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TABLE OF INFORMATION FOR 2002

CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS UNITS PREFIXES

!27 Name Symbol Factor Prefix Symbol


1 unified atomic mass unit, 1u 1.66 10 kg
2 meter m 10 9 giga G
931 MeV/c
kilogram kg 10 6 mega M
Proton mass, m p = 1.67 × 10 −27 kg
Neutron mass, mn = 1.67 × 10 −27 kg second s 10 3 kilo k
−31 −2
Electron mass, me = 9.11 × 10 kg ampere A 10 centi c
Magnitude of the electron charge, e = 1.60 × 10 −19 C 10 −3
milli m
kelvin K
Avogadro’s number, N0 = 6.02 × 10 23 mol −1
mole mol 10 −6 micro µ
Universal gas constant, R = 8.31 J / ( mol K )
hertz Hz 10 −9 nano n
Boltzmann’s constant, k B = 1.38 × 10 −23 J / K
newton N −12
Speed of light, c = 3.00 × 10 8 m / s 10 pico p
Planck’s constant, h = 6.63 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s pascal Pa
VALUES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
= 4.14 × 10 −15
eV ⋅ s FOR COMMON ANGLES
joule J
hc = 1.99 × 10 −25 J ⋅ m watt W θ sin θ cos θ tan θ
= 1.24 × 10 3 eV ⋅ nm coulomb C 0 0 1 0
Vacuum permittivity, e 0 = 8.85 × 10 −12
C / N⋅m
2 2
volt V
ohm Ω 30 1/2 3 /2 3 /3
Coulomb’s law constant, k = 1 / 4π e 0 = 9.0 × 10 N ⋅ m / C
9 2 2

Vacuum permeability, µ 0 = 4π × 10 −7 (T ⋅ m ) / A henry H


37 3/5 4/5 3/4
Magnetic constant, k = µ 0 / 4π = 10 −7 (T ⋅ m ) / A farad F
tesla T 45 2 /2 2 /2 1
m / kg ! s
11 3 2
Universal gravitational constant, G 6.67 10
degree
Acceleration due to gravity
at the Earth’s surface, g = 9.8 m / s 2 Celsius C 53 4/5 3/5 4/3
1 atmosphere pressure, 1 atm = 1.0 × 10 5 N / m 2
electron-
volt eV 60 3 /2 1/2 3
= 1.0 × 10 5 Pa
1 electron volt, 1 eV = 1.60 × 10 −19 J 90 1 0 ∞

The following conventions are used in this examination.


I. Unless otherwise stated, the frame of reference of any problem is assumed to be inertial.
II. The direction of any electric current is the direction of flow of positive charge (conventional current).
III. For any isolated electric charge, the electric potential is defined as zero at an infinite distance from the charge.
*IV. For mechanics and thermodynamics equations, W represents the work done on a system.

*Not on the Table of Information for Physics C, since Thermodynamics is not a Physics C topic.
ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS B EQUATIONS FOR 2002

NEWTONIAN MECHANICS ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM


= 0 + at a = acceleration 1 q1 q 2 A = area
F=
F = force 4 e0 r 2 B = magnetic field
1 2 f = frequency C = capacitance
x = x0 + 0t + at
2 h = height F d = distance
E=
J = impulse q E = electric field
2
= 0
2
0
+ 2a x - x 0 5 K = kinetic energy 1 q1 q 2 = emf
k = spring constant UE = qV = F = force
4 e0 r
Ê F = Fnet = ma l = length I = current
m = mass V l = length
E avg = −
F fric ˆ !N N = normal force d P = power
P = power 1 qi Q charge
=
2
ac = p = momentum V=
4 e0
∑r q = point charge
r r = radius or distance i i
R = resistance
" = rF sin # r = position vector Q r = distance
C=
T = period V t = time
p = mv t = time e0 A U potential (stored) energy
=
U = potential energy C= V = electric potential or
d
J = F t = p = velocity or speed potential difference
W= work done on a system 1 1 = velocity or speed
Uc = QV = CV 2
1 2
x = position 2 2 ! = resistivity
K = m = coefficient of friction
2 DQ m = magnetic flux
= angle I avg =
Dt
Ug = mgh = torque
ρl
R=
W = F ? r = F r cos # A
V = IR
W P = IV
Pavg =
t
C p = ∑ Ci
P = F ? v = F cos # i
1 1
=∑
Fs = - k x Cs i Ci

1 2 Rs = ∑ Ri
Us = kx i
2
1 1
m =∑
Ts = 2 $ Rp i Ri
k
l FB = q! B sin θ
Tp = 2 $
g
FB = BIl sin θ
T =
1 "0 I
f B=
2 r
Gm1m2
FG = - #m = B A = BA cos θ

r2
D#m
Gm1m2 avg =−
UG = - Dt
r
= Bl!
ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS B EQUATIONS FOR 2002
FLUID MECHANICS AND
THERMAL PHYSICS WAVES AND OPTICS

p = p0 + gh A = area = f" d = separation


Fbuoy = Vg c = specific heat or molar c f = frequency or focal
specific heat n = length
A1!1 = A2 ! 2
e = efficiency n 1 sin !1 = n 2 sin ! 2 h = height
1
p + gy + ! 2 = const. F = force
n2
L = distance
2 h = depth sin ! c = M= magnification
l = #l0 T Kavg = average molecular n1 m = an integer
Q = mL kinetic energy 1 1 1 n = index of refraction
+ =
L = heat of transformation si s0 f R = radius of curvature
Q = mc T l = length s = distance
hi s
M= molecular mass M = = - i ! = speed
F h0 s0
p = m = mass of sample x = position
A
n = number of moles R = wavelength
f =
pV = nRT p = pressure 2 = angle
Q = heat transferred to a system d sin ! = m"
3
K avg = k T T = temperature m" L
2 B xm <
U = internal energy d
3 RT 3k B T V = volume
! rms = =
M " = velocity or speed
rms = root-mean-square
W = -p V velocity
Q = nc T W = work done on a system
y = height GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY
U = Q+W = coefficient of linear
expansion Rectangle A= area
U = ncV T A = bh C= circumference
µ = mass of molecule
! = density Triangle V= volume
W
e = 1 S = surface area
QH A = bh
2 b = base
TH - TC Circle h = height
ec = A = r2 l = length
TH
C = 2 r w= width
Parallelepiped r = radius
ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS V = lwh
E = hf = pc E = energy Cylinder
f = frequency V = r 2l
Kmax = hf − S = 2 rl + 2 r2
K = kinetic energy
h m = mass Sphere
! = p = momentum V =
4 3
r
p 3
= wavelength
E = ( m) c 2 = work function S = 4 r2
Right Triangle
a 2 + b2 = c2 c a
a
sin ! = q 90
c
b
b
cos ! = c
a
tan ! = b
ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS C EQUATIONS FOR 2002

MECHANICS ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM


= 0 + at a = acceleration 1 q1 q 2 A = area
F=
1 2 F = force 4 e0 r 2 B = magnetic field
x = x0 + 0t
at +
2 f = frequency F C = capacitance
2
= 0 2 + 2a x - x 00 5 h = height E= d = distance
q
Ê F = Fnet = ma
I = rotational inertia E = electric field
J = impulse Q = emf
dp r E • dA =
F = K = kinetic energy e0 F = force
dt k = spring constant I = current
dV
I
J = F dt = p l = length E=−
dr L = inductance
p = mv L = angular momentum l = length
1 qi
F fric ˆ !N m = mass V=
4 e0
∑r n = number of loops of wire per
N = normal force i i unit length
W = IF dr
P = power 1 q1 q 2 P = power
1 UE = qV =
K = m 2 p = momentum 4 e0 r Q = charge
2 r = radius or distance q = point charge
dW Q
P = r = position vector C= R = resistance
dt T = period V r = distance
P = F?v
t = time !e A t = time
Ug = mgh C= 0
U = potential energy d U = potential or stored energy
2 = velocity or speed V = electric potential
C p = ∑ Ci
ac = = "2r W= work done on a system i = velocity or speed
r
= r™F x = position 1 1 ! = resistivity
=∑
Ê = net = I! = coefficient of friction Cs i Ci m = magnetic flux

I
I = r 2 dm = Ê mr 2
= angle dQ " = dielectric constant
= torque I=
rcm = Ê mr Ê m = angular speed dt
= r" != angular acceleration 1 1
Uc = QV = CV 2
L = r ™ p = I" 2 2
1 "l
K = I" 2 R=
2 A
" = "0 + #t V = IR
1 Rs = ∑ Ri
$ = $ 0 + "0 t + #t 2
2 i
Fs = - kx 1 1
=∑
1 Rp i Ri
Us = kx 2
2
2% 1 P = IV
T = =
" f FM = qv × B

Ts = 2 %
m r B • d = #0 I
k
Tp = 2 %
l I
F= Id ×B
g Bs = #0 nI
Gm1m2
FG = -
r2
r$ $m = B dAI •

d$
Gm1m2 =− m
UG = - dt
r
dI
= −L
dt
1 2
U L = LI
2
ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS C EQUATIONS FOR 2002

GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY

Rectangle A= area
A = bh C= circumference
Triangle V= volume
1 S = surface area
A = bh
2 b = base
Circle
h = height
A = r2 l= length
C = 2 r w= width
Parallelepiped r = radius
V = lwh
Cylinder
V = r 2l
S = 2 rl + 2 r 2
Sphere
4 3
V = r
3
S = 4 r2
Right Triangle
a 2 + b2 = c2 c a
a
sin ! = q 90
c
b
b
cos ! =
c
a
tan ! =
b

CALCULUS

df d f du
=
dx du dx
d n n 1
dx
2 7
x = nx
d x
e = ex
2 7
dx
d 1
(1n x) =
dx x
d
(sin x) = cos x
dx
d
(cos x) = - sin x
dx
1 n !1
Ixn dx =
n +1
x , n ž -1

Ie x dx = e x

I dx
x
= 1n x

I cos x dx = sin x
I sin x dx = - cos x