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Advanced Steel Structures

SOLUTION

Problem 1.3
Investigate the stability behavior of this asymmetric spring – bar model

Solution

 Determine Δ
2
   L sin   cos 45o  L(1  cos ) cos 45o   sin   cos  1 L
2
 The strain energy
2
1 1  2 
U k s 2  k s  L sin   cos   1 
2 2  2 
1

U  k s L2  sin   cos    2 sin   cos   2
4
2

1 1
U  k s L2 1  sin 2  2 sin   cos   1  k s L2  sin 2  2 sin   cos    2
4 4
 The potential energy
V   P B   PL1  cos 
The total potential energy
1
  U  V  k s L2  sin 2  2 sin   cos   2  PL1  cos 
4

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Advanced Steel Structures

 For equilibrium
d 1
 0  k s L2  2 cos 2  2 cos  sin     PL sin   0 (1)
d 4
 Fundamental path θ =0
The (1) satisfies itself P  0 ~ 
 Postbuckling equilibrium path
1
P k s L cos 2  cos  sin  
2 sin 
For small deformation

sin  
  0 
cos 1
Thus,
1 1
P  Pcr  k s L1  1     k s L
2 2

 For stability
d 2 1
 k s L2   2 sin 2  sin   cos   PL cos
d 2 2
d 2 1 1
 k s L2   2 sin 2  sin   cos   k s L cos 2  cos  sin   L cos
d 2
2 2 sin 
d 2 1 
 k s L2  2 sin 2  sin   cos 
1
 cos 2  cos  sin   cos 
d 2
2  2 sin  

Establish the table to investigate the stability of the system

 P d2/d 2 State of
 (ksL) the structure
-90 1.000 -0.500 Unstable

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Advanced Steel Structures

-80 1.065 -0.249 Unstable


-70 1.090 -0.029 Unstable
-68.529 1.090 0.000 ???
-60 1.077 0.144 Stable
-50 1.033 0.259 Stable
-40 0.961 0.310 Stable
-30 0.866 0.299 Stable
-20 0.754 0.233 Stable
-10 0.630 0.127 Stable
0 0.500 0.000 Neutral
10 0.370 -0.127 Unstable
20 0.246 -0.233 Unstable
30 0.134 -0.299 Unstable
40 0.039 -0.310 Unstable
50 -0.033 -0.259 Unstable
60 -0.077 -0.144 Unstable
68.529 -0.090 0.000 ???
70 -0.090 0.029 Stable
80 -0.065 0.249 Stable
90 0.000 0.500 Stable

From the table we can conclude that


0 0
 -90 ≤ θ < -68.5 : the structure is unstable
0
 -68.5 < θ < 0 : the structure is stable
0
 0 < θ < 68.5 : the structure is unstable
0 0
 -68.5 < θ ≤ 90 : the structure is stable

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Advanced Steel Structures

Problem 2

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Advanced Steel Structures

The system shown below is composed of 2 rigid bars and 2 rotational springs with the
same spring constant ks
(1) Determine the buckling models and buckling shapes of the system
(2) If you can add one extra spring with the same spring constant to the system, where
will you install the spring to maximize the critical load? Explain your decision.

Solution

(1)
 The strain energy
1 1
U  k s12  k s  2  1 
2

2 2
 The potential energy
V   P L  L cos 2  L  L cos1    PL 2  cos1  cos 2 
The total potential energy
1 1
  U  V  k s12  k s   2  1   PL 2  cos1  cos 2 
2
2 2

 For equilibrium

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Advanced Steel Structures

 d
 d  0
 1

 d  0
 d 2

ks1  k s  2  1   PL sin1   0



ks  2  1   PL sin 2   0
For small deformation

sin  
 0 
cos 1
Thus,

ks1  ks 2  1   PL1   0



ks 2  1   PL2   0
 2ks  PL1  ks2  0

 ks1   ks  PL2  0
The matrix form of the above two equations
2k s  PL  k s  1  0
 k    (1)
 s k s  PL   2  0

 Fundamental path θ1 = θ2 =0; P  0 ~ 


 Postbuckling equilibrium path
For non-trivial solution, we need
2k s  PL  ks
0
 ks k s  PL
  2k s  PL  k s  PL   k s2  0
 2k s2  3PLk s  P 2 L2  k s2  0
 P 2 L2  3PLk s  k s2  0
3 5
P ks
2L
The smallest value of P will be the critical load

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Advanced Steel Structures

3  5  ks  k 
Pcr     0.382 s 
2 L L

Determine the buckling modes


 The first mode
3  5  ks 
P1   
2 L
For θ1 = 1, the from (1) we have
 3  5  ks  
 2k s    L 1  k s 2  0
 2  L  

1 5
2   1.618( rad )
2
 The second mode
3  5  ks 
P1   
2 L
For θ1 = 1, the from (1) we have
 3  5  ks  
 2k s    L 1  k s 2  0
 2  L  
1 5
2   0.618(rad )
2
The two buckling modes are as following

(2)
(a) Case 1: add one spring at point A

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Advanced Steel Structures

 The strain energy


1 1
U  2k s12  k s  2  1 
2
2 2
 The potential energy
V   P L  L cos 2  L  L cos1    PL 2  cos1  cos 2 
The total potential energy
1 1
  U  V  2k s12  k s  2  1   PL 2  cos1  cos 2 
2
2 2

 For equilibrium
 d
 d  0
 1

 d  0
 d 2

2ks1  ks  2  1   PL sin1   0



ks  2  1   PL sin  2   0
For small deformation

sin  
  0 
cos 1
Thus,

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Advanced Steel Structures

2ks1  ks  2  1   PL1   0

ks 2  1   PL2   0
 3ks  PL1  ks 2  0

 ks1   ks  PL 2  0
The matrix form of the above two equations
3k s  PL  k s  1  0
 k   
 s k s  PL   2  0

For non-trivial solution, we need


3k s  PL  ks
0
 ks k s  PL
  3k s  PL  k s  PL   k s2  0
 3k s2  4 PLk s  P 2 L2  k s2  0
 P 2 L2  4 PLk s  2k s2  0


P 2 2  kL
s

The smallest value of P will be the critical load



Pcr  2  2  kL  0.58 kL
s s
(2)
(b) Case 2: add one spring at point B

 The strain energy

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Advanced Steel Structures

1 1
U  k s12  2k s  2  1 
2
2 2
 The potential energy
V   P L  L cos 2  L  L cos1    PL 2  cos1  cos 2 
The total potential energy
1 1
  U  V  k s12  2k s  2  1   PL 2  cos1  cos 2 
2
2 2

 For equilibrium
 d
 d  0
 1

 d  0
 d 2

ks1  2ks  2  1   PL sin1   0



2ks  2  1   PL sin 2   0
For small deformation

sin  
 0 
cos 1
Thus,

ks1  2ks  2  1   PL1   0



2ks  2  1   PL 2   0
 3ks  PL1  2ks2  0

 2ks1   2ks  PL 2  0
The matrix form of the above two equations
3k s  PL  2k s  1  0
  2k   
 s 2k s  PL   2  0

For non-trivial solution, we need

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Advanced Steel Structures

3k s  PL  2k s
0
 2k s 2k s  PL
  3k s  PL  2k s  PL   4k s2  0
 6k s2  5 PLk s  P 2 L2  4k s2  0
 P 2 L2  5 PLk s  2k s2  0
5  17 k s
P
2 L
The smallest value of P will be the critical load
5  17 k s k
Pcr   0.438 s (3)
2 L L
From (2) and (3) we can see that adding one extra spring with the same spring constant
at the hinge A will maximize the critical load
ks
Pcr  0.438
L
DISCUSSION

Problem 2
We will investigate two cases as following
a) Case 1: k s1  nk s 2 (n≥1)

 The strain energy


1 1
U  nk s12  k s  2  1 
2
2 2
 The potential energy
V   P L  L cos 2  L  L cos1    PL 2  cos1  cos 2 
The total potential energy
1 1
  U  V  nk s12  k s  2  1   PL 2  cos1  cos 2 
2
2 2

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Advanced Steel Structures

 For equilibrium
 d
 d  0
 1

 d  0
 d 2

nks1  k s  2  1   PL sin1   0



k s  2  1   PL sin  2   0
For small deformation

sin  
 0 
cos 1
Thus,

nks1  ks  2  1   PL1   0

ks 2  1   PL2   0
 (n  1)ks  PL1  ks2  0

 ks1   ks  PL2  0
The matrix form of the above two equations
(n  1)k s  PL  k s  1  0
   
  ks k s  PL  2  0

For non-trivial solution, we need


(n  1) k s  PL  ks
0
 ks k s  PL
  (n  1)k s  PL  k s  PL   k s2  0
 (n  1)k s2  (n  2) PLk s  P 2 L2  k s2  0
 P 2 L2  (n  2) PLk s  nk s2  0
(n  2)  n 2  4 k s
P
2 L
The smallest value of P will be the critical load

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Advanced Steel Structures

(n  2)  n 2  4 k s
 Pcr 
2 L

b) Case 2: k s 2  nk s1 (n≥1)

 The strain energy


1 1
U  k s12  nk s  2  1 
2
2 2
 The potential energy
V   P L  L cos 2  L  L cos1    PL 2  cos1  cos 2 
The total potential energy
1 1
  U  V  k s12  nk s  2  1   PL 2  cos1  cos 2 
2
2 2

 For equilibrium
 d
 d  0
 1

 d  0
 d 2

k s1  nks  2  1   PL sin1   0



nks  2  1   PL sin 2   0
For small deformation

sin  
 0 
cos 1
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Advanced Steel Structures

Thus,

ks1  nks  2  1   PL1   0



nks  2  1   PL 2   0
 (n  1)ks  PL1  nks 2  0

 nks1   nks  PL2  0
The matrix form of the above two equations
(n  1)k s  PL  nk s  1  0
  nk nk  PL     0
 s s  2   

For non-trivial solution, we need


(n  1)k s  PL  nk s
0
 nk s nk s  PL
  (n  1)k s  PL  nk s  PL   n 2 k s2  0
 (n  1)nk s2  (2n  1) PLk s  P 2 L2  n 2 k s2  0
 P 2 L2  (2n  1) PLk s  nk s2  0
(2n  1)  4n 2  1 k s
P
2 L
The smallest value of P will be the critical load
(2n  1)  4n 2  1 k s
 Pcr 
2 L
n ks1 = nks2 ks2 = nks1
The dependence of Pcr on Pcr (ks/L) Pcr (ks/L) n for each case is
expressed as follows 1 0.382 0.382
1.5 0.500 0.419
2 0.586 0.438
2.5 0.649 0.450
3 0.697 0.459
3.5 0.734 0.464
4 0.764 0.469
4.5 0.788 0.472
5 0.807 0.475
5.5 0.824 0.477
6 0.838 0.479
6.5 0.850 0.481
7 0.860 0.482
7.5 0.869 0.483
8 0.877 0.484
8.5 0.884 0.485
9 0.890 0.486 14
9.5 0.896 0.487
10 0.901 0.488
Advanced Steel Structures

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Advanced Steel Structures

From the above graphs, we can see that: when we increase n, the value of the critical
load Pcr for case 1 goes up more quickly than for case 2. Therefore, to obtain the higher
critical load Pcr, increase of spring constant at node A (at hinge) is more effective than at
node B. In practices, if we need to have higher critical load P cr, we should raise the
spring constant at hinge

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