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Multiple Effect Evaporator

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13 vues24 pagesMultiple Effect Evaporator

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production of 1 TPD

table salt from

seawater.

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF - PROF. P.K. BANERJEE , CHEMICAL

ENGG DEPARTMENT, JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY.

UG-4TH YEAR (A2) CHEM. ENGG. | ROLL - 001410301087

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Department of Jadavpur University for assigning me a project on the topic “Design

a Multiple Effect Evaporator for manufacture of 1 TPD table salt from seawater”.

I would like to express my heartful gratitude to Prof. P.K. Banerjee of Chemical

Engineering Department of jadavpur University, Jadavpur for allowing me to

complete this work under his elegant supervision and guidance. His

encouragement throughout the times of difficulties was something that cannot be

expressed as mere words. I am deeply indebted to him.

I am also very much grateful to research scholars of Chemical Engineering

Department, for their kind and heartily cooperation. Whenever I found myself in

difficulty, their ever-helping attitudes have given me the courage to proceed

further.

My thanks to all technical lab assistants, library, the office staff members and

classmates of Department of Chemical Engineering for their hearty cooperation

during my project work.

Everything in nature is time bound, so thanks to ‘Almighty’ for successful

completion of the work in time.

Finally I thank my parents, without their blessings I could not have completed this

project.

……………………………..

Adarsh Raj

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the thesis entitled “Design a Multiple Effect Evaporator for

manufacture of 1 TPD table salt from seawater.” has been carried out by Adarsh

Raj in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of the Bachelor of

Chemical Engineering from Jadavpur University, Kolkata is recorded as bona fide

work that has been conducted under the supervision of Prof. P.K. Banerjee

respectively.

....……………………………. ....…………………………….

Prof. P.K. Banerjee Dr. Kajari Kargupta

Project Guide Head of Department

Chemical Engineering Department Chemical Engineering Department

Jadavpur University Jadavpur University

Kolkata-700032 Kolkata-700032

Chapter 1

Introduction

INTRODUCTION

Evaporators are kind of heat transfer equipment where the transfer mechanism is

controlled by natural convection or forced convection. A solution containing a

desired product is fed into the evaporator and it is heated by a heat source like

steam. Because of the applied heat, the water in the solution is converted into

vapour and is condensed while the concentrated solution is either removed or fed

into a second evaporator for further concentration. If a single evaporator is used

for the concentration of any solution, it is called a single effect evaporator system

and if more than one evaporator is used for the concentration of any solution, it is

called a multiple effect evaporator system. In a multiple effect evaporator the

vapour from one evaporator is fed into the steam chest of the other evaporator. In

such a system, the heat from the original steam fed into the system is reused in the

successive effects.

Evaporators are integral part of a number of process industries namely Pulp and

Paper, chlor-alkali, Sugar, pharmaceuticals, Desalination, Dairy and Food

processing, etc (Bhargava et al., 2010). Evaporators find one of their most

important applications in the food and drink industry. In these industries,

evaporators are used to convert food like coffee to a certain consistency in order

to make them last for considerable period of time. Evaporation is also used in

laboratories as a drying process where preservation of long time activity is

required. It is also used for the recovery of expensive solvents and prevents their

wastage like hexane. Another important application of evaporation is cutting down

the waste handling cost. If most of the wastes can be vaporized, the industry can

greatly reduce the money spent on waste handling (Bhargava et al., 2010). The

multiple effect evaporator system considered in the present work is used for the

concentration of sea water to further produce salt. It consists of six effects. The

feed flow sequence considered is forward.

evaporators, where the vapor formed in one effect is used in the next effect. The

vapors reuse in the multiple effect system allows reduction of large amount of

energy to the surrounding, which was the main drawback of the single effect

evaporator system. In addition to the desalination industry (concentrating sea

water), the main bulk of multiple effect evaporation process is found in the food,

pulp and paper, petroleum, and petrochemical industries.The origins of multiple

effect evaporation dates back to 19th century with the growth of sugar industry,

where it was necessary to devise an efficient evaporation process to produce good

quality sugar crystal at low prices.

Although, the first salt concentration plants were of the evaporation type whose

use was not expanded to full industrial scale because of limited design and

operating experience. Such systems were plagued with excessive fouling, scaling,

and corrosion. However, accumulated experiences during the 2nd half of the past

century in thermal desalination processes, headed by MSF process, have resulted I

rapid progress and development of efficient and inexpensive chemical treatment

for reuction and prevention of fouling, scaling, and corrosion.As a result, recent

research , development, pilot plant operation, and field results show superior

perfoemance and many attractive features of the multiple effect evaporation in

comparison with predominant MSF(multi-stage flash distillation) process.

or parallel feed, as shown in fig. 1. The three configurations differ in the flow

directions of the heating steam and evaporating brine. Selection among the three

cnfigurations depends on the variation in salt salt solubility as a function of the top

brine temperature and the maximum brine concentration. At higher tempratures

or higher brine concentraions, scale formation takes place inside and outside the

tube surfaces. This results in the following:

Fig. 1. Configurations of Multiple Effect Evaporation system

Decrease of the available flow area inside the tubes, which causes increase

in the pressure drop and pumping energy, and

Increase of the thermal resistance for the heat transfer. This reduces the

heat transfer efficiency, which results in a lower produt flow rate.

In the backward feed, the seawater is introduced into the last effect, which has

the lowest temperature and pressure within the system. The brine flows

through successive effects towards the first effect. The increase in the pressure

and temperature across the effects dictate the use of brine pumping units

between the effects.

Forward and backward feed multiple effect evaporation.

This feature is a major drawback in the backward feed system; because of the

increase in pumping power, maintenance cost, and the increase in air leakage

point through the pump connections. The second drawback of the system(as

shown in fig. 2) comes into picture where the brine with highest concentration

is subjected to highest temperature in system. It was found that temperature-

concentration profiles crosses the soluility limits for solute(especially in case of

calcium sulfate). These two cases makes the backward feed evaporation

configuration inapplicable to seawater desalination process.

literature which will be discussed in upcoming sections.

Chapter 2

Problem Statement and Process Modelling

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Design a Multiple effect evaporation system for the manufacture of one tonne per

day table salt from sea water.

PROCESS DESCRIPTION

Forward feed multiple effect evaporation system is used here to describe and

model our calculations for the manufacture of 1 tonne per day table salt from sea

water. Although it is not widely used on industrial scale for desalination process,

our modelling of the solution will go quite well with the industry standards for a

forward feed multiple effect evaporation system.

Fig. 3. shows a schematic diagram for the forward-feed multiple effect evaporation

(MEE-FF) sea water desalination process. The system includes the evaporators,

equal to n, a series of feed water preheaters, equal to n-2, a train of flashing boxes,

equal to n-1, a down condenser, and a venting system. The direction of heat flow

as wells as the flow direction of the brine and vapor is from left to right, i.e., from

effect 1 to n. The pressure in the effects decreases in the flow direction.

Fig. 3. Schematic of MEE-FF desalination process

The intake seawater flows into the condenser of the last effect at a flow rate of

Mcf+Mf. This steam absorbs the latent heat of vapors formed in the last effect and

flashing box. Seawater stream heated from the intake temperature, Tcw, to a higher

temperature, Tf. The function of the cooling seawater, Mcw, is to remove the excess

heat added to the system in the first effect by motive steam. In the last effect, this

heat is equivalent to the latent heat of the boiled off vapors. On the other hand,

the feed seawater, Mf, is heated by the flashed off vapors formed in the last effect

and the associated water flash box.

The brine spray forms a thin film around the succeeding rows of horizontal tubes.

The brine temperature rises to the boiling temperature, T1, which corresponds to

the pressure of the vapor space. The saturation temperature of the formed vapor,

Tv1, is less than the brine boiling temperature by the boiling point elevation, (BPE)1.

A small portion of vapor, D1, is formed by the boiling in the first effect. The

remaining brine, Mf - D1, flows into the second effect, which operates at a lower

temperature and pressure. Vapor is formed in effects 2 to n by two different

mechanisms, boiling and flashing.

Motive steam, Ms, extracted from an external boiler drives vapor formation in the

first effect. The vapor formed by boiling in the first effect, D1, is used to drive the

second effect, which operates at a lower saturation temperature, T2. Reduction n

vapor temperature is caused by boiling point elevation, non-equilibrium allowance,

and losses caused by depression the vapor saturation pressure by frictional losses

in the demister, transmission lines, and during condensation. These losses can be

represented as an extra resistance to flow of heat between condensing vapor and

boiling brine. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the heat transfer area to account

for these losses. The amount of vapor formed in the effect j is less than the amount

formed in previous effect. This is because of the increase in latent heat of

vaporization with decrease in the evaporation temperature.

The condenser and the brine heaters are sometimes provided with good vents, first

for purging during start-up and then for removing non-condensable gases, which

may have been introduced with the feed or drawn in through leaks to the system.

The presence of non-condensable gases not only impedes the heat transfer process

but also reduces the temperature at which steam condenses at the given pressure.

This occurs partially because of the reduced partial pressure in a film of poorly

conducting gas at the interface.

As a summary, in any effect, the brine leaving the effect decreases by the amount

of vapor formed by boiling, Dj, and by flashing, dj. Although here flash boxes are not

taken into account for the design.

PROCESS MODELLING

2.1 Analysis of Multiple effect evaporator system

With the increasing trend in the cost of coal, fuel oil it becomes to use the vapors

of previous effect in the steam chest of following effect. This requires the multiple

effect evaporator system .As the number of effect increases the steam economy

increases on the other side capital cost will be more.

There is economic balance between the fixed cost and the operating cost so that

one can select the optimum number of effects.

Fixed Cost:

According to Coston and Lindey,the annual fixed cost of a multiple effect

evaporator is approximately proportional to the 0.75 power of the number of

effects.

V1 = C1/A* N0.75

The estimated cost of a single effect (C1) can be obtained from a number of sources

once the heat transfer surfaces requirements are known.

Operating cost :

Operating costs can be divided in to steam cost and all operating costs (labour,

cooling water,power and maintenance) such that

V1 = h*W*C2/S + V0

H = operating time (hr/yr)

W = evaporation rate (Kg/hr)

C2 = cost of steam (Rs/Kg)

S = steam economy

V0 = all operating cost other than the cost of steam (Rs/Yr)

Steam economy can be expressed as: S = S1+S 1S2+S 1S22+…………..+S 1S2N-1

S = S1 (1-S2N )/ (1-S2)

Thus V2 becomes V2 = (1-S2)h*W*C2/S1 (1-S2N ) + V0

Total cost VT = V1 + V2

VT = C1/A* N0.75 + (1-S2)h*W*C2/S1(1-S2N) + V0

For minimum cost ∆VT/∆N = 0

0 = C1/N{(N+1)0.75 –(N0.75)} + (1-S2)h*W*C2/S1{[1/(1-S2 N+1)]-[1/(1-S2 N )]}

AhwC2/C1 = {[(N+1)0.75–(N0.75)] * S1(1-S2 N )(1-S2 N+1)}/(1-S2) 2 *S2 N

This cost effective approach to find out the number of effects required in the

multiple effect evaporation system can be very useful when we know, or, are

provided with above given data values along with heat transfer area (A).

Multiple effect evaporators involve a large number of state and design – variables.

A change in any variable can upset the operation of the evaporator. To achieve the

goal of energy conservation in multiple effect evaporators, it is necessary to know

how does steam economy alter with changes in operating variables for a given end

product concentration . To quantise the changes in steam economy , a functional

relationship correlating it with variables should be developed. For this, it is

necessary to identify all the variables which affect the steam economy of a multiple

effect evaporator.

2.3 Variables of a multiple effect evaporator :

balancing variables. As regards the geometrical variable , it is the area of heat

transfer surface in each effect of an evaporator . Hence, N-effect evaporator will

have N number of geometrical variables.

From industrial practices .we know that there are some operating variables which

plant engineer can change them independently to annual any imbalance in the

operation of an evaporator . They include: feed temperature, feed concentration

,feed flow rate,and steam temperature (pressure), saturation temperature

(pressure) in the last effect. Feed arrangement (forward/backward/mixed) is also

one of the operating variables. Thus , total number of operating variables is six.

As regards the vapour and liquid streams from each effect of a multiple effect

evaporator, they cannot be changed independently by a plant engineer. Therefore,

they are self balancing streams. The variables associated with these streams are:

flow rate, temperature and concentration of liquid streams ; and saturation

temperature(pressure) of each effect. However, temperature of vapour stream

equals to the temperature of liquid stream. In this way , for N-effect effect

evaporator the number of self balancing variables becomes 5N. It is important to

point out here that the saturation temperature(pressure) of the last effect, has

already been taken in to account as an operating variable . Therefore, it cannot be

considered as a self- balancing variable. Flow rate of steam to the first effect is the

another self-balancing variable whose value is usually not altered. Thus the total

number of net self balancing variables for N- effect evaporator, becomes 5N [=5N-

1+1].

The summation of geometrical, operating and self -balancing variables gives the

total number of variables in an evaporator. They are equal to 6N+6[=N+6+5N].

2.4 Mathematical Model :

A mathematical model of a multiple effect evaporator is a relationship amongst the

geometrical, operating and self -balancing variables. This can be obtained from the

equations of material balance, energy balance, heat transfer rate, and boiling point

rise.

For the simplicity of the mathematical model, following assumptions have been

made in this analysis:

1. The vapours entering in to steam chest of respective effects are at their

saturation temperature.

2. There is no sub cooling of the condensate from different steam chests.

3. Condensation of vapour in steam chest occurs at constant pressure.

4. There is no carry- over of liquid droplets with vapors leaving the respective

effects.

5. There is no heat dissipation to surroundings.

6. Heat transfer surface does not undergo fouling.

The model which we are going to use is a simplified mathematical model, which

gives very efficient and simple tool for system design and evaluation. The model is

solved through a sequence of manual design and calculations. Iterations are not

exhaustive and do not require computer programming. Also, the assumptions

invoked in model development do not sacrifice process fundamentals, specially,

equal heat transfer area in all effects.

The model equations exclude flash boxes and preheaters. The governing equation

for down condenser can be included and its solution is made upon completion of

effect iterations. Following assumptions are made :

Constant specific heat, Cp, for the seawater at different temperature and

concentration.

Constant thermodynamic losses in all effects.

Constant heat transfer area in all effects.

No vapor flashing takes place inside the effetcs.

Feed seawater is at the saturation temperature of the first effect.

Equal thermal loads in all effects.

The formed vapors are salt free.

The driving force for heat transfer in the effect is equal to the difference of

the condensation and evaporation temperatures.

Energy losses to the surroundings are negligible.

Boiling point elevation due to solute not considered in any of the effects.

the following system parameters (should be given, if not, then to be assumed) :

Temperature of the motive steam, Ts.

Vapor temperature in the effect n, Tn.

Salt concentration in the brine stream leaving effect n, Xn.

Salt concentration in the feed stream, Xf.

Total distillate flow rate, Md.

1. Initially temperature in each effect is estimated. To make this estimation, it is

assumed that the heat transfer area in all effects is equal. This leads to:

UD1A1(ΔT1)=UD2A2(ΔT2)=…..=UDnAn(ΔTn)

Overall temperature drop across the effect is calculated (drop between the

steam in 1st effect and the saturation temp of the last effect).

ΔTtot = ΔT1 + ΔT2 + … + ΔTn

2. Calculate the total amount of solvent vaporized from the feed and product

concentration and feed flow rate. It is assumed that heat transfer rate in each effect

is roughly equal. This signifies that the rates of vaporization in each effect are also

roughly equal. Calculate the approximate vaporization rate in each effect (it is one-

third of total amount of solvent vaporized in one effect in case triple effect system).

Calculate the concentration in each effect and then overall temperature drop.

3. Redistribute the overall temperature drop ( ΔTtot) among the all the effects. Since

the areas are the same (A1 = A2 = A3 ), the temperature difference in each effect is

roughly proportional to the overall transfer coefficients.

UD1A1(ΔT1)=UD2A2(ΔT2)=…..=UDnAn(ΔTn)

ΔT2 = ΔT1 (UD1/UD2) , ΔTn = ΔT1 (UD1/UDn)

ΔTtot = ΔT1 + ΔT2 + … + ΔTn = ΔT1 (1 + UD1/UD2 + .. + UD1/UDn)

Thus, calculate ΔT1 , ΔT2 , …. , ΔTn.

4. Calculated value of temperature drop in each effects is used to composition is

used to calculate enthalpy values. Same reference should be used for all streams.

Enthalpy balance equations solved to get mass flow rates in effects.

5. Heat transfer equations used to calculate heat transfer area for each effect.

6. Areas obtained are compared. If they are not equal, then calculation repeted

using the areas obtained to revise temperature estimates.

Calculations repeated until area of each effect is approximately equal.

Or, A convergence criterion is defined which is based on the maximum difference

in heat transfer areas -

ΔAmax - Max (Ai+1 - Ai), with i = 1, 2,… , n-1

The iteration tolerance may be specified as a large number, i.e., 1 m2, if small

number of iterations (1 or 2) are needed. For higher accuracy, a smaller tolerance

such as 0.1 m2 or 0.01 m2 is used.

Chapter 3

Conclusion

CONCLUSION

The previous mentioned mathematical model was used to design our multiple

effect evaporator system.

Our concentrated sea water having conc. of 80,000 ppm at the exit will then be

full evaporated to get the required amount of table salt (1 tpd) from the industry.

Our design was based on the pre-specified number of effects i.e., 6. To optimize

the the number of effects we are to do the calculation regarding the cost required

and then optimize from that.

REFERENCES

1. http://nptel.ac.in/courses/103103027/13

2. http://ethesis.nitrkl.ac.in/1911/1/10600012.pdf

3. http://nptel.ac.in/courses/103107096/module4/lecture2/lecture2.pdf

4. El-Dessouky, H.T., Alatiqi, I., Bingulac, S., and Ettouney, H.M., Steady-state

analysis of the multiple effect evaporation desalination process, Chem. Eng.

Tech., 21(1998)437-451

5. https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B_38RxsnElO1WGE3Tm9yOUh6SWc

(simplified MEE design)

6. https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B_38RxsnElO1SS1HMzRFMXU3R3M

(steady-state design of MEE)