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NRCan DER Interconnection

Peer Review Meeting


25th February 2008

Anti-Islanding Protection for


Small Generation in Ontario
Aidan Foss
ANF Energy Solutions Inc.
amfoss@ieee.org

Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review


Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Anti-Islanding Protection

Anti-islanding protection has been found to be a


major barrier to the connection of small
(<500kW) generation to rural feeders in Ontario

• Above 50% of the minimum feeder load, the


general utility requirement is for Transfer trip
• Cost of Transfer trip ($150K-$250K) can be a
show stopper

Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review


Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
The Elephant and the Mouse (1)

OTHER CUSTOMERS
RECLOSER
THE UTILITY FEEDER
GRID
V
DISTRIBUTED
GENERATION

•Generation on feeder shared with other customers


•Recloser/switch normally closed
•Utility feeder protection may open recloser/switch

Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review


Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
The Elephant and the Mouse (2)
HYDRO
POWER
CUT OTHER CUSTOMERS

THE UTILITY FEEDER


GRID
V V

DISTRIBUTED
GENERATION

•Feeder energized by your voltage


•Other customers supplied with your voltage
•Need to disconnect as fast as possible, and before …

Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review


Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
The Elephant and the Mouse (3)
HYDRO
POWER
RESTORED OTHER CUSTOMERS

THE UTILITY FEEDER


GRID
V V

DISTRIBUTED
GENERATION

•Grid voltage wins over your voltage


•Grid voltage wave travels into feeder
•Risk of generator torque shock and other damage

Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review


Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Protection Standards
Current Standards Local Utility
Requirement
< 2 sec. Varies, but can be
Disconnect
(IEEE 1547, CSA C22.3 < 1 sec.
time
No. 9)
U/O frequency
<50% Minimum
U/O voltage
Feeder Load
Power Export
Fast transfer-trip : $150k - $250k
>50% Minimum
Show stopper for small DG!
Feeder Load
Transfer-trip or Alternative : $30k - $50k?

Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review


Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Terryland Farms Experience

Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review


Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Grid Connection
UTILITY FEEDER 8.3kV

HV DISCONNECT

HV FUSE

8.3KV / 480V
300kVA Yg:Yg

LV DISCONNECT

LV FUSE

M REVENUE METER
INTER-TIE INTER-TIE CIRCUIT-BREAKER
PROTECTION

TO DIGESTER &
POWERHOUSE LOADS
GENERATOR GENERATOR CIRCUIT-BREAKER
PROTECTION

BIOGAS GENERATOR
180kW 480V

Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review


Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Local Distribution Network
STARDALE DS ))) (((
44 / 8.3kV TRANSFER TRIP SYSTEM
INITIALLY RERQUIRED BY UTILITY

))) (((
8.3 kV
MINIMUM
FEEDER LOAD
~ 240kW

RECLOSERS
TERRYLAND
180kW 8.3 kV

• Terryland Farm > 50% MFL


• Pinehedge Farm < 50% MFL
PINEHEDGE
100kW

Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review


Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Pole Mounted Reclosers

Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review


Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Anti-Islanding Considerations
• Transfer-trip too expensive – show stopper
• Approached NRCan for assistance
• Looked for site-specific knowledge that can be used for
proposing an alternative?

• Increasing recloser times / bypassing reclosers – not an


option
• Moving reclosers – expensive, did not solve
• Voltage blocking – not feasible for pole mounted
reclosers
• Rural feeder characteristics?

Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review


Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Proposed Anti-Islanding Concept
• Rural feeder load is inductive
• Generator set-point to import VArs from the Grid
• Loss of the Grid Ä Shortage of reactive power on the feeder
Ä Generator exports VArs
• A directional reactive power relay is used to detect and trip
on a change in VAr flow
• Tight conventional protections used as back-up
P

VAr VAr Trip


Set-point Level

Q
Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review
Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Off-the-Shelf Relay

• Multi functional generator


protection relay (18
protections)

• 40Q: directional reactive


power protection
connected in reverse

Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review


Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Validation Test Plan
• Computer model development, verification
and tuning:
– Load rejection and load pick-up tests
• Dynamic analysis of various scenarios:
– +50%, +25% & 0% power mismatch
• Field verification:
– Islanding detection and disconnection time tests
– Nuisance tripping tests

Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review


Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Simulation Results: 25% mismatch

a) f (Hz)
• Load: 245 kW,
60

59

pf=0.95 lag 1 9 .5 20 2 0 .5 21 2 1 .5 22

1
• DG: P=+180 kW,

b) V (p.u.)
DG bus
0 .8

Q=-31 kVAr 1 9 .5 20 2 0 .5 21 2 1 .5 22

• Islanding: t=20s 0 .2 5

c) P (MW)
0 .2 DG
0 .1 5

1 9 .5 20 2 0 .5 21 2 1 .5 22

ΔV = 25% drop, 0 .1
d) Q (MVAr)

0 .0 5

Δf = ± 1 Hz 0 DG
- 0 .0 5

ΔQ = -31 → +80 1 9 .5 20 2 0 .5 21 2 1 .5 22

0 .2 5
e) P (MW)

0 .2
Load
0 .1 5

1 9 .5 20 2 0 .5 21 2 1 .5 22
Time (sec)
Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review
Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Simulation Results: 0% mismatch
6 0 .5

• Load: 180 kW,

a) f (Hz)
60
pf=1 1 9 .5 20 2 0 .5 21 2 1 .5 22
1 .0 5
• DG: P=+180 kW,

b) V (p.u.)
1
0 .9 5
0 .9 DG bus
Q=-31 kVAr 0 .8 5
1 9 .5 20 2 0 .5 21 2 1 .5 22

• Islanding: t=20s 0 .2

c) P (MW)
0 .1 5 DG

1 9 .5 20 2 0 .5 21 2 1 .5 22
ΔV = 15% drop, 0 .0 2
d) Q (MVAr)

Δf = + 0.5 Hz -0 .0 2
-0 .0 4
DG

ΔQ = -31 → +10 1 9 .5 20 2 0 .5 21 2 1 .5 22

0 .1 8
e) P (MW)

0 .1 6
Load
0 .1 4
1 9 .5 20 2 0 .5 21 2 1 .5 22
Time (sec)

Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review


Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Field Test Configuration
P Directional
Reactive
Power Relay
Q

PCC
Load 1
Utility Grid
Representation

Farm load
•Soft Start to reduce motor Load 2
transients
•VARs measured at
generator breaker, but trips DG
inter-tie breaker
Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review
Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Field Test Facility

Biogas
Engine-Generator

Measurement and monitoring devices

Current
feedback
Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review
Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Islanding Test 1: Dynamics
Relay

Grid
CB

Gen.
Current
(Inter-tie CB)

Gen.
Voltage 0.216 s
0.136 s

Gen= 72-kW, Load = 95-kW, pf=1 (33% mismatch)


Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review
Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Islanding Test 2: 10% Mismatch
Relay

Grid
CB 0.230 s

Gen. ±0.5Hz
Current 0.173 s Freq. set
for Gen.

Gen= 130-kW, Load = 145-kW, Q=37-kVAr


Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review
Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Commissioning
• System commissioned August 2007
• Scheme Implemented as logical AND of kW and kVAr limits
• Nuisance trip tests - large motor load starting transient
• Significant imbalance – move to 3-phase kVAr measurement
Reactive power variations of the Generator (t1: Agitator start-up, Aug. 23, 2007 - 16:05:59)
35

30

25

20

15
kVAr

10

0 Phase A
Phase B
-5 Phase C
Trip set-point (40Q relay) 3-Ph Q
-10

-15
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Time (sec.)
Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review
Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Terryland Summary
• For all tests, the trip time was less than 0.25 s
• Working with the utility as a potential generic
solution for small DG (<500 kW)
• Applicable to feeders with inductive load
characteristics
• No nuisance trips during commissioning (soft start
on 15-kW agitator motor) but potentially sensitive to
motor starting transients

Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review


Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Joint Effort to Test the Method

CETC-V, ANF Energy Solutions, Genesys, Terryland Farm


Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review
Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Fepro Farms Application
BEECHBURG DS
44kV / 12.47kV
3 x 1-PHASE
RECLOSERS

MINIMUM
FEEDER LOAD
~ 500kVA

12.47kV
FEPRO FARMS
499kW

12.47KV / 600V
750kVA Yg:Yg

450 kVAr

Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review


Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Anti-Islanding Considerations

• Utility: “will be working with the Generator on developing


an alternative to Transfer Trip”
• Capacitor banks on the feeder – feeder not inductive at
light loads – cannot apply Terryland method

• Recloser time – 2 seconds – suggested that slower


transfer trip may be best option
• Experience from other areas of low-cost uni-directional
fail-safe transfer trip

Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review


Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Uni-directional Transfer Trip

3 x 1-PHASE
RECLOSERS
))) ((( ))) (((

INTER-TIE
& WIRELESS
INTERFACE
WIRELESS
INTERFACE PROTECTION

RECLOSER
STATUSES INTER-TIE
CIRCUIT
Trip the inter-tie breaker if BREAKER

• Any recloser is open


• Loss of communication

Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review


Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Old Reclosers

• Substation reclosers are old – do not have status


indication
• Replacing reclosers is expensive ($100K+)

• Pulse-based method – demonstrator proposed for an


alternate site
• CT-based method – proposed to utility for this site
• Response from utility: “Appears to be conceptually OK”
• Limited nuisance tripping is OK if this avoids transfer trip

Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review


Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
CT-based Proposal
3 x 1-PHASE RECLOSERS

))) ((( ))) (((

R
E
WIRELESS WIRELESS INTER-TIE
L INTERFACE INTERFACE PROTECTION
A
Y INTER-TIE
CIRCUIT
Trip the inter-tie breaker if BREAKER

• Over-current (within recloser setting)


• Low current on all three phases
• Loss of communication

Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review


Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Low Current Trip
Trip for low current on any single phase
• Safe
• Potential for high incidence of nuisance tripping due to
current imbalance

Trip for low current on all three phases


• Low expected incidence of nuisance tipping
• Preliminary studies show little voltage phase angle
difference across a single open phase Älow damage
potential
• Further studies required (Work in progress)

Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review


Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008
Fepro Summary

• Key limitations are the presence of the


capacitor bank and the type of recloser
• Need to avoid recloser replacement to have
an affordable scheme
• Low-cost wireless components are available
• Further studies and equipment selection
required

Anti-Islanding for Small NRCan Peer Review


Generation in Ontario ANF Energy Solutions Inc
25th March 2008