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Surface Chemistry and Microstructure of

Metallic Biomaterials for Hip and Knee


Monika Jenko, Matevz Gorensek, Matjaz Godec, Maxinne Hodnik, Barbara Setina
Batic, Crtomir Donik, John T. Grant, Drago Dolinar

Group 7
Ahmad Tibrizi 1406568305
Eviana 1406566685
Kelvin 1506746153
Kania Zara 1506717790
Structure and Properties of
1. Metallic Biomaterial

 Macrostructure: the large-scale or overall structure of something.

o Surface Properties: the study of chemical reactions at interfaces
o Surface Chemistry: characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of
 Microstructure: the fine structure (in a metal or other material) that
can be made visible and examined with a microscope.
Why Is It Important?

 Surface properties determines biological responses.

 Composition and structure of the surface oxide film
 Surface contamination
 Surface topography
 Microstructure have a very important role of prematurely failed implants,
regarded to corrosion and mechanical properties
ASTM Standard Spec.

ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) is an international standards

organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards
for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.

 Most knee and hip replacement material standard is referred to ASTM standard.
With general criteria:
 They must be biocompatible; that is, they can be placed in the body without creating
a rejection response.
 They must be able to duplicate the knee structures they are intended to replace. For
example, they are strong enough to take weightbearing loads, flexible enough to
bear stress without breaking, and able to move smoothly against each other as
 They must be able to retain their strength and shape for a long time
2. Discussion of Journal
Aim of Journal

To obtain data about the behavior of materials (microstructure, texture, and

surface chemistry), which is important for both the designers and the implant
Use of Journal

 For further investigations of the bacterial infection of implants, because it

has been reported that this is now the leading cause of orthopedic implant
 As a trigger to generating orthopedic implant multifunctional coatings that
will protect them against infection in both the short and long term.
Other Methods

 On 1970: Ca10(PO4)6(CO3)·H2O) known as Ivory

 On 1962: Cerosium (20% MgAl2O4; 50% CaAlSi2O8,
28% Al2O3, 2% Trace minerals)
 On 1980 – 2004: Zirconia (ZrO2)
Introduction: hip- and knee-joint replacements
Challenge of the use of Metallic Biomaterial for Implant
• failure of the bond between an implant and
bone in the absence of infection
Aseptic loosening
• Result = Wear and corrosion of

Periprosthetic joint
• infection by staphylococcus aureus

• Excessive metal ions (e.g. Vanadium) release

Toxicity into the body fluid and causes toxicity
problems to the host body

• limits their usefulness to a certain extent

Poor tribological • Wear debris generated from these articulation
properties joints can induce inflammation problem and toxic
effect to the human body.
Introduction: hip- and knee-joint replacements

Consideration in using Metallic Biomaterial Implant

Passive layer to
High clinical prevent excessive
Material surface Strength of Implant
requirements ion release into
body environment

Hardness of implant Metallic Material of

Patient Activity
to reduce wear rate Implant
and XPS test

 SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy)

provides detailed high resolution
images of the sample by rastering a
focused electron beam across the
surface and detecting secondary or
backscattered electron signal.
SEM, EBSD, AES, and XPS test

 EBSD (Electron Backscatter Diffraction) is

a microstructural-crystallographic
characterization technique to study
any crystalline or polycrystalline material.
XPS test
 AES (Atomic Emission
Spectroscopy) is a method
of chemical analysis that uses the
intensity of light emitted from
a flame, plasma, arc, or spark at a
particular wavelength to
determine the quantity of
an element in a sample.
and XPS test
 XPS (X-Ray Photoelectron
Spectroscopy) is a surface-
sensitive quantitative
spectroscopic technique that
measures the elemental
composition at the parts per
thousand range, empirical
formula, chemical
state and electronical state of
the elements that exist within a
Introduction: Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al7Nb, and CoCrMo Alloy for
Knee and Hip Joint Replacement Implant Materials
Reason of Using Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al7Nb, and CoCrMo alloy

• corrode easily in the body and become toxic

Metallic Biomaterial

• heavy weight

• high elastic modulus  stress shielding effect

Cobalt • excellent wear and corrosion resistance
• Studied for a long time

• Lighter weight than steel

Titanium • exhibit superior corrosion resistance and tissue acceptance

• reduces the stress-shielding effect and debris generation. This
is because its modulus of elasticity is closer to cortical bone
NEW 3 months 22 years

CoCrMo CoCrMo CoCrMo

Ti6Al7V Ti6Al7V Ti6Al7V Ti6Al7Nb

Implant Devices that were Studied

WHY use CoCrMo Alloys and Ti Alloys?
 Both alloys can form Oxide Thin Film
 Oxide Thin Film is a dominant protector against corrosion of the
 In CoCrMo alloys, Cr is necessary agains many corrosion, such as
pitting ad crevice corotions
 In Ti alloys the presence of Al, Nb and V helps with the protein
absorption and the accommodation on the surface
 It also helps with the surface cell interaction
Oxidation States Of Ti and CoCrMo
 In simple, an oxidation is defined as a chemical reaction
by the interaction of metal with oxygen to form an
oxide. T
 The phenomena started with adsorption of oxygen
molecules from the atmosphere.
 Followed by nucleation of oxides, formation of a thin
oxide layer
 Finally growth to a thicker scale.
 The total chemical reaction for the formationcan be
written as:
aM + (b/2) O2 = MaOb
Anodic Oxidation on Ti alloys
 Anodic oxidation has a main advantage that is the ability to form
bioactive oxide film on surface of titanium and its alloy
 The Ti oxide interface are
Ti ↔ Ti2+ + 2e-
 At the Ti oxide/electrolyte interfaces:
2H2O ↔ 2O2- + 4H+ (oxygen ions react with Ti to form oxide),
2H2O ↔ O2 (gas) + 4H+ + 4e- (O2 gas evolves or stick at anode surface).

 At both interfaces:
Ti2+ + 2O2- ↔ TiO2 + 2e-
3. Wider Discussion

Phase Diagram

At room temperature, there is 91% of Alpha

phase and 9% of Beta phase in Ti6Al4V

Reasonable properties are retained up to 350°C (660°F)

Highly resistant to general corrosion

Moderately high tensile strength Chemistry

Good fatigue strength
Intermediate fracture toughness

Blades, discs, rings, airframes,
fasteners, components. Vessels, cases,
hubs, forgings. Biomedical implants

Properties of TI6AL4V
Physical Properties Mechanical Properties
Titanium Allotropic Forms

β-Titanium Form
α-Titanium Form
T > 882 0C
T < 882 0C
The Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al7Nb alloys are the most commonly used
α+β titanium biomedical alloys

Used Secondary-Electron (SE) and Backscattered-electron (BE)

images to show Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al7Nb alloys

The microstructures of the new and retrieved componentsare

very similar, so only representative images of each
compositionare shown
Ti6Al4V alloy Ti6Al7Nb alloy
CoCrMo Alloys…

In the CoCrMo alloys, the face-centered cubic (fcc) and the

hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystalline structures co-exist

Typically, the (fcc) phase is predominant at room temperature, but

also could be isothermally

The other main feature of the Co-based alloys is the presence of

carbon, forming carbides, whose distribution and size is influenced
by the manufacturing process
Composition of
CoCrMo alloys
Phase Diagram Of CoCrMo alloys

Analysis said that

the melting point of
Mo is higher than
Co but an autectic
mixture is created
at 1335 degree
celcius for ca
CoCrMo Alloy
4. Conclusion
 Using metallic biomaterial for implant is challenging because of aseptic
loosening, infection, and poor tribological properties of metallic
 Knee and Hip Joint Replacement Implant Metallic Biomaterials that used in
journal is Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al7Nb, and CoCrMo Alloy
 CoCrMo is used because of excellent wear and corrosion resistance
 Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al7Nb is used because lighter weight, superior corrosion
resistance and tissue acceptance, and reduces the stress-shielding effect
and debris generation

 Passive oxide film in Ti6Al4V makes it particularly resistant to corrosion

 Mechanical and physical properties of Ti6Al4V are affected by its 𝛼 and β
 The Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al7Nb alloys are the most commonly used α+β titanium
biomedical alloys
 chemical composition of Ti6Al4V is 6% aluminum, 4% vanadium, 0.25%
(maximum) iron, 0.2% (maximum) oxygen, and the remainder titanium.

 In CoCrMo alloys, Cr played a significant part on the corrosion protection

 CoCrMO alloys are the materials of choice for knee-implants, metal-to-
metal hip joint and dental prosthetics
 In the CoCrMo alloys, the face-centered cubic (fcc) and the hexagonal
close-packed (hcp) crystalline structures co-exist
 CoCrMo alloys have a high hardness and excellent qualities to allow
polishing components to optical miror like finishes
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