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# Tricky Electromagnetic Theory Questions

by staff10

## 1. The tangential component of an electric field will be continuous in which boundary?

a) Conductor-Conductor
b) Conductor-Dielectric
c) Dielectric-Dielectric
d) Any boundary

Explanation: The tangential component of an electric field will be continuous in any type of
boundary.

## 2. The depth of penetration of a wave in a lossy dielectric increases with increasing

a) Conductivity
b) Permeability
c) Wavelength
d) Permittivity

Explanation: The depth of penetration or skin depth is inversely proportional to the frequency.
Thus it has to be directly proportional to the wavelength.

## 3. Magnetic vector potential is a vector

a) Whose curl is equal to the magnetic flux density
b) Whose curl is equal to the electric field intensity
c) Whose divergence is equal to electric potential
d) Which is equal to the vector product E x H

Explanation: The magnetic vector potential is A. The curl of A is a vector and it is equal to the
magnetic flux density. It is given by Curl(A) = B.

4. For the wave equation E = 10sin (wt-5z)ax, the wave propagation will be in the direction of
a) Y direction
b) Z direction
c) X direction
d) XY direction

Explanation: The equation represents the electric field component of the wave. Here, ax
represents the electric wave direction and z represents the wave direction.

5. An electric field on a plane is described by its potential V = 20(r-1 + r-2), where r is the
distance from the source. The field is due to
a) A monopole
b) A dipole
c) Both a monopole and a dipole

Explanation: In the potential given, one component is inversely proportional to r, which is due to
a monopole and the other component is inversely proportional to r2, which is due to a dipole.

6. The electric field strength at a far-off point P due to a point charge, +q located at the origin O
is 100 milliVolt/meter. The point charge is now enclosed by a perfectly conducting hollow metal
sphere with its centre and the origin O. The electric field strength at the point, P is
a) Remains unchanged in its magnitude and direction
b) Remains unchanged in its magnitude but reverse in direction
c) Would be that due to a dipole formed by the charge, +q, at O and -q induced
d) Would be zero

Explanation: According to Gauss Law, the total displacement or electric flux through any closed
surface surrounding charges is equal to the amount of charge enclosed. The total enclosed charge
is -q + q = 0. Thus the flux and electric field strength will be zero.

7. The electric field of a uniform plane electromagnetic wve in free space, along the positive
direction, is given by E = 10(ay + jaz)e-j25x. The frequency and polarization of the wave,
respectively are
a) 1.2 GHz, left circular
b) 4 GHz, left circular
c) 1.2 GHz, right circular
d) 4 GHz, right circular

Explanation: The amplitudes of the components are the same. Hence it is circular polarization.
The phase difference is +90 degree. Thus it is left hand circular polarisation. The frequency f =
c/wavelength = 3 x 108 x 25/2 x 3.14= 1.2 GHz.
8. Identify which one of the following will NOT satisfy the wave equation.
a) 50ej(wt – 3z)
b) sin(w(10z + 5t))
c) cos(y2 + 5t)
d) sin x cos t

Explanation: The wave cos(y2 + 5t) does not satisfy the general wave equation. Thus it is not an
electromagnetic wave.

## 9. The intrinsic impedance of copper at high frequencies is

a) Purely resistive
b) Purely inductive
c) Complex with a capacitive component
d) Complex with a inductive component

Explanation: The intrinsic impedance is given by √(jwµ√ϭ + jw€). Since copper is a good
conductor, ϭ << jw€, thus the intrinsic impedance will have +j component only. This refers to
complex with an inductive component.

10. A loop is rotating about the y axis in a magnetic field B = Bocos(wt + α)at. The voltage in the
loop is
a) Zero
b) Due to rotation only
c) Due to transformer action only
d) Due to both rotation and transformer action

Explanation: The voltage in the loop is due to two reactions – time varying magnetic field and
voltage induced in a loop moving with velocity v in steady magnetic field. Thus the voltage in
the loop is due to both rotation and transformer action.

by staff10

## This set consists of Tough Electromagnetic Theory Questions and Answers.

1. Copper behaves as a
a) Conductor always
b) Conductor or dielectric depending on the applied electric field strength
c) Conductor or dielectric depending on the frequency
d) Conductor or dielectric depending on the electric current density

Explanation: The loss tangent for copper is very large due to its high conductivity. This shows
that the copper behaves as a conductor in all conditions.

2. In a good conductor the phase relation between the tangential components of electric E and the
magnetic field H is as follows
a) E and H are in phase
b) E and H are out of phase
c) H leads E by 90
d) E leads H by 45

Explanation: In a conductor, the intrinsic impedance gives the phase relation between E and H.
For a conductor, the electric field and magnetic field are in 45 degree phase difference. E and H

3. For an electromagnetic wave incident from one medium to a second medium, total internal
reflection takes place when
a) Angle of incidence is equal to the Brewster angle with E field perpendicular to the plane of
incidence
b) Angle of incidence is equal to the Brewster angle with E field parallel to the plane of
incidence
c) Angle of incidence is equal to the critical angle with the wave moving from the denser to rarer
medium
d) Angle of incidence is equal to the critical angle with the wave moving from the rarer to denser
medium

Explanation: Total internal reflection takes place when the angle of incidence is greater than the
critical angle. Also the wave should move from the denser medium to a rarer medium.

## 4. For maximum power transfer, a lossless transmission line 50 ohm is to be matched to a

resistive load impedance of 100 ohm. The characteristic impedance of the wavelength/4
transformer is
a) 70.7
b) 50
c) 100
d) Infinity

Explanation: For maximum power transfer, Zin = Z02/ZL. On substituting for the given values, we
get the characteristic impedance as 70.7 ohm.

5. In an impedance Smith chart , a clockwise movement along a constant resistance circle gives
rise to
a) Decrease in reactance
b) Increase in reactance
c) No change in reactance
d) No change in impedance

Explanation: In clockwise direction, along the constant resistance circle gives rise to an increase
in the value of reactance.

## 6. A transmission line is distortionless if

a) RL = 1/GC
b) RL = GC
c) LG = RC
d) RG = LC

Explanation: Condition for distortionless line is R/L = G/C. In other words, the rise time constant
is equal to the fall time constant. Hence RC = LG.

7. A lossless line having 50 ohm characteristic impedance and length wavelength/4 is short
circuited at one end connected to an ideal voltage source of 1V at the other end. The current
drawn from the voltage sources is
a) 0
b) 0.02
c) Infinity
d) 50

Explanation: For a quarter wave transformer, the input impedance is given by Zin = Z02/ZL. The
load impedance will be zero in case of short circuit. Thus the input impedance will be infinite.
The current drawn is I = V/ZL = 1/∞ = 0.

8. The capacitance per unit length and the characteristic impedance of a lossless transmission
line are C and Z respectively. The velocity of a travelling wave on the transmission line is
a) ZC
b) 1/ZC
c) Z/C
d) C/Z

Explanation: The characteristic impedance of the Z = √(L/C) and the velocity of propagation is V
= 1/√(LC). Thus we get V = 1/ZC.

9. The minimum distance of the stub from the load side is 5 cm. Calculate the guided wavelength
of the transmission line.
a) 5 cm
b) 2.5 cm
c) 10 cm
d) 1.25 cm

Explanation: The minimum distance of the stub from the load line is given by Vmin =
wavelength/2. On substituting the given value, we get the guided wavelength as 10 cm.

10. One end of a lossless transmission line having the characteristic impedance of 75 ohm and
length of 1 cm is short circuited. At 3 GHz, the input impedance at the other end of the
transmission line is
a) 0
b) Resistive
c) Inductive
d) Capacitive