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Engr.

Mohamed Hashi Mohamed


Course Information
Course Code
Course Antennas & Radio Wave Propagation

Coordinating Unit Faculty of Engineering


Term Semester 1, Season 2017/2018

Level Undergraduate

Location/s Digfeer Campus

Contact Up to 4 hours per week

Assumed Some basic communication and electromagnetic theory

Knowledge
Course Antennas and propagation effects play a crucial, even though often overlooked,
role in RF systems. In practice, the design of a working system such as mobile
Description
phone networks, WiFi, RFID, Satellite communication and GPS requires a good
understanding of these components. This course teaches the fundamentals of
antenna and propagation. The course covers the theory of radiation, fundamental
antenna parameters and concepts, wire antennas such as dipoles and loop
antennas, antenna arrays, aperture antennas (e.g. horns), microstrip antennas,
numerical analysis, communication & radar systems and propagation effects.
Course Information

Course Staff
̶ Lecturer: Mohamed Hashi
̶ Email: mhashi03@gmail.com
̶ Tel: 0615551191
̶ Office Hours: By appointment

Course Timetable
̶ Tuesday: 13:00 – 15:00,
̶ Wednesday 15:00 – 17:15
Course Information ─ Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of this course students will be


able to:
1. Interpret the important elements of antenna and propagation
theory;
2. Calculate and apply fundamental antenna parameters;
3. Compare important classes of antennas and their properties;
4. Select a particular class of antenna for given specifications;
5. Apply theoretical principles to design an antenna;
6. Numerically compute the directivity and power radiated from a
generic antenna;
7. Explain techniques for estimating the propagation performance
of a communication channel; and
8. Define specifications for a communications system based on a
set of requirements.
Course Information ─ Learning Resources

Required Resources
̶ Balanis, C., “Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design”, Wiley
Interscience, Third Edition

Recommended Resources
̶ Coleman, C.J. “An introduction to radio frequency
engineering”, Cambridge, 2004,
̶ Course notes, tutorial problems and solutions, and
assignments will be provided
Course Information ─ Lecture Plan
1. Introduction into antenna theory and practice
2. Radiation integrals and auxiliary potential functions;
basic EM theorems in antenna problems
3. Antenna measurements
4. Infinitesimal dipole; wire and loop radiating
elements
5. Wire antennas – dipoles, monopoles
6. Antenna Arrays – analysis and design
7. Microstrip antennas
8. Reflector antennas
9. Horn antennas
10. Propagation
Course Information ─ Assessment Summary

Assessment Weighting Individual/


Task (%) Group
4 Assignments 20 Individual
2 in-class Quizzes 10 Individual
Course project 20 Group
Midterm Exam 20 Individual
Final Exam 30 Individual
Course Information ─ Purpose of the Project

• Learn to identify a problem and propose a solution for


solving that problem
• Learn to deal efficiently with a real-world application
• Get familiar with the multi-disciplinary nature of
Antennas & Propagation
• Improve your project management /time management
skills by following strict deadlines
• Improve your technical writing skills by writing a project
proposal and a project report
• Improve your communication skills by giving an efficient
presentation
• Practice team-work during different phases of the
project
Course Information ─ Purpose of the Project
• The course project constitutes 20% of the course
evaluation.
• You can choose any topic related to Antennas &
Propagation. However, the topic should be approved by
the instructor.
• Each group consists of Two students (in exceptional
cases, Three students). Single-person projects are
strongly discouraged and are subject to the instructor's
approval.
• Students can not work on the same or very similar
research topics. Email the instructor as soon as you have
decided on your topic, so that your priority is reserved.
• Students who need help with choosing a topic for the
course project are encouraged to consult with the
instructor.
Introduction

• An antenna is defined as “a usually metallic device (as a


rod or wire) for radiating or receiving radio waves.”
• The IEEE Standard Definitions of Terms for Antennas
defines the antenna or aerial as “a means for radiating or
receiving radio waves.” In other words the antenna is the
transitional structure between free-space and a guiding
device.
• The guiding device or transmission line may take the
form of a coaxial line or a hollow pipe (waveguide), and
it is used to transport electromagnetic energy from the
transmitting source to the antenna, or from the antenna to
the receiver.
Introduction…cont
Antenna Antenna

Radio wave

Transmitter Receiver

• An antenna is a transducer that converts radio


frequency electric current to electromagnetic
waves that are radiated into space.
• In two-way communication, the same antenna can
be used for transmission and reception
Introduction…cont
Introduction…cont
• A transmission-line Thevenin equivalent of the antenna
system in the transmitting mode is shown in the following
figure where the source is represented by an ideal
generator, the transmission line is represented by a line
with characteristic impedance Zc, and the antenna is
represented by a load ZA.
When to use antenna

1) LOSSES:
• Power loss of a signal travelling in transmission lines
• For line-of-sight configuration, power loss is proportional
to 1/r2

2) DISTANCE, FREQUENCY & COST:


• High frequency popular in communications due to wide
bandwidth.
• As distance or frequency increase, signal losses and cost of
using transmission lines increase, thus antenna is
preferable.
When to use antenna
3) APPLICATIONS:
• Mobile communications
• Broadcast
• Remote sensing, e.g. radar and telemetry
• Personal

4) HISTORY, SECURITY, RELIABILITY:


• Consumer demand
• Although cable is more secured, coding tech. can be used
to secure radio link
• Radio signal is affected by environment and weather, but
can be improved.
TYPES OF ANTENNAS

1) Wire Antennas
2) Aperture Antennas
3) Microstrip Antennas
4) Array Antennas
5) Reflector Antennas
6) Lens Antennas
Wire Antennas

• Wire antennas are familiar because they


are seen virtually everywhere—
• on automobiles, buildings, ships,
aircraft, spacecraft, and so on.
• There are various shapes of wire antennas
such as a straight wire (dipole), loop, and
helix
Wire Antennas
Wire Antennas
Aperture Antennas

• Aperture antennas may be more familiar today than in the


past because of the increasing demand for more
sophisticated forms of antennas and the utilization of
higher frequencies.
• Antennas of this type are very useful for aircraft and
spacecraft applications, because they can be very
conveniently flush-mounted on the skin of the aircraft or
spacecraft.
• In addition, they can be covered with a dielectric material
to protect them from hazardous conditions of the
environment.
Aperture Antennas

PYRAMIDAL HORN CONICAL HORN

RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE
Microstrip Antennas

• Microstrip antennas became very popular in


the 1970s primarily for space borne
applications.
• Today they are used for government and
commercial applications.
• These antennas consist of a metallic patch on a
grounded substrate.
Microstrip Antennas
Microstrip Antennas

• However, the rectangular and circular patches are the


most popular because of ease of analysis and fabrication,
and their attractive radiation characteristics, especially
low cross-polarization radiation.
• The microstrip antennas are low profile, simple and
inexpensive to fabricate using modern printed-circuit
technology, mechanically robust when mounted on rigid
surfaces.
• These antennas can be mounted on the surface of high
performance aircraft, spacecraft, satellites, missiles, cars,
and even handheld mobile telephones
Array Antennas

• Many applications require radiation characteristics


that may not be achievable by a single element. It
may, however, be possible that an aggregate of
radiating elements in an electrical and geometrical
arrangement (an array) will result in the desired
radiation characteristics.
• The arrangement of the array may be such that the
radiation from the elements adds up to give a radiation
maximum in a particular direction or directions,
minimum in others, or otherwise as desired
Array Antennas

YAGI-UDA ARRAY APERTURE ARRAY

MICROSTRIP PATCH ARRAY SLOTTED-WAVEGUIDE ARRAY


Reflector Antennas

• The success in the exploration of outer space has resulted


in the advancement of antenna theory.
• Because of the need to communicate over great distances,
sophisticated forms of antennas had to be used in order to
transmit and receive signals that had to travel millions of
miles.
• A very common antenna form for such an application is a
parabolic reflector. Antennas of this type have been built
with
• diameters as large as 305 m. Such large dimensions are
needed to achieve the high gain required to transmit or
receive signals after millions of miles of travel.
Reflector Antennas
Reflector Antennas

PARABOLIC
REFLECTOR WITH
FRONT FEED

PARABOLIC
REFLECTOR WITH
CASSEGRAIN FEED

CORNER REFLECTOR
PARABOLIC
ANTENNA YOU WILL ANTENNA
SEE IN REAL LIFE
PARABOLIC
ANTENNA YOU WILL ANTENNA
SEE IN REAL LIFE
ANTENNA YOU WILL SEE IN REAL LIFE

HELIX ANTENNA
ANTENNA YOU WILL SEE IN REAL LIFE
HORN ANTENNA
ANTENNA YOU WILL SEE IN REAL LIFE
LOOP ANTENNA
• The shape can be circular or rectangular
• Useful for coupling energy in and out of
cavities
• Also useful for field-sensing operations
such as required in EMC measurement
equipment
ANTENNA YOU WILL SEE IN REAL LIFE
MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA
THE WORLD’S TALLEST
ANTENNA IN TOKYO
When it’s completed in 2011,
the 2,001ft-tall concrete-and-
steel tower in the Sumida River
region of Tokyo will be the tallest
free-standing antenna in the
world.

2001ft = 610m
ANTENNA AS A PASSIVE,
RECIPROCAL DEVICE
• An antenna is a reciprocal device which means that:
➢ The transmitted and received characteristics and
performance are identical (i.e gain, directivity,
frequency of operation, BW, radiation resistance,
etc)
• A basic antenna is a passive device due to the fact
that it does not have an active components (diodes,
transistors, FETs, LNAs, etc).
LAW OF RECIPROCITY
“The same antenna can be used for both
receive and transmit modes with equal
success.”
ACTIVE ANTENNA

• Active antenna is a combination of a passive


antenna and a low noise amplifier (LNA).
• Composed of nonlinear semiconductors or
ferrite materials.
• Active antenna is nonreciprocal and it can only
transmit or receive signals BUT not both.
ANTENNA AS BOTH
Tx and Rx
• In many radio communication system, the same
antenna is used for transmitting and receiving
➢ Therefore, antenna must be constructed from heavy
duty materials.
• Because the antenna is used both as the
transmitter and the receiver,
➢ A DUPLEXER – a special coupling device is used to
prevent the high power transmit signals from being
coupled into the relatively sensitive receiver
DUPLEXER
• A device which allows a transmitter
operating on one frequency and a receiver
operating on a different frequency to share
one common antenna with a minimum of
interaction and degradation of the different RF
signals.
• A duplexer is also an add on accessory for
printers, and it allows one to print on both sides
of the paper automatically.
DUPLEXER

• Duplexers are often the


key component that
allows two way radios to
operate in a full duplex
manner.
• Full duplex means the
transmitter and receiver
can operate simultaneously.
RADIATION MECHANISM

• One of the first questions that may be asked


concerning antennas would be “how is
radiation accomplished?”
• In other words, how are the electromagnetic
fields generated by the source, contained and
guided within the transmission line and
antenna, and finally “detached” from the
antenna to form a free-space wave?
1) Single Wire
• Conducting wires are material whose prominent
characteristic is the motion of electric charges and the
creation of current flow.
• Let us assume that an electric volume charge density,
represented by qv (coulombs/m3), is distributed uniformly
in a circular wire of cross-sectional area A and volume V
.

Figure: Charge uniformly


distributed in a circular cross
section cylinder wire
• The total charge Q within volume V is moving in the z
direction with a uniform velocity vz (meters/sec).
• It can be shown that the current density Jz (amperes/m2) over
the cross section of the wire is given by:-
• Current density in a volume with volume charge density qv
(C/m3)
J z  qvv z  A
m2 
• Surface current density in a section with surface charge

A m 
density qs (C/m2)
J s  q sv z

• Current in a thin with linear charge density ql (C/m)

I z  q lv z A 
Single Wire…cont’

• Instead of examining all three current


densities, we will primarily concentrate on
• the very thin wire. The conclusions apply to all
three.
• If the current is time varying, then the
derivative of the current can be written as

I z  q lv z A 
dI z dv z
 ql  q l az Where az (meters/sec2) is the acceleration
dt dt
Single Wire…cont’

• If the wire is of length l, then the equation can be written


as:- dI z dv z
l  lq l  lq l az
dt dt
• This Equation is the basic relation between current and
charge, and it also serves as the fundamental relation of
electromagnetic radiation . It simply states that to create
radiation, there must be a time-varying current or an
acceleration (or deceleration) of charge.
• To create charge acceleration (or deceleration) the wire
must be curved, bent, discontinuous, or terminated.
• Periodic charge acceleration (or deceleration) or time-
varying current is also created when charge is oscillating in
a time-harmonic motion
Single Wire…cont’
We can summarize

1) If a charge is not moving, current is not created and


there is no radiation.
2) If charge is moving with a uniform velocity:
a) There is no radiation if the wire is straight, and
infinite in extent.
b) There is radiation if the wire is curved, bent,
discontinuous, terminated, or truncated.
3) If charge is oscillating in a time-motion, it radiates
even if the wire is straight.
2) Two-Wires

• Let us consider a voltage source connected to a two-


conductor transmission line which is connected to an
antenna.
• Applying a voltage across the two-conductor
transmission line creates an electric field between the
conductors.
• The electric field has associated with it electric lines
of force which are tangent to the electric field at each
point and their strength is proportional to the electric
field intensity.
Two-Wires…cont’

• The electric field lines drawn between the two


conductors help to exhibit the distribution of charge.
• If we assume that the voltage source is sinusoidal, we
expect the electric field between the conductors to also
be sinusoidal with a period equal to that of the applied
source. The relative magnitude of the electric field
intensity is indicated by the density of the lines of force
with the arrows showing the relative direction (positive
or negative).
• The creation of time-varying electric and magnetic
fields between the conductors forms electromagnetic
waves which travel along the transmission line.
Two-Wires…cont’
Two-Wires…cont’

• Electromagnetic waves created by an electric


disturbance. If the initial electric disturbance by the
source is of a short duration, the created
electromagnetic waves travel inside the transmission
line, then into the antenna, and finally are radiated as
free-space waves, even if the electric source has
ceased to exist.
• If the electric disturbance is of a continuous nature,
electromagnetic waves exist continuously and follow
in their travel behind the others.
Two-Wires…cont’
CURRENT DISTRIBUTION ON A THIN
WIRE ANTENNA
• The movement of the charges creates a traveling
wave current, of magnitude I0/2, along each of the
wires.
• When the current arrives at the end of each of the
wires, it undergoes a complete reflection (equal
magnitude and 180◦ phase reversal).
• The reflected traveling wave, when combined with
the incident traveling wave, forms in each wire a pure
standing wave pattern of sinusoidal form.
• The current in each wire undergoes a 180◦ phase
reversal between adjoining half-cycles.
Current Distribution On A Thin Wire
Antenna…cont’
➢ Radiation from each wire individually occurs
because of the time-varying nature of the current
and the termination of the wire.
➢ For the two-wire balanced (symmetrical)
transmission line, the current in a half cycle of one
wire is of the same magnitude but 180◦ out-of-phase
from that in the corresponding half-cycle of the
other wire. If in addition the spacing between the
two wires is very small (s << λ), the fields radiated
by the current of each wire are essentially cancelled
by those of the other. The net result is an almost
ideal (and desired) non-radiating transmission line.
CURRENT DISTRIBUTION…cont’
CURRENT DISTRIBUTION…cont’

• As the section of the transmission line between


begins to flare, it can be assumed that the current
distribution is essentially unaltered inform in each of
the wires.
• However, because the two wires of the flared section
are not necessarily close to each other, the fields
radiated by one do not necessarily cancel those of the
other.
• Therefore ideally there is a net radiation by the
transmission line system.
Antenna Performance Parameters

 Radiation pattern - angular plot of the radiation.


• Omni directional pattern - uniform radiation in one
plane.
• Directive patterns - narrow beam(s) of high
radiation
 Directivity - ratio of antenna power density at a
distant point relative to that of an isotropic radiator
✓ [isotropic radiator - an antenna that radiates
uniformly in all directions (point source radiator)].
59
Antenna Performance Parameters
 Gain - directivity reduced by losses.
 Polarization - trace of the radiated electric
field vector (linear, circular, elliptical).
 Impedance - antenna input impedance at its
terminals.
 Bandwidth - range of frequencies over which
performance is acceptable (resonant antennas,
broadband antennas).
 Beam scanning - movement in the direction of
maximum radiation by mechanical or
electrical means