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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 1

Slide 1

II2202 Research Methodology and


Scientific Writing: Introduction
prof. Gerald Q. Maguire Jr. http://people.kth.se/~maguire/
School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), KTH Royal Institute of Technology
II2202 Fall 2015, Period 1 and Periods 1&2 2015.08.08  2015 G. Q. Maguire Jr. All rights reserved.

Gerald Q. Maguire Jr. All rights reserved


II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 2

Slide 2

Welcome to the course!

The course should be fun.

Information about the course is available from the


course web page:
https://www.kth.se/social/course/II2202/

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 2

Gerald Q. Maguire Jr. All rights reserved


II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 3

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Context of the course

You are all starting your Master’s level studies – during which you
will:
• take numerous courses (in many of which you will carry out
projects) and
• you will need to complete a degree project (with thesis) in order
to graduate

Following your graduation you are going to be professionals –


hence you need to develop the skills and understanding necessary
for your profession.
Some of these required skills and understanding are described in
Högskolelagen (1992:1434) Higher Education Act [Högskolelag]

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 3

[Högskolelag] Sveriges Riksdag, Högskolelag, vol. SFS 1992:1434. 1992 [Online].


Available: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-
Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Hogskolelag-19921434_sfs-1992-1434/

Gerald Q. Maguire Jr. All rights reserved


II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 4

Slide 4

Teachers associated with the course

Course responsible (Kursansvarig)


prof. Gerald Q. (“Chip”) Maguire Jr. maguire@kth.se
Teachers
prof. Magnus Boman
prof. Gerald Q. Maguire Jr.
Prof. Mark T. Smith
Assoc. prof. Konrad Tollmar
Guest lecturers
prof. Carl-Mikael Zetterling, Assoc. prof. Markus Hidell,
Retired Professor Ellen M. McGee, Ph.D. (Long Island
University), prof. em. Marilyn E. Noz (NYU), …

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 4

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 5

Slide 5

Goals, Scope, and Method

Goals
To help you be successful in your Master’s courses, thesis
project, and professional career
Scope
• research methodology
• scientific assignment
• scientific writing
Method
Lectures, video clips, recitations, seminars, literature
(books, articles, websites, and tools), and a staged
project: from proposal to final report + opposition

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 5

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 6

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Aim

• To develop the theoretical & practical skills to


plan, conduct, analyze, and present (in oral
and written form) a scientific assignment in the
area of information and communication
technology (ICT)
• To develop insight & understanding of research
methodology, ethics, and sustainability

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 6

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 7

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Learning Outcomes
After the course students will be able to:
• explain and apply scientific methodologies, methods, as well as
techniques for scientific writing, and research methodology to prepare the
writing of a scientific report, as well as a degree project.
• perform investigation and evaluation using methods, explain and take a
position on the results, as well as list and summarize related work.
• apply the knowledge in scientific writing and research methodology and
use this knowledge to write a scientific report and opposition report.
• identify and describe examples of sustainability related to the ICT-area
• verbally and in writing give examples of and explain societal and ethical
aspects and sustainability in the ICT-area.
• perform an opposition

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 7

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 8

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Prerequisites

Eligibility (required)
Good knowledge of English and basic knowledge of
information and communication technology

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 8

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 9

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Contents

Course is divided into three major parts:


• research methodology
• scientific writing
• scientific assignment

These parts are integrated in a project and examined by a


project plan, a method description, a scientific report, and an
opposition report. You will give oral presentations and peer
review at each stage of the project.

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 9

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 10

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Course schedule

There are two versions of this course:


• Period 1 (P1): Sept.-Nov. (groups A&B)
• Periods 1 & 2 (P1-2): Sept.-Jan. (groups C..F)

https://www.kth.se/social/course/II2202/calendar/

NB There are different schedules for the two


versions of the course – follow the appropriate
schedule!
See timeline spreadsheet at the course web page

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 10

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 11

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Groups A..D

First meeting of meeting of student groups on Wednesday 2 September:

Ka-204 (Gerald Maguire) - students in the P1 only version of the course:


Group A: 15:15-17:00 will be for TSEDM + CDATE students
Group B: 17:15-19:00 will be for CINTE + TSMKM + TCOMM + TITEH +
any other students in the P1 only version of the course

Group C: Ka-208 (Konrad Tollmar)- Human Computer Interaction and Design


(TIVNM, HCID) - note this group of students will meet during the
time slot 15:15-17:00

Group D: Ka-210 (Magnus Boman) - Internet technologies and architectures


(TIVNM, ITAK) - note this group of students will meet during the
time slot 15:15-17:00

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 11

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 12

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Groups E and F

First meeting on Thursday 3 September 15:15-17:00

Group E: Ka-204(Mark Smith) - Embedded Systems (TIVNM,


INSY) + (a portion of) Embedded Systems
(TEBSM) those students with last names starting
with the letters A..R

Group F: Ka-210 (Gerald Maguire) - SoC (TSKKM) + (the


remaining portion of) Embedded Systems
(TEBSM) + all other students in P1-P2 version of
the course who are not in one of the above
programs

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 12

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 13

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Topics

• Research Methodologies • Scientific Writing – reporting


• main focus on qualitative and your results
quantitative methods
• Improving your writing and oral
• Consider alternative methods
& choose a suitable method
presentation skills
• Scientific assignment • Avoiding Plagiarism
• Propose and motivate your • Opposition – giving and
investigation receiving feedback (see [Stone 2014])
• Apply quantitative/qualitative • Research and professional
methods when collecting &
analyzing your data
ethics
• Carry out your investigation • Sustainability (both generally
and ICT specific)

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 13

[Stone 2014] Douglas Stone and Sheila Heen, Thanks for the feedback: the science
and art of receiving feedback well (even when it is off base, unfair, poorly delivered, and
frankly, you’re not in the mood). New York, New York: Viking, 2014.
http://stoneandheen.com/

Gerald Q. Maguire Jr. All rights reserved


II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 14

Slide 14

Examination requirements

PRO1 - Project Assignments, 7.5 credits


Grade scale: A, B, C, D, E, FX, F

Note that Fx is not a final grade.

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 14

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 15

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Grades: A..F (ECTS grades)

For grades A to E you must meet the learning objectives


• To get an "A" your project plan, method description, scientific
report, and opposition report need to be excellent.
• To get a "B" your project plan, method description, scientific
report, and opposition report need to be very good.
• To get a "C" your project plan, method description, scientific
report, and opposition report need to be good.
• To get a "D" you need to meet the learning objects, but have
demonstrated weakness in one of the deliverables.
• If your project has some errors (including incomplete
references or failures to include relevant considerations of
research methodology, ethics, and sustainability) the
grade will be an "E".

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 15

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 16

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Grades (continued)

If you fail to meet the learning objectives or your project


has serious errors the grade will be an "F".
If you are close to passing, but not at the passing level, then
you will be offered the opportunity for "komplettering", i.e.,
submitting a revised version of the deficient components of
the project assignments - which will be evaluated.

Note that there is no opportunity to raise your grade, once


you have a grade of “E” or higher.

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 16

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 17

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Project Assignments

• A project plan (including a literature review)


• Method description (including theory, discussion about
choice of method, selection of participants or other
sources of data)
• Scientific report, and
• Opposition report
These will be developed in a staged fashion and there will be
oral presentations during this process.

Projects will be done in teams of two persons.

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 17

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 18

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Literature

Books
https://www.kth.se/social/course/II2202/page/literature-27/
Additional material
https://www.kth.se/social/course/II2202/page/additional-
reference-books-and-other-mat/
Project specific material
• You need to develop your skills in finding, evaluating,
and summarizing related work
• This includes finding the background material & tools
that you need (1) to understand and use in order to
carryout your project and (2) to support your data
collection, analysis, and presentation(s)

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 18

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 19

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Observe proper academic ethics and


properly cite your sources!
You will be searching & reading the literature in conjunction
with your projects. Please make sure that you properly
reference your sources in your report - keep in mind the
relevant KTH policies.
In particular:
• If you use someone else’s words - they must be clearly
indicated as a quotation (with a proper citation).
• Note that individual figures have their own copyrights, so if
you are going to use a figure/picture/… from a source, you
need to both cite this source & have the copyright
owner’s permission to use it.

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 19

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 20

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Ethics, Rights, and Responsibilities

At KTH there is a policy of zero tolerance for cheating,


plagiarism, etc. - for details see relevant KTH policies,
such as http://www.kth.se/student/studentratt or
https://www.kth.se/en/student/studentliv/studentratt/rattigheter-och-skyldigheter-1.307449

Before starting to write, read the page about cheating and


plagiarism at http://www.kth.se/en/student/studentliv/studentratt/fusk-och-plagiering-1.323885
See also the book: Jude Carroll and Carl-Mikael Zetterling,
Guiding students away from plagiarism [Carroll 2009]
http://people.kth.se/~ambe/KTH/Guidingstudents.pdf

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 20

[Carroll 2009] Jude Carroll and Carl-Mikael Zetterling, Guiding students away from
plagiarism/Hjälp studenterna att undvika plagiering. Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Learning
Lab, 2009 [Online]. Available: http://people.kth.se/~ambe/KTH/Guidingstudents.pdf

Gerald Q. Maguire Jr. All rights reserved


II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 21

Slide 21

Some of the ways to fail the course

• Choosing an inappropriate topic (for example, one which cannot be


carried out during the time period of the course); not collecting
sufficient data to achieve your desired confidence level
• Misconduct – including plagiarism
• Failing to present appropriate arguments in your report; not discussing
relevant related work; improper or incorrect analysis of your data; not
considering the social, ethical, and sustainability aspects of your topic;
failing to consider if your results are valid or not;
• Failure to submit material on time
• Failure to give useful feedback to others; failure to utilize the feedback
that you get
• …

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 21

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 22

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Research Methodology

What is research?
Why do we do research?
How do we do research?
What shall we research?
How can we be sure of what we know?
Where did we gain our knowledge?
Can we believe our knowledge?

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 22

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 23

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What/Why/How of research?

What is research?
Gathering of data, information, and facts for the
advancement of knowledge
Why do we do research?
Solve problems, prove new ideas, develop new theories,
to achieve knowledge, to establish new facts, establish
truth, refute falsehood, driven by curiosity
How do we do research?
Systematically collect and analyze data to increase our
understanding of the phenomenon we are studying
Conduct the research ethically

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 23

[Shuttleworth 2008] Martyn Shuttleworth, “Definition of Research”, 3 Oct 2008.


Definition of Research. Retrieved Jul 23, 2015 from Explorable.com:
https://explorable.com/definition-of-research

Gerald Q. Maguire Jr. All rights reserved


II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 24

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What shall we research?

Frequently the research is part of an assignment for a


course, degree program, or your job.

Research should have a worthwhile purpose, hence it


should have some benefit to society/research subjects,
and/or gain useful knowledge

There are also ethics issues with respect to doing or not


doing specific research.

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 24

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 25

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Högskolelagen (1992:1434)
Higher Education Act [Högskolelag]
“The Swedish Government has furthermore added an
important goal for higher education and research that may
influence choices of scientific perspectives and problems:
It shall support a sustainable development that creates a
good, healthy environment for this and future
generations, economical and social welfare and justice
(Högskolelagen - Higher Education Act).”
CODEX, Rules & guidelines for Research,
The humanities and social sciences
http://www.codex.vr.se/en/forskninghumsam.shtml
[Emphasis added to the quote above by GQMJr]

II2202 2015-08-30 25

[Högskolelag] Sveriges Riksdag, Högskolelag, vol. SFS 1992:1434. 1992 [Online].


Available: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-
Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Hogskolelag-19921434_sfs-1992-1434/

Gerald Q. Maguire Jr. All rights reserved


II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 26

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Researcher’s responsibilities

The researcher should:


• Contribute to the advancement of knowledge
(for example, the understanding of the phenomenon under
study) and
• Communicate that new knowledge/understanding to
others

These are in addition to the researcher’s other economic,


social, ethical, … responsibilities.

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 26

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 27

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Research Methods and Methodologies

1. Select the most suitable methods and methodologies


2. Correctly apply the/these method/s and methodologies

Avoid picking methods and methodologies that do not match


and/or complement each other

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 27

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 28

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Combining multiple methods

positivist deductive approach realism, abductive reasoning


Quantitative Qualitative

(3) time to (4) Interview to evaluate


provision VMs Cluster tool
(2) time to install
package 2 (1) time to install package 1
(5) Model assignments
(adapted from [Sällberg 2015] Figure 3.1, pg. 35)
Numbering indicates the order in which this method was
applied during the thesis project.

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 28

[Sällberg2015] Kristian Sällberg, ‘A Data Model Driven Approach to Managing Network


Functions Virtualization : Aiding Network Operators in Provisioning and Configuring
Network Functions’, Master’s thesis, KTH, School of Information and Communication
Technology (ICT), Stockholm, Sweden, 2015 [Online]. Available:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-171233

Gerald Q. Maguire Jr. All rights reserved


II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 29

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Methodology

“1: a body of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a


discipline: a particular procedure or set of procedures
2: the analysis of the principles or procedures of inquiry in
a particular field”
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/methodology

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 29

Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, ‘Methodology | Definition of methodology by Merriam-


Webster.’ [Online]. Available: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/methodology .
[Accessed: 08-Aug-2015]

Gerald Q. Maguire Jr. All rights reserved


II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 30

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Research Methodologies

Methodologies provide:
• Overarching theoretical and philosophical frameworks
which guide your research (theoretical perspective,
principles)
• Guidelines for solving your research problem, i.e., what
are the correct procedures to find solution(s)
Choice of methodologies concerns how we use logic,
establish reality, assign values, and what we consider
knowledge
Choice of research methodology/methodologies important at
the start of the research

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 30

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 31

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Research Methods

Methods are the tools, techniques, or processes used:


• Offer specific techniques to collect your data: survey,
interviews, case studies, observations, experiments, etc.
• Define the steps needed to conduct your research and to
find your solution
• Support your carrying out high quality, valid, and
trustworthy research

Our chosen research method(s) bring us to the end point of


our research.

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 31

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 32

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Quantitative and Qualitative research


methods
At different levels:
Research methods: experimental, conceptual, descriptive,
empirical, …
Research approaches: deductive, abductive, inductive
Research strategies & designs:
experimental, case study, survey, exploratory, ex post
facto, action research, grounded theory, …
Data collection methods: Experiments, questionnaires,
observations, interviews, language & text , …
Data analysis methods: statistics, computation, coding, …
Quality assurance: replicability, validity, reliability, …
Presentation: oral/written/video/… presentation of results and
conclusions
See [Håkansson 2013]

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 32

[Håkansson 2013] Anne Håkansson, ‘Portal of Research Methods and Methodologies


for Research Projects and Degree Projects’, in Proceedings of the International
Conference on Frontiers in Education : Computer Science and Computer Engineering
FECS’13, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, 2013, pp. 67–73 [Online]. Available:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-136960

Gerald Q. Maguire Jr. All rights reserved


II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 33

Slide 33

Trust but Verify!

• How can we be sure of what we know?


• Where did we gain our knowledge?
• Can we believe our knowledge?

You have to:


• Read critically and widely
• Examine the reliability and validity (integrity, authenticity,
credibility, and criticality) of results that are presented
• Actively question results – which may include repeating the
experiments yourself
• Examine the ethics of what you and others do
• Be self-critical, so that you do not mislead yourself or others!

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 33

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 34

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Why learn different research methods?

So that you can choose the appropriate method(s) for your


problem.

The choice of method is going to give you a direction and


systematic way of conducting your research.
It will also determine how you collect your data, analyze it,
and draw conclusions.

We will focus on two major classes of methods: Qualitative


and Quantitative methods

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 34

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 35

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Quantitative and Qualitative research


(in ICT)
Quantitative
• Measurements, numbers, data, statistics, … ⇒ models,
theories, verification/refutation of hypotheses
• logical, objective, and quantifiable procedures
Qualitative
• Observations, interviews, … ⇒ How does the user feel,
Which choices will they make, Explanations for actions,

• subjective, interpretative, and seeking meaning
Triangulation – combines both methods

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 35

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 36

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Equivalent courses

1. Applications regarding course equivalents have to be made


as per the KTH procedures – speak with your study adviser
and program coordinator.
2. Questions regarding credit for equivalent courses should be
addressed to the examiner for the course.

Students who do not have a precise equivalent of II2202 will


have the opportunity to be evaluated based upon their first draft
of a research proposal in the 3rd week of the course (the
proposal would be due on the 15th of September for students in
the course during Period 1).
https://www.kth.se/social/course/II2202/page/equivalent-courses/

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 36

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 37

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References

[Carroll 2009] Jude Carroll and Carl-Mikael Zetterling, Guiding students away from plagiarism/Hjälp
studenterna att undvika plagiering. Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Learning Lab, 2009 [Online].
Available: http://people.kth.se/~ambe/KTH/Guidingstudents.pdf
[Högskolelag] Sveriges Riksdag, Högskolelag, vol. SFS 1992:1434. 1992 [Online]. Available:
http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Hogskolelag-
19921434_sfs-1992-1434/
[Håkansson 2013] Anne Håkansson, ‘Portal of Research Methods and Methodologies for Research Projects
and Degree Projects’, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Frontiers in
Education : Computer Science and Computer Engineering FECS’13, Las Vegas, Nevada,
USA, 2013, pp. 67–73 [Online]. Available: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-
136960
[Stone 2014] Douglas Stone and Sheila Heen, Thanks for the feedback: the science and art of receiving
feedback well (even when it is off base, unfair, poorly delivered, and frankly, you’re not in the
mood). New York, New York: Viking, 2014. http://stoneandheen.com/
[Sällberg 2015] Kristian Sällberg, ‘A Data Model Driven Approach to Managing Network Functions
Virtualization : Aiding Network Operators in Provisioning and Configuring Network Functions’,
Master’s thesis, KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT),
Stockholm, Sweden, 2015 [Online]. Available:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-171233

Zotero group for the course: https://www.zotero.org/groups/kth-ii2202

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 37

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II2202, Fall 2015 II2202: Introduction 38

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¿Questions?

INTRODUCTION II2202, FALL 2015 SLIDE 38

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