make 7. makes
3. do 8. make
4. make 9. done
5. made 10. do

Phrasal verbs
1. C 6. C
2. B 7. B
3. A 8. C
4. C 9. A
5. A 10. A

Gerunds
1. crying 6. building
2. singing 7. making
3. playing 8. bringing
4. swimming 9. driving
5. smoking 10. saving

Comparatives
1. The castle is older than the library

45
2. Mathew is stronger than Claus
3. Harriet is taller than Guy
4. Claire is more popular than Sayid
5. Mark’s car is bigger than Sarah’s.

Superlatives
1. Friday is the busiest day of the week
2. The Metropole is the nicest hotel in town
3. This watch is the cheapest one you can buy
4. This Beatles album is the best they have ever made
5. Alan is the most successful salesman in the company

As …as
1. My daughters are as tall as me.
2. Chile is not as big as Brazil.
3. Lasagna is as hard to make as “cazuela”.
4. Japanese is not as hard as Portuguese.
5. My friends as good as yours.

Relative pronouns
2. He picked up the book that was on the bed.
3. The meal Tom cooked was delicious.
4. She’s the woman who telephoned the police.
5. He’s the person who wanted to buy your house.
6. We threw out the computer that never worked properly.
7. This is the lion that’s been ill recently.
8. The man who was driving the car was badly injured.
9. The children who live in the next street broke my window.
10. They sold the cat that was afraid of mice.

46
Tag Questions
1) Aren’t you. 6) Aren’t I.
2) Isn’t it. 7) Did I.
3) Weren’t there. 8) Would you.
4) Should I. 9) Will he.
5) Can’t we. 10) Have you.

Present perfect
1. Read 6. Drunk
2. Played 7. Studied
3. Been 8. Slept
4. Taken 9. Talked
5. Told 10. lost

Past simple
1. were
2. started
3. saw
4. called
5. tried
6. was
7. arrived
8. fought
9. brought
10. entered
11. found

47
Referencias bibliográficas

Adaptado de Education First. Recuperado de http://www.ef.com/english-

resources/english-grammar/simple-present-tense en abril de 2017.

Adaptado de ejercicio de ingles.com Recuperado de

http://www.ejerciciodeingles.com/expresiones-cantidad-ingles-some-any en abril

de 2017.

Adaptado de Learn English Language. Recuperado de

http://www.englishlanguage.com/blog/aprenda-ingles/gramatica/preguntas-

informativas en abril de 2017.

48