Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 12


Ellipsis and substitution

Study the following passages taken from texts we have read in previous pages.
-What word(s) is missing where the symbol ▲ is?
-Why has the word been omitted?
-What does ‘doing so’ substitute for in passage 2?
Concordance involves a process of prescribing and medicine-taking; it is a kind of partnership. It is not just a matter
of explaining the benefits of prescribed drugs and the side effects which can sometimes happen, but which may not
▲. Improving concordance is about involving the patient in making decisions about the treatment.

Non-compliance in medicine taking is a long-standing problem in all therapeutic areas, including the treatment of
cancer. There is strong evidence that, despite the introduction of new medicines which have fewer side effects and are
more convenient to use, many people still do not take them as prescribed –even when not doing so can have life-
threatening consequences.

a- Use the words in the box below to substitute for the one(s) you think can be substituted. Make any
changes necessary.
b- Cross out any word(s) that you think can be omitted.

ones - did - neither - do so - others - so doing

Drug use disorders and chronic kidney diseases cause many more deaths in some regions and countries than in other

They found the same results as other scientists found.

The doctor suggested I should try aspirin or ibuprofen, but aspirin and ibuprofen did not work.

There have been some difficulties at the onset of the project, but not great difficulties.

Health professionals work on multidisciplinary care teams that are client-focused. As a whole, the team manages the
client’s care. In working on multidisciplinary care teams that are client-focused, they are able to provide a fully integrated
plan that includes the client in all decision making. Coordination of care is valued and all members of the team work
together toward optimal health outcomes for the client. These health-care teams include registered nurses, doctors,
physiotherapists, dieticians, social workers, occupational therapists, and various other specialists. No one voice on the team
is of less value than the other voice. Each member has equal input and each member is respected for his or her professional
expertise. While doctors may make final clinical decisions for some aspects of care, they make final clinical decisions in
consultation and collaboration with the team and the client. They do not work completely independently.

TASK 2 – Choose the correct option to substitute for the verb in the following sentences.

1- Many British graduates are taking jobs overseas and the reason they are ….......... is because graduate
unemployment is currently high in the UK.
A- doing it B- doing so C- doing this way D- doing such thing

Inglés II – Nivel B
2- Telemedicine may transform health care for the better, but more research is needed that demonstrates that it
actually improves patient-centered outcomes and that it …….. efficiently.
A- can do so B- can be done so C- does so D- has done so

3- Good writers frequently rephrase and summarise the main ideas in their texts. They ….......... in order to remind
the reader about what is important.
A- do so B- doing so C- did so D- have done so

4- The company changed their product packaging last year and by …....... they have attracted many new customers.
A- so B-they did so C- doing so D- done so

TASK 3- Highlight or underline what the substitution words in bold refer to.

1. The FDA has committed to posting reviews of trials submitted with new drug applications for drugs approved
since 1998, but it has rejected recommendations from the Institute of Medicine that it post all reviews for
supplemental new drug applications (e.g., applications for use of approved products for a new indication),
stating that doing so would be overly burdensome.

2. Among patients in a clinical trial who had had a response to omalizumab by 16 weeks, 87 percent had done
so by 12 weeks.

3. In our study of women who gave birth in 2009 or 2010, a total of 8.9% received a diagnosis of influenza by a
physician. It is likely that a greater proportion of women with more severe symptoms contacted a physician
than did those with mild symptoms, so our results may reflect risks related to infection with more severe
clinical symptoms.

4. Please note the English way of expressing the parasitic action of a mosquito. Indeed, the mosquito does not
use its teeth to actually bite the victim. In truth, the female mosquito punctures the skin with her proboscis or
syringe-like mouth and sucks blood into her digestive system from the host. In doing so, she releases an
allergen that causes an immune reaction in humans, causing us to itch. Even so, the English term for this is
“bite”: mosquito bite.

UNIT 2- Section 1– Reading and Vocabulary

TASK 1- Read the text below and then answer the questions that follow it. Don’t use a dictionary.


Across Canada and the United States of America, actuality, the waiting room is often filled with people
patients have a tendency to use emergency rooms at who do not fit the definition of a patient suitable for
hospitals for nonemergency conditions. Rather than emergency care.
taking the time to make an appointment with a doctor or Some of the complaints that people bring to the
seek out a medical clinic, it has become the norm to emergency rooms are simply minor in nature. They may
simply pop into the nearest hospital emergency be complaining of a fever or flu-like symptoms. They
department. may have a simple rash or headache, perhaps even a sore
The result of this has been an ever-increasing demand on stomach. They appear with their own subjective reports
nurses and doctors to triage the patients they see. They of their conditions and request what they believe is
must identify care priorities while sifting through the appropriate treatment. In many cases, it is simply that
large numbers of people still waiting to be seen. In
Inglés II – Nivel B
people want an antibiotic, analgesic, or a note for work no appointment necessary. The intent is to encourage the
that states they should take the next few days off. public to use the walk-in clinics rather than the
The problem with the inappropriate use of emergency departments at hospitals, saving the
emergency rooms is that it overburdens the staff and the emergency rooms for what they were originally designed
facility. There is a shortage of nurses and doctors in for—emergency care. Progress in changing this pattern
some locales. Additionally, there can be a shortage of of behavior has been slow over the past 20 years, but
hospital beds and accommodations for the ill. As a result, walk-in clinics are gaining in popularity. They are being
it is unwise to tie up the system with less urgent cases. utilized more and more as the public becomes more
Walk-in clinics have sprung up around the continent to familiar with and comfortable using them.
provide easier access to health care and treatment, with

1) What is the difference between the purpose of an emergency room and a medical clinic?

2) What term is used to explain the process of identifying cases that take priority over others for treatment?

3) Who does the assessments in the emergency department?

4) Which countries are being referred to in this article?

5) Why is the emergency room at a hospital so busy?

6) What is the purpose of a walk-in clinic?

7) What is the main difference between a walk-in clinic and a doctor’s office or clinic?

8) Has public attitude changed about the use of emergency rooms yet? Explain.

TASK 2 - VOCABULARY - Choose the correct meaning each word in italics. Don’t use a dictionary.

1) A non-emergency situation is not life threatening. Life threatening means it is

a) critical.
b) serious.
c) valid.

2) Hospital staff must set care priorities and assess which patient should be treated first and why. In this context, the term
care priorities means
a) assigning a duty doctor to the case.
b) understanding which case needs immediate attention.
c) giving assistance in an orderly fashion for everyone.

3) In disasters and emergencies, a triage team assesses who will be treated first. In this context, triage can best be described
a) a system of dealing with patients according to highest need first.
b) professionals who only deal with emergency cases.
c) another word for emergency.

4) If you have an appointment with a doctor or even a banker, you likely have to sit and wait in his or her waiting room
before being seen. In this context, waiting room can be described as
a) the lobby.
b) a sitting area specifically for patients or clients.
c) a place to buy coffee and wait while your mom sees the doctor.

5) In health care, we need to obtain both objective and subjective reports. The first come from lab reports, x-rays, etc. The
second come from the patients themselves. In this context, subjective reports means
a) the patient’s personal opinion of his or her own situation.
b) the topic of the visit.
c) another way to complain.

6) When too many people use the emergency room for reasons that are not urgent, they tie up the doctors and nurses. They
prevent them from doing the best work that they possibly can because staff members are pressed for time to see so many
patients. In this way, these people are tying up the system. In this context, tying up the system means
a) interfering.
Inglés II – Nivel B
b) making unreasonable demands.
c) putting a rope around the staff and not letting them work.

TASK 3- Translate the following paragraph, which is a summary of the article on page 22.

In many areas, emergency departments in hospitals are not used as they were intended to be used. People with minor
illnesses use them when they should instead use walk-in clinics or make an appointment to see a doctor. The growing
use of walk-in clinics may improve the situation and relieve the burden on frequently understaffed emergency rooms
and hospitals.

TASK 1- You are going to listen to a text about first aid, written by Jerilyn Watson, and read by two speakers on the Voice
of America. Listen to Section 1 and answer questions 1-3.

1- Doctors in hospital emergency rooms often see accidental poisonings. A frightened parent arrives with a child who
swallowed something poisonous. Which of the following does the speaker mention?
a. a cleaning liquid
b. a fuel
c. a medicine
d. a cosmetic product
e. a product meant to kill insects

2- What did some people do in the past to help poisoning victims?

3- To help a person choking on something trapped in the throat, you can do abdominal thrusts. Put the instructions to
do these abdominal thrusts in the correct order.
a. Close one hand to form a ball. d. Place the other hand on top.
b. Get directly behind a sitting or standing e. Push forcefully inward and upward.
person. f. Put your arms around the victim's waist.
c. Place it over the upper part of the stomach, g. Repeat the abdominal thrusts until the
below the ribs. object is expelled from the mouth.

TASK 2- a-Read statements 1-6 and decide if they are true or false.

1- CPR is used to force air into the lungs and pumps blood and oxygen to the brain.
2- To help a person whose heart stops, the American Heart Association suggests using the hands to pump the
victim’s chest and rescue breathing.
3- Some people are unwilling or unable to perform rescue breathing because they are afraid of infections or of
making the victim worse.
4- A person in need of CPR has collapsed, is unconscious, has lost colour, but is breathing and his/her heart is
5- To perform chest compressions, place one hand over the other and press firmly on the center of the victim’s chest.
Push down about five centimeters and try to press a hundred times each minute. You need a measuring stick and a
timing device.
6- Doctor Sayre says that some victims, including babies, need the mouth-to-mouth breathing with the compressions.

TASK 2- b- Listen and see if your answers are correct. Justify your answers.

Inglés II – Nivel B
TASK 3- Read Section 3 below and fill in the blanks using the words in the box. Then listen and check.

stoppage - devices - further - voice - led - abnormal - rubbing - detailed - AED - another -
moveable - surgical - historians

Most CPR training now includes how to use an automated external defibrillator, or 1………….…. Defibrillators use
electric shocks to correct 2……………. heartbeats that can lead to sudden death. Such 3
………….…. are found
increasingly in public places like airports, restaurants and office buildings. A recorded………… on the AED guides the
user. The voice provides 4…………….. information about what to do. The defibrillator of today has developed from the
first defibrillators. Medical 5…………….. say the devices appeared late in the 19th century.

In the 1920s, American Claude Beck performed the first 6 ………………… operations to repair damaged hearts. Doctor
Beck worked at what is now called Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in Ohio. 7………………..
doctor, Carl J. Wiggers, had kept laboratory animals with heart 8……………….. alive by massaging their hearts. Then he
followed this 9……………… with electrical defibrillation. This 10……….……Claude Beck in his efforts to help return
normal heart actions to human patients. In 1947, Doctor Beck saved a patient with a defibrillator device for the first time.
The doctor’s success led others to 11…………….. develop the method and device. Today small, 12………………… AED’s
can identify heart rhythms and produce electricity to treat victims of heart stoppage.

TASK 4- Listen to Section 4 and choose the correct option, according to what the speaker says. More than one option or all
of them can be correct.

1- Even the smallest cut in the skin c. do not remove the cloth.
a. can allow bacteria to enter the body.
b. must be treated. 4- A tourniquet
c. must be covered while it heals. a. can be made with a stick and a piece of
cloth or a belt.
2- If bleeding is severe, the first thing to do is b. can crush blood passages and nerves.
a. clean the wound. c. is a very useful device to stop severe
b. press on the wound with a clean cloth. bleeding.
c. have the person lie down and raise the
legs. 5- If a wound seems infected,
a. the victim should not do physical
3- If blood comes out through the cloth that you activity.
use to cover the wound, b. use salt and hot water to treat the
a. remove it and use another. wound.
b. put another cloth on top and continue c. wait until medical help arrives.



TASK 1 – The text below describes an emergency incident.

Put the segments of the text in the correct order.

A. All he can remember is that he had got up from the sofa and said to his colleagues that his chest and arm hurt.

B. Dave was able to continue resuscitation and re-start Mr Edwards’s heart after three attempts using the portable
defibrillator that is carried on ambulance bicycles.

C. Dave emphasized the importance of quick intervention when someone suffers a cardiac arrest and took the
opportunity to remind members of the public that they can learn cardiopulmonary resuscitation – or CPR – at free
‘Heartstart’ classes given across the capital by the London Ambulance Service and supported by the British Heart
Foundation. Effective CPR buys time for a patient and doubles a person’s chances of survival.
Inglés II – Nivel B
D. After that, everything went blank.

E. Gary Edwards, a British Airways customer service arrivals agent, had been sitting with his work colleagues in a
rest room at Heathrow Airport’s Terminal One when he suffered severe pain in his chest and arms.

F. Paramedics, dispatched in an ambulance at the same time as the bicycle ambulance, arrived a few minutes later to
continue treatment and took Mr Edwards to hospital.

G. Within seconds of the 999 call being made, cycle paramedic Dave Parks reached Mr Edwards.

H. This resuscitation shows how well-suited bikes are to reaching patients quickly inside the airport. As they are
based at the airport and were able to get to him so quickly, it most probably made the difference between life and

I. Within seconds, he lost consciousness and stopped breathing. His British Airways colleagues immediately dialled
999 for an ambulance and began attempts to resuscitate him.

1- 2- 3- 4- 5- 6- 7- 8- 9-

TASK 2 - Reread the text and say whether the following statements are true or false.

1- Gary Edwards was working when he suffered a cardiac arrest.

2- His colleagues called 999 and placed him on a sofa.
3- Dave Parks, a paramedic, arrived in an ambulance a few seconds after the emergency call.
4- He started resuscitation as soon as he reached Mr Edwards.
5- Dave used a defibrillator but couldn’t restart Mr Edwards’s heart.
6- An ambulance arrived and paramedics took Mr Edward to hospital.
7- The bikes are at the airport and they are able to get to a person in emergency very quickly.
8- It is possible for members of the public to learn cardiopulmonary resuscitation – or CPR – at free ‘Heartstart’
classes given at the airport.

TASK 3 – Fill in the blanks choosing the correct form of the verbs listed below.

1- tried – had tried 5- felt – had felt

2- is – was 6- was yawning – yawned
3- have dialled – dialled 7- had passed out – passed out
4- was complaining – had been complaining 8- hasn’t been feeling - was not feeling

Describing how things happened

We were shopping in Cambridge Street in town when suddenly Barbara, my wife, just fainted. We 1…………………. to
get her upright and she started twitching quite violently. It 2…………………. quite scary. She came round very rapidly.
But we 3…….……..…….. 999 and a paramedic appeared almost instantly and then the ambulance almost immediately
afterwards. She 4……………...………… of feeling a bit unwell, and had almost fainted and she 5……….……… a bit
woozy. She was bit dizzy and 6……………….…….. reapeatedly and then all of a sudden, there she was, lying on the
ground. When I come to think of it, she 7………….………… once before about a month ago. She 8……………………
well on and off over the summer. We thought it was the heat.

Inglés II – Nivel B
TASK 4- Complete the sentences using the verbs in brackets in the correct form (tense)
1- We ……………………. (walk) along the street when she ……………………….. (pass out) suddenly.
2- She …………………….(have never) the pain before till now, but she ……………………. (experience) some
bleeding the first time.
3- After he ………………………. (admit), he …………………….. (become) suddenly worse, but he’s started
responding to treatment.
4- He ……………………… (never suffer) a fit before, but he …………………….. (feel) unwell since this morning.
5- He ……………………….. (yawn) repeatedly, which he …………………….. (not do) before, and then he just
6- After he ………………….. (fall), he ……………….. (start) twitching violently when we ……………. (try) to get
him up.
7- When she …………………… (lie) on the ground, she ………………………. (not shake) at all. Then she just
stood up.
8- What actually ………………….. (happen) when she ……………. (fall)?
9- He …………………. (bite) his tongue and he ………………….. (mess) himself and he ……………… (feel) a bit
groggy since.

VOCABULARY – Adverbs -

… suddenly Barbara, my wife, just fainted … a paramedic appeared almost instantly

… she started twitching quite violently She was yawning repeatedly.

She came round very rapidly.

TASK 1- Underline the most appropriate adverb in the sentences below.

1- The fainting? It just happened abruptly / gradually / slowly. The next thing I knew she was lying flat on the
2- The patient suddenly became pale and started to sweat, but not profusely / rapidly / enormously.
3- After the attack, Mr Jones came to rapidly / slowly / leisurely, which questions whether it was a seizure.
4- Embarrassingly / Gradually / Clearly, I soiled myself and wet myself. It wasn’t very pleasant.
5- She was lying flat, but bystanders were trying to keep her upright, so she was twitching slowly / convulsively /
6- As he couldn’t see good / clearly / well, he got quite frightened.
7- In a seizure, there is typically / rarely / seldom no prodrome, but this is not always the case.
8- After collapsing, he didn’t get better spontaneously / slowly / gradually. The patient was a bit drowsy for quite a
while afterwards.
9- He recovered completely / partially / poorly from the accident. Now he’s perfectly ok.
10- Fainting and vomiting don’t reliably / partially / clearly discriminate seizures from faints.

TASK 2 – Decide whether the statements in Task 4 are likely to be said by a patient or a medical professional.

Inglés II – Nivel B

TASK 1- Skim the text quickly and state what the text is about.


My name is John Rhys, and I’m one of a team of four more potentially life-threatening 999 calls elsewhere in
cycle paramedics of the London Ambulance Service’s the city.
traffic-busting bicycle ambulance service. We attend 999 More than 300,000 people work in the City of London
emergency calls in the City of London –the financial and their numbers are swelled by the several million
centre called Square Mile. The bike itself is the same as tourists who visit the area each year. Using the bike gives
those used by the successful cycle units operating in us an opportunity to save potentially vital seconds in
London’s West End, which regularly reach patients starting treatment, especially in the narrow streets which
faster than conventional ambulances. we can negotiate more quickly and easily than
The team’s bikes are fitted with blue lights and sirens, ambulances. For example,
carry a range of equipment, including a heart-starting my colleagues in the West
defibrillator, oxygen, pain-relieving gas, and even a End Cycle Response Unit
maternity pack for delivering babies. regularly reach 100 per
Where the patient is believed to be in a life-threatening cent of the most serious,
condition, we are sent at the same time as a regular ‘Category A’, 999 calls
ambulance crew so that we can start treatment before within eight minutes. This
they arrive. Where the patient is understood to be response is much quicker
suffering from a more minor injury or illness, we are than the government
initially sent on our own and then are able to request standard for this category
further assistance –freeing ambulances to attend other, of call of 75 per cent.

TASK 2- Now read the text more carefully and answer the following questions.

1- Do cycle paramedics in London’s West End arrive at the scene as rapidly or more rapidly than conventional
.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2- Is the paramedic’s bike equipped with only a basic First Aid Kit or more sophisticated equipment?
3- In serious cases, are the conventional ambulances and the cycle paramedics sent simultaneously, or are the
latter sent first?
4- Does the cycle paramedic response time in the West End exceed or equal the government benchmark?

TASK 3 - Vocabulary – Choose the correct meaning for each word or phrase in italics.
1- I’m one of a team of four cycle paramedics of the London Ambulance Service’s traffic-busting bicycle
ambulance service.
a. An ambulance service that goes along with the traffic.
b. An ambulance service which uses bicycles and that beats traffic because it is much faster.
c. A service which has ambulances and bicycles

2- The team’s bikes are fitted with blue lights and sirens.
a. are suitable for
b. consist of
c. have

Inglés II – Nivel B
3- Where the patient is understood to be suffering from a more minor injury or illness, we are initially sent on our
own …
a. alone
b. immediately
c. without help

4- More than 300,000 people work in the City of London and their numbers are swelled by the several million
tourists who visit the area each year.
a. increase
b. become larger
c. move



TASK 1- Match the descriptions 1-8 with the types of fracture a-h. Then match the types of fracture with the
illustrations below. There is no one to one matching and there are extra illustrations.

1- simple a- which occurs when certain bones are likely to break from repeated minor injuries

2- avulsion b- where the ends of a bone are driven into each other

3- spiral c- a complex fracture which results in more than two bone fragments

4- comminuted d- where the volume of bone is reduced because it has been compressed

5- crush e- where there is a single fracture of the bone with only two main fragments

6- stress f- where a bit of bone is pulled off with a ligament or muscle

7- impacted g- which is not very clear and there is no clear displacement

8- hairline h- which is seen in long bones as a result of twisting injuries

Inglés II – Nivel B


a- Before you read the text on accidents, work in pairs and answer the following questions:

1- Where do you think the majority of accidents occur: at home, work, or in the street?
2- Which groups of society are more prone to accidents?
3- Are accidents at work generally preventable?

b- Skim the text and match the headings with the appropriate paragraph A-D. Don’t use a dictionary.

1- Accidents in the home

2- Accidents in the workplace
3- Accidents and children
4- Accidents and the elderly

c- Find words and phrases in the text which have the same meaning as the following. Items 1-7 are not in the
order in which they occur in the text. Use a dictionary only if necessary.

1) stated 4) encouraging 7) attending

2) deaths 5) as a matter of course 8) almost
3) among the poor 6) weakness

d- Answer the following questions about the text.

1. Among children, which group had the greatest mortality rate in 2004 in the UK?

2. Among which group are accidents more frequent?

3. What kind of help should be offered to the elderly who are susceptible to falls?

4. What are the main sources of accidental fires in homes?

5. What are doctors responsible for averting?

A- About ten years ago there were more than 200 person at risk of hypothermia and pressure
child fatalities due to accidents in England and sores. Hip fractures after falls are a major
Wales, the highest numbers being in five- to cause of morbidity and mortality.
fourteen-year-olds. The commonest cause of
NICE guidelines were issued in 2004 on the
accidental injury in children presenting to UK
assessment and prevention of falls in older
hospitals is falls. Others include suffocating
people. They state that older people should be
and choking, burns and scalds, and poisoning.
asked routinely if they have fallen in the past
A recent report by the Audit Commission and
year. Those who have fallen, or those
the Healthcare Commission states that each
considered at risk of falling, should have a
year there are two million attendances to
multifactorial falls risk assessment and should
accident and emergency departments by
be considered for interventions including
children as a result of accidents that might
those to improve their strength and balance
have been prevented. Accidents are more
and remove any home hazard.
common in the lower socio-economic group.
C- In England and Wales there are around 4,000
B- Frailty and health problems make the elderly,
accidental deaths a year in and around the
particularly those over the age of 75, at
home. Those most at risk of serious or fatal
increased risk of accidents, usually occurring
injury in the home are young children and the
in the home. Falls are the most common
cause. Inability to get up after falling puts the
Inglés II – Nivel B
elderly. Falls are the most common type of were fatal. All places of work are potentially
accident. dangerous whether an oil rig, a coal mine, a
factory, an office, or a kitchen. The Health
In 2004, fire brigades attended about 440,000
and Safety Executive has stipulated rules
fires in the UK. There were more than 500
about safety in the workplace. It also has the
fire-related deaths and more than 14,000 non-
necessary powers to inspect and enforce them.
fatal casualties. A large proportion of fires in
Safety equipment must be worn. Risks must
homes were accidental, the main causes being
be appreciated. Every workplace should have
misuse of equipment / appliances and chip pan
a safety officer who is responsible for
identifying danger and advocating action.
D- During 2005/2006 there were nearly 150,000 Doctors have a duty to be aware of measures
occupational injuries reported, of which 212 to prevent infection and needle-stick injury.

From Medicine 2 (2010), by Sam McCarter – Oxford:OUP-

NICE stands for The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. The following is part of what the Institute
has published in the ‘about NICE guidance’ section of their web site. Read and translate the paragraph.

adults and children, and planning broader

NICE guidelines make evidence-based services and interventions to improve the health of
recommendations on a wide range of topics, from communities. They aim to promote integrated care
preventing and managing specific conditions, where appropriate, for example, by covering
improving health and managing medicines in transitions between children’s and adult services
different settings, to providing social care to and between health and social care.

Retrieved from https://www.nice.org.uk/About/What-we-do/Our-programmes/NICE-guidance Acessed May 31, 2015


TASK 3- Complete sentences 1-10 using the verbs in the box below.

banged - pulled - stubbed - twisted - dislocated - slipped - stumbled - went over - fell
smash - tripped - landed - squashed - twisted

1- I _________________ on a loose paving stone as I was walking down the street and _______________ flat on
my face.
2- I ______________ and lost my footing and ____________ my ankle.
3- I ______________ my toe on a chair. I may have fractured it, but I hope I haven’t.
4- I ______________ my knee on the metal table. I am surprised I didn’t __________________ my kneecap to
5- I ______________ my ankle when I went over and now I can barely walk. I don’t think it’s broken or
anything. It’s more likely to be a sprain.
6- I _____________ on the wet floor and went over and ______________ on my bottom.
7- The motorbike ______________ on my ankle and crushed my leg.
8- I think I’ve _______________ my shoulder and I can barely move it.
9- I _______________ my finger in the door and it’s throbbing like mad.
10- I ______________ this nick out of the side of my fingernail and now it’s infected.

Accident prevention measures.

TASK 3 - You are going to read an extract from a talk on accident prevention measures. Scan the text and tick the ideas
which are presented in this fragment.

1- ____ Advice about preventing accidents is more the responsibility of the government.
2- ____ When we use the word accident, this somehow signifies that something cannot be avoided.
3- ____ Simple safety measures and thinking about the future can reduce accidents.
4- ____ Patients can be alerted to any risky situations.
5- ____ People need to be more aware of accidents caused by leisure than by home improvements.
6- ____ Halls and stairways need to have good lighting.
7- ____ Loose rugs and flooring are dangerous for old people.

As health professionals, we give advice about healthy

lifestyles, which should include accident prevention. There are many simple pieces of advice that can be
When we use the word accident, it seems to imply that given to prevent accidents in the home like fitting stairs
accidents are unavoidable. It is true that we do not live with banisters or rails and making sure that halls and
a life free of risk, but the danger of accidents can be stairways are well lit. Encouraging people to climb up
minimized by simple precautions ... and thinking only on something firm and strong can help reduce the
ahead. risk of falls. Another thing to avoid is loose rugs and
flooring in order to reduce the risk of slipping or
We can, for example, make patients aware of the tripping especially when old people or children are
potential for risk. All risk situations including those in around. And if small children are about, ponds and
the home or garden, in the workplace, on the road, or swimming pools in the garden need to be covered.
during leisure activities such as hillwalking or
mountain climbing should be treated with due respect. DIY at home or home improvements is another area
People need to be reminded to think of others, with potential for accidents. When using power tools,
especially children and the elderly. Once an accident people need to be encouraged to use adequate
has happened it is too late to go back and take protection including sturdy shoes, gloves, and goggles.

Inglés II – Nivel B