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Training Objectives

1. Define environmental protection, climate change, and solid waste management.

2. Discuss the causes and impacts of climate change.
3. Identify the different medium of solid waste management.
4. Develop and implement an action plan addressing environmental protection,
climate change, and solid waste management.

Twelve (12) Hours

Relevance to the Society/ Oneself

Watch BBC: Planet Earth. This is a documentary film that advocates protecting the
mother earth. After watching this documentary, go to your respective groups and answer the
following questions:

1. What does the documentary promote?


2. Enumerate specific details that justify your answer in item number one?

3. Based on the documentary, how important are the water, air, and land to human

4. What is your realization after having watched the documentary? Now, what is the
status of the earth’s ecology? Why do we need to preserve our environment?

Processing Feedback

Environment is part of us. It is a part of the legacy that each Filipino living today could
proudly leave to the future generation. Unfortunately, environmental degradation in the
Philippines has ballooned into a major social concern. This is the Country’s deteriorating
environmental condition due to exploitation. Air and water are polluted. Forests are denuded by
legal and illegal logging activities causing so much soil erosion that eventually results in the
silting of rivers and oceans. Coral reefs are destroyed gravely affecting marine resources.
And the worst case scenario is the aggressive move towards development in many areas where
natural resources still abound.
Another sad reality is that majority of the Filipinos, including the youth, are still apathetic
about the growing environmental concern, with environment protection and management
remaining a misunderstood term. The government primarily gets the blame for the destruction
and mismanagement of our natural resources when it is every Filipino’s charge to take care of
the place we live in.

Philippines is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate-related disasters because
of its location, geographical circumstances, and socio-economic conditions. Therefore, great
imperative should be given to disseminate information and to educate the people about the
ramifications of environmental issues especially about biodiversity conservation and climate

With this goal of disseminating information and educating people about environment
concerns, CHED issued Memorandum Order No. 33 Series of 2009 which mandates the
integration of Environmental Education in the Tertiary Education Curriculum particularly the Civic
Welfare Training Service component in the National Service Training Program.

The Philippine Government aims to increase people’s knowledge and awareness of the
environment and associated challenges, to develop the necessary skills and expertise to
address the challenges, and to foster attitudes, motivations and commitments to take
responsible actions.

Moreover, the Government is protecting its environment through its enabling laws. The
following are the environmental laws existing in the Philippines.

Republic Act No. 9152 - An act to promote environmental awareness through

environmental education and for other purposes. This Act is known as the
“National Environmental Awareness and Education Act of 2008.”

Sec. 2 Declaration of Policy -- Consistent with the policy of the

State to protect and advance the right of the people to a
balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and
harmony of nature, and in recognition of the vital role of the youth
in nation-building and the role of education to foster patriotism
and nationalism, accelerate social progress, and promote total
human liberation and development, the state shall promote
national awareness on the role of natural resources in economic
growth and the importance of environmental conservation and
ecological balance towards sustained national development.

Republic Act 9003: January 26, 2001 -- This is an act providing for an
ecological solid waste management program, creating the necessary institutional
mechanisms and incentives, declaring certain acts prohibited and providing
penalties, appropriating funds thereof and for other purposes.
Republic Act No. 9275: March 22, 2004 – An act providing for a comprehensive
water quality management and for other purposes.

SECTION 2. Declaration of Policy – The State shall pursue a

policy of economic growth in a manner consistent with the
protection, preservation and revival of the quality of our fresh,
brackish and marine waters.

Republic Act 8749: June 23, 1999, “Philippines Clean Air Act of 1999” - An
act providing for a comprehensive air pollution control policy and for other

Republic Act No. 9147 – An act providing for the conservation and protection of
wildlife resources and their habitats, appropriating funds therefor and for other

Republic Act No. 9175 – An act regulating the ownership, possession, sale,
importation and use of chainsaws, penalizing violations thereof and for other

This module will concentrate only on the two most pressing environmental concerns
which are solid waste managment and climate change.

Solid waste management is one of the various ecological challenges in the

Philippines. It is how the people control and solve challenges concerning solid wastes. There
have been several ordinances from different barangays, municipalities, cities, and provinces
that aim to address this matter. Efforts of the Local Government Units (LGUs) in the Philippines
are overwhelming but it must be a joint effort of the LGUs and its community that can actually
make it work.

Studies made by the National Solid Waste Management Commission Secretariat

estimated that the per capita waste production daily is 0.5 kg. This means that every person
living in the metropolis generates half a kilo of solid waste a day. With an estimated population
of 10.5 million, total waste generated in Metro Manila alone could run up to 5,250 metric tons
per day or 162, 750 metric tons per month; or, 1.95 million metric tons per year. Definitely, a lot
of waste to speak of.

Of the 5, 250 metric tons of waste generated daily, only about 73% is collected by dump
trucks hired by our respective local government units (this is with the premise that our LGUs are
faithful to their duties.) The remaining 27% of our daily waste or about 1, 417.5 metric tons end
up in canals, vacant spaces, street corners, market places, rivers, and places where, ironically,
there’s a sign that reads “bawal magtapon ng basura dito.”

We have an “out of sight, out of mind” attitude towards garbage disposal. The system of
garbage disposal can be described simply as: tapon (by the individual, household); hakot (by
government trucks and/or private contractors); tambak (in open dumpsites); kalat (due to
improper manner of disposal, retrieval, inadequate collection and over-congestion in
dumpsites); sunog (to burn the pile of uncollected garbage). The cycle is unending.

As part of the problem, we should break the cycle and take the initiative to be part of the
solution. The tragedy that has befallen the residents of Payatas dump site in Quezon City, when
its mountain of garbage toppled down burying many shanties as well as garbage-pickers,
should strengthen our desire to do something about our wasteful lifestyles.
Schools are cradles of values formation and students form the majority of is community.
When we educate students on the rationale, theories, and practice of solid waste management,
we form a strong alliance with future leaders who would largely affect the future stewardship of
our environment.

Paradigm Shift


Old Paradigm
Source: Solid Waste Management Bureau Module for School. Quezon City: Miriam
New Paradigm
College-Environmental Studies Institute and Environment Management Bureau-DENR,
Above are the diagrams that show the transition of paradigm from conventional
perspective to alternative or new perspective. Conventional perspective shows the solid
management starts from raw materials and ends with the dumpsite. On the other hand,
alternative or new perspective explains that raw materials may be recycled or re-used.

The Passage of RA 9003 also known as the Solid Waste Management Act mandates
segregation of waste, segregated collection, use of Materials Recovery Facility (MRF), and
composting encourages patronage of environment-friendly products and packaging, penalizes
violation in all levels.

How do you dispose wastes? Proper garbage disposal is significant in the environment
to help avoid environmental challenges and its effects. This would also address our problems on
waste management, particularly solid wastes.

The following are the steps on proper waste disposal. Complying with these steps,
individuals can help the government in enacting the enabling laws. This will largely aid the
resolution of ecological problems and contribute to environment-conservation.

I. Segregating

It is the process of separating biodegradable and non-biodegradable


Below is table that shows classification of wastes present in the

Country. Generally, wastes can be classified as biodegradable and non-

Biodegradable is a type of waste which can be broken down in a

reasonable amount of time, into its base compounds by micro-organisms
and other living things regardless of what those compounds may be.

On the other hand, non-biodegradable refers to materials that do

not break down naturally or take an inordinate amount of time to do so.
When thrown away, these materials cannot be dissolved by the bacteria,
fungi and living organisms in the air, moisture climate in the soil.

Hence, biodegradable materials decompose naturally unlike non-

biodegradable. From these classifications, sub-groupings could be made
depending on the kind and bulk of waste an establishment produces.
Classifying our wastes will help us dispose garbage properly.

Non - Biodegradable

Recyclable Residual Hazardous

food waste white paper (bond Styrofoam (styro busted lamps

yard waste paper, notebook cups, electronic batteries
wet tissue sheets) fillers) CDs
wet paper card board/ carton plastic spray canisters
(corrugated boxes, composite and paint cans
folders) wrappers (candy
newspaper/ and junk food
magazines (tin wrappers,
cans, aluminum shrinking straws,
cans, aluminum paper plate with
foils, wires) foil)
glass (bottles, disposable
broken ceramics) utensils (single
PET bottles use plastic
(drinking water spoons, fork,
bottles) disposable cups)
others: clothes,
shoes, slippers,

II. Composting

It is the process
where biodegradable
waste is placed in a certain
tank or a hole for a certain
time to let it decompose
with the help of
decomposers like yeasts,

worms, and molds. After the decomposition, the decomposed waste can now be
used as a fertilizer for plants.

Here are the steps in composting.

1. Chop biodegradable wastes into finer portions. The smaller the size of organic wastes,
the faster the compost will be ready for use.

2. Mix up the biodegradable wastes and place them into the composters. Do not burn on
top of the piles or composters because the heat will kill the biological “decomposers”,
thus, delaying the composting process.

3. Sprinkle a small amount of water. Moisture is essential for microbial activity. Protect the
composters from accumulating too much liquid to avoid leaching (garbage juice).

4. Sprinkle or layer with soil so as not to invite flies and to control odors. Place the soil in
between the layers of the mixture.
5. Aerate the pile. Turn it once or twice a month to provide the necessary oxygen to hasten
the composting process.
6. When the interior of the pile is no longer hot and the material has broken down into a
dark and dry soil, the composting is finished.

Types of Small Scale Composters are:

1. Twin Pits

Dig into (1m x 1m x 1m) one-half

meter apart. Put small twigs at the bottom
and place a hollow tube for air inlet.
Follow the rules for composting, using the
pits by turns. For an average household, it
might take a month to fill each pit, thus
allowing sufficient time for the materials to
decompose or mature into soil conditioners.

2. Tower Tires

Make two piles of old car

tires directly on the ground
and use them as containers
for composting. To aerate, just insert anything in between the tires. If placed
directly on cemented ground, line the bottom with soil.

3. Bottomless Composters

Old drums, cans, plastic water containers with the bottoms off, even an old jute
or rice sack with bottom seam ripped off and supported by 3 pegs or cheap posts.

4. Clay Flower Pots Compost

Have ten flower pots.

Use flower pots by turns.
By the time the tenth pot
is full, in about a month’s
time, empty contents of
the first pot and use as
soil conditioner for
plants/trees/lawn. Pots
may be stacked one on top of another but keep contents moist.

5. Plastic Bag Composters

Line plastic bags with

soil, place chopped
biodegradable top with
soil/leaves, moisten, then
stack them on top of one
another while awaiting
collection. In few weeks
time, these become clean, safe,
odorless compost, very good for plants.

6. Compost Bins

These may be
constructed from
chicken wire or any

durable “basket” material for small-scale composting. They are designed to
adequately accommodate the necessary materials or ingredients and to allow
access of air.

III. Recycling

It is the most useful and helpful way of waste management. Non-

biodegradable waste can be recycled by creating helpful and useful things out of
it like the plastic bottles can be made as house decorations while used
magazines can be made into beautiful pillows. Recycling can also be a source of
income in the community, can really reduce pollution, save natural resources,
and conserve energy in the households.

Since you have learned proper waste disposal, you can now reap its benefits. Your
simple acts can make a big difference. You are not just helping your household but the nation in

Below is the list of benefits of proper waste disposal.

1. Sense of Peace. A litter-free surroundings contributes to emotional and physical sense

of peace.

2. Protection of Human Health. By getting rid of the garbage that breeds flies, roaches,
rodents and harmful bacteria that can spread disease, we are protecting human health.
The conventional way of burning garbage is not encouraged because burning causes air
pollution and is a threat to human health. Chlorine-containing material like plastics can
produce the toxic compounds dioxin and furans. It has been found that even some
garden wastes can produce these chemicals when burned. This is the reason
incinerators were banned in the Clean Air Act. Burning of carbon-based materials
produces carbon monoxide which is hazardous to human health and carbon dioxide
aggravates GHG resulting to global warming.

3. Alleviation of the dumpsite crisis in the highly urbanized areas and to prevent such in the
4. Slow down of depletion of the Earth’s resources. When we recycle glass, we lessen the
pressure on our beaches from which silica is coming from. Silica is the essential
component in producing glass of any kind. When we recycle metals like aluminum, tin
and iron, we help lessen mining which brings about a host of problems like deforestation,
soil erosion, siltation, toxic chemicals etc. When we recycle plastic, we conserve
petroleum, which is the main component in producing supplies made of plastic. When
we recycle paper, we conserve trees. When we compost, organic matter and minerals
are returned to the soils and enrich it, minimizing the need for artificial fertilizer.

5. Additional income. Recycling and composting can be a good business having zero
capital. But, it takes a high level of perseverance and effort.

Another environmental concern is climate. It is defined as a change of climate which is

attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global
atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability over comparable time periods.

Source: http://www.ecy.wa.gov/climatechange/images/greenhouse_effect2.jpg

Below are the frequently asked questions and the corresponding answers about Climate

1. What is the cause of Climate Change?

Climate change is primarily caused by the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the

atmosphere, trapping heat of the sun commonly known as the greenhouse effect.

The “Greenhouse Effect” is the warming that happens when certain gases in Earth’s
atmosphere trap heat. These gases heat from escaping, like the glass walls of a
greenhouse that is why it is called greenhouse effect.

First, sunlight shines onto the Earth’s surface, where it is absorbed and then radiates
back into the atmosphere as heat. In the atmosphere, “greenhouse” gases trap some of
this heat and the rest escapes into space. The more greenhouse gases are in the
atmosphere, the more heat gets trapped.

2. What are the impacts of Climate Change?

Climate Change has impacts to a diverse range of sectors such as the following:

 Agriculture -- Too much or too little rain can lead to decrease in crop yield that
can affect food supply.

 Health -- Increase in the number of cases of vector-borne diseases.

 Biodiversity -- Certain species might not survive in areas where temperature is

changing. This would lead to the change in the
composition of species of a certain ecosystem.

 Coastal -- Sea level rise would affect communities and business situated in
coastal areas.

3. What are some strategies that may address the impacts of climate change?

Addressing climate change requires adaptation and mitigation strategies. Adaptation

refers to the adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected
climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial
opportunities. On the other hand, mitigation in the context of climate change pertains to
human intervention that address anthropogenic or human-induced emissions by

sources and removal of all greenhouse gases, including ozone-depleting substances
such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide.

4. What is the international community doing to solve climate change?

Responding to the call for action, the international community crafted and signed the
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which seeks to stabilize
greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent
dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Such a level should be
achieved within a time frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate
change, to ensure that food production is not threatened, and to enable economic
development to proceed in a sustainable manner.

5. What is the Government doing to help solve climate change?

The Philippine government created the Climate Change Commission through Republic
Act 9729 otherwise known as the Climate Change Act of 2009.

Climate Change Commission is the sole policy-making body of the government tasked to
coordinate, monitor, and evaluate action plans of the government related to climate
change. The Commission is also tasked to formulate the National Framework Strategy
on Climate Change and the National Climate Change Action Plan. The National
Framework Strategy on Climate Change is a technical document which is the basis to
protect vulnerable communities from the adverse effects of climate change.

In line with the Commission’s vision of having a climate risk-resilient and adaptive
Philippines, the Country’s roadmap also known as National Climate Change Action Plan was
formulated after multi-sectoral consultations and workshop. It identifies specific plan of actions
to be implemented nationwide through other national government agencies.

The Commission also established the Climate Finance Group to efficiently manage
foreign funding for for Climate Change programs.

However, this problem on climate change cannot be solved by a one man team. Thus,
every Filipino must contribute to decipher this great environmental challenge.

Filipinos, as responsible citizens or stewards, can help reduce Green House Gases
(GHG) emissions which greatly cause climate change. Here are some of the ways:

Lights. Change your incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent bulbs. Turn
off lights when not in use. Whenever possible, bring natural sunlight into your home.

Vehicles. Those who have vehicles should have them

regularly serviced for efficient engine performance. For
short distances, you can just walk or use the bicycle.

Refrigerators. Regularly clean your refrigerator. Don’t set the

thermostat higher than what is necessary.

Energy Guzzlers. Minimize or avoid the use of

home appliances that eat up too much energy.
Some of these are water heaters, washing
machines, dryers, dishwashers, and industrial fans.

Use Renewable Energy Sources. If you have the

means, have solar panels installed in your home to
provide some of your electricity needs. Use electricity
coming from renewable sources such as wind,
geothermal or hydro, if available in your place.

Patronize Recycled Products. Buy recycled

products and actively help create a market for
them. Before you buy an item, check if the
product or its packaging is recyclable.

Reduce Consumption. Buy less, use less and re-use as

much as possible.

After the discussion, answer the following questions. Write your answers on the spaces
below each item.

1. What is solid waste management?


2. What is climate change?

3. What are the legal bases in the Philippines concerning environmental protection?

4. What are the types of small scale composting?


5. Illustrate and discuss the paradigm shift of solid waste management?


6. As a member of your community, what could your contribution be in protecting and
conserving the environment?


Class Dynamics

Form a group with five members. Identify some environmental problems you have
encountered or observed in your community and make an action plan that will address the
problems. Consider the things you have learned in this module in developing your action plan.
Below is template that will aid you in developing an action plan.

Problems Activities Strategies Key Player/s Time Frame Measure and
Expected Outcpmes


Restate our objectives and discuss whether the goals are achieved.




All Questions All and nearly all Nearly all Almost all
leading to the Questions questions leading questions leading
relevance to the leading to the to the relevance to to the relevance to
society or relevance to the the society or the society or
oneself were society or oneself were oneself were not
Relevance to answered oneself were answered. answered.
the Society clearly; all are answered Acceptable
or Oneself justifiable. clearly; some grammatical and
Grammar and were justifiable. mechanical errors.
mechanics were Grammar and
observed mechanics found
properly. to have minimal
All Questions All and nearly all Nearly all were Almost all
were answered were answered answered. questions were not
clearly; all are clearly; some Acceptable answered.
justifiable/ were justifiable/ grammatical and
correct. correct. mechanical errors.
Grammar and Grammar and
mechanics were mechanics found
observed to have minimal
properly. errors.
The action plan The action plan The action plan The action plan
exemplified the exemplified the exemplified the was filled out
authentic authentic authentic solutions inappropriately.
solutions to the solutions to the to the problems.
problems. Each problems. Majority of area
area was filled Majority of area was filled out
out was filled out appropriately.
appropriately. It appropriately. It
is creative and is creative and
innovative; innovative;
realistic and realistic and
specific. specific.

All questions All and nearly all Nearly all Almost all
were answered questions were questions questions leading
clearly; all are answered; some were answered. to the relevance to
justifiable. justifiable. Acceptable the society or
Grammar and Grammar and grammatical and oneself were not
mechanics were mechanics found mechanical answered.
observed to have minimal errors.
properly. errors.
Overall Score
Adapted from Rosales, Ma. Junithesmer D. and Milagrina A. Gomez. Field Study 1 Manual: The
Learner’s Development and Environment. Philippines: Allen Adrian Books, 2011.

Works Cited

Rosales, Ma. Junithesmer D. and Milagrina A. Gomez. Field Study 1 Manual: The Learner’s
Development and Environment. Philippines: Allen Adrian Books, 2011.

Solid Waste Management Bureau Module for School. Quezon City: Miriam College-
Environmental Studies Institute and Environment Management Bureau-DENR, 2005.


1600 /palawan.jpg

Greenhouse Effect. http://www.ecy.wa.gov/climatechange/images/greenhouse_effect2.jpg


Guzman, Ruth Sarra. “Mainstreaming Biodiversity Conservation and Climate Change in the
NSTP-CWTS in the Tertiary Education.”Rizal Technological University. Mandaluyong

Basics of Climate Change. Philippines