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Van nn = 7.7 Example Photo #2 of Acceptable/Rejectable Cracks 78 Example Photo #3 of Acceptable/Rejectable Cracks = 7.8 Example Photo #4 of Acceptable/Rejectable Cracks 7.10 Example Photo #5 of Acceptable/Rejectable Cracks = 7.11 Example Photo #6 of Acceptable/Rejectable Cracks = 7.12 Example Photo #7 of Acceptable/Rejectable Cracks = 7.13 Example Photo #8 of Acceptable/Rejectable Cracks 714 Example Photo #9 of Acceptable/Rejectable Cracks = 7.1 Example Photo #10 of Acceptable/Rejectable Cracks = 7.16 Example Photo #11 of Acceptable/Rejectable Cracks 7.17 Example Photo #12 of Acceptable/Rejectable Cracks = 718 APIDrling Subs. ; 7418 Bit Sub Float Bore = 720. H-Series™ Benchmarks = 721 Xmark™ Benchmarks. = 7.22 _XT-M"™ and TT-M? Box and Pin Seal Surfaces. 7.23 — Tool Joint Dimensions for API and Similar Non-proprietary Connections = = a = 7.28 7.28 7.27 7.28 7.29 7.30 84 82 83 a4 as 86 THHill Associates, Inc. Page Tool Joint Dimensions for NOV Grant Prideco Hi TORQUE®, eXtreme™ Torque, uxT™, eXtreme™ Torque-M, TurboTorque® and TurboTorque-M® Connections. 101 Tool Joint Dimensions for NOV Grant Prideco Double Shoulder™, uDS™, VAM Express™, VAM EIS®, VAM CDS™, and VAM TorgMaster2™ Connections... sn 104 Tool Joint Dimensions for Hydril Wedge Thread™ Connections 105 Tool Joint Dimensions for NK DSTJ™ Connections 106 Tool Joint Dimensions for Hilong HLIDS and HLST Connections. 107 BHA Connection Dimensions ... nnn 109 Pocket Magnetometer 119 Plot of Predicted Loads .. 243, Estimated Buckling Loads for Specialty Tools 253 Example Problems 8.1, 8.2, and 8.3 246 Example Problems 8.2, 8.3, and 8.4 247 Hole Opener Operation... a ae 248 Reactive Torque Plots 250 List of Equations 34 3.2 3.3 34 35 36 37 3.8 3.9 81 82 83 a4 a5 86 87 88 89 8.10 viii ACME Connection Shear Strength. Force to Shear Threads. Torsional Capacity of Connection Box Torsional Capacity of Connection Pin Makeup Torque below which Makeup does not affect Pin Tensile le Capac. Torsional Capacity of a Cylindrical Cross Section. Calculation of 7” Revised Capacity of Pin Neck (Yield)... Revised Capacity of Pin (Leak) Load Factor ron ae e 241 Useful Load Capacity... - a oer 243, Estimating BHA Drag... en came é 244 String Drag Up.. 244 String Drag Down .. é 244 Dawson-Paslay Equation for Bucking in Siaight “inclined Wellbores..... eaeeateoAg) Jar Placement in Drill Collar Section 7 —— oe 247 Jar Placement in HWOP Sections S penne : 247 Maximum Bit Weight without Buckling a Tool fn coe 248, Minimum Drill Collar Length Below Opening Tools onc vee 248 DS-1* Fourth Edition, Volume 4, Drilling Specialty Tools Foreword Standards exist to facilitate communication and improve the efficiency of transactions between manufacturers, ‘vendors and users. Manufacturing driling specialty tools for sale, and carrying them for rental are capital- intensive enterprises. Changing standards increase risks for obsolescence of plant and inventory. Nonuniform market perceptions of what constitutes minimum acceptable properties elevate these risks. Manufacturers and vendors can serve the operator community better if hey can avoid uncertainty about, and unreasonable variety in the requirements of the products they must make and hold. On the other side of the equation, operators, who most often use these products on a rental basis, and who rarely have major investment in plant and inventory for driling tubular production, face significant economic risk in the event of failure. in renting driling specialty tools, operators need flexibility and good product properties to safely handle a wide variety of downhole conditions and loads. This Volume 4 of Fourth Edition is the first time the DS-1° sponsor group has elected to address load rating, inspection, assembly, testing and use of diiling specialty tools under the DS-1 forum, Standard STC-1™ covers qualification requirements for specialty tools. Also, Standard DS-1 Third Edition, Volume 3 included limited requirements for inspection, assembly and function testing of certain specialty tools, However, the requirements specified in these two standards were not completely aligned. Differences in coverage and requirements in Standard STC-1 and Standard DS-1 Third Edition, Volume 3 creates market confusion and places burden on the manufactures and vendors as they try to standardize and streamline their tool inventory. Italso diminishes the market consistency that operators need to be able to standardize the driling specialty tools they want to use for various service conditions and applications. As the DS-1 sponsor group examined these points, it became apparent that a single specification that covers qualification requirements of driling specialty tools was needed, To consolidate the requirements on driling specialty tools into a single specification, the applicable require ments from Standard STC-1 and Third Edition of Standard DS-1 Volume 3 were merged to create a single standard; Standard DS-1” Volume 4, Origin and objective of this standard. The Standard DS-+ is prepared under the sponsorship of a group of companies that make and supply specialty tools. The objective of the sponsor companies is to decrease the probability that a specialty tool will fil in service, either functionally or structurally. To further this objec- tive, the standard establishes certain requirements for specialty tool load rating, inspection and assembly process controls, function-testing process controls and practices for field use. Responsibility for Compliance. Responsibility for compliance to any requirement of this standard can only be imposed by one user of this standard upon another user, by agreement between the two parties. Content. The content of this standard is determined by ‘a committee of technical representatives from sponsor companies. However, suggestions for improving this standard are welcomed from any source. Suggested changes should be sent to the address below. Copyright Notice. This standard is copyrighted and is the property of T H Hill Associates, Inc. Anyone who wishes to use this standard may do so, but no part of the standard may be photocopied, electroni- cally duplicated, entered into a computer or otherwise reproduced without prior written permission from T H Hill Associates, Inc. Coverage. This standard may be applied to any driling specialty tool by agreement between the manufacturer and/or vendor of that tool and the customer. How- ever, the standard covers only those activities listed in Paragraph 1.3. ‘Sponsorship of the Standard. Sponsorship of DS-1 is open to any company or institution having an inter- est in the field. Sponsorship fees are paid to T H Hill Associates, Inc. and are used to conduct research and to recommend content. T H Hill Associates, Inc. publishes and maintains the standard. For sponsorship information contact: Vice President, Engineering THHill Associates, Inc. 13100 Wortham Center Drive, Suite 300 Houston, Texas 77065 (281) 671-5700 (phone) (281) 671-5397 (fax) mail@thhill.com (email) “THD Lv Disclaimer of Liability. TH Hill Associates, Inc. and the editorial committee have made dligent, good faith efforts to ensure the reliability and applicability of the procedures and requirements of this standard. How- ever, TH Hill Associates, nc, its officers and directors, the editorial committee members and their companies, and the sponsor companies make no guarantee, rep- resentation, claim or warranty of any kind as to the validity of engineering formulas used, or the accuracy and completeness of any data presented herein. T H Hill Associates, Inc, is officers and directors, the edito- rial committee members and their companies, and the ‘sponsor companies, hereby disclaim and shall not be lable for any direct or consequential claims or damages, personal injury or property damage, economic or other losses, out of pocket damages or lost profits, or violation of any letters patent, relating to or resulting from use of this standard or use of the procedures mentioned herein, and by using the standard, the user releases TH hill Associates, Inc. from any and all such claims, liabilities or damages of any kind. TH Hill Associates, Inc. expressly disclaims any and all express warran- ties of every kind as well as any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. T H Hill Associates, nc. shall never be liable to any user for any act or omission unless caused by gross negligence or intentional misconduct of T H Hill Associates, Inc. The labilty of T H Hill Associates, Inc. shal in any event be limited to the retail price at which this standard is offered for sale. EXAMPLETOOL. Specialty tools covered by this standard come in a wide variety of shapes, sizes and geometries. Their components are made from many different materials. Therefore, the requirements of this ‘standard willbe illustrated with a fictional specialty sub- tool called EXAMPLETOOL, shown in figures 1 and 2. THHill Associates, Inc. Practicality. No claim is made that EXAMPLETOOL is either a practical operating device or that it would serve any useful funetion in oll and gas driling. Its value lies strictly in its use as an aid for illustrating the requirements of this standard. Hypothetical functions. EXAMPLETOOL must perform the following hypothetical functions: a. To "set" by extending and locking its dogs ‘outwardly before mechanical compression across the sub-tool exceeds 1000 pounds plus the net pump-open force caused by differential pressure. b. To "Telease" by unlocking and retracting its dogs inwardly before mechanical tension across the sub-tool exceeds 1000 pounds minus the net pump-open force caused by differential pressure. ¢. To electronically record and store the number of setting and releasing cycles, and to allow recovery of this data upon disassembly. 4. To allow internal passage of other equipment in sizes up to 2.808 inches OD. e. To transmit tension up to its tensile load rating. f. To transmit torque up to its torsional load rating, 9. To maintain pressure isolation from inside to outside and from outside to inside up to its pressure rating, Components. EXAMPLETOOL is assembled from 30 separate components with 16 different part numbers as shown in figure 2. DS-1" Fourth Edition, Vol me 4, Drilling Specialty Tools COME OY NAME WARTNUMBER 44 Top suectsncess}—————4 | 21 Manones e025) 31 TOP CAP Enos, 41 ROUSING (En00%.s) ———a bos enon) FRETANER SET SOAEW (ETX@2)—t ETANER (E1008) InseRTeDOxTS) ‘cTHONGS ACOESS PLUG (ETO Pus oveNG eres) SMALL RING (eT TARGE O-RING (eT¥OO) ELECTRONICS (eText) BATTERY (erex12) — 18 ‘I 151 ADAPTER erctes)——___ ASSEMBLY DRAWING 7 ope; _ EXAMPLE TOOL ( aie || | Figure 1. EXAMPLETOOL shown in the set position (left) Figure 2. EXAMPLETOOL is assembled from 30 components ‘and the released position (right) of 16 different part numbers. Specialty Tool Definitions... Too! TYPES... Life Cycles and overage Failure Modes.. Failure Causes... Shared Responsibility for Preventing Failures... Maintenance Classification System for Type A Tools Classification of Type B Tools eae Establishing a Classification . Standard STC-1™ and Standard DS-1° .. Alignment... Meeting Requirements of Standards 0S-1® and STO-1 Meeting Requirements of Standard DS-1* Third Edition, Volume 8 .. Staged Implementation of Standard DS-1”. — Records ... aie Application of Requirements . Chapter 1 Coverage and Summary Requirements Section Contents List of Tables Coverage of this Standard... : Requirements imposed by the Customer by Reference fo this Standard ae 8 List of Figures Specialty Too! ‘Type “A” Specialty Tools. ‘Type “B” Specialty Tools. ' ‘Summary of Required Documentation by Reference to this Standard RERRRR RRR RRR eee eeeneeeeeaneanneannnnnnannnananes : DS-1" Fourth Edition, Volume 4, Driling Specialty Tools Chapter 1 Coverage and Summary Requirements 1.0 Specialty tool. A driling specialty tool is a device that can be attached to or run in a drill string or casing string and perform some function. Itis assembled from ‘two or more components or sub-tools. It is complete in itsetf, that is, no additional equipment is needed for its function except possibly some activation device such as a pump down plug, or some external power or pressure source. 14 Definitions. Throughout this standard, definitions that apply to a specific chapter are given at the front of that chapter. The glossary contains a complete alpha- betical lst ofall definitions used in the standard. The {following definitions apply to this chapter: 41.1.4 Component. A single piece that an assembler jeins with others to form a specialty tool or sub-tool. ‘Acomplex component such as an electronic circult board may be fabricated from many parts, butit would normally be viewed as a single item by the assembler. LINER HANGER RUNNING TOOL, (Example) PACKERSETING (suB}TOOL PACKOFF (SUB) TOO, LNER HANGER RUNNING TOOL LIVERSETTNG (UB) TOOL, LINER WIPER PLUG (SuB}TOoL Figure 1.1 A specialty tool is assembled from two or more ‘components and may include one or more sub-tools. A sub- 1001 is also assembled from two or more components, but is not intended to be run by itself ‘A component would not be further reduced by a technician who was disassembling a tool, and doing s0 would result in its damage or destruction. 1.1.2 Customer. The party that is at an immediate economic risk in the event of a specialty tool failure. Except in a turnkey driling situation, the "customer" will normally be an operating company. 4.1.3 Manufacturer. specialty tool ‘The company that builds a 1.1.4 Sub-tool. A device made up of two or more components that may be attached to other components or sub-tools to form a specialty tool. A sub-too! is not intended to be run without further assembly to ther components or sub-tools to form a complete specialty tool. 1.1.5 Tool Family. A group of specialty tools wherein the specialty tools have similar intended function and use. 1.1.6 Tool transmittal record. A document that accompanies a specialty too! tothe rig, and includes the information required by rig personnel for proper running and operation ofthe too 1.4.7 Vendor. The party that commercially rents, leases or sells a specialty tool to a customer, and that the customer wil look to in the event of a failure. A customer may secure a specialty tool from a vendor singly, in combination with other tools and equipment, of packaged with some service. Specialty tool vendors may be any ofthe following company types: a. Tool manufacturer (vendor/manufacturer) b. Rental company ©. Service company 4. Driling contractor @. Equipment sales company . Other company 1.2 Tool types. Specialty tools and sub-toals are Categorized into two types under this standard, 1.2.1 Type A. Type A (rental) tools and sub-tools are those intended to be used to perform some function, either downhole or on the surface, then to be retrieved, refurbished and used again. .Shipmenttonig cette omree (Sacer) “mre: ee OS, Expendable as non rapaable components toscrap Tisactity is covered by his Standard (reactive th dad Figure 1.2 Type “A” specialty tools and sub-tools are recovered, refurbished and reused along paths: similar to those shown. Steps 1-3 apply to. tool model, and steps 6-10 10.4 specific tool of that model. Activities listed in yellow boxes are not covered by this standard. THHill Associates, Inc. 1.2.2 Type B. Type B (sale) tools and sub-tools are those intended to be run once and remain permanently downhole. 1.3 Life cycles and coverage. The life of a Type A tool model will ikely follow a path similar to that shown in figure 1.2. A tool of that model is assembled using several components and may be reused several times, ‘Some components may need replacement after a single use. Other components in the same tool may be reused a few times and stil others may be used and reused for years. Figure 1.3 shows the simpler probable life cycle of a Type B specialty tool model. This standard covers those activities indicated in green in figures 1.2 and 1.3 and summarized in table 1.1 1.4 Failure modes. This standard defines two modes of specialty too! failure. 1.4.1 Functional failure. A functional failure is one in which tool function is lost, but no leaks occur and the entire tool and the string below it are recoverable, by tripping the string, 1.4.2 Structural failure. A structural failure is one In whieh: a. Allor part of a too! is lost downhole, b. Improper function of the tool causes the string above to become stuck, or 6. One or more leaks occur. A leaks fluid flow from ‘ne side ofthe tool to the other by @ path through which fluid is not intended to flow. 1.4.3 Structural failure mechanisms. Though other failure mechanisms are possible, structural failure, if it occurs, will probably result from one or more of the {allowing mechanisms. a. Failure of a seal, The resulting fluid leak is itself defined as a structural failure. Furthermore, erosion from fluid flow around and through the leak may lead to overload failure from loss of load-bearing material in the affected components, Table 1.1 Coverage of this Standard Load and New Used Operating Component Component Field Limits Disassembly Inspection Inspection _Assembly Testing __ Use Type A Tools x : - x x x x Type B Tools x : - - 4 x - 6 ee DS-1° Fourth Edition, Volume 4, Driling Specialty Tools (7) racy i covereaty nis Sanaars (ED) ssc ot covery his Stands Figure 13 Type "B” specialty tools and sub-tools remain downhole after use along a life-path similar to this. Activities listed in yellow boxes are not covered by this standard. b. Overload. Overload failure can occur when the load-carrying capacity of some component is inadequate for the tool's design load rating Overioad also happens through no fault of the vendor when the customer apples loads in excess of the tool's rated load capacity ¢. Fatigue. Fatigue is progressive, cumulative permanent structural damage that occurs at high stress points in a component as it undergoes repeated stress cycles. Eventually fatigue cracks can form in the affected locations and grow until a leak or overload failure occurs. 1.5 Failure causes. When a specialty tool fails, either structurally or functionally, the cause of the failure can almost certainly be traced to shortcomings in one or more of the following areas. 1.5.1 Tool Design. Too! model designs are usually tested in orototype before the vendor offers them to the market. Also, many nev tool models will undergo design modifications in the early stages after entering the market, as and when more extensive field use and cisassembly examinations indicate aneed. However, ‘once a tool model becomes field proven through long, satisfactory performance, the probability that a failure of that model will be attributable to faulty design will generally decrease. This generalization does not apply however, to the other four probable failure causes. These willbe about equally likely late or early in the life of a tool model 1.5.2 Inspection. One or more of the failed tool's components might have been incorrectly accepted during inspection and sentto the assembler. This can happen in the inspection process for new or repaired components (not covered by this standard) or in the inspection of used components (covered by this standard). A manufacturing error is not considered a causative factor to too! failure in the context of this standard. This is based on the presumption that a properly designed and executed new-component inspection program would have detected the error and prevented the offencing component from getting to the next step. 1.5.3 Assembly. Even when the inspection processes deliver only good components to the assembler, improper assembly can still cause a failure, 1.5.4 Fleld Misuse. Field Misuse is defined as loading a tool above its rated load capacity and/or by using the tool in a manner other than the manner prescribed by the vendor and communicated to the customer, 1.5.5 Abuse. Abuse is defined as operating a tool in more aggressive wellbore conditions than it was designed for, or that it might reasonably be ‘expected to bear. Very corrosive wellbore fluids, high acceleration forces or extreme lateral deflections in a rotating tool may alllbe considered abuse if the vendor has limited knowledge of or limited control over the customer's use of its tool in these circumstances. 1.6 Shared responsibility for preventing failures. Given the above, the manufacturer, vendor (if it is not the manufacturer) and customer all carry a shared responsibility for preventing specialty tool failure. 1.6.1 Tool preparation. How a Type 8 (sale) tool is assembled and tested will have a direct bearing (on whether or not that tool will fail when it goes into service. Likewise, how a Type A (rental) tool TH) Hee is refurbished when it is retuned from field service will bear directly on the probability of that tool failing during its next service cycle. Therefore, this standard sets requirements on the assembly and testing of Type B tools, and inspection, assembly and testing of Type A tools. These requirements are summarized in table 1.2 and figure 1.4. 1.6.2 Customer's use of a tool. Even when a tool is properly assembled and tested, and even when it is accompanied by a technician who is charged with operating it, the wellbore conditions in which the too! must be operated can still cause tool failure, Therefore, this standard establishes consistent means for rating load capacities and for communicating them to the customer. It also provides guidelines for customer action to minimize tool damage during operation. 1.8.3 Failure Analysis. Failure analysis is an important aspect of the prevention of too! failures. Customers, vendors and manufacturers shall work together to expediently conduct failure analyses by sharing related information such as assembly reports, material test certificates, detailed well operation data, and providing access to the rig site during the investigation. 1.7 Maintenance classification system for Type A tools. Once a Type A tool model is field proven, the vendor's most important actions to prevent failure in a tool of that model center around its maintenance program; that is, how the tool is disassembled, Inspected, reassembled and tested before itis shipped to the next customer in line, This standard ranks Type A tools into four maintenance classes. The methods the vendor used in refurbishing a tool immediately before it is shipped will determine the classification of that too! as it leaves the vendor's shop on its way to a rig 1.7.1 Class A1. A tool or sub-tool, upon shipment to a rig, may be designated Class A1 only if, since it last returned from the field, it has been completely disassembled (see note 1), inspected, reassembled and function tested in accordance with the requirements of this standard. Every component must have been separated from every other ‘component in the disassembly process (see note 1). Furthermore, the tool must have been inspected in accordance with Chapter 4 and reassembled and function tested in accordance with Chapters 5 and 6 of this standard. If the tool belongs to one of the tool families described in table 7.1. then the tool must also meet all accitional inspection, assembly and function testing requirements listed in Chapter 7 of this standard. Thus, a tool rated Class At will THHill Associates, Inc. have undergone @ complete overhaul since it was last returned from the field Note 1: Complete disassembly of the tool does not require disassembly of the tool to a point where the disassembly would result in damage or destruction of tools components such as electronic and electromechanical packages, sensor(s) and/ or possible invalidation of their calibration(s). Further, complete disassembly of tools does not include disassembly of electrical connectors, and pre-packaged and calibrated electronic and electromechanical systems and modules. Further, with agreement of the customer, the prescribed disassembly level of the tool can be aligned with the vendor's maintenance management system and process. 1.7.2 Class A1/A2. Spare or backup tools often return unused from the field. If @ tool or sub-tool was previously shipped as Class At and returned Unused, it may be shipped to another job as class A1IA2, "Unused" means never connected to a dill string or casing string and operated or tested.) A Class A1/A2 tool may be partially disassembled and reassembled to re-configure it for a new application. Full disassembly, inspection and reassembly is not required. However, before it is shipped, a tool classified A1/A2 shall be examined for handling damage and be function tested in accordance with Chapter 6 of this standard. Ifthe too! belongs to one: of the tool families described in table 7.1, then the tool must also meet the adaitional function testing requirements listed in Chapter 7 of this standard. 1.7.3 Class A3. A tool or sub-tool shalllbe designated Class A3 upon shipment to a rig if it has been used one or more times on previous jobs and is being shipped for reuse without having been completely disassembled, inspected and reassembled in accordance with this standard. ("Used" means having been connected to a drill string or casing string and either tested or operated one or more times.) Before itis shipped, a Class A3 tool shall be examined for handling damage and be function tested in accordance with Chapter 6 of this standard. Ifthe tool belongs to one of the tool families described in table 7.1, then the tool must also meet the additional funetion testing requirements listed in Chapter 7 of this standard. Furthermore, the vendor shail obtain customer approval before shipping a Class A3 tool. 1.7.4 Class A4. The customer may desire to impose certain requirements of this standard on some tools or on some vendors, and to impose none of the requirements on other tools or other vendors. To allow QADDPORHgS WRCCURARROR Been anae is flexibility, classes Ad (for rental items) and B2 (for sale items) are provided. When either of these are selected by the customer, no requirements of this standard will apply. 1.8 Classification of Type B tools. Type B tools are classified Class B1 or B2 depending on whether or rot the customer wishes to impose all or none of the requirements of this standard on the vendor. 1.9 Establishing a classification. A customer may establish a maintenance classification for a specialty tool or tool family by notifying the tool vendor which classification is required. 1.9.1 Class At. The customer will accept a rental tool only fit has been completely disassembled (see rote 1 in section 1.7.1), inspected, reassembled and function tested in accordance with this standard since it was last shipped to the field. 1.9.2 Class A1/A2. The customer will accept only ‘At rental tools and tools that were previously shipped ‘as A1 and returned unused from the field. 1.9.3 Class A3. The customer will accept a rental tool that was previously used, so long as itis function tested in accordance with this standard before it is shipped, DS-1° Fourth Edition, Volume 4, Drilling Specialty Tools 1.9.4 Class A4. The customer will accept a rental 001 so long as it meets the vendor's normal assembly, inspection and testing standards. 41.9.5 Class B1. The customer will accept sale too! only ifit has been assembled and function tested in accordance with Chapters 5 and 6. 1.9.6 Class B2. The customer will accept a sale tool 80 long as it meets the vendor's normal assembly, inspection and testing standards. 1.9.7 Shipments of classes not requested. A ‘vendor may ship @ tool of higher classification than the one the customer requested. For example, if fa customer requests A3 the vendor may ship A1, However, a vendor may not ship a lower classification without the customer's prior approval. 1.9.8 Vendor warranty. By stating the maintenance classification on a tool and its accompanying paperwork, the vendor is warranting that the tool was inspected, assembled and tested to the requirements of the stated classification that are given in this standard, 4.9.9. Meaningful terminology. A customer's requirement that a tool must "Meet the requirements of DS-1" (or some similar phrase) is meaningless. A Table 1.2 Requirements Imposed by the Customer by Reference to this Standard DS-1 Requirement Imposed by the Customer Load rating in accordance with Chapter 3. Complete disassembly since last job.. A tool returned unused may be reshipped. Inspection controls in accordance with Chapter 4... ‘Assembly controls in accordance with Chapter 5... Function test in accordance with Chapter 6 . Customer approval of Class A3 is required before shipping... - Specific tool requirements in accordance with Chapter 7. “Tools shipped as Class Ad or Class B2 are not subject to any Requested Tool or Sub-Tool Rental Tools Sale Tools A1_AVA2 AS Ad BI__B2 Yes Yes * Yes * Not No * NA * Ves Veo NAL ry Yes Noe No * NA * wYes Yes? No * Yes * Yes Yes Yes * Yes * ve : : Yes Yes* Yes! * - ° requirements of this standard. ‘Partial disassembly and reassembly on Class A1/A2 tools is permitted only to the extent that is required to re-contigure @ too! fora diferent service application than the one for which it was orginally sent but not used. Since a Class A1/A2 tool was shipped as a Class AT tool on its last field job and was never used, the procedures that quali fied the too! for the previous job are considered stil applicable. “The applicable assembly procedure controls are limited fo those needed fo reassemble the fool after partial disassembly and re-configuration. +if the customer specifies Class A3 on its rental order, approval is presumed to have been obtained. «if the too! belongs to one of the too! familles listed in table 7.1, then the specific function testing requirements are applicable. 9 .TH TH Hill Associates, Inc. WILE” vendor's warranty expressed in similar terms is also meaningless. Tocarry any meaning, ether statement must be accompanied by a classification level that is applicable to the tool(s) under consideration. The following statements have specific meanings: a. To ‘meet the requirements of DS-1 Level A1” means a tool is a rental tool that has been load rated according to Chapter 3 and since it was last used, completely disassembled, inspected, assembled and tested as required in Chapters 4, 5,6 and, if applicable, Chapter 7. ». To 'meet the requirements of DS-1 Level A1/A2" means a tool is a rental tool that has been load reted accarding to Chapter 3, returned unused since it was last qualified to Level At, and tested as required in Chapters 6 and, if applicable, Chapter 7. ©. To “meet the requirements of DS-1 Level 81" means @ tool is @ sale tool that has been load rated according to Chapter 3 and assembled and tested as required in Chapters and 6. d. To ‘meet the requirements of DS-1 Level A3" means a tool is a rental tool that has been load rated according to Chapter 3 and tested as required in Chapter 6 and, if applicable, Chapter 7. 2. To ‘meet the requirements of DS-1 Level Aé or B2" means that no steps beyond the vendor's or ‘manufacturer's current practice have been taken, 1.10 Standard STC-1™ and Standard DS-1". Most of the requirements listed in this standard are pro- vided in Standard STC-1; a standard also published by TH Hill Associates, Inc. Previously, Standard DS~ Thitd Edition, Volume 3, also included requirement for shop inspection of certain drilling specialty tools as outlined below. 1.10.1 Procedure 3.19. Shop Inspection of Drilling Jars 1.10.2 Procedure 3.21. Shop Inspection of MWD/ LWD tools. 1.10.3 Procedure 3.22. Shop Inspection of Motors and Turbines. 1.10.4 Procedure 3.23. Shop Inspection of Underreamers, Hole Openers and Roller Reamers. 10 1.40.5 Procedure 3.26. Shop Inspection of Surface Safety Valves, Kelly Valves and Inside Blowout Preventers, 1.10.6 Procedure 3.29. Shop Inspection of Fishing Tools 1.11 Alignment. The requirements for shop inspec- tion of the above specialty tools in Standard STC-1 and Standard DS-1, Third Edition, Volume 3, were not completely aligned. To remove these conflicts, the two standards were merged and the requirements, consolidated into a single standard. Publication of this standard achieves this goal. 1.12 Meeting Requirements of Standards DS-1 and STC-1. Vendors of specialty tools, who may be requested by their customers to follow one or both Standard STC-1 and Standard DS-1 (for specialty tools listed in 1.10), may meet this request by following the requirements of this standard, 1.13 Meeting Requirements of Standards DS-1 Third Edition, Volume 3 Category 3-5. This standard, Standard DS-1, Fourth Edition, Volume 4, covers qual fication requirements of driling specialty tools. Stan- dard DS-1, Fourth Edition, Volume 3 does not cover qualification of drilling specialty tools. However, since Standard DS-1, Third Edition, Volume 3 was used to ‘cover qualification of certain specialty tools (tools listed in section 1.10 above), vendors of specialty tools may be requested by their customers to follow requirements specified in Standard DS-1, Third Edition, Volume S for Category 3-5 (or lower) for these tools. In this event, the vendor shall meet this request by following the re~ quirements specified in this standard for ool Class At 1.14 Staged Implementation of Standards DS-1. As mentioned above, Standard DS-1, Third Edition, Vol- ume 3 was used to provide procedures and acceptance criteria for inspection of certain specialty tools (tools listed in section 1.10 above). These procedures and acceptance criteria are now provided in Chapter 7 of this standard. These procedures and acceptance criteria have been in effect since the publication of Standard DS-1, Third Edition, Volume 3 (January 2004) and are well established in the industry. Other load rating, as- sembly, inspection and testing requirements covered in chapters 4 through 6 of this standard are new additions to Standard DS-1. Vendors requasted by their custom- ers to follow requirements specified in this standard may face difficulty in implementing and meeting these new requirements, So to minimize economic hardship hooded VUE ER ORONO " (on vendors, and to provide the vendor sufficient time to develop the necessary programs and transition their inventory to meet the new requirements, the DS-1 technical committee determined that implementation of Standard DS-1, Fourth Edition, Volume 4 will be staged as follows: 1.14.1 Inspection requirements in Chapter 7 of this standard: Inspection requirements, procedures and acceptance criteria provided in Chapter 7 for driling specialty tool families listed in table 7.1 shall be effective on the publication date, May 1, 2012, of this standard, 1.14.2 Other requirements of this standard. All requirements other than those discussed in section 1.14.1 above shall be effective from May 1, 2014. 1.15 Records. 1.15.1 Records that must accompany a tool. Any tool or sub-too! thats shipped to a customer as Class 1, A1/A2, A3, oF B1 shall be accompanied by a Too! Transmittal Record as outlined in Chapter 6. 1.15.2 Records retained by the vendor. When 1a tool is shipped to a customer, the below listed records shall be maintained by the vendor. The retention period shall be at least two years following _DS-1® Fourth Edition, Volume 4, Driling Speciaity Tools the delivery of a covered Type B (sale) tool, and at least two months after a covered Type A (rental) tool is returned, ‘a. Copies of the Tool Transmittal Record and the Funetion Test Report (Chapter 6). b. The identifying designation for the Bill of Materials used in tool assembly (Chapter 5) c. Anassembly drawing on which the serial numbers of all serialized components in the delivered tool ‘were recorded (Chapter 5). 4, The assembly check sheet for the assembly process on the delivered tool (Chapter 5) e. The assembly test report (Chapter 5). {Inspection records for components in the delivered tool and/or sub-tools on which nondestructive inspection(s) are required under this standard (Chapter 4), 1.16 Application of requirements. Any statement in this standard that establishes a requirement for a too! shall also apply to a sub-tool, uniess otherwise indicated in that statement. ‘TH, HILL proce Requirements per Classificatiot Ma mi Use Yes_Yor No Yee ‘Note: The requirements specified inthis flow chart are meant as a guideline ony. For complete and detalad documentation requirements, the usor must review Standard DS-1, Volume 4 in its entiroly. 1 ~All documentation requirements fora too also apply to each sub tool 2- For cass A1/A2 0, since vas shipped as A tol ons last et, previous quafcaion procadures are stil considered applicable. But, anglcable assembly procedure contol are limited to those needed to re-assemble the ool alter partial sassembly and re-coniguaton '3-A copy of tool ansmitalrecoré must accompany the tool when shipped to te customer, Figure 1.4 Summary of required documentation by reference to this standard. 12 ‘ai AUAZ_AS|A4 | BI Ba “ inspection Program Designer [XSNT Lovell equivalent crtcaton n Inspector ceria document Irspectorexamaton corse ‘Additional information by Vendor Corsiatsontoolio ensure real operation (Sporting irtructos wih ool tans 2 2 Chapter 2 Implementation Section Contents ion ool Markets. ‘ance Practices are Critical Complexity entation Road Map List of Tables Partial List of Specialty Tools to which this Standard may be Applied List of Figures ‘Sample Operators Implementation Plan. STC-1™ Implementation Matrix 18 18 13 13 ary 16 = 14) 7 18 SE DS-1° Fourth Edition, Volume 4, Drilling Specialty Tools Chapter 2 Implementation 2.0 implementation. The operator who is contemplat- ing adopting this standard should be aware that simply referencing the document in commercial transactions will ot achieve the desired result in a reasonable period of time. Indeed, it wil likely be the least effective and slowest means of achieving this goal. The market for oilfield specialty tools is arguably the most complex with which an operator who drils for oll and gas must deal. The tools themselves come in an astonishing varioty of sizes, shapes and functions. They come from vendors that rank among the larger world corporations and from small, local stores. They are a mixture of sale items and more commonly, rental items. In the latter group, tool maintenance becomes more important than tool design. ‘The complexity and fragmented nature of the specialty tool market, or more realistically markets, poses daunt- ing challenges to those companies who envision market regulation using a standard such as this one. 2.1 Specialty tool markets. Since implementation of the standard must be market-driven, itis very useful to examine specialty tool markets before outlining the implementation process. 2.2 Definitions. The following definitions apply to the topics in this chapter. 2.2.1 Customer. The party that is at immediate economic risk in the event of a specialty too! failure. Except in a turnkey drilling situation, this will normally be an operating company that is drilling a well 2.2.2 Implementation coordinator. The person, usually assigned by a customer, who oversees the implementation of this standard in its drilling operations, 2.2.3 Maintenance. All those activities that are required to keep a Type A (rental) to fit for continued service. Maintenance activities include disassembly, inspection of tool components, reassembly with new or qualified used components, and function testing 2.2.4 Manufacturer. The company that builds a specialty tool 2.2.5 Non-OEM approved parts supplier. A source of replacement parts for specialty tools that is not ‘approved by the tool manufacturer. 2.2.6 Vendor. The party that commercially rents, leases or sells a specialty tool to a customer, and that the customer wil look to in the event of a failure, A customer may secure a specialty tool from a vendor singly, in combination with other tools and equipment, or packaged with some service. Specialty tool vendors may be any of the following company types. a. Tool manufacturer (vendor/manufacturer) b, Rental company ¢. Service company 4. Drilling contractor e. Equipment sales company 1. Other company 2.3 Maintenance practices are critical. A Type A tool model may be field proven by years of satistac- tory service, but the performance of any single too! will depend mostly upon its current condition as it operates in service. Most specialty tools are Type A. That is, they are used by the customer ina rental market, Thus, the effects of repeated disassembly and reassembly, wear, damage, fatigue and corrosion, if they are not adequately controlled and remedied, greatly increase a customer's risk of too! failure. Most of the requirements placed on Type A tools in this standard are directed toward tool maintenance. 2.4 Market complexity. Specialty tools are owned by a variety of company types and tendered to oil and {gas operators in a number of ways. The commercial practice in effect will often complicate implementation of this standard. Indeed, in some cases it may not even be clear who is or should be responsible for compliance with this standard. 2.4.1 Market transactions. Market transactions ‘occur regularly in several different ways. a, The tool manufacturer sells the tool directly to the customer. This is the standard transaction with Type B tools that are run once and left in the hole. No further maintenance is required or even Possible in most cases. The sale of aliner hanger ‘would typically involve such a transaction. b. The manufacturer rents or leases the tool directly to the customer, or provides it along with sale of another tool. The manufacturer periodically refurbishes the tool. A liner hanger running tool or ‘an undetreamer might be employed these ways. 1B © Summ ee ‘TH HILL c. The manufacturer sells the tool to a drilling contractor or rental company who rents or leases the tool to the customer, either directly or packaged with other equipment. Maintenance is done by the tool owner, not the tool manufacturer. Maintenance practices may involve the use of parts or procedures that do not necessarily comply. with the manufacturer's intent. The purchase of replacement parts from non-OEM approved parts suppliers is one example. Floor safely valves and, many other tools commonly found in rig and rental, company inventories will often fll into this category. ¢. The manufacturer sells the tool to a drilling contractor or rental company who rents or leases. the tool to the customer. Minor maintenance is done by the tool owner and major refurbishing by the manufacturer. Here also, maintenance practices may not necessarily comply with the ‘manufacturer's intent. A blowout preventer might, fit into this commercial pattern. e. The manufacturer keeps ownership ofthe tool and offers it to the customer as part of some service package. Providing an MWD tool in a directional services contract could fall into this category. THHill Associates, Inc. Maintenance will probably be handled by the tool manufacturer. The manufacturer sells the tool to another company who provides it to the customer as part of some service package, such as packaging a jar in a fishing service contract. Maintenance, depending on its difficulty or complexity, may be done by the tool owner or the tool may be returned. to its manufacturer for maintenance. ‘The tool manufacturer sells the tool to a third party who sells the too! to the customer. In some but by no means all of the above transactions, the tool will be accompanied to the rig by a manufacturer's or vendor's authorized representative. This person may be charged with dressing, operating or supervising the operation of the tool Fourth and fifth parties, such as inspection companies and monitoring agents may also be commercially involved in the inspection, assembly and testing of tools covered by this standard. Table 2.1 A Partial List of Specialty Tools to which this Standard may be Applied Accelerators Adjustable Stabilizers Air Hammers Annular Blowout Preventers Flowback Tools Flow Diverters Frac Sleeves Hole Openers Pipe Spinners Production Packers PWD Tools Reversing Tools BOP Test Tools IBOPs Roller Reamers Bridge Plugs Inclinometers Rotary Steerable Systems Bumper Subs Intensifiers Satety Joints Casing Baskets Jars ‘Shook Subs Casing Brushes Jetting Tools Side Entry Subs Casing Float Equipment Junk Baskets Sleeve Stabilizers Casing Scrapers Kelly Drive Bushings Spears Cementing Heacs Kelly Valves ‘Squeeze/Storm Packers Cement Retainers Key Seat Wipers Swivels Cement Stage Collars Knuckle Joints Thrusters Circulating Tools Liner Hanger Running Tools Tongs Core Barrels Liner Hanger Setting Tools Top Drives: Cutters External Liner Hangers Torque Reduction Devices Cutters Internal LWWD Tools Triple Connection Bushings Drill Collar Safety Clamps Magnets Turbines Drill Pipe Float Subs Miling/Retrieving Tools Underreamers Dill Pipe Slips Mud Motors DP Conveyed Logging Tools MWD Tools DV Tools Open Hole Packers Elevators Floor Safety Valves Overshots 14 Variable Bore Auto Slips Wellbore Clean Up Fitters \Whipstocks Qvershot Casing Patches COU UUe eee ceed eU eee e ee a OOOO aaa aaa aaa j. Commercial transaction practices other than those described above will also exist. 2.4.2 Vendor variety and sophistication. When the Implementation coordinator who is charged with adopting this standard views the vendor base upon which it may be imposed, he or she will see an astonishing array of companies. Specialty tool vendors range in size from very large corporations with international sales in the multi-billions of dollars, through mid-sized regional concerns to small local operations with no more than a single ‘outlet, Some vendors may already have in place all the process controls needed to meet or exceed the requirements ofthis standard, with distinotions mainly interminology. Others may be stretched to meet even a few of the requirements herein, 2.4.3 Geographic diversity. The degree to which a single vendor will comply with the requirements of this standard may not be consistent from one location to the next, Variations in facilities, equipment and personnel expertise shop-to-shop or rig-to-rig may result in different results for a given maintenance activity 2.4.4 Widely variable tool types. In addition to the complicating effects of commerce, the tools themselves are so varied that implementing a single standard to cover them all seems dauntingly difficult. A partial list of tools to which this standard can be applied is shown in table 2.1, 2.5 Implementation road map. The operator who wishes to implement this standard in an operating region should consider the following steps. 2.8.1 Assign an implementation coordinator. This person should be familiar or become familiar with the vendors and the types of commercial transactions involving specialty tools in the operating region. ‘The implementation coordinator's objective is to determine, enumerate and prioritize and act on the organization's needs in regard to implementing this standard. Every organization will have a different set of risk management attitudes and policies. Each will have a different recent experience with specialty tool problems. Thus, the management of one organization will arrive at a different set of "needs" ina different priority rank than the management of another. The implementation coordinator is charged with finding out and condensing organizational attitudes into a coherent and executable strategy. ‘The implementation coordinator might follow a path similar to the one outlined below. }° Fourth Edition, Volume 4, Drilling Specialty Tools a. Become familiar with Standard DS-1, TH Hill Associates has been involved in writing and enforcing drilling equipment standards for many years. We have often seen operators tty to impose some standard on their vendors without themselves having a full and detailed Understanding of the procedures they were asking their vendors to follow. We have also observed many cases in which vendors upon whom the standards were being imposed lacked full and detailed understanding of what it was they were undertaking to do. When these two conditions, ‘overlap, litle or no real change in behavior occurs at the shop, in the yard or on the rig. b. Become familar with specialty too! markets in the region. Where is tool ownership vested? By whom ‘and how and at what frequency are rental tools of interest refurbished? How are they function-tested before being shipped to the rig? What records accompany the tools when they are shipped? What types of specialty to's are carriedin the inventories of rigs in the operation? How, on what frequency and by whom are they refurbished? What testing procedures are followed after a tool is refurbished? . Become familiar with any past problems the ‘organization has had with specialty tools. Review summary reports and interview people in the organization who have knowledge of the problems. Estimate the unrecovered costs associated with these problems. Get prepared to discuss these ‘occurrences and the recovery efforts that they set in motion, should the need arise in the upcoming session with operating decision makers. d. Determine the needs and priorities of the organization. The best way of doing this is o meet ‘as a group with the interested decision makers in the organization. Actas organizer and facilitator of the meeting, which should take less than one halt day. A suggested meeting agenda is given below. 1, State the meeting objective. To leave the room with a consensus list of tools the organization judges need regulation by this standard, and the degree of regulation required for each tool. 2. Summarize recent experience with specialty tools for the benefit of the operating decision makers. 3. Give a brief overview of the standard. Discuss its objective and the means it employs to meet the objective. Discuss how the.standard will impact the way tools are load-rated, inspected, 15 95,008) 2a” cosla.s y 12,194 felbs 140,000+7.784 0.25 , 2.463008 .» 195.9.08) 2” cosi4.s* ) 34,012 ft-lbs 7.784630.149 (0.25 , 2.46340,08 132 (7.784+30.149) \ 2 cosid.s” +2.106008) T= 23,171 flbs (Note: For T calculation the box SMYS was used because the Pin nose on this connection is shouldering into the box rather ‘than the typical rotary shouldered connection configuration.) The makeup torque for this connection is: 17,006 ft-lbs (half of T,) Torsional capacities of other midbody connections were calculated in ike manner and listed in table 3.5. Makeup ‘Table 3.5 Torsional Capacity and Makeup Torque for EXAMPLETOOL Connections Torsional Torsional Connection Strength MUT Capacity (ft) (fb) (tb) NC56 Top Sub : 48,149 48,149 5" Stub Acme 34,012 17,006 17,006 6.75" Stub Acme 75,762 97,881 37,88 6.75" Stub Acme 75,762 97,881 37,881 5.5" Stub Acme 90,012 45,006 45,006 NC56 Bottom Sub 45,000 45,000 Note: To simplify assembly and prolong component life, the tool designer might choose to limit makeup torque on al midbody connections 10 that of the 5-inch connection, However, full values are shown here to illustrate the process 31 (TH) HI ‘torque for the NC56 top sub connection was taken from Reference 5. Makeup torque for the NC56 bottom sub was selected to maintain the bottom pin neck tensile capacity in the desired range (see paragraph 3.21.3) 3.22.3 Step 5. Determine supplementary mechanical resistance of type 2 connections. ‘There are no Type 2 connections in EXAMPLETOOL. 3.22.4 Step 6. Determine Torsional load capacity of the connections. The torsional load capacity of a ‘Type 1 connection is its makeup torque. Connection load capacities are given in table 3.5. 3.22.5 Step 7. Determine the torsional load capacity of other torque transmitting components. Torsion is transmitted by EXAMPLETOOL through component bodies and the splines on the mandrel and top cap, ‘. Taking the component bodies first, the torsional capacity of a cylindrical cross section is (see THHill Associates, Inc J4{0.577S,) ane (3.6) Where: T = Torsional capacity ofthe cylinder (in-bs) Sy = SMYS (psi) T = OD/2 (in) J = Polar Moment of inertia (00 -10') (int) 2 Considering the mandrel (ID: 3.630 in, OD: 4.808 in): 4 = (480s 3.630") 35.20 32 35.290(0.577«140,000) ene - 24005 = 566 in-Ibs = 98,880 fi Torsional capacities of the bodies of other load-path components were analyzed in a similar fashion with the results shown in table 3.6. b. Next, the torsional capacity of the splined mandrel Reference 6). and top cap are calculated. The torsional Table 3.6 Summary of Basic Load Rating for EXAMPLETOOL Tension (Ib) Torsion (t-b) Limiting Tool Load Rating Component _X-Sect___Shear__EndPin__X-Sect_ MUT Splines Component Tension Torsion Tes) lbs} Top Sub Body 3,617,910 495595 - - Upper Conn = 431490 = LowerConn = = 1,458,418 17,006 - ‘Mandret ae Body 1,089,785 93880 472,849 1,099,785 Upper Conn" == 4,701,505 a ~ ~ 17,006 Top Cap 1,190,000 Body - - 199,101 472,849 - LowerConn = 1,516,774 97,881 - Housing Body 1,987,974 249,086 - - Upperonn "1,300,092 37881 Lower Conn 1,300,002 3781 ‘Adapter Body 2101915 | vies - 7 = UpperConn = 1,818,774 = ae eres = . . Lower Conn 1,870,709 = ~ 45008 = - Bottom Sub Body 318114 = ~ 444236 Upper Conn 1603464 — 45,006 LowerGonn = ~ 1,683,000 45,000 - - "The mandrel is the limiting component in both tension and torsion, though technically the top sub lower connection also limits in torsion, In other designs, the limiting component in tension and torsion may not be the same component. 32