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RESIDENTIAL BUILDING

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS REPORT


(Feburary, 2015)
Client Prepared by Submitted to
Laxmi Kesari Kutuwa Anil Kutuwo Bhaktapur Municipality
Kamalvinayak-1, Bhaktapur Checked by
Dibangar Khoteja

 
 
Structural Analysis and Design of Residential Building 
Laxmi Kesari Kutuwa 

TABLE OF CONTENT
TABLE OF CONTENT............................................................................................................ i 
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................. ii 
1.  INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 1 
2.  DESCRIPTION OF THE BUILDING ........................................................................... 2 
3.  MODELING, ANALYSIS AND DESIGN ..................................................................... 3 
I.  Modeling ........................................................................................................................................................... 3 
Dead Loads ........................................................................................................................................................ 3 
Live loads .......................................................................................................................................................... 4 
Seismic Loads ................................................................................................................................................... 4 
II. Analysis ............................................................................................................................................................. 5 
Load Cases ........................................................................................................................................................ 5 
Load Combination ............................................................................................................................................. 5 
III.  Design ....................................................................................................................................................... 7 
Sample slab design .......................................................................................................................................... 14 
Sample footing desing ..................................................................................................................................... 15 

4.  CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................... 18 


5.  ANNEXES ....................................................................................................................... 19 
ANNEX -1: REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................... 19 


 
Structural Analysis and Design of Residential Building 
Laxmi Kesari Kutuwa 

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Three-dimensional view of the building in STAAD.Pro ...................................................................... 3 
Figure 2: Bending Moment diagram at a section B-B (See Structural drawing) .................................................. 6 
Figure 3: Shear force diagram at a section B-B (See Structural drawing) ........................................................... 6 
Figure 4: Sample design column member .......................................................................................................... 8 
Figure 5: Sample design column showing design moments ............................................................................... 8 
Figure 6: Sample design column showing reinforcement in elevation ............................................................... 8 
Figure 7: Sample design column showing reinforcement arrangement with 8 number of 16 diameter bar ......... 8 
Figure 8: Sample design beam member ........................................................................................................... 10 
Figure 9: Sample design beam member showing design moment for envelope of load cases. .......................... 10 
Figure 10: Section view of the beam member showing anchor bar (Staad.Pro). ............................................... 11 
Figure 11: Plan view of the beam member showing anchor bar in (Staad.Pro). ................................................ 11 
Figure 12: Beam section at the end of the beam ............................................................................................... 11 
Figure 13: Beam section at the mid span of the beam ....................................................................................... 11 
Figure 14: Beam section at the end of the beam ............................................................................................... 11 

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Structural Analysis and Design of Residential Building 
Laxmi Kesari Kutuwa 

1. INTRODUCTION

To make a building structurally sound, it is very important that the structural designer is consulted before its
construction. The structural engineer, then works out the structural schemes and also gives the sizes of the
structural members like beam, column, slab, etc. A building needs to be designed for all loads acting on it. Detailed
structural designs are carried out and working drawings are to be prepared. Safety is the prime concern of the
structural design. Serviceability and economy are other basic requirements that need to be considered during
structural designing. The building should be designed not only for vertical loads but also for horizontal loads such
as wind and earthquake loads. The structural designer has to take care of the safety of the building against the
loads mentioned above. He is concerned in designing both superstructure and the substructure of the building. A
building must be strong enough to transfer all the loads acting on it safely to the ground. It should be able to
withstand all loads acting on it.

Nepal lies in an earthquake prone zone. It is located in the boundary between Indian plate and Tibetan plate. Thus,
Nepal experiences earthquakes frequently. Earthquakes are the most sudden, dramatic and devastating natural
disasters. Although they last only for few seconds to minutes, they are the most devastating ones. Past records of
the earthquake shows 18 major earthquakes have hit Nepal till now. So, designing of building against earthquake
forces apart from other forces is a must in case of Nepal.

Designing building against earthquake forces does not mean that we are making the building proof against it.
Although, we can design such robust structure, it would be too expensive to build. It would be far cheaper to
rebuild the building again instead of making it proof against earthquake. Hence, the buildings are made seismic
resistant rather than seismic proof. According to this philosophy, no matter how much severe earthquake occurs,
the building won’t collapse although it may be irreparably damaged. In, this background, it is ensured that this
building has been designed to withstand all the acting loads including the earthquake making it seismic resistant.

The structural design alone is not enough to ensure the safety of the building, equally important is its construction.
The role of the contractor is of paramount importance as he is the one to execute the construction work at the site.
He is required to execute the work according to the drawings supplied by the consultant to him and detailing has
to be carefully followed. A large percentage of failure of the building is attributed to poor quality of construction.
Past experiences from damages have shown that quality of material and workmanship plays an important role in
good seismic behavior of the buildings. Hence, quality assurance in construction is expected to gain good seismic
performance.


 
 
Structural Analysis and Design of Residential Building 
Laxmi Kesari Kutuwa 

2. DESCRIPTION OF THE BUILDING


General features:

Project: Residential Building


Location: Kamalvinayak-1, Bhaktapur
Plinth Area: 937.01 sq.ft
Floor Area: 749.29 sq.ft for other floors
Architectural features:

Type of Building: Residential Building


Number of Floors: 5 floors including the stair roof
Height of Storey: 9 ft
Total Height of the Building: 45 ft
Wall and Partition: Masonry Walls
Structural features:

Structural System: RCC Frame Structure


Foundation Type: Combined strap footing
Columns: Rectangular columns 350*350,300mm*300mm
Beams: Rectangular 230mm* 350mm, 230mm* 300mm
Slab: Two-way slab 125mm
Geotechnical Features:

Soil Type: Soft Soil


Seismic Zone: V (as per IS 1893:2002, part-1)
Allowable bearing capacity: 150 KN/m2
Material

Grade of concrete: M20


Grade of steel: Fe 500
Unit weight of concrete: 25 kN/m3
Unit weight of the brick masonry wall: 23 kN/ m3
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity: 5000 √fck
Poisson’s Ratio: 0.20 for concrete and 0.3 for rebar


 
 
Structural Analysis and Design of Residential Building 
Laxmi Kesari Kutuwa 

3. MODELING, ANALYSIS AND DESIGN


I. Modeling
Since this is Special Moment Resisting Frame structure, main components to be modeled are:
Beams, Columns & Slabs. The analysis software used for modeling the structure is the STAAD.Pro
V8i SELECT SERIES 5 20.07.10.65. The model map of the building is as shown in the figure.

Figure 1: Three-dimensional view of the building in STAAD.Pro

Dead Loads
Dead loads are assumed to be produced by slab, beams, columns, walls, parapet walls, staircase, plasters and
mortars, Floor finish and water tank. The weight of building materials are taken as per IS 875(Part 1)-1987).

Specific weight of materials [Ref: IS: 875(Part 1)-1987)]

Materials Unit weight(γ)


Reinforced Concrete 25.00 KN/m³
Brick Masonry 23 KN/m³
Floor Finishing (Screeding & punning) 23.00 KN/m³
Cement Sand Plaster 20.40 KN/m³


 
 
Structural Analysis and Design of Residential Building 
Laxmi Kesari Kutuwa 

Live loads
First floor 5.0 KN/m2
Second floor room 3.0 KN/m2
Remaining floor 2.0 KN/m2
Staircase 3.0 KN/m2

Seismic Loads
Design Base Shear VB = Ah *W [7.5.3, IS: 1893 (part 1)-2002]

Where,

Ah = Design horizontal seismic coefficient as per 6.4.2 IS: 1893 (part 1)-2002]

= Z I Sa / (2 R g ) = 0.09

Z= Zone Factor = 0.36 for seismic zone V

I = Importance Factor = 1

R= Response Reduction Factor = 5 for SMRF

Sa/g= Average Response acceleration coefficient on the basis of time period,


T of the structure [Fig.2 IS: 1893 (part 1)-2002]

T. = 0.075 h^0.75 [IS: 1893 (part1)-2002]. For moment resisting frame without brick
infill panel = 0.534 seconds

h= Height of building (m) above ground level [IS: 1893 (part1) 2002]

W = Seismic Weight of Building, that includes total Dead load plus appropriate
amount of live load. [7.4, IS: 1893 (part1)-2002].

 Percentage of live load to be taken for calculating seismic weight =25% for
live load intensity upto and including 3.0 KN/m2 and 50% for live load
intensity above 3.0 KN/m2.[Table 8, IS: 1893 (part1)-2002].

 The live load on roof need not be considered for calculating the seismic
weight of the building. [7.3.2 IS: 1893 (part1)-2002].

For the purpose of analysis, seismic forces are applied in the model of the building in STAAD.Pro. Hence, the
manual calculations of seismic weight, base shear and the seismic forces have not been shown. However, the
STAAD.Pro output for the Seismic Weight, Base Shear and Seismic Forces in each storey diaphragm are as
shown in the figures.

Result of STAAD.Pro are as follow:

1. Total dead load:4114.75 kN


2. Total Live load:930.67 kN
3. Sesmic weight: 4390.17 kN
4. Earthquake loads:
a. Eqx: 395.11
b. Eqz: 395.11
5. Earth quake load at different level


 
 
Structural Analysis and Design of Residential Building 
Laxmi Kesari Kutuwa 

Earthquake force at different level


Load path Floor height Fx (KN) Fz (KN)
Eqx 13.7 121.66 0
Eqx 10.96 132.36 0
Eqx 8.22 79.10 0
Eqx 5.48 36.54 0
Eqx 2.74 13.27 0
Eqx 0 0 0
Eqz 13.7 0 121.66
Eqz 10.96 0 132.36
Eqz 8.22 0 79.10
Eqz 5.48 0 36.54
Eqz 2.74 0 13.27
Eqz 0 0 0

II. Analysis
The loads calculated are applied in the modeled building. Besides from the dead and live loads, the probable
seismic loads are also taken care of as Nepal is categorized amongst seismically active zones. Moreover the
residential building itself carries high importance and the seismic force consideration is of upmost priority. The
residential building is 5 storied and the static analysis is enough to ensure its safety against earthquake but the
dynamic analysis is also carried out and checked in some respect considering the maximum safety requirement in
this type of building. Through consideration is given in analysis and design of the building following standard
theories of structures and relevant codes of practice.

A three dimensional linear static analysis has been carried out using the standard software STAAD.Pro. The
Structure is assumed to be fixed at the Plinth level. The brick wall is considered as the filler wall only. The beams
are modeled as rectangular beams. The flange effect of the beams has been neglected. Center to center dimension
of the structure has been considered in the analysis. The rigid end effect has also been considered in the analysis.

Following load cases and combinations were used for the analysis of the structural components of the building.

Load Cases
Following loads have been considered in the analysis of the building as per IS 456-2000 and IS1893-
2002.

1. Dead Load (DL)


2. Live load (LL)
3. Earthquake load in +ve X-direction (EQPX)
4. Earthquake load in –ve X-direction (EQNX)
5. Earthquake load in +ve Y-direction (EQPY)
6. Earthquake load in –ve Y-direction (EQNY)

Load Combination
Following load combinations have been adopted as per IS 1893:2002.

1.5(DL+IL)
1.2(DL+IL±EL)


 
 
Structural Analysis and Design of Residential Building 
Laxmi Kesari Kutuwa 

1.5(DL±EL)
0.9DL±1.5EL Where, DL= Dead load
IL = Imposed (Live load)
EL = Earthquake load (Along X and Y- direction)
Analysis of moments and shear forces
The moments and shear forces of the buildings were analyzed using the STAAD.Pro. In a building with staircase
the most critical sections are found to lie around the stair components. The moment diagrams and shear force
diagram samples of the sections around these critical components, as extracted from STAAD.Pro are as follows:

Figure 2: Bending Moment diagram at a section B-B (See Structural drawing)

Figure 3: Shear force diagram at a section B-B (See Structural drawing)



 
 
Structural Analysis and Design of Residential Building 
Laxmi Kesari Kutuwa 

Drift calculation

Drift calculation
Floor level deflection Storey drift Storey height Drift ratio
U1(m) U2(m) D1(m) D2(m) (m) DR1 DR2
Fifth 0.0247 0.0284
Fourth 0.0205 0.0240 0.0042 0.0043 2.74 0.0015 0.0016
Third 0.0150 0.0171 0.0054 0.0069 2.74 0.0020 0.0025
Second 0.0093 0.0101 0.0057 0.0070 2.74 0.0021 0.0025
First 0.0040 0.0038 0.0053 0.0064 2.74 0.0019 0.0023
Ground 0.0000 0.0000 0.0040 0.0038 2.74 0.0015 0.0014
The drift ratios are below the limited value 0.004 i.e. storey drifts are within 0.4% of the storey height for
earthquake in both directions, hence the structure is within the safe limits.
The analysis of the critical section has been followed by the calculation of the reinforcement required to withstand
the stresses developed.

III. Design
The design of the members has been done as per philosophy of limit state method. For the design of the members
IS 456:2000 and design aid SP 16 has been used extensively.

Footings have been checked for vertical loads and moments developed at the base due to dead load and live load
only. Square footings have been adopted from seismic point of view that reversal stress may occur. And footing
beams are provided for column at foundation for more rigidity of building and also need for the column located
at boundary. Longitudinal reinforcement in columns has been calculated based on critical load combination among
the above mentioned load combinations. A symmetric arrangement of the reinforcement has been adopted from
seismic point of view that reversal stress may occur. Longitudinal reinforcement in beams is also based on critical
load combination. It is calculated from the envelope of bending moment diagram. Spacing of the shear
reinforcement has been calculated as per the ductility criteria as defined in IS 13920 -1993.

Output for sample of critical column and beam after STAAD.Pro analysis are presented below:


 
 
Structural Analysis and Design of Residential Building 
Laxmi Kesari Kutuwa 
M z(kNm )
15
100 50 -50 -100

2.74 -24

72.2

100 50 -50 -100


1

Figure 4: Sample design column member Figure 5: Sample design column showing
design moments

Figure 6: Sample design column showing Figure 7: Sample design column showing
reinforcement in elevation reinforcement arrangement with 8
number of 16 diameter bar


 
 
Structural Analysis and Design of Residential Building 
Laxmi Kesari Kutuwa 

Sample calculation of column from Staad.Pro is depicted below.


 
 
Structural Analysis and Design of Residential Building 
Laxmi Kesari Kutuwa 

Y
X
Z

Figure 8: Sample design beam member


M z(kNm )
150 150
95.4 94.1
100 100
50 50
29 30
1 2 2.83
-50 -50
-100 -69.9 -77.7 -100

-150 -150

Figure 9: Sample design beam member showing design moment for envelope of load cases.

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Structural Analysis and Design of Residential Building 
Laxmi Kesari Kutuwa 

Figure 10: Section view of the beam member showing anchor bar (Staad.Pro).

Figure 11: Plan view of the beam member showing anchor bar in (Staad.Pro).

Figure 12: Beam section at the Figure 13: Beam section at the Figure 14: Beam section at the
end of the beam mid span of the beam end of the beam

Sample calculation of beam from Staad.Pro is depicted below.

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Structural Analysis and Design of Residential Building 
Laxmi Kesari Kutuwa 

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Structural Analysis and Design of Residential Building 
Laxmi Kesari Kutuwa 

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Structural Analysis and Design of Residential Building 
Laxmi Kesari Kutuwa 

Sample slab design

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Structural Analysis and Design of Residential Building 
Laxmi Kesari Kutuwa 

Sample footing desing

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Structural Analysis and Design of Residential Building 
Laxmi Kesari Kutuwa 

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Structural Analysis and Design of Residential Building 
Laxmi Kesari Kutuwa 

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Structural Analysis and Design of Residential Building 
Laxmi Kesari Kutuwa 

4. CONCLUSION

After the analysis of the building components, the building is found to be safe against the loads considered above.
The Axial force, moment, Shear force and torsional forces are checked at different sections of the beams and
columns using STAAD.Pro. All the sections are found to be stressed within the permissible limits due to axial,
shear, flexural and torsional forces produced due to above forces. The slab and foundations were checked
manually. The depth of slab which is safe against the deflection and shear and the reinforcement provided are
sufficient to counter the flexural forces as well. The foundation was checked against one way shear, two way shear
and bending moments. The footings provided as per the drawing are safe and the reinforcement provided is
sufficient. The structural safety would further depend upon the effectiveness of construction procedures as well
as collapse and serviceability criteria followed during the construction phases.
To make the Building earthquake resistant, the building is designed following the Indian standard codes. Column
design is verified so that Moment capacity of the columns remains higher than the adjacent beams. Therefore, the
design philosophy adopted is Strong column and weak beam. Shear stirrups is sufficiently provided so that none
of the elements are Vulnerable to shear failure and failure mode will be flexural, which is more ductile. Bearing
capacity of the soil is used as 150 KN/m2 moist clay and sand clay mixture which can be indented with strong
thumb pressure. Combined strap footings provided as shown in the drawings are sufficient to bear the building
loads prevent any possible settlement. Durable M20 concrete has been used in the foundation which is in contact
with the soil. And M20 is also used for column, Beams and slabs. Ductile detailing has been extensively adopted
while detailing.

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Structural Analysis and Design of Residential Building 
Laxmi Kesari Kutuwa 

5. ANNEXES

ANNEX -1: REFERENCES

IS: 456 – 2000 Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete
IS: 875 (Parts 1-5) Code of practice for design loads (other than earthquake) for buildings and structures
(second revision)
Part 1 – Dead loads
Part 2 – Imposed loads
NBC 105: 1994 Seismic Design of Buildings in Nepal
IS: 1893 – 2002 Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures
IS: 13920 - 1993 Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures subjected to Seismic forces - Code of
Practice
SP: 16 – 1980 Design Aids for Reinforced Concrete to IS: 456 – 1978
SP: 34 – 1987 Handbook on Concrete Reinforcement Detailing
Jain, A.K. Reinforced Concrete, Limit State Design, fifth edition, Nem Chand and Bros, Rookie,
1999
W.H.Mosley, Reinforced Concrete Design, fifth edition.
J.H.Bunggey &
R. Hulse
Joseph E . Bowles Foundation Analysis and Design
Brian W. Boughton Reinforced Concrete Detailer’s Manual, Third Edition
The Institute of Standard Method of Detailing Structural Concrete, A manual for best practice, Third
Structural Engineers edition
M. G. Shah & C.M. Kale RCC Theory and Design (Revised Edition)

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