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UNIT 11 SOFTY AND NOVELTIES –

DEFINITION, COMPOSITION,
LEGAL STANDARDS AND
METHOD OF MANUFACTURE
Structure
11.0 Objectives
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Legal Standards
11.3 Formulation of Soft Serve Ice Cream
11.4 Composition
11.5 Manufacturing Procedures
11.6 Ice Cream Novelties
• Method of Manufacture
• Chocolate Coatings
• Ice Cream Cakes and Pies
• Aufait Ice Cream
• Other Novelties
• Cassata Ice Cream
• Chocolate Jam Sticks
• Quiescently Frozen Stick Items

11.7 Indigenous Frozen Dairy Products


11.8 Let Us Sum Up
11.9 Key Words
11.10 Some Useful Books
11.11 Answers to Check Your Progress

11.0 OBJECTIVES
After reading this unit we should be able to:
• state the meaning of softy and novelties
• prepare recipes for these products
• explain the method of manufacture of these products
• give the legal requirements of these products
• give the composition of these products

11.1 INTRODUCTION
Softy or ‘scoop able ice cream’ was first marketed in earnest in England in 1975.
The aim was to produce a type of ice cream that was scoopable at -18 C and that
had a good creamy consistency, slow meltdown properties and good storage stability. 59
Frozen Dairy Products While hard ice cream has been the dominant frozen dessert produced world wide
for many years, other frozen dessert products have their niche, and in many countries
are more popular than ice cream. The American market in recent years have seen
the introduction of a number of other dairy and non dairy soft serve products, such
as frozen yoghurt, sorbets and smoothies.
As the name implies, soft serve products are not hardened, and its is their soft,
creamy texture that the public finds so appealing. They are easy to consume, thus
providing instant gratification. They are especially easy to lick, a characteristic
particularly enjoyed by children, who make up 50 per cent of the consumer base for
soft serve products. Such products also lend themselves to decreased labour costs,
as evidenced by the growing numbers of consumers willing to serve themselves
from soft serve freezers in supermarkets and convenience stores and restaurants.
Other than the investment in the equipment, handling soft serve products is a relatively
low-cost operation. The equipment takes up little space and is easy to operate. The
products increase profit margins and are self-promoting when the machinery is in
public view. Two major categories of soft serve products, low fat and non fat soft
ice cream and frozen yoghurt, attained amazing sales growth during the late 1980s
because of intense consumer interest in the diet and health.

11.2 LEGAL STANDARDS


In India there are no separate legal standards for soft serve ice cream. The Prevention
of Food Adulteration Act (1954) has specified the same standard for ‘Softy’ as that
of ice cream.

11.3 FORMULATION OF SOFT SERVE ICE


CREAM
There are several ways of obtaining softness in ice cream, and sometimes these may
be combined if required. The following techniques are used:
• Addition of an anti-frost preparation of carbohydrate nature, including MSNF
• Increase of the overrun
• Selection of specific emulsifiers/ stabilizers.
The first is the most important point, and the effect of using freezing point depression
factors is discussed below:
i. Lower the Freezing Point
In traditional ice cream there are various ingredients, but not all of them have an
influence on the freezing point of ice cream mix
Degree of freezing point depression

Fat: Of no importance
MSNF: Limited importance (contains lactose and salts)
Sugars Great importance (give the main effect)
Emulsifier/stabilizer No importance
Overrun Great importance
60
Consequently, the freezing point depression is sought from lactose and salts of MSNF Softy and Naovelties –
Definition,
as well as the sugars. Composition, Legal
Standards and Method
ii Effect of MSNF on Freezing Point Depression of Manufacture

It is known that MSNF consists of approximately 8% minerals, 39% protein and


53% lactose. Lactose is a disaccharide that is in the dissolved state. It lowers the
freezing point just like ordinary sugar. The salt content will also have an influence on
the freezing point and generally it may be assumed that the MSNF will depress the
freezing point to the same extent as a 40-50 DE glucose syrup.
Lactose, is an important part of MSNF, but is only partially soluble. If the MSNF
factor (i.e. parts of MSNF per 100 parts of water):
%MSNF × 100
i.e.
% water
is increased to more than 17, the result will be the risk of a sandy ice cream.
By means of enzyme lactase, the lactose may be hydrolyzed into monosaccharides,
glucose and galactose which are more soluble and these sugars will lower the freezing
point more than the lactose.
However, MSNF has a limited effect on the freezing point depression. The main
effect is achieved by the sugars, which are present.
iii. Effect of Sugars on Freezing Point Depression
The freezing point of an ice cream mix is first of all dependent on the amount of
dissolved solids. The more are the solids dissolved (in the genuine solution), the
lower the freezing point. The sugars produce a lowering of the freezing point and it
is its molar concentration that determines the freezing point of the ice cream mix.
In order to survey the effect of different products, it is necessary to introduce two
factors that are related to lowering of the freezing point and the sweetening ability of
sugars.
The factors are: Freezing point depression factor (FPDF) and Relative sweetness
Table 11.1 : Freezing point depression and relative sweetness of some
sweeteners
Carbohydrate Average molecular FPDF Relative
weight sweetness
Sucrose 342 1.0 1.0
Glucose syrup 42 DE 445 0.8 0.3
High fructose corn syrup (42% 190 1.8 1.0
fructose)
Dextrose 180 1.9 0.8
Fructose 180 1.9 1.7
Invert sugar 180 1.9 1.3
Lactose 342 1.0 0.2
Galactose 180 1.9 0.3
Sorbitol 182 1.0 0.5
Glycerol 92 3.7 0.8
Ethanol 46 7.4 -

In the above table, sucrose was chosen as the datum point and the FPDF and
relative sweetness of each sweetener is compared with it. 61
Frozen Dairy Products For example, the same amount of dextrose will lead to greater freezing point
depression than sucrose due to the difference in molecular weights, and conversely
glucose syrup will produce a less freezing point depression than sucrose. By combining
different sweeteners, it is possible to produce desired softness and relative sweetness.
Experience has shown that ice cream with FPDF of about 15 will be relatively hard
at -18 C and not scoopable, whereas scoopable ice cream should have a FPDF of
around 20-25.
A well known and easy way of obtaining scoopable ice cream is to add 2-3%
glycerol. The following recipe shows the effect of keeping the total sweetness constant:
Recipe:
Fat 10.0%
MSNF 10.7%
Sucrose 11.0%
Glucose solids 3.0%
Glycerol 2.0%
Emulsifier/stabilizer 0.7%
Total solids 37.4%
Calculation of FPDF and Relative sweetness
sweetness FPDF Relative
Sucrose, 11% 11 × 1 = 11 11 × 1 = 11
Glucose solids, 3% 3 × 0.8 = 2.4 3 × 0.3 = 0.9
Glycerol, 2% 2 × 3.7 = 7.4 2 × 0.8 = 1.6
20.8 13.5
The addition of 2% glycerol produces a FPDF of 20.8 which will be sufficient to
give the product scoopable properties.
The effect of other combinations can be considered, especially if a combination of
saccharides can be used to produce acceptable softness and sweetness in the final
product. A recipe which can be considered without the use of glycerol is shown
below:
Recipe:
Fat 10.0%
MSNF 10.6%
Sucrose 4.5%
High fructose corn solids 6.0%
Glucose solids 2.0%
Dextrose 4.5%
Emulsifier/stabilizer 0.7%
Total solids 37.3%
62
Calculation of FPDF and Relative sweetness Softy and Naovelties –
Definition,
FPDF Relative sweetness Composition, Legal
Standards and Method
of Manufacture
Sucrose, 4.5% 4.5 × 1 = 4.5 4.5 × 1 = 4.5
Glucose solids, 2% 2 × 0.8 = 1.6 2 × 0.3 = 0.6
High fructose corn solids, 5% 5 × 1.8 = 9.0 5 x 1 = 5.0
Dextrose, 4.5% 4.5 × 1.9 = 8.6 4.5 × 0.8 = 3.6
23.7 13.7
The correct choice of saccharides can make it possible to produce a scoopable ice
cream with the same solids and total sweetness as that of regular ice cream.

11.4 COMPOSITION
The differences between soft serve and regular ice cream include:
• Composition
• Freezing procedures
• Stability and whipping properties of the mix
• Maintenance of dry, smooth, stiff characteristics of the product as drawn from
the freezer.
i) Fat: Soft serve ice cream has a lower butter fat than the hard product, but it is
difficult for the consumer to tell because the soft state allows full flavour. Soft
serve ice cream normally has a fat content between 6 to 10% range. If fat
content is low, i.e. less than 4%, the product tends to become coarse, weak
and icy. If the fat content is high (above 12%) freezing problem is encountered.
This involves possible fat separation, and also, the product becomes too rich
and less palatable.
ii) Milk Solids-Not-Fat (MSNF): The MSNF content of soft frozen products
varies somewhat inversely with the fat content and can be as high as 13% for a
low fat formula. MSNF serves for provide proper firmness of body. In products
having a high MSNF content, the lactose may separate during freezing and
cause a sandy defect. Normally soft serve products consists of 11-14% MSNF.
Soft serve mixes should have a slightly lower MSNF than normal ice cream, as a
slightly lower MSNF (MSNF factor 16-16.5) contributes to a higher degree
of fat destabilization, thus, ensuring better stand-up and slower meltdown (a
MSNF factor of 17 is recommended for plain, hardened ice cream).
Since the soft-serve mix is exposed to a mechanical treatment for alonger period of
time in the freezer, this can cause excessive churning of fat, resulting in a greasy
texture. This can be avoided by incorporating whey proteins which impart greater
stability to fat emulsion, and consequently less fat destabilization and ‘churning
out’ effect of the emulsifier. Replacement of 10-15% MSNF with whey powder
adds to the freshness of soft-serve ice cream and fat destabilization is also
brought under control.
iii) Sugar: The sugar content of soft serve products is 13-15%, which is slightly
lower than for regular ice cream. The amount of corn sugar used to replace
63
Frozen Dairy Products cane sugar is limited to about 25% in order to avoid too low a freezing point.
However, corn syrup solids, instead of corn syrup, can be added as they provide
firmness and also raise the freezing point slightly (corn syrup solids depress the
freezing point less than corn syrup and sucrose) thereby enabling the drawing
of ice cream at almost the same temperature as normal ice cream.
Stiffness and dryness of mix is extremely important for getting a smooth, creamy
finished product from the soft serve freezer. Those characteristics are achieved
by two ways:
• By reducing the sugar content of mix by 2-3% of that used for a hard ice
cream product
• Drawing the product at lower temperature 21 to 22 F. This lower
temperature not only produces a stiffer product, but makes it immediately
suitable for serving to public.
iv) Emulsifiers and stabilizers: Higher amounts of emulsifiers and stabilizers
are added to provided desirable whipping properties, smoothness, firmness
and melting resistance.
Emulsifiers have several main effects in ice cream:
• To facilitate the dispersion of the fat in fine, uniform globules during whipping
• To promote and control destabilization of the fat and to secure a good fat
protecting membrane around the air cells
• To aid aeration during freezing by permitting better air distribution with a
smaller air cell size.
Thanks to these effects an ice cream with a creamy consistency, slow meltdown
and improved storage stability can be produced. These are exactly the properties
that are needed in scoopable ice cream. It is advantageous to increase the
addition of emulsifier in scoopable ice cream, due to increased level of the
liquid water phase at any given temperature.
The main effect of stabilizers in ice cream systems is to bind water resulting in
higher mix viscosity and superior body in the finished ice cream as well as
controlling the mobility of the residual aqueous phase. As mentioned above,
there is more liquid phase in scoopable ice cream, which means that more
stabilizer is needed to bind the water present. A 5 to 10% increase in emulsifier/
stabilizer content is advisable.
v) Other additives: Products like calcium sulphate can be used at the rate of
0.12% to produce dryness and stiffness in ice cream.
Check Your Progress 1
1. List the different ways normally used for obtaining softness in ice cream.
...................................................................................................................
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...................................................................................................................
2. Give a recipe for soft serve ice cream.
...................................................................................................................
64
................................................................................................................... Softy and Naovelties –
Definition,
................................................................................................................... Composition, Legal
Standards and Method
of Manufacture
3. How soft serve ice cream differs form regular ice cream?
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
4. What has to be done to get the proper stiffness and dryness in soft serve ice
cream?
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................

11.5 MANUFACTURING PROCEDURE


i) Selection of ingredients: Fresh, sweet dairy products should be preferred
for making soft serve mix in order to obtain a good quality product. Generally,
cane sugar is used but a part of it is replaced with dextrose or corn syrup. The
selection of ingredients should be based on the composition given in section
above.
ii) Mixing of ingredients: To avoid difficulties in mixing, pre-calculated quantities
of dry ingredients, i.e. milk power, sugar and stabilizer should be mixed in a lot.
Similarly, the liquid ingredients, viz., milk and cream, etc. should be mixed
separately in a container. The dry mixture shall be incorporated within the liquid
ingredients mixture gradually with constant stirring and heating to the
homogenization temperature of 65.5 C.
iii) Homogenization: In order to avoid fat separation, clumping of fat and fat
churning in soft ice cream, the mix should be homogenized in two stages. First
at a pressure of 2500 psi. and then at a pressure 500 psi.
iv) Pasteurization: To safeguard health consumers by means of destroying all the
pathogenic and disease producing organisms present in the mix, it must always
be pasteurized. Pasteurization is normally done at 80 C for 25 seconds by
High Temperature Short Time (HTST) method or at 69 C for 30 min. by Batch
method.
v) Ageing of mix: The mix is to be aged at temperatures 2-5 C for at least 4 to 6
hours before freezing.
vi) Freezing: A soft ice cream freezer, apart from freezing a portion of water of
ice cream mix, also incorporates the air in the mix to obtain a swell in volume or
‘overrun’. A soft ice cream freezer is very similar to the batch freezer of ice
cream. It is usually a self contained machine in which the low pressure
refrigeration system is either directly attached, or is adjacent to the freezer.
The design of the dasher is such that it gives a good degree of aeration to the mix as
it freezes and can operate for a long period of time without undue breaking down of
the ice cream mix. Excessive speed of the dasher causes too much air to be
incorporate, and adversely affects the body of ice cream if the dasher ran for extended
65
Frozen Dairy Products periods of time. The refrigeration system is so designed that the freezer cylinder is
kept at the proper temperature for a soft serve ice cream for an indefinite period of
time. Most of these freezer use Freon as a refrigerant. In this case, they often use a
thermo valve control rather than the flooded system. Care and maintenance of this
type of freezer consists mainly of keeping the scraper blades properly sharpened,
and ensuring that the refrigeration system is properly adjusted.
The automatic cycling of ice cream can cause major problems including fat separation,
occurrence of sandiness due to lactose crystallization and coarse texture.
Soft server frozen products are usually drawn from the freezer at -6.5 to -7.5 C.
The overrun of soft serve varies between 40-60% depending on the total solids
content. It is possible to achieve high overrun and desired body and texture
characteristics on a product with a high solids content.
Table 11.2: Overrun and serving temperatures for different types of ice
cream
Products Overrun, % Serving temperature, C
Soft serve 40-60 -5.5 to -6.6
Sherbet 30-50 -6.1 to -7.2
Milk shake 50-80 -2.2 to -3.3
Hardened ice cream 80-100 -12.8 to -15.0

11.6 ICE CREAM NOVELTIES


The term ‘novelty’ means something unique. As it related to ice cream, we mean any
single-serve portion-controlled product. Worldwide, especially in Europe, ice cream
novelties enjoy an even bigger market. Every shape size, and flavour are being
offered : from ice cream and frozen yoghurt to sorbets and non fat products.
Methods of Preparation
Ice cream novelties are prepared either on a brine system or through an extrusion
system. Using the brine system, semi-frozen ice cream is poured into molds that are
placed inside a brine tank to freeze the product at -20 F. The extrusion method
enables a manufacturer to produce unusual types of novelties that are impossible to
produce on a brine system.
Using the extrusion method, the ice cream must be frozen to certain stiffness so that
it retains its form between the time it is extruded until it enters a hardening tunnel.
The ice cream is drawn from the continuous freezer at 20-22 F. The external contour
of the slice can be almost of any desired shape of the extrusion nozzle. Complex
extrusions utilizing more than one flavour or colour can be produced from multi-
flavour extrusion nozzles supplied by more than one continuous freezer barrel. By
placing different extrusion devises inside each other, faces with eyes, noses and
mouths can be formed, as well as other intricate designs.
Semisolid ice cream is drawn either vertically or horizontally. As the stiff extruded
ice cream flows through the extrusion nozzle, portions of appropriate size are cut off
by an electrically heated wire. In vertical extrusion, the flat portion of ice cream falls
precisely onto a continuous row of stainless steel supporting plates fastened to a
conveyor chain which carries the portions into the hardening tunnel for rapid freezing.
The temperature in the hardening tunnel is usually in the range -45 F to -50 F. A
10% ice cream butter fat mix with 85-100% overrun is most commonly used.
66
i. Chocolate Coatings Softy and Naovelties –
Definition,
More than 1/3rd of all ice cream novelties produced have some kind of exterior Composition, Legal
Standards and Method
chocolate coating. Chocolate bars consist of vanilla ice cream stick which has been of Manufacture
dipped in chocolate coating. The composition of chocolate coating can be the
following (on weight basis):
Chocolate mass : 65-70 parts
Coconut oil : 27-32 parts
Cocoa butter: 1-1.5 parts
Dextrose : 1-1.5 parts
Lecithin : 0.3 – 0.4 parts
Refined deodorized coconut oil is added as a thinner, to increase the coating ability.
The quantity of coconut oil will vary with the amount of chocolate mass. Higher
amount of chocolate mass will require more quantity of coconut oil to avoid the
excessive viscosity. Coconut oil is preferred since other oils have melting points
which are too low for satisfactory use in coatings
ii. Ice Cream Cakes and Pies
These products can be made with freezer attachments designed for filling the cake
or the pie plate. The cake plate is usually inserted into a cardboard package the
support the form of cake during handling and delivery.
Ice cream pies can be modified by using fruit flavoured gelatin, instead of the filling
of preserved fruit or fruit ice cream which is ordinarily used. The pie crusts are about
½ inch thick and can be made by hardening vanilla ice cream between two plates.
Closed or open pies can be made by this procedure. The pies and cakes can be
decorated with whipped cream.
iii. Aufait Ice Cream
Aufait ice cream usually consists of a layer of fruit between two layers of ice cream.
iv. Other Novelties
Variegated or rainbow ice cream is made by mixing several different colours as the
product is packaged. The variegated ice cream sundae, and other colourful products
are packaged in transparent plastic container to have a good consumer appeal.
v. Cassata Ice Cream
This is essentially ice cream on a sponge cake. Hemispherical moulds of aluminum
are used in making this ice cream. The outer layer is usually made of chocolate ice
cream. Different varieties of ice cream constitute the middle and inner layer. The ice
cream which constitutes the outer layer is first filled in the mould (outer mould) from
the freezer. Another mould which is smaller in size, is inserted into the first mould and
pressed so that the ice cream occupies the annular space between the two moulds.
This ice cream is hardened and the smaller mould is taken out.
Ice cream is now filled again into the mould and another smaller mould of a different
size is inserted and pressed lightly. This ice cream layer now forms the middle layer.
The ice cream is hardened and the smaller mould taken out. Now a third variety of
ice cream is filled into the outer mould and this ice cream constitutes the innermost
67
layer. The mould is hardened and ice cream is taken out by dipping the mould in
Frozen Dairy Products slightly warm water. Now the three layer ice cream is inverted on the sponge cake
to which thin coating of whipped cream has been applied. The whipped cream
serves the purpose of an adhesive between the cake and ice cream. This cassata ice
cream is transferred to the cold store or hardening tunnel so that it becomes sufficiently
hard for slicing into small pieces.
vi. Chocolate Jam Sticks
These are made by coating vanilla sticks with white chocolate and injecting the
vanilla portion with a flavoured syrup of jam base which constitutes the innermost
core.
A white chocolate coating is made by adding a thinner, cocoa butter and an emulsifier.
Usually coconut oil is added as a thinner and lecithin is added as an emulsifier. An
appropriate amount of colour (oil soluble) is added to the coating so that it is
characteristic of the flavour added to the syrup or jam base. The total solids content
of the syrup or jam base is so adjusted that its freezing point is much lower than the
vanilla portion. But the syrup should have a sufficiently high viscosity so that it does
not drip while eating. A syrup or jam base consists of sucrose, glucose syrup, citric
acid, stabilizer, water, fruit pulp or concentrate and flavour.
vii. Quiescently Frozen Stick Items
These items include water ice frozen without overrun in a stick and cream on a stick
which has ice cream centre with quiescently frozen outer section.
Water ice: The following formula is suggested for an ice base (on weight basis)
Water : 85-95 parts
Cane sugar : 20-23 parts
Glucose syrup : 5-7 parts
Stabilizer : 0.25-0.35 parts
Citric acid : 0.35-0.50 parts
Brix : 22-24
1. Weigh the stabilizer carefully and mix it with cane sugar in the ratio 1:3 parts by
weight and add the required amount of water. Then agitate until it is fully
suspended. It is necessary to maintain the temperature of the mixture between
60-70 C to fully dissolve the stabilizer.
2. Add the remaining amount of cane sugar and the required amount of glucose
syrup, and agitate until it is fully dissolved. If necessary, homogenize at 100
bars to obtain homogenous mix.
3. Pasteurize at 80-85 C for 20-40 sec and cool the mixture; add citric acid,
desired colour and flavour.
4. Ageing for 4 hours to impart a smooth body when gelatin or agar agar is used
as a stabilizer.
Pour the mix into the mould and allow sufficient space in the pocket for expansion
during freezing. Place the moulds in the brine tank at -25 to -30 C.
On partial freezing, insert the sticks into the mould pockets (the water ice should be
just sufficiently firm and hard to hold the sticks).
68
Freezing us usually accomplished in 15-20 min. The frozen sticks are then taken out Softy and Naovelties –
Definition,
by immersing the mould in hot water for a few seconds. Composition, Legal
Standards and Method
For a cream-on-a-stick item, a special filler attachment can be used so that in one of Manufacture
operation, a freezer can be used to freeze the ice cream to 100% overrun for the
centre, and a second freezer to freeze the ice or sherbet shell to 10-15% overrun for
the shell.

11.7 INDIGENOUS FROZEN DAIRY PRODUCTS


i. Kulfi
It is a frozen dessert characterized by slight whitish to brownish appearance, compact
body, icy texture and nutty, cooked, caramelized flavour. It is popular in the northern
and western parts of India. In the traditional process, milk is thickened in a shallow
pan with constant agitation. Sugar, nuts, essence and colour are added towards the
finishing stages. Concentrated mass is poured into metallic moulds and frozen in a
mixture of ice and salt.
In the industrial process, the ingredients used are the same as for ice cream – milk,
cream, skim milk powder, sugar and stabilizer. Water is added to dilute the mixture
(not having stabilizer and a small amount of sugar), and the fat: MSNF ratio is
maintained at 1.4:1. usually, the fat in the finished product is about 16%. The required
quantity of ingredients are taken in an open steam kettle and the contents heated
with vigorous agitation. When the mixture has been concentrated approximately
two times, the stabilizer blended with little sugar (1:3 parts by weight) is added to
the concentrated mix, and the heating and agitation is continued till the mixture has
been concentrated three times. The concentrated mass is then cooled promptly and
frozen in a batch freezer to an overrun of 20-30%. Chopped nuts, almonds, pistachio,
flavour and colour are added in the freezer. The frozen mix is transferred immediately
into the moulds having freezing pockets. Wooden sticks are inserted and the mix
hardened in a brine tank maintained at -23 to -30 C. The mould is then transferred
into a tank having lukewarm water to defrost the bars so that they can be easily lifted
from the freezing pockets. The bars are wrapped in papers, put in corrugated boxes
and placed in cold store until further distribution.
ii. Malai ka baraf:
It is popular in northern and western parts of India. It is similar to kulfi and prepared
by freezing a mixture of malai (heat desiccated/clotted milk), sugar, nuts and essence.
This product has a plastic body, crunchy, icy texture , and delicate, nutty and caramel
flavour.
Check Your Progress 2
1. Describe how mix is prepared for soft serve ice cream.
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
2. Give the composition of chocolate coating used in chocolate bars.
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
69
Frozen Dairy Products 3. Give the drawing temperature and overrun of soft serve ice cream and regular
hardened ice cream?
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...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
4. Describe the industrial method of preparation of kulfi?
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11.8 LET US SUM UP


There is a significant demand for ‘soft ice cream’. The term soft ice cream applies to
those products which are marketed in the soft form, and are consumed immediately
after they are drawn from the freezer.
The differences between soft serve ice cream and regular ice cream include :
composition, freezing procedures, stability and whipping properties of the mix, and
the maintenance of dry, smooth, stiff characteristics of the product as drawn from
the freezer.
The term ‘novelty’ means something unique. As it related to ice cream, we mean any
single-serve portion-controlled product. Today, machinery can produce protion-
control portions of nearly every shape and size such as coated and uncoated bars,
cups, fancy funny face and character bar and ice cream sandwiches. But the human
element is still critical in the production of ice cream novelties.
Indigenous frozen desserts include Kulfi, which is a frozen dessert characterized by
slight whitish to brownish appearance, compact body, icy texture and nutty, cooked,
caramelized flavour. It is popular in the northern and western parts of India. In the
traditional process, milk is thickened in a shallow pan with constant agitation. Sugar,
nuts, essence and colour are added towards the finishing stages. Concentrated mass
is poured into metallic moulds and frozen in a mixture of ice and salt and Malai-ka-
baraf, which is similar to kulfi and prepared by freezing a mixture of malai (heat
desiccated/clotted milk), sugar, nuts and essence. This product has a plastic body,
crunchy, icy texture, and delicate, nutty and caramel flavour.

11.9 KEY WORDS


Cassata : This refers to ice cream on a sponge cake.
Clumping of fat : Aggregates of fat, which form at elevated
temperatures under certain conditions of
homogenization of milk, cream, or ice cream
mix. A second homogenization at lower
pressures (500 psi.) aids in breaking up fat
clumps that may have formed during the first
stage of homogenization.
Coarse or icy texture : This is the most common texture defect in ice
70 cream. It indicates that the ice crystals are
large or not uniform in size, or that the air cells Softy and Naovelties –
Definition,
are too large. Composition, Legal
Cooked flavour : A cooked flavour is due to chemical changes. Standards and Method
of Manufacture
Milk and milk products, when subjected to
high temperatures develop this flavour. This
flavour arises from the sulphydryl groups
activated by heat denaturation of whey
proteins and the proteins of fat globule
membrane.
Freezing point of mix : The temperature at which ice cream mix will
freeze, approximately 27 to 28 F depending
on the sugar content of the mix. Mix with
lower sugar content will freeze at a slightly
higher temperature.
Hardening of ice cream : It refers to the second phase of freezing where
freezing in cups/packages is accomplished
without agitation. The time required for
hardening is the time necessary for the
temperature of the center of the package to
reach to –18 C.
Heat shock resistance : Ability of ice cream to maintain its structure
when it is subjected to extreme fluctuations in
temperature.
Homogenization : to bring about homogeneity; it refers to
breaking of fat globules to less than 2 microns
so that a permanent and uniform suspension
of the fat is obtained.
MSNF factor : It is defined as the ratio of per cent MSNF to
per cent water present in the ice cream mix,
multiplied by 100.
Overrun : It is the increase in volume of ice cream over
the volume of mix, expressed as percent of
the volume of mix.
Sandy texture : This is related to the presence of large lactose
crystals in ice cream. Fairly large lactose
crystals are hard to dissolve in the mouth and
they cause a gritty sensation as though the ice
cream contained sand.
Soggy body : Ice cream which is heavy and somewhat wet
in appearance.
Texture : Texture is the attribute of a substance related
to its finer structure- the size, shape and
arrangement of the small particles. The texture
of ice cream is dependent on the number, size,
shape and arrangement of the ice crystals and
other particles.
Weak body : Ice cream is said to have a weak body when
it melts down to a liquid of low consistency.
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Frozen Dairy Products Whipped cream : Cream that contains enough butter fat to allow
incorporation of air. The whipped cream owes
its stability to the “islands of fat” that result
from partial churning.
Whipping ability : It refers to those properties of a mix which
determine the rate at which air can be
incorporated and the maximum overrun that
can be obtained.

11.10 SOME USEFUL BOOKS


Arbuckle, W.S.1986, Ice Cream, 4th edition. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company,
New York.
Bhandari, Vivek, 2001. Ice cream : Manufacture and Technology, 1st edition, Tata
McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi.
Hyde, K.A. and Rothwell, J., 1973, Ice Cream, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.
Sommer, H.H., 1951. The theory and practice of ice cream making, 6th edition.
Olsen Publ. Co., Milwaukee, WI.
Stogo, M., 1998. Ice cream and Frozen Desserts. A commercial guide to production
and marketing, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.

11.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


Your answer should include the following points:
Check your progress 1
1. i. Addition of an anti-frost preparation of carbohydrate nature, including
MSNF
ii. Increase of the overrun
iii. Selection of specific emulsifiers/ stabilizers.
2. Recipe:
Fat 10.0%
MSNF 10.6%
Sucrose 4.5%
High fructose corn solids 6.0%
Glucose solids 2.0%
Dextrose 4.5%
Emulsifier/stabilizer 0.7%
Total solids 37.3%
3. i. Composition
ii. Freezing procedures
72 iii. Stability and whipping properties of the mix
4. i. Reducing the sugar content of mix by 2-3% of that used for a hard ice Softy and Naovelties –
Definition,
cream product Composition, Legal
Standards and Method
ii. Drawing the product at lower temperature 21 to 22 F. of Manufacture

iii. Use of calcium sulphate at the rate of 0.12%.


Check your progress 2
1. i. Selection of ingredients: Fresh, sweet dairy products – part of cane sugar
replaced with dextrose or corn syrup
ii. Mixing of ingredients: mixing of dry ingredients with liquid ingredients -
heating to 65.5 C.
iii. Homogenization at a pressure of 2500 psi. and then at a pressure 500
psi.
iv. Pasteurization at 80 C for 25 seconds or at 69 C for 30 min.
v. Ageing of mix: at 2-5 C for at least 4 to 6 hours before freezing.
2. Chocolate mass : 65-70 parts; Coconut oil : 27-32 parts; Cocoa butter: 1-1.5
parts; Dextrose : 1-1.5 parts;Lecithin : 0.3 – 0.4 parts
3.
Overrun Drawing temperatures
Soft serve 40-60 -5.5 to -6.6
Hardened ice cream 80-100 -12.8 to -15.0

4. Milk, cream, skim milk powder, sugar and stabilizer - required quantity of
ingredients are taken in an open steam kettle and the contents heated with
vigorous agitation - concentrate approximately two times – blend in stabilizer
with little sugar- heating till mixture is concentrated three times - cooled - frozen
to overrun of 20-30% - transfer into the moulds having freezing pockets –
insert wooden sticks - hardened at -23 to -30 C

73