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Abstract

Pump drive system:

The intended Pump drive system is designed to drive water coolant system.

Pumps are driven by Induction motors and their speeds are controlled by variable frequency
converters. Pump drive system consists of Inverter circuits, Induction motor(sample load)and
control systems to manage flux, frequency, field, vector controls

Typical applications variable speed/field induction motors are for pump


drives , wind mills, cement industry, rains, paper mills, crane hoisting, spindle drives,
elevators etc.

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CHAPTER-1

Introduction Pump drive system :

Pumps are driven by Induction motors and their speeds are controlled by variable frequency
converters. Pump drive system consists of Inverter circuits, Induction motor(sample load)and
control systems to manage flux, frequency, field, vector controls.

Pump drive system consists of Inverter circuits, Induction motor(sample load)

and control systems.

IGBT based three level NPC topology has been selected for existing Pump drive system
inverter. A twelve pulse diode rectifier converts medium voltage A.C input to DC and two
parallel inverter system converts D.C to variable frequency and variable voltage AC. To
avoid reflections and consequent over voltage at motor terminals, rise time of output pulses
are released by LCR filter..

The Induction motor is being selected as a sample load.

The vector control (SVPWM, FOC) techniques are used for Induction motor output control,
A digital signal processor (DSP) based control circuit is used to control gate signals and
system control

The main advantages of NPC inverter are small harmonic distortion, all phases share
a common D.C bus, Reactive power flow can be controlled, High efficiency for fundamental
switching frequency, Relatively simple control methods can be adopted.

The main drawback is at different voltage rating for clamping diodes and
Real power flow is difficult for capacitors imbalance. The no of switches, capacitors and iode
required in the circuit increase with the number of output voltage levels

3-Level Induction Coolant


Inverter Motor system
A.C D.c
setup
C

Control
system(IGBT
switching circuit,
Field controls)

Fig.1 Block diagram of Pump Drive System for 1M.W

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CHAPTER-2

INDUCTION MOTOR

2.1 INTRODUCTION:

The induction motor, which is most widely used motor type in the industry, has been favoured
because of its good self-starting capability, simple and rugged structure, low cost and reliability, etc.
a three phase induction motor is a singly excited a.c. machine in the sense that is supplied power
from a single a.c. source. Its stator winding is directly connected to a.c. source, whereas its rotor
winding receives its energy from stator by mean of induction. The two m.m.f. waves generated that
are stator m.m.f. and rotor m.m.f. both rotate in air gap in same direction at synchronous speed.
These two m.m.f. waves combine to give the resultant air gap flux density wave of constant
amplitude and rotating at synchronous speed. The stator of induction motor is essentially similar to
that of synchronous motor. The development of steady electromagnetic torque is possible at all
speeds but not at synchronous speed. So, induction motor could not run at synchronous speed,
that’s why they are also known as asynchronous machines.

2.2 INDUCTION MOTOR:

Induction motors have been widely used in constant speed drives, for loads requiring low starting
torques and for loads requiring severe starting conditions. These motors have significant advantages,
attracting the interest of researchers and industry for use in many applications. They are popular
because of their ruggedness, simplicity, low cost and reduced maintenance charges. The most
common applications are fans, centrifugal pump, most machinery tools, wood working tools,
compressors, crushers, reciprocating pumps, punching presses, shears, hoists, cranes, elevators etc.
so, induction motors have wide area of applications.

Depending on type of rotor construction induction motors are of two types:

Squirrel cage induction motor.

Wound-rotor motor, also called slip ring induction motor.

These two types of induction motors differ by the construction of rotor, having certain advantages
and disadvantages over each other

The popularity of induction motors comes from their desirable features:

They have inherent self starting torque.

They require no d.c. excitation.

They can operate at lagging power factor.

Speed control is possible.

Induction motor with speeds above 500 r.p.m and ratings below 120KW are cheaper than
synchronous machines.

Lower maintenance cost.

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Simplicity and ruggedness.

Compact structure.

Constant speed.

2.2.1 Induction motor construction and operation:

The induction machine can be operated as a motor or a generator. The selection of the motor mode
requires understanding the various types of induction motor squirrel cage winding choices.
Induction of voltages between the rotor and stator depends on mechanical design, primarily air gap
geometries between the static stator and moving rotor. Rotor geometry and materials choice
determine the rotor moment of inertia, for dynamical mechanical modeling.

In general, three phase AC machines have similar construction. The stator is usually made of
laminated sheet steel (to reduce eddy current loses) which is attached to an iron frame.

This stator consists of mechanical slots of high aspect ratio (height to width ratios) to bury the
insulated copper conductors inside the stator structure, and then the stator conductors are
connected in three phase delta or Star(Y) configurations.

The wire wound rotor contains three electrical phases just as the stator does and they (coils) are
connected Star(Y) or delta. The electrical terminals are connected to the slip rings. Unlike the wire
wounded, the squirrel-cage’s rotor contains bars of aluminum or copper imbedded in the rotor,
which are short circuited at the end of each bar by an end disc thereby placing all rotor wires in
parallel and placed equally spaced around the Rotor circumference. The wire wound rotor and
squirrel-cage rotor are each shown in Fig. 2.1 for comparison.

Under normal operation, an induction motor runs at a speed which is lower than the synchronous
speed, so that a time changing magnetic field is created to couple stator and rotor windings. At start
up this time varying magnetic field is maximized geometrically, but at near synchronous speed the
time derivative is reduced. Therefore operating the motor at a rotor speed which is close to the
synchronous speed of the stator magnetic field makes the motor self-limit according to the
difference of the motor and load torques.

The synchronous motor speed is directly proportional to the input AC line frequency driving the
stator fields and inversely proportional with the number of magnetic poles, created in the stator by
the choice of stator winding coil positions. Motor speed is given in equations 1.1 and 1.2

NS = 120 f / P (1.1)

ωs = 2πNS / 60 = 4πf / P (1.2)

Squirrel-cage induction motors are the standard of industry. They are rated at a given
operating speed and operating torque, setting the power level available at the load. Motor
efficiency then determines the required input AC power. When rotors are revolving at a speed
close to the stator synchronous speed of the rotating magnetic field they are efficient in
creating enough torque due to the low dB/dt seen by the rotor wires and hence the low
induced rotor wire currents

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Figure.2 Induction motor rotor types (a) Wounded rotor (b) Squirrel-Cage rotor.

In many practical applications the induction motor doesn’t work at its rated speed. For example, in
air conditioning systems, where the fan is an induction motor, the fan works only till the
temperature reaches the desired value. Switching the fan (motor) on and off is possible but
mechanically stressful. So operating the induction motor by decreasing the rotation speed when it is
not needed is a better way to save energy and reduce mechanical stress. Motor speed control via
variable frequency voltage drives, V (f) is natural.

There are two main classifications of induction motor control drives depending on the type of motor
application:

Adjustable-speed drives: these are used in applications which the control of the motor speed is of
primary concern such as: fans, blower, grinders and so on

Servo drives: these deal with advanced control, such as in robotics where simultaneous torque,
speed, and position control are sought.

Both the frequency of the variable voltage drive and the voltage level can be varied using power
electronic converters such as Adjustable Speed Drive ( ASD) or Variable Frequency Speed Drive
(VFD).

An efficient creation of V(f) from a DC rail via inverter methods leads to better energy conservation,
as the torque of an induction motor varies as shown in Equation 1.3.

Torque k1(speed)2 -------------------------- (1.3)

Applying the correct frequency controls the rotation speed and thereby the torque needed by the
mechanical load. The mechanical load power equals the torque multiplied by the speed so the load
power is as shown in equation 1.4

Power k2(speed)3 ----------------------------(1.4)

Where k1 and k2 are the constants of proportionality, are specified empirically, and depend on the
wiring choices and wiring geometries employed in both the stator and rotor designs. Speed control

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controls motor power consumption and can be optimized to improve the overall efficiency of motor-
mechanical load systems

Equivalent circuit:

A simple per phase equivalent circuit model of an induction motor is a very important tool for
analysis and performance prediction at steady-state condition. Figure 2.2 shows the development of
a per phase transformer-like equivalent circuit.

The synchronously rotating air gap flux wave generates a counter emf 𝑉𝑚 , which is then
converted to slip voltage 𝑉𝑟 = 𝑛𝑆𝑉𝑚 in rotor phase

where n= rotor-to-stator turns ratio and S= per unit slip.

The stator terminal voltage 𝑉𝑠 differs from voltage 𝑉𝑚 by the drops in stator resistance 𝑅𝑠 and stator
leakage inductance 𝐿1𝑠 .

The excitation current 𝐼𝑜 consists of two components: a core loss component and 𝐼𝑐 = 𝑉𝑚 /𝑅𝑚 a
magnetizing component 𝐼𝑚 = 𝑉𝑚 /𝑤𝑒 𝐿𝑚 , where 𝑅𝑚 = equivalent resistance for core loss and 𝐿𝑚 =
magnetizing inductance.

The rotor-induced voltage 𝑉𝑟 ’ causes rotor current 𝐼𝑟 ’ at slip frequency 𝑤𝑠1 , which is limited by the
rotor resistance 𝑅𝑟 ’ and the leakage reactance 𝑤𝑠1 𝐿1𝑟 ’.The stator current 𝐼𝑠 consists of excitation
component 𝐼𝑜 and the rotor-reflected current 𝐼𝑟 . Figure 1.1(b) shows the equivalent circuit with
respect to the stator, where 𝐼𝑟 is given as

𝐼𝑟 = 𝑛𝐼𝑟′ = 𝑛2 𝑠𝑉𝑚 /𝑅𝑟 + 𝑗𝑤𝑠1 𝐿1𝑟 ′

= 𝑉𝑚 /(𝑅𝑟 /𝑠) + 𝑗𝑤𝑒 𝐿1𝑟 -----------------------------(1.5)

And parameters 𝑅𝑟 (= 𝑅𝑟′ / 𝑛2 ) and 𝐿1𝑟 (= 𝐿1𝑟 ′/ 𝑛2 ) are referred to the stator. At standstill, S=1,
and therefore, figure 1.2(b) corresponds to the short-circuited transformer-equivalent circuit. At
synchronous speed, S=0, current 𝐼𝑟 = 0 and the machine takes excitation current 𝐼𝑜 only.

At any sub synchronous speed, 0 < S < 1.0, and with a small value of S, the rotor current 𝐼𝑟 is
principally influenced by the 𝑅𝑟 /𝑆(𝑅𝑟 /𝑆 ≫ 𝑤𝑒 𝐿1𝑟 ) parameter.

The torque expression can be given in the form

𝑇𝑒 = 3/2(𝑝/2) Ψ𝑚 𝐼𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝛿 -------------------------(1.6)

Where Ψ𝑚 = peak value of air gap flux linkage/ pole and 𝐼𝑟 = peak value of rotor current.

Equivalent Circuit Analysis:

The various power expressions can be written from the equivalent circuit of fig 1.2 (b) as follows

Input power: 𝑃𝑖𝑛 = 3𝑉𝑠 𝐼𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛷 -------------------------------(1.7)

Stator copper loss: 𝑃1𝑠 = 3𝐼𝑠2 𝑅𝑠 ---------------------------------(1.8)

Core loss : 𝑃1𝑐 = 3𝑉𝑚2 /𝑅𝑚 -----------------------------------------(1.9)

Power across air gap: 𝑃𝑔 = 3𝐼𝑟2 𝑅𝑟 /𝑠 ------------------------------(1.10)

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𝐿1 𝐿2

Stator Rotor

(a) Equivalent circuit with transformer coupling

𝑅1 : Stator resistance

𝐿1 : Stator leakage inductance

𝑅2 : Rotor resistance

𝐿2 : Rotor leakage inductance

𝐿𝑚 : Magnetising inductance

𝑉1: Supply voltage (phase voltage)

𝐼1 𝑅1 𝐿1 𝐼2 𝐿2

𝑉1 𝑅𝑚 𝐿𝑚 𝑅2 𝑠

Equivalent circuit with respect to the stator.

Fig.2.3 Per phase equivalent circuit of induction motor

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Rotor copper loss: 𝑃1𝑟 = 3𝐼𝑟2 𝑅𝑟 -------------------------------------------------(1.11)

Output power: 𝑃𝑜 = 𝑃𝑔 − 𝑃1𝑟 = 3𝐼𝑟2 𝑅𝑟 1 − 𝑆/𝑆 ---------------------------(1.12)

Shaft: 𝑃𝑠ℎ = 𝑃𝑜 − 𝑃𝐹𝑤 -----------------------------------------------------------(1.13)

Where cosΦ = input power factor and 𝑃𝐹𝑤 = friction and windage loss of the machine. Since the
output power is the product of developed torque 𝑇𝑒 and speed 𝑤𝑚 , 𝑇𝑒 can be expressed as

𝑇𝑒 = 𝑃𝑜 /𝑤𝑚 = 3/𝑤𝑚 𝐼𝑟2 𝑅𝑟 1 − 𝑆/𝑆 = 3(𝑃/2)𝐼𝑟2 𝑅𝑟 /𝑆𝑤𝑒 --------(1.14)

Where 𝑤𝑚 = (2/𝑃)𝑤𝑟 = (2/𝑃)(1 − 𝑆)𝑤𝑒 is the rotor mechanical speed (r/s).substituting


equation

𝑇𝑒 = (𝑃/2)𝑃𝑔 /𝑤𝑒 -------------------------------------------(1.15)

This indicates that torque can be calculated from the air gap power by knowing the stator
frequency. The power 𝑃𝑔 is often defined as torque in synchronous watts. Again, neglecting the core
loss, we can write

𝑃𝑔 = 3𝑉𝑚 𝐼𝑠 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 -----------------------------------(1.16)

𝑉𝑚 = 𝑤𝑒 𝛹𝑚 -----------------------------------------(1.17)

𝛹𝑚 = 𝐿𝑚 𝐼𝑚 -----------------------------------------(1.18)

𝐼𝑠 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 = 𝐼𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛿 ------------------------------------(1.19)

Substituting equation (1.20) through (1.11) in (1.19), we can write torque expression in the following
form:

𝑇 = 3(𝑃/2)𝛹𝑚 𝐼𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛿 ---------------------------------------(1.20)

= 3/2(𝑃/2)𝛹𝑚 𝐼𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛿 --------------------------------(1.21)

= 3(𝑃/2)𝐿𝑚 𝐼𝑚 𝐼𝑎 --------------------------------------(1.22)

Where 𝛹𝑚 and 𝐼𝑟 are the peak values given by √2 𝛹𝑚 and √2 𝐼𝑟 , respectively, and𝐼𝑎 = 𝐼𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛿 .
Equation (1.5) verifies the same as equation (1.6).The torque expression (1.16) is analogous to that
of a dc machine, where 𝐼𝑚 = magnetizing or flux component of stator current, 𝐼𝑎 = armature or
torque component of stator current, and 3(𝑃/2)𝐿𝑚 = torque constant. Note that 𝐼𝑚 and are
orthogonal, 𝐼𝑎 or mutually decoupled.

The equivalent circuit of figure 1.2(b) can be simplified to that shown in figure 1.3, where the core
loss resistor 𝑅𝑚 has been dropped and the magnetizing inductance 𝐿𝑚 has been shifted at the input.

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𝑅1 𝐿1 𝐼2 𝐿2

𝑉1 𝐿𝑚 𝑅2 /𝑆

Fig.2.4 Approximate per phase equivalent circuit

Where | (𝑅𝑠 + 𝑗𝑤𝑒 𝐿1𝑠 )| ≪ 𝑤𝑒 𝐿𝑚 . The performance prediction by the simplified circuit typically
varies within 5 percent from that of the actual machine,

In figure 1.2, the magnitude of current 𝐼𝑟 can be solved as

𝐼𝑟 = 𝑉𝑠 /√ (𝑅𝑠 + 𝑅𝑟 /𝑠)² + 𝑤2𝑒 (𝐿1𝑠 + 𝐿1𝑟 )² -------------------------------( 1.23)

Substituting equation (1.31) in (1.22) yields

𝑇𝑒 = 3(𝑃/2)𝑅𝑟 /𝑆𝑤𝑒 . 𝑉𝑠2 / (𝑅𝑠 + 𝑅𝑟 /𝑠)² + (𝐿1𝑠 + 𝐿1𝑟 )² -------------(1.24)

Equation (1.32) is a function of slip S for constant frequency and supply voltage.

Torque – Speed curve:

The torque 𝑇𝑒 can be calculated as a function of slip S from equation (1.25). fig.1.4 shows
the torque – speed (𝑤𝑟 /𝑤𝑒 = 1 − 𝑠) curve, where the value of the slip is extended beyond the
region 0 < S < 1.0.The zones can be defined as plugging (0 < S < 2.0), motoring (0 < S < 1.0), and
regenerating (S<0). In the normal motoring region, 𝑇𝑒 = 0 at S = 0, and as S increase```es (i.e., speed
decreases), 𝑇𝑒 increases in a quasi-linear curve until breakdown, Or maximum torque 𝑇𝑒𝑚 is reached.
At synchronous speed of the machine, the rotor cannot have any induction, and therefore, torque
cannot be produced. At any other speed 𝑁𝑟 , the speed differential called slip speed induces rotor
current and torque is developed. The rotor moves in the same direction as that of the rotating
magnetic field to reduce the induced current.

In this region, the stator drop is small and air gap flux remains approximately constant. Beyond the
breakdown torque, 𝑇𝑒 decreases with the increases of S. The machine starting torque Tes at S = 1
can be written from equation (1.25) as

𝑇𝑒𝑠 = 3(𝑃/2)𝑅𝑟 /𝑤𝑒 . 𝑉𝑠2 / (𝑅𝑠 + 𝑅𝑟 )² + (𝐿1𝑠 + 𝐿1𝑟 )² ---------------------(1.25)

In the plugging region, the rotor rotates in the opposite direction to that of the air gap flux so that S
> 1. This condition may arise if the stator supply phase sequence is reversed when the rotor is
moving, or because of an overhauling type of load which drives the rotor in the opposite direction.

Since the torque is positive but the speed is negative, the plugging torque appears as braking
torque. However, the energy due to the plugging torque is dissipated within the machine, causing
excessive machine heating.

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In the regenerating region, as the name indicates, the machine acts as a generator. The rotor moves
at super synchronous speed in the same direction as that of the air gap flux so that the slip becomes
negative, creating negative, or regeneration torque.

The negative slip corresponds to negative equivalent resistance 𝑅𝑟 /𝑆 in Figure. The positive
resistance 𝑅𝑟 /𝑆 consumes energy during motoring, but the negative 𝑅𝑟 /𝑆 generates energy and
supplies it back to the source.

With a variable-frequency power supply, the machine stator frequency can be controlled to be lower
than the rotor speed (𝑤𝑒 < 𝑤𝑟 ) to obtain a regenerative braking effect. An induction motor can, of
course, continually operate as a generator (induction generator) if its shaft is rotated at super
Synchronous speed by a prime mover, such as a wind turbine.

CHAPTER 4

INVERTER AND PULSE WIDTH MODULATION

Introduction:

DC power can be converted into AC power at desired output voltage and frequency by using a power
electronics device that is called an inverter. Industrial applications of inverters are for adjustable-
speed AC drives, UPS (uninterruptible power supply), HVDC transmission lines and other. DC power
inputs that inverters can use are power supply network or rotating alternator through rectifier, full
cell, or photovoltaic array

There are two common types of inverters, voltage source inverters (VSI) and current source inverters
(CSI). When an inverter has a DC source with small or negligible impedance, which means the
inverter has a stiff DC voltage source at its input terminal, it is called a VSI or voltage fed inverter
(VFI). When the input DC source has a high impedance, which means the DC source has a stiff DC
current source, the inverter is called a CSI or current fed inverter (CFI).

4.2 Inverter:

A device that converts dc power into ac power at desired output voltage and frequency is called an
inverter. Some industrial applications of inverters are for adjustable-speed ac drives, induction

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heating, stand by air-craft power supplies, UPS (uninterruptible power supplies) for computers, hvdc
transmission lines etc. phase-controlled converters, when operated in the inverter mode, are called
line-commutated inverter, But line-commutated inverter require at the output terminals an existing
ac supply which is used for their commutation. This means that line-commutated inverter can’t
function as isolated ac voltage sources or as variable frequency generators with dc power at the
input. Therefore, voltage level, frequency and waveform on the ac side of line –commutated inverter
cannot be changed. On the other hand, force commutated inverters provide an independent ac
output voltage and adjustable voltage and adjustable frequency and have therefore much wider
applications. Force-commutated and load commutated inverters are described.

The dc power input to the inverter is obtained from an existing power supply network or from
a rotating alternator through a rectifier or a battery, fuel cell. The configuration of ac to dc
converter and dc to ac inverter is called a dc-link converter. The rectification is carried out by
standard diodes or thyristor converter circuit. The inversion is performed by the methods.

Inverter can be broadly classified into two type: voltage source inverters and current source
inverters. A voltage-fed inverter (VFI), or voltage source inverter (VSI), is one in which the
dc source has small or negligible impedance. In other words, a voltage source inverter has
stiff dc voltage source at its input terminals.

OBJECTIVE

This general objective of this project is to develop the hardware prototype and to evaluate the
performance of Three-Level Neutral-Point-Clamped inverter-fed induction motor drives. This
project also required to analyse the performance of the Neutral-Point-Clamped inverter by
running a simulation using PSIM software to calculate and compare their power losses.

Basically, this project is divided into three main blocks. They are controller, gate driver and switches
blocks. The controller will produce and control the switching sequence of the inverter bridge. It is
mean that this part will produce and control the speed of the motor that used as load in this project.
The second block is gate driver that provides isolation and protection between low voltage side
(controller) and the high voltage side (bridge inverter). This part also will control the switch (on/off).
For the third block, it is the switching part. This part will allow the current flow through the bridge
inverter and then through the load.

SCOPE OF STUDY

The inverter system is integrated with a converter in order to provide the DC source. The
project utilizes the available of DC voltage supply as a DC link voltage to the three phase voltage
source inverter. The aim of this project is to utilize the simple controller three phase voltage source
inverter so then the inverter manage to control the load like motor. In this project, the control signal
of 120 degree conduction method will be applied in the control scheme in order to produce AC
voltage output voltage.

This type of controller can be programmed in order to get the desire output voltage. So, it is
more suitable for this project because in this project we need to control the frequency of the
inverter by manipulate the switching sequence.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

INTRODUCTION TO MULTILEVEL INVERTERS

A power electronic circuit that could operate in either inverter or rectifier mode is called a converter.
Since the present project concentrates only on the inverter mode of operation of the converter,
henceforth, only the term ‘inverter’ will be used.

An attempt is made to present the most common multilevel (three-level) inverters and briefly
describe their advantages and disadvantages based on a literature survey. The literature survey was
intended to compare the inverters based on their performance aspects and the challenges and
restrictions they could impose for application in the given area.

The features that make a multilevel converter an attractive candidate are:

Staircase waveform quality

Multilevel inverters can generate output voltage with low distortion and reduced dV/dt stresses,
resembling a near sinusoidal waveform with increase in the number of levels.

Switching frequency

These inverters can be operated at both fundamental and high switching frequency pulse width
modulation (PWM). Lower switching frequency would yield lower switching losses and thus
improving the efficiency.

There are a number of multilevel converters introduced since the year 1975 but the three basic and
most well-known topologies are the Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter (CHB), Neutral Point-
Clamped Multilevel Inverter (NPC) and the Flying Capacitor Multilevel Inverter (FC). These three
basic topologies have been widely accepted for industrial applications.

In order to control the switches of the multilevel inverters, a number of new and modified
modulation techniques have been developed. These schemes include the Space Vector Modulation
(SVM), Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM), Selective Harmonic Elimination (SHE), etc.
However, in literature, a number of other modified control schemes based on these basic schemes
have also been proposed.

Fig. 2 : Modulation methods for Three-Level inverter

GENERAL MULTILEVEL INVERTER TOPOLOGIES

In the case of a multilevel inverter, the DC-link constitutes more than one capacitor bank.
The connected DC voltage source determines the rating of the power semiconductor
switches. It is difficult to connect a single power semiconductor switch directly to high

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voltage DC-link, as very high voltage rating of the switch has to be chosen by giving
allowance to the voltage overshoot due to the stray inductances present in the semiconductor
switch and the module.

In general, the advantages of utilizing multilevel inverters over the shortcomings of a conventional
three level inverter can be summarized as follows:

Output that they generated are lower with harmonic distortion and the harmonic content of the
input current is lower than the old PWM.

dv/dt stresses induced in the switches will be reduced due to lower voltage supported by multilevel
inverters

Just like PWM convertors, they are able to operate at both fundamental and high frequency
switching. Switching losses will be low and efficiency will be high when switching frequency is low.

There are a few disadvantages of multilevel inverters which can be summarized as follows:

As the number of the required output level increases, the number of the power semiconductor
switches required per phase also increases.

Though the voltage rating of the switches required is lower than that of a three level inverter, each
switch demands a related gate drive circuit and this in turn makes the overall system more complex
and expensive.

Neutral Point Clamped inverter (NPC)

A Three-Phase NPC Three-Level inverter is shown in Fig. 4. It can be found in literature as three, four
or five-level inverter, but the Three-Level inverter was most used wider than the other topologies.
The three phases of the inverter share a common DC bus. The three-level Neutral Point-Clamped
inverter consists of two series-connected capacitors, C1 and C2. The DC-link capacitors divide the DC
bus voltage into three levels; namely +Vdc/2, 0 and –Vdc/2. These voltage levels appear at the output
of each phase of the inverter by appropriate switching of the power semiconductor devices.

The middle point of the two capacitors is denoted as ‘n’ which is the neutral point. There are
two complementary switch pairs and two clamping diodes per phase present in this inverter.
The outer two switches are the main switching devices that operate for pulse width
modulation while the inner two switches are the auxiliary switching devices that clamp the
output terminal potential to the neutral point potential along with the help of the two
clamping diodes.

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The current flows when different switching states of the converter with its corresponding
output voltage. When both the upper switches S1 and S2 turn on, the voltage across ‘A’ (the
first phase) and ‘0’ (the negative inverter terminal), also called the pole voltage, is Vdc. The
lower clamping diode, D1’ balances out the voltage sharing between the two lower switches,
S1’ and S2’. While the switch S1’ blocks the voltage across C1, the switch S2’ blocks the
voltage across C2. The voltage between ‘A’ and ‘0’ is the DC voltage whereas the voltage
between ‘A’ and ‘n’ is the AC voltage. It is because the voltage appearing with respect to the
negative inverter terminal (‘0’) is the voltage across each capacitor and the voltage appearing
with respect to the neutral point of the inverter (‘n’) is the aggregate of the capacitor voltages;
giving an AC waveform.

Fig: Output of load current on single leg NPC

In order to obtain three levels across ‘A’ and ‘n’, there are three switch combinations as follows:

Turn on upper switches, S1 and S2, in order to obtain Van = +Vdc/2

Turn on middle switches, S2 and S1’, in order to obtain Van = 0

Turn on lower switches, S1’ and S2’, in order to obtain Van = -Vdc/2

Advantages:

High efficiency for fundamental frequency switching.

In a mass, the DC-link capacitors allow pre-charged.

The three phases share a common DC-bus minimizing the capacitance requirements.

Disadvantages:-

Increased number of clamping diodes.

Neutral point control for balanced voltages across the DC-link capacitors should be achieved for all
conditions of operation.

STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESS OF THE TOPOLOGY

Because of the topologies different designs they also have separate properties that distinguish their
suitability for different applications and situations. Their design and basic principle has been
presented earlier in this work but for further evaluation a short and simple view on the topologies

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positive and negative properties could be helpful. The advantages and disadvantages are listed for
every topology below.

Neutral Point Clamped Multilevel Inverter (NPC)

High efficiency since fundamental switching frequency can be used for all devices

Controllable reactive power flow

Simple control method for back-to-back power transfer system

High number of clamping diodes with high number of voltage levels

Difficulties with active power flow

Capacitor Voltage Balance problem that need complex modulation

PWM Principle:

An inverter contains electronic switches, it is possible to control the output voltage as well as
optimize the harmonics by performing multiple switching within the inverter with the constant dc
input voltage Vd. The PWM principle to control the output voltage is explained in figure4.1.The
fundamental voltage V1 has the maximum amplitude (4Vd / π) at square wave, but by creating two
notches as shown, the magnitude can be reduced. If the notch widths are increased, the
fundamental voltage will be reduced.

Circuit model of a single-phase inverter with a center-taped grounded DC bus, and Fig 4.1 illustrates
principle of pulse width modulation.

Fig.4.1.Circuit model of a single-phase inverter.

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Fig Pulse width modulation

The inverter output voltage is determined in the following:

When Vcontrol > Vtri, VA0 = Vdc/2 When Vcontrol < Vtri, VA0 = −Vdc/2

Also, the inverter output voltage has the following features:

PWM frequency is the same as the frequency ofVtri

Amplitude is controlled by the peak value of Vcontrol

Fundamental frequency is controlled by the frequency of Vcontrol Modulation index (m) is defined as:

m = Vcontrol / Vtri = peakof(AAo)1 / Vdc /2

where, (VA0 )1 : fundamental frequecny component of VA0

The modulation method is an important part of the control structure. It should provide features like:

Wide range of linear operation.

Low content of higher harmonics in voltage and current.

Low frequency harmonics.

The average value of voltage (and current) fed to the load is controlled by turning the switch
between supply and load on and off at a fast pace. The longer the switch is on compared to
the off periods, the higher the power supplied to the load is.

The PWM switching frequency has to be much faster than what would affect the load, which
is to say the device that uses the power. Typically switching’s have to be done several times a
minute in an electric stove, 100 Hz in a lamp dimmer, from few kilohertz (kHz) to tens of
kHz for a motor drive and well into the tens or hundreds of kHz in audio amplifiers and
computer power supplies.

The term duty cycle describes the proportion of 'on' time to the regular interval or 'period' of
time; a low duty cycle corresponds to low power, because the power is off for most of the
time. Duty cycle is expressed in percent, 100% being fully on.

The main advantage of PWM is that power loss in the switching devices is very low. When a
switch is off there is practically no current, and when it is on, there is almost no voltage drop

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across the switch. Power loss, being the product of voltage and current, is thus in both cases
close to zero.

PWM Classification:

There are many possible PWM techniques proposed in the literature. The classifications of PWM
techniques can be given as follows:

Sinusoidal pwm

Selected harmonic elimination pwm

Minimum ripple current pwm

Space-vector pwm

Hysteresis band current control pwm

Delta modulation

Random pwm

Sigma-delta modulation

Sinusoidal pwm with instantaneous current control

Often, PWM techniques are classified on the basis of voltage or current control, feed forward and
feedback method, carrier-or-non-based control, etc. Note that the phase-shift PWM discussed
before can also be classified as a PWM techniques.

4.4.1 Sinusoidal PWM:

The sinusoidal PWM technique is very popular for industrial converters and is discussed extensively
in the literature. The general principle of SPWM, where an isosceles triangle carrier wave of
frequency fc is compared with the fundamental frequency f sinusoidal modulating wave, and the
points of intersection determine the switching points of power devices.

For example, Vao fabrication by switching Q1 and Q4 of half-bridge inverter, is shown in the figure. The
lock-out time between Q1 and Q4 to prevent a shoot-through fault is ignored in the figure.

This method is also known as the triangulation, sub harmonic, or sub oscillation method. The notch
and pulse widths of Vao wave vary in a sinusoidal manner so that the average or fundamental
component frequency is the same f and its amplitude is proportional to the command modulating
voltage. The same carrier wave can be used for all three phases, as shown.

The typical wave shape of line and phase voltages for an isolated neutral load can be plotted
graphically as shown in figure 4.3. the Fourier analysis of the Vao wave is somewhat involved and can
be shown to be of the following form:

Van = 0.5mVd sin (ωt + Φ) + high-frequency (Mωc + Nω) terms

In this method of modulation, several pulses per half cycle are used as in the case of multiple pulse
modulation. In mpm, the pulse width is equal for all the pulses.

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But in spwm, the pulse width is a sinusoidal function of the angular position of the
pulse in a cycle

the desired output voltage is achieved by comparing the desired reference waveform
(modulating signal) with a high-frequency ‘triangular carrier’ wave as depicted schematically
in Fig.1. Depending on whether the signal voltage is larger or smaller than the carrier
waveform, either the positive or negative dc bus voltage is applied at the output.

Fig Sinusoidal PWM

Note that over the period of one triangle wave, the average voltage applied to the load is
proportional to the amplitude of the signal (assumed constant) during this period.

The resulting chopped square waveform contains a replica of the desired waveform in its low
frequency components, with the higher frequency components being at frequencies of a close
to the carrier frequency.

Notice that the root mean square value of the ac voltage waveform is still equal to the dc bus
voltage, and hence the total harmonic distortion is not affected by the PWM process.

The harmonic components are merely shifted into the higher frequency range and are
automatically filtered due to inductances in the ac system.

When the modulating signal is a sinusoid of amplitude Am, and the amplitude of the
triangular carrier is Ac, the ratio m=Am/Ac is known as the modulation index.

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With a sufficiently high carrier frequency (see Fig. 3 drawn for fc/fm = 21 and t = L/R = T/3;
T =period of fundamental)the high frequency components do not propagate significantly in
the ac network (or load)due the presence of the inductive elements.

However, a higher carrier frequency does result in a larger number of switching’s per cycle
and hence in an increased power loss.

Typically switching frequencies in the 2-15 kHz range are considered adequate for power
systems applications.

Also in three-phase systems it is advisable to use so that all three waveforms are symmetric

Space Vector PWM:

Another method for increasing the output voltage about that of the SPWM technique is the
space vector (SVPWM) technique. Compared to THIPWM, the two methods have similar
results but their methods of implementation are completely different. In the SVPWM
technique, the duty cycles are computed rather than derived through comparison as in
SPWM.
The SVPWM technique can increase the fundamental component by up to 27.39% that of
SPWM. The fundamental voltage can be increased up to a square wave mode where a
modulation index of unity is reached.

SVPWM is accomplished by rotating a reference vector around the state diagram, which is
composed of six basic non-zero vectors forming a hexagon. A circle can be inscribed inside
the state map and corresponds to sinusoidal operation. The area inside the inscribed circle is
called the linear modulation region or under-modulation region.
As seen in figure 4.4, the area between the inside circle and outside circle of the hexagon is
called the nonlinear modulation region or over-modulation region. The concepts in the
operation of linear and nonlinear modulation regions depend on the modulation index,
which indirectly reflects on the inverter utilization capability.

Principle of Space vector PWM:

A three-phase mathematical system can be represented by a space vector. For example,


given a set of three-phase voltages, a space vector can defined by

V (t) = 3/2 [Va (t) ej0 + Vb (t) ej2π/3 + Vc (t) ej4π/3] ----------------------------- (4.1)

Where Va (t), Vb (t), and Vc (t) are three sinusoidal voltages of the same amplitude and
frequency but with +1200 phase shifts. The space vector at any given time maintains its
magnitude. As time increases, the angle of the space vector increases, causing the vector to
rotate with a frequency equal to that of the sinusoidal waveforms.

The space–vector diagram of a three-level inverter, shown in Fig. 2,

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It can be thought that it is composed of six small hexagons that are the space–vector diagrams of
conventional two-level inverters. Each of these six hexagons, constituting the space–vector diagram
of a three-level inverter, centers on the six apexes of the inner small hexagon as is shown in Fig. 3.
So, if these six small hexagons are shifted toward the center of the inner hexagon by the space–
vector diagram of a three-level inverter is simplified to that of a two-level inverter. To simplify into
the space–vector diagram of a two-level inverter as explained above, the following two steps have to
be taken. First, from the location of a given reference voltage, on hexagon has to be selected among
the six hexagons. Secondly the original reference voltage vector has to be subtracted by the amount
of the center voltage vector of the selected hexagon. By these two steps, the three-level space–
vector plane is transformed to the two-level space–vector plane. Then the determination of
switching sequence and the calculation of the voltage vector duration time are done as conventional
two-level SVPWM method. As the proposed SVPWM method is same in principle as conventional
two-level SVPWM, various techniques used in two-level SVPWM can be applied to this proposed
method too.

Correction of Reference Voltage Vector :

The simplified three-level space–vector PWM method is described in detail. By the location of a
given reference voltage vector, one hexagon is selected among the six small hexagons that comprise
the three-level space–vector diagram. The reference voltage vector should stay at the inner of the
selected hexagon. This procedure divides the three-level space–vector diagram into six regions that
are covered by each small hexagon as shown in Fig. 3. It represents the selected hexagon. There
exist

the regions that are overlapped by adjacent small hexagons in the three-level space–vector diagram.
So if the reference voltage vector stays at those regions, can have any values that are possible. Fig.
3(a) and (b) illustrate two possible ways of selecting the value of. If those methods shown in Fig. 3(a)

and (b) are used, the value of at the shaded region

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is the original reference voltage vector and is the corrected reference voltage vector

Field oriented control of induction motor

A simple control such as the V/Hz strategy has limitations on the performance. To achieve better
dynamic performance, a more complex control scheme needs to be applied, to control the induction
motor. With the mathematical processing power offered by the microcontrollers, we can implement
advanced control strategies, which use mathematical transformations in order to decouple the
torque generation and the magnetization functions in an AC induction motor. Such decoupled
torque and magnetization control is commonly called rotor flux oriented control, or simply Field
Oriented Control (FOC).

The FOC method has an attractive feature but it suffers with some drawbacks, such as;
requirement of co-ordinate transformations, current controllers, sensitive to parameter
variations, PWM modulators, switching frequency, rotor position measurement and control
tuning loops. These drawbacks of FOC schemes are minimized with the new control strategy
i.e., IFOC scheme, which is introduced by Isao Takahashi and Toshihiko Noguchi, in the mid
1980’s [3]. The direct torque and flux control of an IMD is required for the rotor shaft
angular position information. The rotor shaft position can be measured through either speed
sensors (i.e. speed encoder) or from an estimator/observer using current and voltage signals
and information of the IMD parameters. The use of speed encoder is associated with some
drawbacks, such as, requirement of shaft extension, reduction of mechanical robustness of the
motor drive, reduces the drive reliability and not suitable for hostile environments, and also
costlier.

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The Basic Scheme for the FOC

Two motor phase currents are measured. These measurements feed the Clarke transformation
module. The outputs of this projection are designated 𝑖𝑠α and 𝑖𝑠β . These two components of the
current are the inputs of the Park transformation that gives the current in the d, q rotating reference
frame. The 𝑖𝑠d and 𝑖𝑠q components are compared to the references isdref (the flux reference) and
isqref (the torque reference). At this point, this control structure shows an interesting advantage:
you can control either synchronous or induction machines by simply changing the flux reference and
obtaining rotor flux position. In a synchronous permanent magnet a motor, the rotor flux is fixed
(determined by the magnets) and there is no need to create additional flux. Therefore, when
controlling a IM, 𝑖𝑠dref should be set to zero. Since induction motors need a rotor flux creation in
order to operate, the flux reference must not be zero. This conveniently solves one of the major
drawbacks of the “classic” control structures: the portability from asynchronous to synchronous
drives.

The torque command 𝑖𝑠qref could be the output of the speed regulator when we use a speed
FOC. The outputs of the current regulators are 𝑉𝑠dref and 𝑉𝑠qref . They are applied to the
inverse Park transformation. The outputs of this projection are 𝑉𝑠αref and 𝑉𝑠βref , which are
the components of the stator vector voltage in the (α β) stationary orthogonal reference frame.
These are the inputs of the space vector pulse width modulation (PWM). The outputs of this
block are the signals that drive the inverter. Note that both Park and inverse Park
transformations need the rotor flux position. Obtaining this rotor flux position depends on the
AC machine type (synchronous or asynchronous machine).

Rotor Flux Position

The rotor flux position is the core of the FOC. In fact, if there is an error in this variable the rotor flux
will not be aligned with d-axis, and 𝑖𝑠d and 𝑖𝑠q , flux and torque components of the stator current,

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will be incorrect. Figure shows the (a, b, c), (α, β) and (d ,q) reference frames, and the correct
position of the rotor flux, the stator current, and stator voltage space vector that rotates with d, q
reference at synchronous speed

Figure . Current, Voltage and Rotor Flux Space Vectors in the d, q Rotating Reference Frame and
Their Relationship With a, b, c and (α, β) Stationary Reference Frame

The measure of the rotor flux position is different if we consider synchronous or induction motor:

In the synchronous machine the rotor speed is equal to the rotor flux speed. Then θ (rotor flux
position) is directly measured by position sensor or by integration of rotor speed.

In the induction machine the rotor speed is not equal to the rotor flux speed (there is a slip speed),
then it needs a particular method to calculate θ. The basic method is to use the current model which
needs two equations of the motor model in d, q reference frame.

CHAPTER-5

Rectifier circuit : Twelve pulse diode rectifier circuit Constituted by two delta and star
input transformers and 6+6 diode rectifier units .

Components:

Heat sinks cooling: water cooling

IGBT: Infineon make , control circuits: Concept make

Diodes: Generic

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Simulation Circuit for 3-level NPC inverter

Simulation parameters

Voltages 415v

Resistance 1 ohm
Inductance 0.02H
Capacitance 4700 micro farad

Frequency 50HZ
Carrier frequency 2khz
Modulation Sinusoidal PWM
Load R,L
Rectifier control PWM

Wave forms:

Carrier and gate pulses

vcarrier

Vref

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Line voltage:

Phase voltage

Referrences:-

A. Nabae, I. Takahashi, H. Akagi, "A new neutral-point-clamped PWM inverter", IEEE


Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. IA-17, no. 5, pp. 518-523, Sep./Oct. 1981.

A. Bendre, G. Venkataramanan, D. Rosene, V. Srinivasan, "Modeling and design of a


neutral-point voltage regulator for a three-level diode-clamped inverter using multiple-carrier
modulation", IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 718-726, Jun. 2006.

Muhammad H.Rashid, “power Eletronics: Handbook”, Academy press,2001

Evangelos Kravaritis, Constantinos Sourkounis, “Efficiency analysis of pumps drives for


Space Vector PWM and Hysteresis Band PWM with on operation transaction of the control
method” IEEE Trans. Ind.2017

Mohammed Shafi kp , Joseph Peter , Rijil Ramchand, “Space Vector Based Synchronized
PWM Strategies for Field Oriented Control of VSI fed Induction Motor” IEEE Trans.
Ind.2016

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