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# ELP-311 : Lab Report

Laboratory - 2

## Submitted by: Monday Sub-Group 7 :- Yash Garg – 2015EE10691

Shivam Chandra – 2015EE10379

## Objective​ :-​ To understand the generation of an AM signal, envelope detection

and message signal recovery by performing following experiments​:

## 1) To generate Amplitude modulated signals for different value ranges of

modulation depth index and observe their trapezoid x-y diagrams.

## 2) To visualize and detect the envelope of AM signals to recover the message

signals for various values of modulation depths.

Apparatus Required​ :-
- Audio Oscillator Module
- Variable DC supply
- Master carrier signals
- Tuneable LPF Module
- Diode Rectifier Module
- Multiplier Block
- Oscilloscope
- Function generator
- Power Supply
- Connecting Wires
- Probes
Theory​ :-
The amplitude modulated signal is defined as:
AM = E (1 + m·cosμt ) cosωt (1)
= A (1 + m·cosμt) · B cosωt (2)
= [low frequency term a(t) ] x [high frequency term c(t) ]

Here:
'm' is a constant, defined as the 'depth of modulation'. Typically m < 1. There is no
inherent restriction upon the size of 'm'. 'μ' and 'ω' are angular frequencies of
message signal and carrier signal respectively( in rad/s).

The term a(t) in last eqn contains both a DC component and an AC component. It
is the DC component which gives rise to the term at ω -the 'carrier' -in the AM
signal. The AC term 'm.cosμt' is generally thought of as the message, and is
sometimes written as m(t).
Thus: a(t) = DC + m(t)

## (Block diagram representation of equation (2) ):-

The magnitude of 'm' can be measured directly from AM display itself as:
where p and Q are as defined as:

## the oscilloscope display for the case m = 0.5

AM Spectrum​ - that the sidebands of the AM, when derived from a message of
frequency μ rad/s, are located either side of the carrier frequency, spaced from it

## Envelope​ -​ ​Qualitatively, the envelope of a signal y(t) is that boundary within

which the signal is contained, when viewed in the time domain. It is an imaginary
line.

This boundary has an upper and lower part, which are mirror images of each
other. In practice, when speaking of the envelope, it is customary to consider only
one of them as 'the envelope' (typically the upper boundary).

## Although the envelope is imaginary in the sense described above, it is possible to

generate, from y( t ), a signal e(t), having the same shape as this imaginary line.
The circuit which does this is commonly called an​ envelope detector​.
Consider an AM signal : y(t) = A(1 + m·cosμt)·cosωt
In this signal envelope of y(t) is
e(t) = |A(1 + m·cosμt)|,
thus we can actually try to recover original message signal using the envelope
detector de-modulation scheme.

## Envelope Detector​: Circuit used to obtain the envelope of AM signal so as to get

the original message signal back at the receiving end.

RC envelope detector​ works as per the charging and discharging of the capacitor
and time constant(=R*C) is an important parameter for extracting smooth
envelope.
If RC is too large, then the discharge of
capacitor is too slow, and thus output will
not be able to follow the envelope(as
shown):

## If RC is too small, then the output of the

filter falls very rapidly after each peak and
will not follow the envelope closely(as
shown):

## Observations and Results​ :-

1) Circuit for Amplitude-Modulated signal generation :

## 2) Message signal with added DC value (Zero Reference line is bottom of

Oscilloscope screen)
- Amplitude = 0.98 V
- DC Value = +1 V
- Frequency = 1.028 kHz

## 3) Amplitude Modulated signals generated for different values of m(obtained

using varying the gain knob):

m<1

## According to previous formula for

calculation of m.

P = 3.5V , Q = 1V

m=1

## According to previous formula for

calculation of m.

P = 4V , Q = 0V

m >1

## According to previous formula for

calculation of m.

P = 5V , Q = -1V

## 4) Modulation Trapezoid for various values of modulation depths ‘m’ (obtained

using XY mode in oscilloscope) :

m<1

## As m is increased from 0, display takes

the shape of trapezoid as shown :

m=1

## As m approaches 1, the trapezoid

degenerates into a triangle as shown :
m>1

## As m is further increased beyond 1, the

trapezoid extends beyond triangle as
shown :

## 5) Test signal generation and verifying envelope definition by placing message

signal over generated AM signal.

m<1

## In this case DC value is larger than

peak-to-peak value of message signal.
As a result net message signal never
intersect zero ref line and hence
envelope has same shape as message.

m=1

## In this case DC value is equal to

peak-to-peak value of message signal.
As a result net message signal just
touches zero ref line and hence
envelope has same shape as message.
m>1

## In this case DC value is smaller than

peak-to-peak value of message signal.
As a result net message signal
intersects intersect zero ref line and
hence due to absolute value
operations envelope does not have
same shape as message.

DSB-SC signal

## DSBSC has no carrier component, so

the DC part of the message is zero.
Envelope shape is |cosμt|, as shown:

## 6) Circuit for demodulation of AM signal to recover message signal (using

Envelope detection) :
7) Envelope Recovery for AM signals for different values of ‘m’ :

m<1

in this case.

m=1

in this case.

m>1

## We are not able to recover message

signal in this case because of
intersection of signal with zero
reference line at generation time.
We here obtained a degenerated
signal.
DSB-SC

## DSBSC has no carrier component, so

the DC part of the message is zero.
Envelope obtained is |cosμt|, as
shown:

## 8) Comparison of ‘Diode+LPF’ detector and ‘Rectifier+RC’ detector when

ω(carrier frequency) is not very large compared to message signal frequency:

## We can observe from these two

figures obtained that for low carrier
frequency ‘Diode + LPF’ envelope
detector is better option than
‘Rectifier+RC’ detector.

Rectifier + RC circuit

## As discussed earlier in theory, RC

detector works due to charging and
discharging of capacitor whose time
depends on RC time constant. As RC is
comparable to carrier frequency in this
case, so discharging tries to follow
actual signal and thus doesn’t give the
envelope signal.
Conclusion​ :-
In this experiment we studied Amplitude-Modulated signals and envelope
detectors.
1) We first generated AM signals for different values of modulation depths by
varying the gain knobs which changed the ratio between message signal

## 2) We then tried to visualize if message signals will be represented by the

envelopes of generated AM signals for different values of ‘m’.

## 3) At the end we actually recovered the envelopes of the AM signals for

different values of m(>1, =1, <1), and we learnt that we can recover original
signal only if (m<1 or m=1).

## 4) We also compared ‘Diode+LPF’ and ‘Rectifier+RC’ circuits for envelope

detection and observed shortcomings of the latter at small carrier
frequencies.