5 vues

Transféré par kavya

if it is

if it is

© All Rights Reserved

- RV
- Generators 20-26-20power 20electronics 20for 20wind 20turbines
- Yaskawa Manuals 212
- My_Report
- How To Select a VFD
- Induction Motors Fed by PWM (WEG)
- Question Bank SSD EaswariEngg
- Variable Frequency Drives Introduction
- Usa Renga No166 1e
- ASDF
- Electrical Drives Ans Controls
- vfd
- 000.Syllabus-Btech2010(EE)
- Edc Mechanical
- Presentacion Funcionamiento Motores
- ED800
- 11107242
- Matlab simulation of an induction motor using simuling by Magxim
- synchronous motor
- EE6601

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 26

The intended Pump drive system is designed to drive water coolant system.

Pumps are driven by Induction motors and their speeds are controlled by variable frequency

converters. Pump drive system consists of Inverter circuits, Induction motor(sample load)and

control systems to manage flux, frequency, field, vector controls

drives , wind mills, cement industry, rains, paper mills, crane hoisting, spindle drives,

elevators etc.

1

CHAPTER-1

Pumps are driven by Induction motors and their speeds are controlled by variable frequency

converters. Pump drive system consists of Inverter circuits, Induction motor(sample load)and

control systems to manage flux, frequency, field, vector controls.

IGBT based three level NPC topology has been selected for existing Pump drive system

inverter. A twelve pulse diode rectifier converts medium voltage A.C input to DC and two

parallel inverter system converts D.C to variable frequency and variable voltage AC. To

avoid reflections and consequent over voltage at motor terminals, rise time of output pulses

are released by LCR filter..

The vector control (SVPWM, FOC) techniques are used for Induction motor output control,

A digital signal processor (DSP) based control circuit is used to control gate signals and

system control

The main advantages of NPC inverter are small harmonic distortion, all phases share

a common D.C bus, Reactive power flow can be controlled, High efficiency for fundamental

switching frequency, Relatively simple control methods can be adopted.

The main drawback is at different voltage rating for clamping diodes and

Real power flow is difficult for capacitors imbalance. The no of switches, capacitors and iode

required in the circuit increase with the number of output voltage levels

Inverter Motor system

A.C D.c

setup

C

Control

system(IGBT

switching circuit,

Field controls)

2

CHAPTER-2

INDUCTION MOTOR

2.1 INTRODUCTION:

The induction motor, which is most widely used motor type in the industry, has been favoured

because of its good self-starting capability, simple and rugged structure, low cost and reliability, etc.

a three phase induction motor is a singly excited a.c. machine in the sense that is supplied power

from a single a.c. source. Its stator winding is directly connected to a.c. source, whereas its rotor

winding receives its energy from stator by mean of induction. The two m.m.f. waves generated that

are stator m.m.f. and rotor m.m.f. both rotate in air gap in same direction at synchronous speed.

These two m.m.f. waves combine to give the resultant air gap flux density wave of constant

amplitude and rotating at synchronous speed. The stator of induction motor is essentially similar to

that of synchronous motor. The development of steady electromagnetic torque is possible at all

speeds but not at synchronous speed. So, induction motor could not run at synchronous speed,

that’s why they are also known as asynchronous machines.

Induction motors have been widely used in constant speed drives, for loads requiring low starting

torques and for loads requiring severe starting conditions. These motors have significant advantages,

attracting the interest of researchers and industry for use in many applications. They are popular

because of their ruggedness, simplicity, low cost and reduced maintenance charges. The most

common applications are fans, centrifugal pump, most machinery tools, wood working tools,

compressors, crushers, reciprocating pumps, punching presses, shears, hoists, cranes, elevators etc.

so, induction motors have wide area of applications.

These two types of induction motors differ by the construction of rotor, having certain advantages

and disadvantages over each other

Induction motor with speeds above 500 r.p.m and ratings below 120KW are cheaper than

synchronous machines.

3

Simplicity and ruggedness.

Compact structure.

Constant speed.

The induction machine can be operated as a motor or a generator. The selection of the motor mode

requires understanding the various types of induction motor squirrel cage winding choices.

Induction of voltages between the rotor and stator depends on mechanical design, primarily air gap

geometries between the static stator and moving rotor. Rotor geometry and materials choice

determine the rotor moment of inertia, for dynamical mechanical modeling.

In general, three phase AC machines have similar construction. The stator is usually made of

laminated sheet steel (to reduce eddy current loses) which is attached to an iron frame.

This stator consists of mechanical slots of high aspect ratio (height to width ratios) to bury the

insulated copper conductors inside the stator structure, and then the stator conductors are

connected in three phase delta or Star(Y) configurations.

The wire wound rotor contains three electrical phases just as the stator does and they (coils) are

connected Star(Y) or delta. The electrical terminals are connected to the slip rings. Unlike the wire

wounded, the squirrel-cage’s rotor contains bars of aluminum or copper imbedded in the rotor,

which are short circuited at the end of each bar by an end disc thereby placing all rotor wires in

parallel and placed equally spaced around the Rotor circumference. The wire wound rotor and

squirrel-cage rotor are each shown in Fig. 2.1 for comparison.

Under normal operation, an induction motor runs at a speed which is lower than the synchronous

speed, so that a time changing magnetic field is created to couple stator and rotor windings. At start

up this time varying magnetic field is maximized geometrically, but at near synchronous speed the

time derivative is reduced. Therefore operating the motor at a rotor speed which is close to the

synchronous speed of the stator magnetic field makes the motor self-limit according to the

difference of the motor and load torques.

The synchronous motor speed is directly proportional to the input AC line frequency driving the

stator fields and inversely proportional with the number of magnetic poles, created in the stator by

the choice of stator winding coil positions. Motor speed is given in equations 1.1 and 1.2

NS = 120 f / P (1.1)

Squirrel-cage induction motors are the standard of industry. They are rated at a given

operating speed and operating torque, setting the power level available at the load. Motor

efficiency then determines the required input AC power. When rotors are revolving at a speed

close to the stator synchronous speed of the rotating magnetic field they are efficient in

creating enough torque due to the low dB/dt seen by the rotor wires and hence the low

induced rotor wire currents

4

Figure.2 Induction motor rotor types (a) Wounded rotor (b) Squirrel-Cage rotor.

In many practical applications the induction motor doesn’t work at its rated speed. For example, in

air conditioning systems, where the fan is an induction motor, the fan works only till the

temperature reaches the desired value. Switching the fan (motor) on and off is possible but

mechanically stressful. So operating the induction motor by decreasing the rotation speed when it is

not needed is a better way to save energy and reduce mechanical stress. Motor speed control via

variable frequency voltage drives, V (f) is natural.

There are two main classifications of induction motor control drives depending on the type of motor

application:

Adjustable-speed drives: these are used in applications which the control of the motor speed is of

primary concern such as: fans, blower, grinders and so on

Servo drives: these deal with advanced control, such as in robotics where simultaneous torque,

speed, and position control are sought.

Both the frequency of the variable voltage drive and the voltage level can be varied using power

electronic converters such as Adjustable Speed Drive ( ASD) or Variable Frequency Speed Drive

(VFD).

An efficient creation of V(f) from a DC rail via inverter methods leads to better energy conservation,

as the torque of an induction motor varies as shown in Equation 1.3.

Applying the correct frequency controls the rotation speed and thereby the torque needed by the

mechanical load. The mechanical load power equals the torque multiplied by the speed so the load

power is as shown in equation 1.4

Where k1 and k2 are the constants of proportionality, are specified empirically, and depend on the

wiring choices and wiring geometries employed in both the stator and rotor designs. Speed control

5

controls motor power consumption and can be optimized to improve the overall efficiency of motor-

mechanical load systems

Equivalent circuit:

A simple per phase equivalent circuit model of an induction motor is a very important tool for

analysis and performance prediction at steady-state condition. Figure 2.2 shows the development of

a per phase transformer-like equivalent circuit.

The synchronously rotating air gap flux wave generates a counter emf 𝑉𝑚 , which is then

converted to slip voltage 𝑉𝑟 = 𝑛𝑆𝑉𝑚 in rotor phase

The stator terminal voltage 𝑉𝑠 differs from voltage 𝑉𝑚 by the drops in stator resistance 𝑅𝑠 and stator

leakage inductance 𝐿1𝑠 .

The excitation current 𝐼𝑜 consists of two components: a core loss component and 𝐼𝑐 = 𝑉𝑚 /𝑅𝑚 a

magnetizing component 𝐼𝑚 = 𝑉𝑚 /𝑤𝑒 𝐿𝑚 , where 𝑅𝑚 = equivalent resistance for core loss and 𝐿𝑚 =

magnetizing inductance.

The rotor-induced voltage 𝑉𝑟 ’ causes rotor current 𝐼𝑟 ’ at slip frequency 𝑤𝑠1 , which is limited by the

rotor resistance 𝑅𝑟 ’ and the leakage reactance 𝑤𝑠1 𝐿1𝑟 ’.The stator current 𝐼𝑠 consists of excitation

component 𝐼𝑜 and the rotor-reflected current 𝐼𝑟 . Figure 1.1(b) shows the equivalent circuit with

respect to the stator, where 𝐼𝑟 is given as

And parameters 𝑅𝑟 (= 𝑅𝑟′ / 𝑛2 ) and 𝐿1𝑟 (= 𝐿1𝑟 ′/ 𝑛2 ) are referred to the stator. At standstill, S=1,

and therefore, figure 1.2(b) corresponds to the short-circuited transformer-equivalent circuit. At

synchronous speed, S=0, current 𝐼𝑟 = 0 and the machine takes excitation current 𝐼𝑜 only.

At any sub synchronous speed, 0 < S < 1.0, and with a small value of S, the rotor current 𝐼𝑟 is

principally influenced by the 𝑅𝑟 /𝑆(𝑅𝑟 /𝑆 ≫ 𝑤𝑒 𝐿1𝑟 ) parameter.

Where Ψ𝑚 = peak value of air gap flux linkage/ pole and 𝐼𝑟 = peak value of rotor current.

The various power expressions can be written from the equivalent circuit of fig 1.2 (b) as follows

6

𝐿1 𝐿2

Stator Rotor

𝑅1 : Stator resistance

𝑅2 : Rotor resistance

𝐿𝑚 : Magnetising inductance

𝐼1 𝑅1 𝐿1 𝐼2 𝐿2

𝑉1 𝑅𝑚 𝐿𝑚 𝑅2 𝑠

7

Rotor copper loss: 𝑃1𝑟 = 3𝐼𝑟2 𝑅𝑟 -------------------------------------------------(1.11)

Where cosΦ = input power factor and 𝑃𝐹𝑤 = friction and windage loss of the machine. Since the

output power is the product of developed torque 𝑇𝑒 and speed 𝑤𝑚 , 𝑇𝑒 can be expressed as

equation

This indicates that torque can be calculated from the air gap power by knowing the stator

frequency. The power 𝑃𝑔 is often defined as torque in synchronous watts. Again, neglecting the core

loss, we can write

𝑉𝑚 = 𝑤𝑒 𝛹𝑚 -----------------------------------------(1.17)

𝛹𝑚 = 𝐿𝑚 𝐼𝑚 -----------------------------------------(1.18)

Substituting equation (1.20) through (1.11) in (1.19), we can write torque expression in the following

form:

= 3(𝑃/2)𝐿𝑚 𝐼𝑚 𝐼𝑎 --------------------------------------(1.22)

Where 𝛹𝑚 and 𝐼𝑟 are the peak values given by √2 𝛹𝑚 and √2 𝐼𝑟 , respectively, and𝐼𝑎 = 𝐼𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛿 .

Equation (1.5) verifies the same as equation (1.6).The torque expression (1.16) is analogous to that

of a dc machine, where 𝐼𝑚 = magnetizing or flux component of stator current, 𝐼𝑎 = armature or

torque component of stator current, and 3(𝑃/2)𝐿𝑚 = torque constant. Note that 𝐼𝑚 and are

orthogonal, 𝐼𝑎 or mutually decoupled.

The equivalent circuit of figure 1.2(b) can be simplified to that shown in figure 1.3, where the core

loss resistor 𝑅𝑚 has been dropped and the magnetizing inductance 𝐿𝑚 has been shifted at the input.

8

𝑅1 𝐿1 𝐼2 𝐿2

𝑉1 𝐿𝑚 𝑅2 /𝑆

Where | (𝑅𝑠 + 𝑗𝑤𝑒 𝐿1𝑠 )| ≪ 𝑤𝑒 𝐿𝑚 . The performance prediction by the simplified circuit typically

varies within 5 percent from that of the actual machine,

Equation (1.32) is a function of slip S for constant frequency and supply voltage.

The torque 𝑇𝑒 can be calculated as a function of slip S from equation (1.25). fig.1.4 shows

the torque – speed (𝑤𝑟 /𝑤𝑒 = 1 − 𝑠) curve, where the value of the slip is extended beyond the

region 0 < S < 1.0.The zones can be defined as plugging (0 < S < 2.0), motoring (0 < S < 1.0), and

regenerating (S<0). In the normal motoring region, 𝑇𝑒 = 0 at S = 0, and as S increase```es (i.e., speed

decreases), 𝑇𝑒 increases in a quasi-linear curve until breakdown, Or maximum torque 𝑇𝑒𝑚 is reached.

At synchronous speed of the machine, the rotor cannot have any induction, and therefore, torque

cannot be produced. At any other speed 𝑁𝑟 , the speed differential called slip speed induces rotor

current and torque is developed. The rotor moves in the same direction as that of the rotating

magnetic field to reduce the induced current.

In this region, the stator drop is small and air gap flux remains approximately constant. Beyond the

breakdown torque, 𝑇𝑒 decreases with the increases of S. The machine starting torque Tes at S = 1

can be written from equation (1.25) as

In the plugging region, the rotor rotates in the opposite direction to that of the air gap flux so that S

> 1. This condition may arise if the stator supply phase sequence is reversed when the rotor is

moving, or because of an overhauling type of load which drives the rotor in the opposite direction.

Since the torque is positive but the speed is negative, the plugging torque appears as braking

torque. However, the energy due to the plugging torque is dissipated within the machine, causing

excessive machine heating.

9

In the regenerating region, as the name indicates, the machine acts as a generator. The rotor moves

at super synchronous speed in the same direction as that of the air gap flux so that the slip becomes

negative, creating negative, or regeneration torque.

The negative slip corresponds to negative equivalent resistance 𝑅𝑟 /𝑆 in Figure. The positive

resistance 𝑅𝑟 /𝑆 consumes energy during motoring, but the negative 𝑅𝑟 /𝑆 generates energy and

supplies it back to the source.

With a variable-frequency power supply, the machine stator frequency can be controlled to be lower

than the rotor speed (𝑤𝑒 < 𝑤𝑟 ) to obtain a regenerative braking effect. An induction motor can, of

course, continually operate as a generator (induction generator) if its shaft is rotated at super

Synchronous speed by a prime mover, such as a wind turbine.

CHAPTER 4

Introduction:

DC power can be converted into AC power at desired output voltage and frequency by using a power

electronics device that is called an inverter. Industrial applications of inverters are for adjustable-

speed AC drives, UPS (uninterruptible power supply), HVDC transmission lines and other. DC power

inputs that inverters can use are power supply network or rotating alternator through rectifier, full

cell, or photovoltaic array

There are two common types of inverters, voltage source inverters (VSI) and current source inverters

(CSI). When an inverter has a DC source with small or negligible impedance, which means the

inverter has a stiff DC voltage source at its input terminal, it is called a VSI or voltage fed inverter

(VFI). When the input DC source has a high impedance, which means the DC source has a stiff DC

current source, the inverter is called a CSI or current fed inverter (CFI).

4.2 Inverter:

A device that converts dc power into ac power at desired output voltage and frequency is called an

inverter. Some industrial applications of inverters are for adjustable-speed ac drives, induction

10

heating, stand by air-craft power supplies, UPS (uninterruptible power supplies) for computers, hvdc

transmission lines etc. phase-controlled converters, when operated in the inverter mode, are called

line-commutated inverter, But line-commutated inverter require at the output terminals an existing

ac supply which is used for their commutation. This means that line-commutated inverter can’t

function as isolated ac voltage sources or as variable frequency generators with dc power at the

input. Therefore, voltage level, frequency and waveform on the ac side of line –commutated inverter

cannot be changed. On the other hand, force commutated inverters provide an independent ac

output voltage and adjustable voltage and adjustable frequency and have therefore much wider

applications. Force-commutated and load commutated inverters are described.

The dc power input to the inverter is obtained from an existing power supply network or from

a rotating alternator through a rectifier or a battery, fuel cell. The configuration of ac to dc

converter and dc to ac inverter is called a dc-link converter. The rectification is carried out by

standard diodes or thyristor converter circuit. The inversion is performed by the methods.

Inverter can be broadly classified into two type: voltage source inverters and current source

inverters. A voltage-fed inverter (VFI), or voltage source inverter (VSI), is one in which the

dc source has small or negligible impedance. In other words, a voltage source inverter has

stiff dc voltage source at its input terminals.

OBJECTIVE

This general objective of this project is to develop the hardware prototype and to evaluate the

performance of Three-Level Neutral-Point-Clamped inverter-fed induction motor drives. This

project also required to analyse the performance of the Neutral-Point-Clamped inverter by

running a simulation using PSIM software to calculate and compare their power losses.

Basically, this project is divided into three main blocks. They are controller, gate driver and switches

blocks. The controller will produce and control the switching sequence of the inverter bridge. It is

mean that this part will produce and control the speed of the motor that used as load in this project.

The second block is gate driver that provides isolation and protection between low voltage side

(controller) and the high voltage side (bridge inverter). This part also will control the switch (on/off).

For the third block, it is the switching part. This part will allow the current flow through the bridge

inverter and then through the load.

SCOPE OF STUDY

The inverter system is integrated with a converter in order to provide the DC source. The

project utilizes the available of DC voltage supply as a DC link voltage to the three phase voltage

source inverter. The aim of this project is to utilize the simple controller three phase voltage source

inverter so then the inverter manage to control the load like motor. In this project, the control signal

of 120 degree conduction method will be applied in the control scheme in order to produce AC

voltage output voltage.

This type of controller can be programmed in order to get the desire output voltage. So, it is

more suitable for this project because in this project we need to control the frequency of the

inverter by manipulate the switching sequence.

11

LITERATURE REVIEW

A power electronic circuit that could operate in either inverter or rectifier mode is called a converter.

Since the present project concentrates only on the inverter mode of operation of the converter,

henceforth, only the term ‘inverter’ will be used.

An attempt is made to present the most common multilevel (three-level) inverters and briefly

describe their advantages and disadvantages based on a literature survey. The literature survey was

intended to compare the inverters based on their performance aspects and the challenges and

restrictions they could impose for application in the given area.

Multilevel inverters can generate output voltage with low distortion and reduced dV/dt stresses,

resembling a near sinusoidal waveform with increase in the number of levels.

Switching frequency

These inverters can be operated at both fundamental and high switching frequency pulse width

modulation (PWM). Lower switching frequency would yield lower switching losses and thus

improving the efficiency.

There are a number of multilevel converters introduced since the year 1975 but the three basic and

most well-known topologies are the Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter (CHB), Neutral Point-

Clamped Multilevel Inverter (NPC) and the Flying Capacitor Multilevel Inverter (FC). These three

basic topologies have been widely accepted for industrial applications.

In order to control the switches of the multilevel inverters, a number of new and modified

modulation techniques have been developed. These schemes include the Space Vector Modulation

(SVM), Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM), Selective Harmonic Elimination (SHE), etc.

However, in literature, a number of other modified control schemes based on these basic schemes

have also been proposed.

In the case of a multilevel inverter, the DC-link constitutes more than one capacitor bank.

The connected DC voltage source determines the rating of the power semiconductor

switches. It is difficult to connect a single power semiconductor switch directly to high

12

voltage DC-link, as very high voltage rating of the switch has to be chosen by giving

allowance to the voltage overshoot due to the stray inductances present in the semiconductor

switch and the module.

In general, the advantages of utilizing multilevel inverters over the shortcomings of a conventional

three level inverter can be summarized as follows:

Output that they generated are lower with harmonic distortion and the harmonic content of the

input current is lower than the old PWM.

dv/dt stresses induced in the switches will be reduced due to lower voltage supported by multilevel

inverters

Just like PWM convertors, they are able to operate at both fundamental and high frequency

switching. Switching losses will be low and efficiency will be high when switching frequency is low.

There are a few disadvantages of multilevel inverters which can be summarized as follows:

As the number of the required output level increases, the number of the power semiconductor

switches required per phase also increases.

Though the voltage rating of the switches required is lower than that of a three level inverter, each

switch demands a related gate drive circuit and this in turn makes the overall system more complex

and expensive.

A Three-Phase NPC Three-Level inverter is shown in Fig. 4. It can be found in literature as three, four

or five-level inverter, but the Three-Level inverter was most used wider than the other topologies.

The three phases of the inverter share a common DC bus. The three-level Neutral Point-Clamped

inverter consists of two series-connected capacitors, C1 and C2. The DC-link capacitors divide the DC

bus voltage into three levels; namely +Vdc/2, 0 and –Vdc/2. These voltage levels appear at the output

of each phase of the inverter by appropriate switching of the power semiconductor devices.

The middle point of the two capacitors is denoted as ‘n’ which is the neutral point. There are

two complementary switch pairs and two clamping diodes per phase present in this inverter.

The outer two switches are the main switching devices that operate for pulse width

modulation while the inner two switches are the auxiliary switching devices that clamp the

output terminal potential to the neutral point potential along with the help of the two

clamping diodes.

13

The current flows when different switching states of the converter with its corresponding

output voltage. When both the upper switches S1 and S2 turn on, the voltage across ‘A’ (the

first phase) and ‘0’ (the negative inverter terminal), also called the pole voltage, is Vdc. The

lower clamping diode, D1’ balances out the voltage sharing between the two lower switches,

S1’ and S2’. While the switch S1’ blocks the voltage across C1, the switch S2’ blocks the

voltage across C2. The voltage between ‘A’ and ‘0’ is the DC voltage whereas the voltage

between ‘A’ and ‘n’ is the AC voltage. It is because the voltage appearing with respect to the

negative inverter terminal (‘0’) is the voltage across each capacitor and the voltage appearing

with respect to the neutral point of the inverter (‘n’) is the aggregate of the capacitor voltages;

giving an AC waveform.

In order to obtain three levels across ‘A’ and ‘n’, there are three switch combinations as follows:

Turn on lower switches, S1’ and S2’, in order to obtain Van = -Vdc/2

Advantages:

The three phases share a common DC-bus minimizing the capacitance requirements.

Disadvantages:-

Neutral point control for balanced voltages across the DC-link capacitors should be achieved for all

conditions of operation.

Because of the topologies different designs they also have separate properties that distinguish their

suitability for different applications and situations. Their design and basic principle has been

presented earlier in this work but for further evaluation a short and simple view on the topologies

14

positive and negative properties could be helpful. The advantages and disadvantages are listed for

every topology below.

High efficiency since fundamental switching frequency can be used for all devices

PWM Principle:

An inverter contains electronic switches, it is possible to control the output voltage as well as

optimize the harmonics by performing multiple switching within the inverter with the constant dc

input voltage Vd. The PWM principle to control the output voltage is explained in figure4.1.The

fundamental voltage V1 has the maximum amplitude (4Vd / π) at square wave, but by creating two

notches as shown, the magnitude can be reduced. If the notch widths are increased, the

fundamental voltage will be reduced.

Circuit model of a single-phase inverter with a center-taped grounded DC bus, and Fig 4.1 illustrates

principle of pulse width modulation.

15

Fig Pulse width modulation

When Vcontrol > Vtri, VA0 = Vdc/2 When Vcontrol < Vtri, VA0 = −Vdc/2

Fundamental frequency is controlled by the frequency of Vcontrol Modulation index (m) is defined as:

The modulation method is an important part of the control structure. It should provide features like:

The average value of voltage (and current) fed to the load is controlled by turning the switch

between supply and load on and off at a fast pace. The longer the switch is on compared to

the off periods, the higher the power supplied to the load is.

The PWM switching frequency has to be much faster than what would affect the load, which

is to say the device that uses the power. Typically switching’s have to be done several times a

minute in an electric stove, 100 Hz in a lamp dimmer, from few kilohertz (kHz) to tens of

kHz for a motor drive and well into the tens or hundreds of kHz in audio amplifiers and

computer power supplies.

The term duty cycle describes the proportion of 'on' time to the regular interval or 'period' of

time; a low duty cycle corresponds to low power, because the power is off for most of the

time. Duty cycle is expressed in percent, 100% being fully on.

The main advantage of PWM is that power loss in the switching devices is very low. When a

switch is off there is practically no current, and when it is on, there is almost no voltage drop

16

across the switch. Power loss, being the product of voltage and current, is thus in both cases

close to zero.

PWM Classification:

There are many possible PWM techniques proposed in the literature. The classifications of PWM

techniques can be given as follows:

Sinusoidal pwm

Space-vector pwm

Delta modulation

Random pwm

Sigma-delta modulation

Often, PWM techniques are classified on the basis of voltage or current control, feed forward and

feedback method, carrier-or-non-based control, etc. Note that the phase-shift PWM discussed

before can also be classified as a PWM techniques.

The sinusoidal PWM technique is very popular for industrial converters and is discussed extensively

in the literature. The general principle of SPWM, where an isosceles triangle carrier wave of

frequency fc is compared with the fundamental frequency f sinusoidal modulating wave, and the

points of intersection determine the switching points of power devices.

For example, Vao fabrication by switching Q1 and Q4 of half-bridge inverter, is shown in the figure. The

lock-out time between Q1 and Q4 to prevent a shoot-through fault is ignored in the figure.

This method is also known as the triangulation, sub harmonic, or sub oscillation method. The notch

and pulse widths of Vao wave vary in a sinusoidal manner so that the average or fundamental

component frequency is the same f and its amplitude is proportional to the command modulating

voltage. The same carrier wave can be used for all three phases, as shown.

The typical wave shape of line and phase voltages for an isolated neutral load can be plotted

graphically as shown in figure 4.3. the Fourier analysis of the Vao wave is somewhat involved and can

be shown to be of the following form:

In this method of modulation, several pulses per half cycle are used as in the case of multiple pulse

modulation. In mpm, the pulse width is equal for all the pulses.

17

But in spwm, the pulse width is a sinusoidal function of the angular position of the

pulse in a cycle

the desired output voltage is achieved by comparing the desired reference waveform

(modulating signal) with a high-frequency ‘triangular carrier’ wave as depicted schematically

in Fig.1. Depending on whether the signal voltage is larger or smaller than the carrier

waveform, either the positive or negative dc bus voltage is applied at the output.

Note that over the period of one triangle wave, the average voltage applied to the load is

proportional to the amplitude of the signal (assumed constant) during this period.

The resulting chopped square waveform contains a replica of the desired waveform in its low

frequency components, with the higher frequency components being at frequencies of a close

to the carrier frequency.

Notice that the root mean square value of the ac voltage waveform is still equal to the dc bus

voltage, and hence the total harmonic distortion is not affected by the PWM process.

The harmonic components are merely shifted into the higher frequency range and are

automatically filtered due to inductances in the ac system.

When the modulating signal is a sinusoid of amplitude Am, and the amplitude of the

triangular carrier is Ac, the ratio m=Am/Ac is known as the modulation index.

18

With a sufficiently high carrier frequency (see Fig. 3 drawn for fc/fm = 21 and t = L/R = T/3;

T =period of fundamental)the high frequency components do not propagate significantly in

the ac network (or load)due the presence of the inductive elements.

However, a higher carrier frequency does result in a larger number of switching’s per cycle

and hence in an increased power loss.

Typically switching frequencies in the 2-15 kHz range are considered adequate for power

systems applications.

Also in three-phase systems it is advisable to use so that all three waveforms are symmetric

Another method for increasing the output voltage about that of the SPWM technique is the

space vector (SVPWM) technique. Compared to THIPWM, the two methods have similar

results but their methods of implementation are completely different. In the SVPWM

technique, the duty cycles are computed rather than derived through comparison as in

SPWM.

The SVPWM technique can increase the fundamental component by up to 27.39% that of

SPWM. The fundamental voltage can be increased up to a square wave mode where a

modulation index of unity is reached.

SVPWM is accomplished by rotating a reference vector around the state diagram, which is

composed of six basic non-zero vectors forming a hexagon. A circle can be inscribed inside

the state map and corresponds to sinusoidal operation. The area inside the inscribed circle is

called the linear modulation region or under-modulation region.

As seen in figure 4.4, the area between the inside circle and outside circle of the hexagon is

called the nonlinear modulation region or over-modulation region. The concepts in the

operation of linear and nonlinear modulation regions depend on the modulation index,

which indirectly reflects on the inverter utilization capability.

given a set of three-phase voltages, a space vector can defined by

V (t) = 3/2 [Va (t) ej0 + Vb (t) ej2π/3 + Vc (t) ej4π/3] ----------------------------- (4.1)

Where Va (t), Vb (t), and Vc (t) are three sinusoidal voltages of the same amplitude and

frequency but with +1200 phase shifts. The space vector at any given time maintains its

magnitude. As time increases, the angle of the space vector increases, causing the vector to

rotate with a frequency equal to that of the sinusoidal waveforms.

19

It can be thought that it is composed of six small hexagons that are the space–vector diagrams of

conventional two-level inverters. Each of these six hexagons, constituting the space–vector diagram

of a three-level inverter, centers on the six apexes of the inner small hexagon as is shown in Fig. 3.

So, if these six small hexagons are shifted toward the center of the inner hexagon by the space–

vector diagram of a three-level inverter is simplified to that of a two-level inverter. To simplify into

the space–vector diagram of a two-level inverter as explained above, the following two steps have to

be taken. First, from the location of a given reference voltage, on hexagon has to be selected among

the six hexagons. Secondly the original reference voltage vector has to be subtracted by the amount

of the center voltage vector of the selected hexagon. By these two steps, the three-level space–

vector plane is transformed to the two-level space–vector plane. Then the determination of

switching sequence and the calculation of the voltage vector duration time are done as conventional

two-level SVPWM method. As the proposed SVPWM method is same in principle as conventional

two-level SVPWM, various techniques used in two-level SVPWM can be applied to this proposed

method too.

The simplified three-level space–vector PWM method is described in detail. By the location of a

given reference voltage vector, one hexagon is selected among the six small hexagons that comprise

the three-level space–vector diagram. The reference voltage vector should stay at the inner of the

selected hexagon. This procedure divides the three-level space–vector diagram into six regions that

are covered by each small hexagon as shown in Fig. 3. It represents the selected hexagon. There

exist

the regions that are overlapped by adjacent small hexagons in the three-level space–vector diagram.

So if the reference voltage vector stays at those regions, can have any values that are possible. Fig.

3(a) and (b) illustrate two possible ways of selecting the value of. If those methods shown in Fig. 3(a)

20

is the original reference voltage vector and is the corrected reference voltage vector

A simple control such as the V/Hz strategy has limitations on the performance. To achieve better

dynamic performance, a more complex control scheme needs to be applied, to control the induction

motor. With the mathematical processing power offered by the microcontrollers, we can implement

advanced control strategies, which use mathematical transformations in order to decouple the

torque generation and the magnetization functions in an AC induction motor. Such decoupled

torque and magnetization control is commonly called rotor flux oriented control, or simply Field

Oriented Control (FOC).

The FOC method has an attractive feature but it suffers with some drawbacks, such as;

requirement of co-ordinate transformations, current controllers, sensitive to parameter

variations, PWM modulators, switching frequency, rotor position measurement and control

tuning loops. These drawbacks of FOC schemes are minimized with the new control strategy

i.e., IFOC scheme, which is introduced by Isao Takahashi and Toshihiko Noguchi, in the mid

1980’s [3]. The direct torque and flux control of an IMD is required for the rotor shaft

angular position information. The rotor shaft position can be measured through either speed

sensors (i.e. speed encoder) or from an estimator/observer using current and voltage signals

and information of the IMD parameters. The use of speed encoder is associated with some

drawbacks, such as, requirement of shaft extension, reduction of mechanical robustness of the

motor drive, reduces the drive reliability and not suitable for hostile environments, and also

costlier.

21

The Basic Scheme for the FOC

Two motor phase currents are measured. These measurements feed the Clarke transformation

module. The outputs of this projection are designated 𝑖𝑠α and 𝑖𝑠β . These two components of the

current are the inputs of the Park transformation that gives the current in the d, q rotating reference

frame. The 𝑖𝑠d and 𝑖𝑠q components are compared to the references isdref (the flux reference) and

isqref (the torque reference). At this point, this control structure shows an interesting advantage:

you can control either synchronous or induction machines by simply changing the flux reference and

obtaining rotor flux position. In a synchronous permanent magnet a motor, the rotor flux is fixed

(determined by the magnets) and there is no need to create additional flux. Therefore, when

controlling a IM, 𝑖𝑠dref should be set to zero. Since induction motors need a rotor flux creation in

order to operate, the flux reference must not be zero. This conveniently solves one of the major

drawbacks of the “classic” control structures: the portability from asynchronous to synchronous

drives.

The torque command 𝑖𝑠qref could be the output of the speed regulator when we use a speed

FOC. The outputs of the current regulators are 𝑉𝑠dref and 𝑉𝑠qref . They are applied to the

inverse Park transformation. The outputs of this projection are 𝑉𝑠αref and 𝑉𝑠βref , which are

the components of the stator vector voltage in the (α β) stationary orthogonal reference frame.

These are the inputs of the space vector pulse width modulation (PWM). The outputs of this

block are the signals that drive the inverter. Note that both Park and inverse Park

transformations need the rotor flux position. Obtaining this rotor flux position depends on the

AC machine type (synchronous or asynchronous machine).

The rotor flux position is the core of the FOC. In fact, if there is an error in this variable the rotor flux

will not be aligned with d-axis, and 𝑖𝑠d and 𝑖𝑠q , flux and torque components of the stator current,

22

will be incorrect. Figure shows the (a, b, c), (α, β) and (d ,q) reference frames, and the correct

position of the rotor flux, the stator current, and stator voltage space vector that rotates with d, q

reference at synchronous speed

Figure . Current, Voltage and Rotor Flux Space Vectors in the d, q Rotating Reference Frame and

Their Relationship With a, b, c and (α, β) Stationary Reference Frame

The measure of the rotor flux position is different if we consider synchronous or induction motor:

In the synchronous machine the rotor speed is equal to the rotor flux speed. Then θ (rotor flux

position) is directly measured by position sensor or by integration of rotor speed.

In the induction machine the rotor speed is not equal to the rotor flux speed (there is a slip speed),

then it needs a particular method to calculate θ. The basic method is to use the current model which

needs two equations of the motor model in d, q reference frame.

CHAPTER-5

Rectifier circuit : Twelve pulse diode rectifier circuit Constituted by two delta and star

input transformers and 6+6 diode rectifier units .

Components:

Diodes: Generic

23

Simulation Circuit for 3-level NPC inverter

Simulation parameters

Voltages 415v

Resistance 1 ohm

Inductance 0.02H

Capacitance 4700 micro farad

Frequency 50HZ

Carrier frequency 2khz

Modulation Sinusoidal PWM

Load R,L

Rectifier control PWM

Wave forms:

vcarrier

Vref

24

Line voltage:

Phase voltage

Referrences:-

Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. IA-17, no. 5, pp. 518-523, Sep./Oct. 1981.

neutral-point voltage regulator for a three-level diode-clamped inverter using multiple-carrier

modulation", IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 718-726, Jun. 2006.

Space Vector PWM and Hysteresis Band PWM with on operation transaction of the control

method” IEEE Trans. Ind.2017

Mohammed Shafi kp , Joseph Peter , Rijil Ramchand, “Space Vector Based Synchronized

PWM Strategies for Field Oriented Control of VSI fed Induction Motor” IEEE Trans.

Ind.2016

25

26

- RVTransféré parcorrynt
- Generators 20-26-20power 20electronics 20for 20wind 20turbinesTransféré parbulonia
- Yaskawa Manuals 212Transféré parPham Long
- My_ReportTransféré parstubborn002
- How To Select a VFDTransféré party14344
- Induction Motors Fed by PWM (WEG)Transféré parAG0525
- Question Bank SSD EaswariEnggTransféré parmenaka
- Variable Frequency Drives IntroductionTransféré parvigneshwaranj87
- Usa Renga No166 1eTransféré paralpha1ah
- ASDFTransféré parZaryab Khalil Siddique
- Electrical Drives Ans ControlsTransféré parjeyasaravanan77
- vfdTransféré parshivasrinivas
- 000.Syllabus-Btech2010(EE)Transféré parReeta Dutta
- Edc MechanicalTransféré parSeenu Vasan
- Presentacion Funcionamiento MotoresTransféré parMiller Gil
- ED800Transféré parMohamed Tahoun
- 11107242Transféré parHassan Souleyman
- Matlab simulation of an induction motor using simuling by MagximTransféré parMaximilian Sylvester
- synchronous motorTransféré parnaga531
- EE6601Transféré parPoornima Dhandapani
- Slips MotorsTransféré parAngel Gutierrez
- Course Plan EDCTransféré parJc Jayamanikandan B
- 1-s2.0-S187705091600209X-mainTransféré parMani Ashouri
- ref_31Transféré parMahmoudMatar
- 3 Phase ACTransféré parFendi_Yusoff_1940
- Drives EnglishTransféré parXa Mau
- 05771119Transféré parAnkitaMalhotra
- AETransféré parBala Manikanta
- EE_III-YEARTransféré parRaviKumar
- Inverters (With Pics)Transféré parMichael Schreiber

- 47i9-Speed Control of InductionTransféré parIJAET Journal
- p23_Torrey2Transféré parkavya
- H09344550.pdfTransféré parkavya
- fadul2017Transféré parkavya
- 10.1109@IGEHT.2017.8094059Transféré parkavya
- pq_unit-ivTransféré parkavya
- power system analysis operation and control - abhijit chakrabarti _ sunita halder.pdfTransféré parBerhanu Zelalem
- Power Blackout 2297Transféré parRitika Verma

- Final)Transféré parTarun Khandelwal
- It essential chapter 15 and 16Transféré partahsin69
- Rr310205 Electromechanics IIITransféré parandhracolleges
- Dozers.docxTransféré parmansoor azam
- TPMandADTransféré parsuresh
- Car Finance PawanTransféré parpawan batham
- A005 ATOSTransféré parramabhpl
- Rick Broida, How to Do Everything with Your GPS, McGraw-Hill-Osborne, 2nd edition, 2004. .pdfTransféré parSoorajprasad Mudukaje
- j_pb3gTransféré parElena Dzilanova
- Wd Pci DatasheetTransféré parmechatronicsengineer
- Portfolio 3Transféré parKaustav Das
- Bus DuctTransféré parsardarmkhan
- TCS_ CodeVita - Coding Arena Round1 ATransféré parneon
- Ultra-High Speed Optical OFDM Transmission TechnologiesTransféré parHackim Sha
- Design and Modeling of Internally Pressurized Thick-walled Cylinder pptTransféré parRiki Mandol
- F8913C-BA ZigBee Module Technical Specification V2.0.0Transféré parXiamen Four-Faith Industrial Router supplier
- clevo w24xbuxTransféré parbeto
- 2006 PoggioTransféré pardyeinaflyer
- PaceTransféré parAvdhesh Sharma
- Generic User GuideTransféré paronder1241
- GMT_DocsTransféré partaperw
- OracleFusionApplicationsReleaseNotes 11-1-2 0 0 June 1 2012Transféré parManu Sethumadhavan
- ComicRack Manual (5th Ed)Transféré parpescuma8153
- Multivariable Control SystemTransféré parFatin Fateha
- Euro Statistics Panorama of Transport 2009Transféré parCIO-CIO
- How to Write a Killer Software Testing QA Resume That Will Turn Into an Interview CallTransféré parhporeddy
- Jotun Jotamastic Smart Pack TDSTransféré parAbeer Haris
- ANYmal-eth-49454-01Transféré parVishal Gauba
- stonehenge 1 lesson planTransféré parapi-300254126
- Sophie Court CVTransféré parSophie Court