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STRESS

AND

ADAPTATION

S TRESS AND ADAPTATION ZANKHANA RATHOD F.Y. M. I NTRODUCTION : Stress is a part of

ZANKHANA RATHOD F.Y. M.

INTRODUCTION:

 

Stress is

a

part

of life.

Everyone feels

stress

at

one

time

or

another.

The

 

experience

of

stress

&

the

way

one

response

to

it

are

unique

to

each

individual. The process of responding to stress

is

constant

&

dynamic

&

is essential

to

the

person’s physical, emotional & social

well being.

 

TERMINOLOGY:

STRESS

 

It

is

a

condition

in

which

the

human system

responds

to

changing

in

its

normal balanced state

.stress

result from

a change

in the

environment

,that

is

presided

as

 

threat or

a

a challenge a negative

danger and can have both

and

positive effects.”

- Pender and Parsons (2006)

S TRESS AND ADAPTATION ZANKHANA RATHOD F.Y. M. I NTRODUCTION : Stress is a part of

CONTI

2) STRESSOR

“ stressor are themselves neither positive nor negative but they can have positive and negative effects as the persons responds to the changes.”

S TRESS AND ADAPTATION ZANKHANA RATHOD F.Y. M. I NTRODUCTION : Stress is a part of

CONTI….

ADAPTATION

when

person

is

in

a

threatening

situation immediate response occur .those response are often involuntary ,are called coping response. The change that take places as a result of the responses to a stressor is adaptation .”

S TRESS AND ADAPTATION ZANKHANA RATHOD F.Y. M. I NTRODUCTION : Stress is a part of

HOMEOSTASIS

“The various physiologic mechanism within the body responses to internal changes to maintain relative constancy in the internal environment is called homeostasis.”

PHYSIOLOGIC HOMEOSTASIS PSYCHOLOGIC HOMEOSTASIS

S TRESS AND ADAPTATION ZANKHANA RATHOD F.Y. M. I NTRODUCTION : Stress is a part of

PHYSIOLOGIC HOMEOSTASIS

Autonomic

nervous

system

&

the

endocrine

system

primarily

control

homeostasis

mechanisms.

self

regulatory,

occur

without

conscious

thought,

&

usually

function

to

correct

abnormal conditions.

Short term & long term stress can threaten the physiologic homeostasis & result in illness,

Short term & long term stress can threaten the physiologic homeostasis & result in illness,

GAENRAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME

According to “Hans Selye” Three distinct stages:-

ALARM REACTION STAGE STAGE OF RESISTANCE STAGE OF EXHAUSTION

 
Short term & long term stress can threaten the physiologic homeostasis & result in illness, ADAPTATION
TYPES OF PHYSIOLOGICAL HOMEOSTASIS THE REFLEX PAIN RESPONSE LOCAL LOCAL ADPTAVIE GENERAL RESPONSE ADAPTATION ADAPTATION THE
TYPES OF PHYSIOLOGICAL HOMEOSTASIS
THE REFLEX PAIN
RESPONSE
LOCAL
LOCAL
ADPTAVIE
GENERAL
RESPONSE
ADAPTATION
ADAPTATION
THE
RESPONSE
SYNDROME
INFLAMANTORY
RESPONSE
ALARM RESPONSE
This is the “ Fight or Flight”
response that prepares the body for
immediate action

STAGE OF ADAPTATION / RESISTANCE PHASE

If the source persists, the body prepares for long- term protection, secreting hormones to increase blood sugar levels. This phase is common and not necessarily harmful, but must include periods of relaxation and rest to counterbalance the stress response. Fatigue, concentration lapses, irritability and lethargy result as the stress turns negative.

STAGE OF EXHAUSTION

In chronic stress situations, sufferers enter the exhaustion phase: emotional, physical and mental resources suffer heavily, the body experiences ‘ adrenal exhaustion’ leading to decreased stress tolerance, progressive mental and physical exhaustion, illness and collapse.

STAGE OF ADAPTATION / RESISTANCE PHASE If the source persists, the body prepares for long- term

PSYCHOLOGICAL HOMEOSTASIS

Each person needs to feel loved & a sense of belonging, to feel safe & secure & to have self- esteem. When these needs are not met or a threat to need fulfillment occurs homeostatic measures in the form of coping or defense mechanisms help return the person to emotional balance.

STAGE OF ADAPTATION / RESISTANCE PHASE If the source persists, the body prepares for long- term

TYPES OF STRESS

STAGE OF ADAPTATION / RESISTANCE PHASE If the source persists, the body prepares for long- term
STAGE OF ADAPTATION / RESISTANCE PHASE If the source persists, the body prepares for long- term

NEGATIVE STRESS

It is a contributory factor in minor conditions,

such as headaches, digestive problems, skin

complaints, insomnia and ulcers.

Excessive, prolonged and unrelieved stress can

have a harmful effect on mental, physical and

spiritual health.

STAGE OF ADAPTATION / RESISTANCE PHASE If the source persists, the body prepares for long- term

POSITIVE STRESS

Stress can also have a positive effect, spurring motivation and awareness, providing the stimulation to cope with challenging situations.

Stress also provides the sense of urgency and alertness needed for survival when confronting threatening situations.

POSITIVE STRESS Stress can also have a positive effect, spurring motivation and awareness, providing the stimulation

STRESSOR

TYPES OF STRESSOR

Basic Health human and need illness F a ily reaction to illness
Basic
Health
human
and
need
illness
F a
ily
reaction
to illness
ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESSORS SOCIAL STRESSORS THOUGHTS EFFECTS OF THE THE SOURCE OF STRESS Developmental stress
ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS
PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESSORS
SOCIAL STRESSORS
THOUGHTS
EFFECTS OF THE
THE SOURCE OF STRESS
Developmental stress
Situational stress
ADAPTATION TO STRESS
(IMBALANCE )
TYPES OF STRESSOR
EXPERIENCED
Physiologic stressor
Psychological stressors
PERSONAL FACTORS

ADAPTATION TO STRESS (BALANCE )

Perception Coping of stress Sources mechanism Balance
Perception
Coping
of stress
Sources
mechanism
Balance

PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS ADAPTATION

ADAPTATION TO STRESS (BALANCE ) Perception Coping of stress Sources mechanism Balance P SYCHOLOGICAL STRESS ADAPTATION

Mind body interaction

Anxiety Coping mechanisms

ANXIETY

MILD ANXIETY SEVERE MODERATE PANIC
MILD
ANXIETY
SEVERE
MODERATE
PANIC
ADAPTATION TO STRESS (BALANCE ) Perception Coping of stress Sources mechanism Balance P SYCHOLOGICAL STRESS ADAPTATION

COPING MECHANISMS

COMPENSATION DENIAL DISPLACEMENT INTROJECTION PROJECTION RATIONALIZATION REACTION FORMATION REPRESSION SUBLIMATION
COMPENSATION
DENIAL
DISPLACEMENT
INTROJECTION
PROJECTION
RATIONALIZATION
REACTION FORMATION
REPRESSION
SUBLIMATION

MIND BODY INTERACTION

humans react to threats of danger as if they were physiologic threats of a person perceives the threat on an emotional level& the body prepares itself to either resist the danger or to run away from it. Each person reacts in Backache

Constipation

Diarrhea

Dilated pupils

Dry mouth

Headache nausea

Sleep disturbances

UNDOING
UNDOING
 

UNDOING

ADAPTATION TO STRESS (BALANCE ) Perception Coping of stress Sources mechanism Balance P SYCHOLOGICAL STRESS ADAPTATION

INTERVENTIONS TO REDUSE ANXIETY

a). Exercise:- Regular exercises help to maintain physical & emotional health.

b). Rest and sleep:-

Rest and sleep helps the body to maintain homeostasis & restore energy levels.

c). Nutrition:-

It plays an important role in maintaining the body’s homeostatic mechanisms & in increasing resistance to stress. Obesity & malnutrition are major stressors & greatly increase the risk of illness.

d). Encouraging the use of support system:-

INTERVENTIONS TO REDUSE ANXIETY a). Exercise:- Regular exercises help to maintain physical & emotional health. b).

Support system provides emotional support that helps a person identify & verbalize feelings associated with stress.

INFLUENCE ISTING CONDITION AST EXPERIENCES CO GNIT IVE APPRAISAL RIMARY P IRRELEVANT BENIG ITIVE N POS
INFLUENCE ISTING CONDITION
AST EXPERIENCES
CO
GNIT
IVE APPRAISAL
RIMARY
P
IRRELEVANT
BENIG
ITIVE
N POS
SS APPRAISAL
STRE
NO RESPONSE
PLEASURABLE
RESPONSE
HARM
THREAT
CHALLENGE
SECOND
ARY
Availabi
of coping strategies
lity
Perceived effectiveness of coping strategies
Perceived ability to use coping strategies effectively
QUALITY OF RESPONSE
ADAP
VE
TIVE
MALADAPTI
REDISPOSING FACTORS P BIOLOGICAL PPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIOCULTURAL PRECI TING STRESSORS PITA NATURE ORIGIN TIMING NUMBER APPRAISAL TRESSOR
REDISPOSING FACTORS
P
BIOLOGICAL
PPSYCHOLOGICAL
SOCIOCULTURAL
PRECI
TING STRESSORS
PITA
NATURE
ORIGIN
TIMING
NUMBER
APPRAISAL
TRESSOR
OF S
COGNITIVE
AFFECTIVE
PHYSIOLOGICAL
BEHAVIORAL
COPNING R
URCES
ESO
PERSONAL ABILITIES
SOCIAL SUPPORT
MATERIAL ASSETS
COPING ME
NISMS
CHA
CONSTRUCTIVE
OF COPING RE
ONTINUUM
ADAPTIVE
RESPONSE
NURSING DIAGNOSIS
SOCIAL POSITIVE BELIEFS DESTR UCTIVE SPONSES MALADAPTIVE RESPONSE
SOCIAL
POSITIVE BELIEFS
DESTR
UCTIVE
SPONSES
MALADAPTIVE RESPONSE

STUART STRESS ADAPTATION MODEL

INTERVENTIONS TO REDUSE ANXIETY a). Exercise:- Regular exercises help to maintain physical & emotional health. b).
INTERVENTIONS TO REDUSE ANXIETY a). Exercise:- Regular exercises help to maintain physical & emotional health. b).

STRESS MANAGEMENT

MEDITATION PROBLEM AWARENESS SOLVING RELAXATION MUSIC INTERPERSONAL PETS COMMUNICATION WITH CARING
MEDITATION
PROBLEM
AWARENESS
SOLVING
RELAXATION
MUSIC
INTERPERSONAL
PETS
COMMUNICATION WITH
CARING