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Homework

Dario Castro I.

9. - Assuming that the gravitational acceleration inside a homogeneous spherical shell is


zero, show that the gravitational acceleration inside a homogenous uniform solid sphere
is proportional to the distance from its center.
We infer that the density is homogenous in the entire body because we have de clue that
gravitational acceleration is zero.

𝑀𝑠 = 𝛿 × 𝑉
𝑀𝑠 = 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒
4
We know how to calculate de volume of a sphere with 𝑉 = 𝜋𝑟 3 , now we are able to
3
replace this values in the gravitational formula.
𝐺𝑀𝑜 4
𝑔=− 𝑔 = − 𝜋𝐺𝛿𝑟
𝑟2 3

With this equation we establish the relation between the gravity and the radious of the
sphere.

13. - The Roche limit is the closest distance an object can approach a planet before
being torn apart by the tidal attraction of the planet. For a rigid spherical moon the
Roche limit is given by Eq. (6) in Box 2.1.
𝛿𝑀 1
𝑑 = 1.260𝑅( )3
𝛿𝑚
Where:
𝑅 = 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑜𝑢𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑖𝑝𝑎𝑙 𝑏𝑜𝑑𝑦
𝛿𝑀 = 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑖𝑝𝑎𝑙 𝑏𝑜𝑑𝑦
𝛿𝑚 = 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑒

a) Using the planetary dimensions in Table 1.1, calculate the Roche limit for the
Moon with respect to the Earth. Express the answer as a multiple of the Earth’s
radius.
5515 1
𝑑 = 1.260(6500)( )3
3347
𝑑 = 9685 𝑘𝑚
b) Show that, for a planet whose mean density is less than half that of its rigid
moon, the moon would collide with the planet before being torn apart by its
gravity.
1
𝛿 1
𝑑 = 1.260𝑅(2 )3
𝛿
𝑑 = 1.6𝑅

c) Given that the Sun’s mass is 1.989 × 1030 kg and that its radius is 695,500 km,
calculate the Roche limit for the Earth with respect to the Sun.
First we have to calculate the density of the sun assuming that the sun is a perfect
sphere.
𝑀 𝑘𝑔
𝛿= 4 𝛿 = 1.40 × 1027 𝑚3
𝜋𝑟 3
3

1.40×1027 1
𝑑 = 1.260(695500)( )3 𝑑 = 116590.18 𝑘𝑚
5515

d) The mean density of a comet is about 500 kg m-3. What is the Roche limit for
comets that might collide with the Earth?

5515 1
𝑑 = 1.260(6500)( 500 )3 𝑑 = 17882.6 𝑘𝑚

e) The mean density of an asteroid is about 2000 kg m-3. If an asteroid on collision


course with the Earth has a velocity of 15 km s-1, how much time will elapse
between the break-up of the asteroid at the Roche limit and the impact of the
remnant pieces on the Earth’s surface, assuming they maintain the same velocity
as the asteroid?

1
5515 3
𝑑= 1.260(6500) (2000) 𝑑 = 11268.51 𝑘𝑚

𝑑
𝑡= 𝑡 = 751.23 𝑠
𝑉
17. - Show that the “half-width” w of the gravity anomaly over a sphere and the depth z
to the center of the sphere are related by z = 0.652w
1
∆𝑔𝑧 = ∆𝑔
2 𝑜
1 3 1
∆𝑔𝑜 [ 2]
2 = ∆𝑔
𝑥 2 𝑜
1 + (𝑧 )

𝑥 2 1 2
1 + ( ) = ( ) −3
𝑧 2
𝑥 2
( ) = 0.5874
𝑧
𝑥2
𝑧2 =
0.5874
𝑤
( 2 )2
𝑧2 =
0.5874
1
𝑧= 𝑤
1.5328
𝑧 = 0.652383597𝑤