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1.

TITLE
Hydrogen and Oxygen

2. DATE OF EXPERIMENT
Wednesday, November 19th 2014

3. EXPERIMENT DONE
Wednesday, November 19th 2014

4. PURPOSE
a) Knowing Hydrogen Gas Production Method
b) Knowing the nature - Hydrogen Gas Properties
c) Identifying Gas Hydrogen and its compounds
d) Mengethaui Oxygen Gas Production Method in the Laboratory
e) Knowing the existence of Oxygen Gas In A Compound

5. BASIC THEORY
I. HYDROGEN
Hydrogen (Latin: hydrogenium, from Greek: hydor: water, genes:
forming) is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol H and
atomic number 1. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a
colorless, odorless, non- metal, single-valent, and is a diatomic gas that is
highly flammable. With the atomic mass 1.00794 amu, hydrogen is the lightest
element in the world.
Hydrogen gas is highly flammable and will burn at concentrations as
low as 4% H2 in air. The enthalpy of combustion for hydrogen is -286 kJ /
mol. Hydrogen burning according to the chemical equation:

2 H2(g) + O2(g) → 2 H2O(l) + 572 kJ (286 kJ/mol)


When mixed with oxygen in various proportions, hydrogen explodes
when ignited by the fire and will explode himself at a temperature of 560 ° C.
Result of burning flames of pure hydrogen-oxygen emit ultraviolet and barely
visible to the naked eye.
Hydrogen in the natural gas found in two forms, namely molecular
ortho and para hydrogen, both molecular forms differ in terms of the relative
spin of electrons and the nucleus. In ortohidrogen two proton spin is parallel to
form a state olekular called "triplet with spin quantum number 1 (1/2+1/2), on
the parahydrogen protonya spin antiparallel to form a state of" singlet "and its
spin quantum number 0 (1/2-1/2). At STP (Standard Temperature Pressure)
hydrogen gas composed of 25% and 75% form the ortho form. Bentu ortho
can not be purified, due to differences in the two forms of hydrogen are the
physical properties of the two are different.
Hydrogen has the atomic number and mass number 1,008. With atomic
number is the electron configuration 1s1 Hydrogen has and the number of
electrons in the shell 1. The hydrogen atom is placed at the top along with
class 1A, but keep in mind that hydrogen is not a member of class 1A and
hydrogen is not a member of any group in the periodic table. Hydrogen is
placed in the first period along with helium, and hydrogen are on the block of
the periodic system is the block s.
HISTORY
Hydrogen comes from the Greek hydro = water, and genesis =
formation. Hydrogen has been used for many years before finally expressed as
a unique element by Cavendish in 1776. Named hydrogen by Lavoisier,
hydrogen is the element that most of all the elements in the universe. Heavy
elements were originally formed from hydrogen atoms or of elements
originally made from hydrogen atoms.
RESOURCE
Hydrogen is expected to form a composition of more than 90% of the
atoms in the universe (equal to three quarters of the universe). This element is
found in the stars and play an important role in providing the energy source of
the universe through the proton-proton reaction and carbon-nitrogen cycle.
The process of fusion of hydrogen atoms into helium in the sun produces an
enormous amount of energy.
Hydrogen can be prepared in many ways:
• Steam from the heated carbon element
• Decomposition of hydrocarbons with some kind of heat energy
• Reactions of sodium or potassium hydroxide on aluminum
• Electrolysis of water
• Shifting acids by certain metals
In 1973, there were some Russian scientists who experimented produce
metallic hydrogen at a pressure of 2.8 MegaBar. At the transition point, its
density changed from 1:08 to 1.3 g / cm3. One year earlier in Livermore,
California, a group of scientists also reported a similar experiment in which
they observed the phenomenon occurs at the point of pressure-volume
churning on 2 MegaBar. Some predictions suggested that metallic hydrogen
may be metastable. Others predict hydrogen may be superconducting at room
temperature.
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF HYDROGEN

Physical
Phase gas
(0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
Density
0,08988 g/L
14,01 K
Melting point
(−259,14 °C, −434,45 °F)
20,28 K
Boiling point
(−252,87 °C, −423,17 °F)
Tripel point 13,8033 K, 7,042 kPa
The critical point 32,97 K, 1,293 MPa
Heat of fusion (H2) 0,117 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization (H2) 0,904 kJ·mol−1
(25 °C) (H2)
Heat capacity
28,836 J·mol−1·K−1
The vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
T/K 15 20
Atomic properties
The crystal structure hexagonal
1, −1
The oxidation number
(oksida amfoter)
Electronegativity 2,20 (Scala Pauling)
The ionization energy 1st: 1312,0 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 25 pm
Atomic radius
53 pm
(calculation)
Covalent radii 37 pm
The radius of the
120 pm
Van Der Waals
Other Information
The thermal (300 K) 180,5
conductivity m W·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (gas, 27 °C) 1310 m/s
Hydrogen is very reactive and reacts with every oxidizing element of
nature and nature is more electronegative than hydrogen such as halide groups.
Hydrogen can react spontaneously with chlorine and fluorine at room
temperature to form hydrogen halide. Hydrogen can also form compounds
with less electronegative elements such metals to form hydrides.
Hydrogen solubility in organic solvents is very small when compared
to its solubility in water. Hydrogen can be absorbed in a metal such as steel.
The absorption of hydrogen by the steel causes the steel is brittle, causing
damage in the manufacture of the equipment. With these properties, the
scientists can store hydrogen in metals platinum ga.
At normal temperatures are in the form of hydrogen diatomiknya but at
a very high temperature hydrogen dissociates into atomic-ataomnya. Atomic
hydrogen is very reactive and can react with metal oxides such as silver,
copper, of lead, bismuth, and mercury to produce the free metal.
Atomic hydrogen can also react with organic compounds to form such
complexes with C2H4 to form C2H6 and C4H10. At very high pressure
hydrogen can have properties such as metal.
COMPOUND
Although hydrogen is gaseous, we very rarely found in the earth's
atmosphere. Hydrogen gas is very light, if not combined with other elements,
will collide with other elements and terkeluarkan of the layers of the
atmosphere. On earth hydrogen commonly found as a compound (water) in
which the atoms are linked by oxygen atoms. The hydrogen atoms can also be
found in plants, petroleum, charcoal, and others. As an independent element,
its concentration in the atmosphere is very small (1 ppm by volume). As the
lightest gas, hydrogen combines with other elements "sometimes explosively"
to form a variety of compounds.
a. HYDRIDE
The term hydride is used to indicate that the oxidation number
of hydrogen which reacts with other elements is -1 and is denoted as
H-. Some examples of hydride compounds are LiH, NaH, LiAlH4,
BeH2 and others. Bond in hydride compounds can be covalently to the
very nature of ionic and can be a part of this hydride molecules,
oligomers, polymers, ionic solids, the absorption layers chemical, or
even be part of a metal. Hydride reacts as a Lewis base and act as
reducing agents and can also be reacted with hydrogen radicals and
protons. Various elements to form hydrides and now become an
important subject of research to find a metal that can store hydrogen to
generate electricity or batteries. Hydride also plays an important role in
the synthesis of organic compounds due to nature as a reductant.
b. HYDROCARBONS
In the field of organic hydrocarbon compounds are defined as
compounds consisting essentially of hydrogen and carbon, but this
sense is widespread due to some hydrocarbons also contain other
elements such as phosphorus, nitrogen, sulfur and even metal
(organometallic). Very broad class of hydrocarbons including alkanes,
alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, esters, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones,
amides, aromatic compounds and macromolecules such berbabagai
wide class of protein, and carbohydrates.
Generally, hydrocarbons are the main source of energy on earth
but with consideration of the current condition of the earth's energy use
began little by little transferred to an environmental friendly energy
sources. Hydrocarbons are also a source or base material to create a
wide range of organic compounds that others such as the petrochemical
industry is the basis for the manufacture of other chemical compounds.
c. HYDROGEN HALIDE
Hydrogen halide is a chemical compound that is produced from
the reaction of hydrogen with the element of group 7 for example
halide ie HF, HCl, HBr, and HI. HAT compounds rarely found in
nature and are not stable. Compounds of hydrogen halide (HX) is
acidic due to their tendency to release H + in solution. Unless HF
hydrogen halide then the other is a strong acid. In solution fellow
halide molecules can form hydrogen bonds in which the bond is
causing some compounds having boiling points higher than expected.
Tendency to react with the hydrogen halide is disebakan they have a
big enough difference kelektronegatifitas. The following comparison
of the size of the atom and the dipole moments of some hydrogen
halide.

d. H2O
Water molecule has two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom
covalently bonded. Oxygen binds strongly hydrogen due to the high
electronegativity of oxygen to produce positive and negative poles of
the water molecules so that it is donating water molecule has a dipole
moment. Fellow of water molecules can form hydrogen bonds thus
increasing the boiling point of water. Water may be in the description
as a molecule that has a polarity that can terdeprotonasi by the
reaction:

2 H2O (l) H3O+ (aq) + OH (aq)


The dissociation constants or Kw is 10-14 at 25 C.

ISOTOPES.

Normal hydrogen isotope called Protium. Other isotopes are


Deuterium (one proton and one neutron) and Tritium (one proton and two
neutrons). Hydrogen is the only element of the isotope-isotope has its own
name. Deuterium and Tritium are both used as fuel for nuclear fusion reactors.
One atom of Deuterium is found around 6000 atoms of hydrogen.

Deuterium is also used to slow neutrons. Tritium atoms are also


present but are fewer in number. Tritium can also be produced easily in
nuclear reactors and is used in the production of the hydrogen bomb (fusion).
Hydrogen gas is also used as a radioactive agent to create a bright luminous
paint.

Isotopes are elements with the same atomic number, but different
mass. These differences occur because different numbers of neutrons.
Hydrogen has three isotopes in nature, namely 1H, 2H, and 3H.

• 1H is a hydrogen isotope with an abundance of the most abundant where


abundance is 99.98%. Therefore, this isotope has one proton and one electron,
the other is the name protium.

• 2H, known by the name of Deuterium with essentially consists of one proton
and one neutron. Deuterium is not radioactive and harmless. This isotope is
used as a marker in the synthesis of organic compounds. Deuterium in the
form of 2H2O is often also used as a coolant in nuclear reactors and is also
used for the fusion reaction.

• 3H called Tritium containing two neutrons and one proton in its nucleus and
is radioactive and decays into helium-3 by emitting beta rays. Tritium is
widely used as tracers in the field as well as geochemical markers in chemistry
and biology experiments.

USEFULNESS

Hydrogen is widely used to fix nitrogen with other elements in the


Haber process (producing ammonia) and for the hydrogenation of fats and
oils. Hydrogen is also used in large quantities in methanol production, in
hydrogen dealkylation (hydrodealkylation), hydrocracking catalysts, and
hydrogen sulfurisasi. Other uses including as a rocket fuel, producing
hydrochloric acid, reducing iron ores and as a filler gas balloon.
Lifting capacity of 1 cubic foot of hydrogen gas at a temperature of
0.07 lbs 0 degrees Celsius and the air pressure 760 mm Hg. The battery-
fueled hydrogen (Hydrogen Fuel Cell) is a new technology that is being
developed, in which electric power can be generated in large quantities of
hydrogen gas. New plants can be built close to the sea for sea water
electrolysis process to produce hydrogen. This pollution-free gas can then
flow through the pipes and channeled into residential areas and major cities.
Hydrogen can replace natural gas, gasoline, agent in metallurgical processes
and chemical processes (refining), and turn trash into methane and ethylene.
Constraints that exist to realize the dream of many. Among public approval,
major capital investment and the price of hydrogen is still far more expensive
than other fuels now.

Some other uses of hydrogen:

 In the investigation of weather and cosmic science, is used as a filler


material for mass air balloons light.
 In the manufacture of ammonia (haber process)

N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) 2NH3

 Preparation of nitric acid


 Making of "petroleum"
 In industrial margarine, fats and soaps pemasakn. The fat can be eaten
like margarine made from plant oils with hydrogen to do it together
under pressure and the presence of a nickel catalyst at 200 ° C.
 Hydrogen required on fire blowing oxy - hydrogen to splicing or
melting metal

INDUSTRIAL SCALE

In industry, hydrogen can be made from hydrocarbons, from the


production of the biologically through the help of algae and bacteria, through
electrolysis, or thermolysis. Production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons still to
be excellent due to this method of hydrogen can be produced in large
quantities so that other methods need to be developed further enhance the
economic roots of hydrogen,

a. Making Hydrogen from Hydrocarbons


Hydrogen can be made from natural gas with an efficiency rate of
about 80% depending on the type of hydrocarbon used. Making
hydrogen from hydrocarbons produce CO2, so the CO2 is in the process
can be separated. Commercial production of hydrogen using the
"steam reforming" using methanol or natural gas and produce what is
referred to as syngas is a gas mixture of H2 and CO.

CH4 + H2O -> 3H2 + CO + 191,7 kJ/mol


Heat required by the reaction of some sections obtained from the
combustion of methane. The addition of hydrogen results can be
obtained by adding water vapor into the reaction gases are flowed in
the reactor temperature of 130 C.

CO + H2O -> CO2 + H2 – 40,4 kJ/mol


The reaction is taking oxygen from the water molecule to the CO to be
CO2. This reaction produces heat which can be used to keep the reactor
temperature.
b. Making hydrogen from water through electrolysis
Hydrogen can be made from the electrolysis of water using energy
supply diperbaharuhi eg angina, hydropower, or turbines. By
electrolysis, the production run will not produce pollution. The process
of electrolysis to be one process that has economic value urah
compared using hydrocarbon raw materials. One technique of
electrolysis that is high enough to get the attention of "electrolysis
using high pressure" in this electrolysis technique is executed to
generate hydrogen gas and oxygen with a pressure of about 120-200
bar. Another technique is to use the "high temperature electrolysis"
with this technique the energy consumption for the electrolysis process
is very low so that it can improve efficiency by up to 50%. Electrolysis
process using this method is usually combined with reactor
installations nulklir caused when using a heat source other then not be
able to cover the cost of the equipment is quite expensive.
c. Making hydrogen through biological processes
Some kinds of algae can produce hydrogen gas as a result of the
process of metabolism. Biological production can be done in a
bioreactor which supplied the needs of algae such as hydrocarbons and
the results of the reaction produces H2 and CO2 By using certain
methods of CO2 can be separated so that we just get alone H2 gas.
d. Decomposition of water with radio waves
By using radio waves, we can generate hydrogen from seawater to base
the decomposition process. If the water is exposed to polarized light
with a frequency of 13.56 MHz at room temperature, the seawater with
NaCl concentrations between 1-30% can be decomposed menjdi
hydrogen and oxygen.
e. Thermochemical
There are more than 352 thermochemical process that can be used for
splitting or thermolysis process in this way we do not require electric
current but the only source of heat. Some of this is a thermochemical
process CeO2/Ce2O3, Fe3O4/FeO, S-I, Ce-Cl, Fe,Cl and others.
Reaski terjdi in this process is: 2H2O -> 2H2 + O2 and all the
materials used can be recycled back to the process of new.
2. OXYGEN

Oxygen or acid is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the
system epitome O and atomic number 8. It is kalkogen group elements and can
easily react with almost all other elements (mainly into oxide). At standard
temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, are
compounds with the formula O2 diatomic gas that is colorless, tasteless, and
odorless.

HISTORY

For several centuries, the experts sometimes realize that air is composed of
more than one component. The behavior of oxygen and nitrogen as components
of air led to the development of the phlogiston theory of combustion, which
captured the minds of chemists for a century. Oxygen has been made by several
experts, including Bayen and Borch, but they do not know how to collect it. They
also do not study its properties and does not recognize as a basic element oxygen.
Priestley is credited with its discovery, although Scheele also discovered it
independently. In the past, the atomic weight of oxygen is used as a standard of
comparison for other elements, until in 1961, when the IUPAC (International
Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) using carbon 12 as the new standard of
comparison.

RESOURCE

Oxygen is the third most elements are found in abundance in the sun, and play
a role in the carbon-nitrogen cycle, the process is thought to be a source of energy
in the sun and stars. Oxygen under excited conditions give a bright red color and
the yellow-green on the Aurora Borealis.

Oxygen is a gas, making up 21% by volume of the atmosphere and is obtained


by liquefaction and fractional distillation. The atmosphere of Mars contains about
0.15% oxygen. in the form of elements and compounds, the oxygen content of
49.2% by weight reaches the earth's crust. About two-thirds of the human body
and nine tenths of water is oxygen.
In the laboratory it can be prepared by electrolysis of water or by heating KCLO 3
with MnO2 as a catalyst.

STRUCTURE

At standard temperature and pressure, oxygen is a colorless gaseous and


tasteless with the chemical formula O2, in which two oxygen atoms are
chemically bonded to elektrontriplet spin configuration. This bond has a bond
order of two and is often described simply as a double bond or as a combination
of the two-electron bond with two three-electron bonds.

Oxygen is a triplet ground state O2 molecules. The electron configuration of


the molecule has two unpaired electrons occupying two degenerate molecular
orbitals. Both of these orbitals are classified as antiikat (weakens the bond order
from three to two), so the diatomic oxygen bond is weaker than the nitrogen triple
bond.

In normal triplet form, O2 molecules are paramagnetic therefore magnetic


spinmomen unpaired electrons of the molecule and the negative exchange energy
between neighboring O2 molecules. Liquid oxygen will be attracted to the
magnet, so universally in laboratory experiments, liquid oxygen will form a
bridge between the two poles of a strong magnet. Singlet oxygen, the oxygen
molecule O2 is the name of the totality spin electron pairs. He was more reactive
to organic molecules in general. In nature, singlet oxygen is commonly produced
from the water during photosynthesis.

ALLOTROPES

Trioksigen (O3), known as ozone, an allotrope of oxygen that is highly


reactive and can damage lung tissue. Ozone is produced in the earth's atmosphere
when O2 joins with atomic oxygen resulting from the separation of O2 by
ultraviolet radiation (UV). Because ozone absorbs UV waves are very strong, the
ozone layer in the atmosphere serves as a radiation shield that protects the planet.
However, near the Earth's surface, ozone is an air pollutant formed from
automobile combustion byproducts.
Tetraoksigen metastable molecules (O4) was discovered in 2001, and assumed
to be contained in one of the six phases of solid oxygen. This was evidenced in
2006, by pressing the O2 up to 20 GPa, and found rombohedral O8 clump
structure. This clump potential as a stronger oxidant than O2 and O3, and can be
used in rocket fuel. Metallic phase of oxygen was discovered in 1990 when solid
oxygen is pressurized to above 96 GPa. Also found in 1998 that at very low
temperatures, this phase becomes superconducting.

THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

The color of liquid oxygen is blue like the sky blue color. This phenomenon is
not related; sky blue color is caused by the spread of Rayleigh. Oxygen is more
soluble in water than nitrogen. Air contains about one molecule of O2 for every
two molekul N2, compared with the atmospheric ratio of about 1: 4. The
solubility of oxygen in water depends on the temperature. At a temperature of 0 °
C, the concentration of oxygen in water is 14.6 mg • L-1, when at a temperature of
20 ° C the dissolved oxygen was 7.6 mg • L-1. At a temperature of 25 ° C and 1
atm air, fresh water containing 6.04 milliliters (mL) of oxygen per liter, when the
seawater contains about 4.95 mL per liter. At temperatures of 5 ° C, the solubility
increases to 9.0 mL (50% more than 25 ° C) per liter of pure water and 7.2 mL
(45% more) per liter for sea water.

Oxygen condenses at 90.20 K (-182.95 ° C, -297.31 ° F), and freezes at 54.36


K (-218.79 ° C, -361.82 ° F). Both liquid oxygen and oxygen solid blue sky. This
is due to the absorption of the red color. Liquid oxygen with high purity levels are
usually obtained by distillation of liquid bertingkatudara; Liquid oxygen can also
be produced from the condensation of air, using liquid nitrogen with cooling.
Oxygen is a highly reactive substance and must be separated from materials that
burn easily.

ISOTOPE

Oxygen has nine isotopes. Natural oxygen is a mixture of three isotopes.


Oxygen atoms weighs 18 found in nature are stable and available for commercial
purposes, such as water (H2O containing 18 isotope by 15%). Commercial
oxygen consumption in the United States is estimated at 20 million tons per year
and is expected to continue to rise. The use of oxygen in steel furnaces is the
highest use. The amount also is required in the production of ammonia gas,
methanol, ethylene oxide and oxy-welding air asetilen.Pemisahan (distillation) to
produce gas with a purity of 99%, whereas only 1% electrolysis.

6. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT
a) Material & Tools
 Hydrogen
No Tools and Materials Amount
1 Reaction tube side pipe 1
2 Measuring glass 2
3 Dish 1
4 Bunsen
5 Ca piece 1
6 Mg Powder
7 KI 0,05M
8 H2O2 4.5 % 1ml
9 Litmus paper
10 Wood 2
11 Zn powder 1
12 Glass cotton
13 Cotton
14 Pork
15 Aquades 1
16 KClO3
17 KMnO4

 Oxygen
No Tools and Materials Amount
1 Reaction tube side pipe 1
2 Measuring glass 2
3 Plastic pipe 1
4 Plastic closed 1
5 Statif and clem 1
6 Bunsen 1
7 KClO4
8 KI 0.05 M
9 H2O2 4.5 %
10 Litmus paper 2
11 Wood 1
12 Kawi stone powder
b) Procedure of Experiment
Hydrogen experiment
1.
A few pieces of calcium

- Entered into porcelain cup

White powder

-Flush with disttilled water

-Observed

White solution

-Checked with litmus paper

Red litmus paper turns blue

2.
Small spoon of magnesium powder gray
-Entered into porcelain cup
containing distilled water
The powder does not dissolve

-Heated over a flame


Slightly soluble water

-Checked by PP

-Observed

Pink solution
3. 0,02 gram of zinc powder

-Entered into test tubes containing


wet and dry cotton
Gray powder

-Entered dry cotton

-Close the test tube with a rubber


cap

-Heated
Formed gas bubbles

-Tested flame
Arise burst

4. Some zinc metal

-Entered in tube side piped

-Hose conected to a container


measuring cup placed upside down
in the water

-Added 4M solution of
hydrochloric acid sufficiently
The solution was gray, arise bubble

-Closed with a rubber cover

-Tested flame

Arise burst
5. A few drops of solution H2O2 4,5%

-Entered into test tube

-Added 1mL KI
Yellow solution

-Added a little starch solution

-Observed
The solution changed purple

Oxygen experiment

1. Potassium Chlorate

-Inserted into the test tube as high as


±0,5 cm from the bottom of the tube
White powder

-Added a little powder manganese


White powder and black

-Heated

Black powder melts, gases


arising

-Collected gas by moving into water

-Tested with sticks glow

Fire the greater


2.
±0,5 gram of permanganate

-Entered in test tube an connected to


the piped side container
purple- black powcer

-Added drops by drop 4,5%


hydrogen peroxide (with caution)

-The tube was closed with a rubber


cover
purple solution, gas arising

-Left about 10 minutes for the gas


to accumulate

-Tested with sticks glow

-Compare with the experimental gas


volume 1

Greater flame
7. DATA
8. ANALYSIS

9. DISCUSSION

10. CONCLUSION
11. REFERENCES
Achmad, Hiskia. 2001. Kimia Unsur dan Radiokimia . Bandung : PT. Citra Aditya Bakti.
Amaria. dkk. 2014. Penuntun Praktikum Kimia Anorganik II Unsur-Unsur Golongan
Utama. Surabaya. Unesa Press.

Anonim. 2014. Hidrogen. http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hidrogen. accessed on 20


November 2014.

Anonim. 2013. Oksigen. http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oksigen. accessed on 20 November


2014.

Vogel (1985). Buku Teks Analisis Anorganik Kualitatif Makro dan Semimakro, Jakarta :
PT. Kalman Media Pusaka

Soetrisno, Misawa. 2008. Oksigen. http://www.chem-is-try.org/tabel_periodik/oksigen/.


accessed on 20 November 2014.

Yulianto, Mohsin. 2004. Hidrogen. http://www.chem-is-try.org/tabel_periodik/hidrogen.


accessed on 20 November 2014.

.
ANSWER QUESTIONS

Hydrogen
1. Explain what is explosion gas and its function!
Gas bubbling was caused due to the reaction of H2 gas with the flame, which is
basically the H2 gas is indeed very reactive to the fire because it reacts with the O2.
And at the laboratory scale blast is used to identify the presence of H2 gas.
2. Write all reaction on the experiment above!
Experiment 1 : Ca(s) + 2H2O(l)  Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)
Experiment 2 : Mg(s) + 2H2O(l)  Mg(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)
Experiment 3 : Zn(s) + 2H2O(l)  Zn(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)
Experiment 4 : Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)
Experiment 5 : 2KI(aq) + H2O2(aq) 2KOH(aq) + I2(aq) + H2(g)
3. Why hydrogen peroxide is used in dilute solution!
Hydrogen peroxide is a liquid that is practically colorless. Is highly explosive and
dangerous in tinggi.Biasanya concentration of hydrogen peroxide is used as an
aqueous solution, but the 90% solution in water use.

Oxygen

1. Calculate the volume of oxygen gas is obtained when available KCLO3 1 gram !
Mol KClO3: 1/122,5 = 0,008mol
2KClO3 + MnO2  2KCl + 3O2 + MnO2
M: 0,008 - - - -
R: 0,008 0,004 0,008 0,012 0,004
S: - 0,004 0,008 0,012 0,004
V O2 = 0,012 x 22,4
= 0,2688 L = 268,8 mL

2. Give the Lewis structure that indicates an O2 molecule with two unpaired valence
electrons!
3. Explain the events of experiments 1 and 2!
 Experiment 1
In this experiment aims to find ways of making and identification of
oxygen gas. Potassium chlorate is grayed put the test tube to a height of
0.5 cm from the bottom of the tube and add three tablespoons of
manganese spatula then covered with a rubber stopper and a hose
connected to the measuring cup that has been filled with water and placed
upside down in the water. The test tube is heated, white smoke is visible
oxygen gas with a volume of more than 100 ml. heating process aims to
accelerate the reaction and manganese acts as a catalyst. For identification
of the tested gas flame with flame produced timber growing. It shows one
of the properties of oxygen gas that can enlarge the flame. The reaction
equation:
2KClO3(s) +2MnO2 (s)KCl(aq) + 4O2(g)+ 2KClO4(aq)
 Experiment II
Subsequent experiments, a total of 0.05 g of permanganate put into a test
tube and add 5 drops of hydrogen peroxide 4.5%. Along with the mouth of
the tube was closed with a rubber stopper directly along the hose that is
connected to the measuring cup is placed upside down in the water. White
smoke formed an oxygen gas that drives the water in a measuring cup to
get out. But in this experiment the oxygen gas produced very little so that
the volume of gas that is obtained only 1 ml. same as the previous
experiment as a test identification of the gas flame with flame produced
timber growing. It shows one of the properties of oxygen gas that can
enlarge the flame. The reaction equation:
KMnO4(s) + 2H2O2 (aq) K+(aq) + Mn2-(aq) +3O2(aq) +3 H2O(l)

4. Write the equation in experiments 1 and 2!


Experiment 1 :2KClO3(s) +2MnO2 (s)KCl(aq) + 4O2(g)+ 2KClO4(aq)
Experiment 2 :KMnO4(s) + 2H2O2 (aq) K+(aq) + Mn2-(aq) +3O2(aq) +3 H2O(l)