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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION TO MASS
TRANSFER AND DIFFUSION
Chapter 1 outline
• Similarity of Mass, Heat and Momentum
Transfer Processes
• Examples of Mass-Transfer Processes
• Fick’s Law for Molecular Diffusion
• Convective Mass-Transfer Coefficients

Prepared by:
Ummi Kalthum Binti Ibrahim
Fakulti Kejuruteraan Kimia
OBJECTIVES

Students should be able to :


1. Understand and use Fick’s law and diffusion coefficients (diffusivity)
2. Understand the familiarity of analogies between correlations for heat,
mass and momentum transfer processes
3. Understand the molecular diffusion in gas, liquid and solid
LECTURE 1
INTRODUCTION TO MASS TRANSFER

Definition:

• Net movement of mass from one distinct phase to another or through


a single phase whether the phase is gas, liquid or solid.
• Mass transfer occurs in many processes, such as absorption,
evaporation, adsorption, drying, precipitation, membrane filtration,
and distillation.
INTRODUCTION TO MASS TRANSFER

Mass transfer could occur by the following three ways:

1) Diffusion - the net transport of substances in a stationary solid or fluid


under a concentration gradient.

2) Advection - the net transport of substances by the moving fluid, and so


cannot happen in solids.

3) Convection - the net transport of substances caused by both advective


transport and diffusive transport in fluids.
MASS, HEAT AND MOMENTUM TRANSFER PROCESSES
1. Momentum transfer ( Newton’s equation) :


 d  x  
= momentum transferred
 s.m²
 
 dz  = kinematic viscosity (m²/s)

z = distance (m)
 x  = momentum/m³ , momentum (kg m/s)

Momentum transfer is the amount of momentum that one particle gives to


another particle. Example: fluid flow, mixing, sedimentation and filtration.
MASS, HEAT AND MOMENTUM TRANSFER PROCESSES
2. Heat transfer (Fourier’s Law)

d c pT 
q
q = heat flux (w/m²)
  A
A dz  = thermal diffusivity(m²/s)

c pT = J/m³

Heat transfer is the transfer of energy from high temperature to low temperature
(temperature gradient). Example: evaporation, distillation and drying.
MASS, HEAT AND MOMENTUM TRANSFER PROCESSES
3. Mass transfer (Fick’s Law) :

J A = molar flux of component A (kg mol A/s.m²)


dcA
J A   DAB z = distance due to molecular diffusion (m)
dz
DAB = molecular diffusivity of A in B (m²/s)
c A = concentration of A (kg mol/m³)

Mass transfer is the net movement of mass from one location, usually meaning a stream,
phase, fraction or component, to another. Example: distillation, absorption, drying, liquid-liquid
extraction, adsorption, crystallization, etc.
WHAT IS THE SIMILARITY BETWEEN MASS, HEAT AND MOMENTUM??
Momentum transfer
 = momentum transferred
 d  x    s.m²
   = kinematic viscosity (m²/s)
 dz z = distance (m)
x  = momentum/m³

Heat transfer q
d c pT 
= heat flux (w/m²)
q A
   = thermal diffusivity(m²/s)
A dz z = distance (m)
c pT = J/m³

Mass transfer J A = molar flux of component A (kg mol A/s.m²)


dcA z
J A   DAB = distance due to molecular diffusion (m)

dz DAB = molecular diffusivity of A in B (m²/s)


c A = concentration of A (kg mol/m³)
SIMILARITY OF MASS, HEAT AND MOMENTUM
TRANSFER PROCESSES

The similarity:

1) All the fluxes on the left hand-side have units transfer of quantity
per unit time per unit area.
2) The transport properties (constant) have units of m2/s.
3) All the concentrations are represented as transfer quantity/m3 .
EXAMPLES OF MASS TRANSFER
• Liquid in an open pail of water evaporates into air because of
the difference in concentration of water vapor and surrounding
air.
• A piece of sugar added to a cup of coffee dissolves by itself and
diffuses to the surrounding solution.
• Difference between diffusion and convection mass transfer:

Stirring the water


with a spoon creates
forced convection.

That helps the sugar


molecules to transfer
to the bulk water
much faster.
EXAMPLES OF MASS TRANSFER – DIFFUSION
MOLECULAR DIFFUSION
• Transfer or movement of individual molecules through a fluid by means of the
random, individual movements of the molecules under concentration gradient.
• If there are a greater number of A molecules near point 1 than point 2, more A
molecules will diffuse from 1 to 2.
• The net diffusion of A is from high to low concentration regions.
FICK’S LAW FOR MOLECULAR DIFFUSION
• The general Fick’s Law equation for a binary mixture A and B:

dx A C = total concentration of A and B


J A  CDAB x A = mole fraction of A in the mixture
dz of A and B

• If C is constant : C A  Cx A
Cdx A  d (Cx A )  dC A
J A = molar flux of component A (kg mol A/s.m²)
dC A
J A  DAB z = distance due to molecular diffusion (m)
dz
DAB = molecular diffusivity of A in B (m²/s)

c A = concentration of A (kg mol/m³)


Example 6.1.1 (Molecular Diffusion of Helium in Nitrogen)
• A mixture of He and N2 gas is contained in a pipe at 298 K and
1 atm total pressure which is constant throughout. At one end
of the pipe at point 1 the partial pressure pA1 of He is 0.60 atm,
and at the other end 0.20m (20cm) pA2 = 0.2 atm. Calculate the
flux of He at steady state if DAB of He-N2 mixture is 0.687 x 10-4
m2/s.
Solution:
dC A
Fick’s law equation:
J A  DAB
dz
Integrate:
PV  nRT n = kg mol A+B
V = volume (m³)
n P T = temperature (K)
 C
V RT R = 8314 m³·Pa/kgmol·K
C = kgmol A+B/m3
z2 CA2

JA⌠
⌡ dz = - D AB⌠
⌡dCA PA1 = 0.6 atm
z1 CA1 5
= 0.6 x 1.01325 x 10 Pa
JA(z2 – z1) = - DAB (CA2 – CA1) = 6.08 x 104 Pa

JA = - DAB(CA2 – CA1) PA2 = 0.2 atm


z2 – z1 = 0.2 x 1.01325 x 105 Pa
= 2.027 x 104 Pa
= DAB (PA1 – PA2)
RT(z2 – z1)
= ( 0.687 x 10-4 m2/s) (6.08 x 104 – 2.027 x 104) Pa
8314 m³Pa (298 K) (0.2 - 0)m
kg mol K
= 5.63 x 10-6 kg mol A/s.m²
MOLECULAR DIFFUSION IN GASES
• Equimolar counterdiffusion
• Two gases A and B at constant P in two large chambers connected by a
tube.
• Stirring in each chamber keeps the concentrations uniform.
• Molecules A diffuse to the right and B to the left.
• Since the total pressure P is constant, the net moles of A diffusing to
the right must equal the net moles of B to the left.

pA1 > pA2


JA = - JB
pB2 > pB1
MOLECULAR DIFFUSION IN GASES
• Equimolar counterdiffusion in gases

DAB = diffusivity of component A in its


dCA
J A   DAB 1 mixture with component B, m2/s
dz
dCA = molar concentration gradient, mol/m4
dCB
J B   DBA 2 dz
dz
• Since P = PA + PB = constant, This shows that for binary gas
C = CA + CB = P 3 mixture of A and B, the diffusivity
RT coefficient DAB for A diffusing
into B is the same as DBA for
• Differentiating both sides:
diffusing into A
dCA + dCB = dC = 0
4
dCA = - dCB
dC A dCB *DAB = DBA
J A  DAB  J B  ()DBA
dz dz
Example 6.2.1 (Equimolar counterdiffusion)
• Ammonia gas (A) is diffusing through a uniform tube 0.10 m long
containing N2 gas (B) at 1.0132 x 105 Pa pressure and 298 K. At
point 1, pA1 = 1.013 x 104 Pa and at point 2, pA2 = 0.507 x 104 Pa.
The diffusivity DAB = 0.230 x 10-4 m2/s
a) Calculate the flux JA at steady state
b) Repeat for JB
Solution:
a) JA = DAB (PA1 – PA2)
RT(z2 – z1)
= ( 0.23 x 10-4) (1.013 x 104 – 0.507 x 104)
8314(298) (0.1 - 0)
= 4.70 x 10-7 kg mol A/s.m² PB1 = P - PA1
= 1.0132 x 105 - 1.013 x 104
JB = DAB (PB1 – PB2) = 9.119 x 104 Pa
RT(z2 – z1)
PB2 = P – PA2
= - 4.70 x 10-7 kg mol B/s.m² = 1.0132 x 105 – 0.507 x 104
= 9.625 x 104 Pa

*The negative value for JB means the flux goes from point 2 to point 1.
DIFFUSION OF GASES A AND B PLUS CONVECTION
• The rate at which moles of A passed a fixed point to the right,
which will be taken as a possible flux, JA kg mol A/s.m²
• This flux can be converted to a velocity of diffusion of A to the
right by
JA(kg mol A/s.m²) =  C
Ad A
m kg mol A  Ad = diffusion velocity of
s m³ , A in m/s

molar average velocity =  (m/s)


m
• The velocity of A relative to the stationary point is the sum of the
diffusion velocity and the average/convective velocity:

 A   Ad  m
A
 Ad m
 
• Multiply by CA
CA A  CA Ad  CAm

NA (kg mol A/s.m²) --- total flux


C A Ad  J A = diffusion flux
C A m  convective flux

❖ N A  J A  C A m
Let N be the total convective flux of the whole stream relative to the stationary point:
N  C m  N A  N B
N A  NB
m 
C

❖ NA  JA 
CA
N A  N B 
C
• Similarly:

N A  CD AB
dxA C A
 N A  N B 
dz C
N B  CD BA
dxB C B
 N A  N B 
dz C
• For equimolar counterdiffusion:
N A  NB

convective term become zero 0


N A  CD AB
dx A

CA
N A  N B 
dz C
0
N B  CD BA
dxB

CB
N A  N B 
dz C
N A  J A  NB  J B
A DIFFUSING THROUGH STAGNANT, NONDIFFUSING B
• In this case, one boundary at the end of the diffusion path is in impermeable to
component B, so it cannot pass through.

• Example (Figure a): the evaporation of a pure liquid benzene (A) at the bottom
of tube, where nondiffusing air (B) is pass over the top.
• The benzene vapor (A) diffuses through the air (B) in the tube.
• The boundary at the liquid surface at point 1 is impermeable to air, since air is
insoluble in benzene.
• Hence, air(B) cannot diffuse into or away from the surface.
• At point 2, the partial pressure PA₂= 0 since a large volume of air is passing by.
• To derive the case for A diffusing in stagnant, nondiffusing B, NB = 0
0
N A  CD AB
dxA

CA
N A  N B 
dz C
• The convective flux of A:
C A  X AC
CA
N A  0 CA P
 XA  A
C C P

P C A PA
• At P = constant, C , PA  x AP, 
RT C P

dC A C A
N A  DAB  NA
dz C
DAB dPA PA
NA    NA
RT dz P
• Rearranging and integrating
 PA 
N A 1     DAB dPA
 P RT dz
z2 PA 2
DAB dPA
N A  dz 
RT  PA 
P 
z1 1  
A1

 P
N A  z 2  z1  D
PA 2
P ✓P = PA1 + PB1
  AB
RT P P  PA dPA = PA2 + PB2
PB1 = P – PA1
PB2 = P – PA2
A1


DAB P
InP  PA PP
A2

Log mean value of B


RT A1

DAB P P  PA 2 PB 2  PB1 PA1  PA 2


 In PBM  
RT P  PA1 In PB 2 / PB1  InP  PA 2  / P  PA1 
P  PA 2
NA 
DAB P
* NA 
DAB P
PA1  PA2 
RT z2  z1 PBM
In
RT z2  z1  P  PA1
Example 6.2.2 (Diffusion of water through stagnant, nondiffusing air)
Water in the bottom of a narrow metal tube is held at a constant temp. of 293 K.
The total pressure of air is 1.01325 x 10⁵ Pa (1.0 atm) and the temp. is 293 K
(20°C). Water evaporates and diffuses through the air in the tube and the
diffusion path z₂ - z₁ is 0.1524 m long. Calculate the rate of evaporation at steady
state. The diffusivity of water vapor at 293 K and 1 atm pressure is 0.250 x 10-4
m2/s.

Solution:
• DAB = 0.250 x 10-4 m2/s
• From appendix A.2.2, vapor pressure of water
at 20°C :
PA1 = 17.54 mmHg
= 2.338 kPa
= 2.338 x 10³ Pa z₂ - z₁
PA2 = 0 (pure air)

PB1 =P-PA1 = 1.01325 x 10⁵ - 2.338 x 10³


= 9.899 x 10⁴ Pa water
PB2 =P-PA2 = 1.01325 x 10⁵ - 0
= 1.01325 x 10⁵ Pa
For A diffusing in stagnant, nondiffusing B:

N A  CDAB
dx A C A
 N A  NB 
dz C
0
N A  CDAB
dx A C A
 N A  NB 
dz C
At P = constant:

DAB dPA PA
NA    NA
RT dz P
Integrate:
PBM = PB2 – PB1 = 1.01325 x 10⁵ Pa - 9.899 x 10⁴ Pa
In(PB2/PB1 ) 1.01325  10 5 
In  4 
Pa
 9.899  10 
= 1.001 x 10⁵ Pa

NA 
DAB P
PA1  PA2 
RT z2  z1 PBM


0.25  10 m 2 / s 1.01325  10 5 Pa 2.338  10 3 Pa 
4

8314J / kgmol .K 293K 0.1524m 1.001 105 Pa 


 1.595  10 7 kgmol / s.m 2