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STAAD.

Pro

V8i (SELECTseries 1)

International Design Codes Manual
DAA037810-1/0001
Last updated: 6 July 2010

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Adobe Systems Incorporated.

International Design Codes Manual — i

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respectively, pursuant to 48 C.F.R. 12.212 and 227.7202, and "restricted
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END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT
To view the End User License Agreement for this product, review: eula_en.pdf.

ii — STAAD.Pro

TABLE OF CONTENTS

About STAAD.Pro 2
About the STAAD.Pro Documentation 3
Getting Started and Tutorials 3
Examples Manual 3
Graphical Environment 3
Technical Reference Manual 3
International Design Codes 3
Section 1 Australian Codes 5
1A. Australian Codes - Concrete Design Per AS3600 - 2001 5
1B. Australian Codes - Steel Design Per AS 4100 - 1998 11
Section 2 British Codes 23
2A. British Codes - Concrete Design Per BS8110 23
2B. British Codes - Steel Design Per BS5950:2000 41
2B1. British Codes - Steel Design Per BS5950:1990 68
2C. British Codes - Design Per BS5400 90
2D. British Codes - Design Per BS8007 94
2E. British Codes - Design Per British Cold Formed Steel Code 97
Section 3 Canadian Codes 127

International Design Codes Manual — iii

3A. Canadian Codes - Concrete Design Per CSA Standard
A23.3-94 127
3B. Canadian Codes - Steel Design Per CSA Standard
CAN/CSA-S16-01 134
3C. Canadian Codes - Design Per Canadian Cold Formed Steel
Code 164
3D. Canadian Codes - Wood Design Per CSA Standard
CAN/CSA-086-01 172
Section 4 Chinese Codes 201
4A. Chinese Codes - Concrete Design Per GB50010-2002 201
4B. Chinese Codes - Steel Design Per GBJ 50017-2003 210
Section 5 European Codes 223
5A. European Codes - Concrete Design Per Eurocode EC2 223
5B. European Codes - Steel Design Per Eurocode 3 229
5C. European Codes - Timber Design Per EC 5: Part 1-1 299
Section 6 Egyptian Codes 323
6A. Egyptian Codes - Concrete Design Per Egyptian Code -
ECCS203 323
6B. Egyptian Codes - Steel Design Per Egyptian Code # 205 329
Section 7 French Codes 337
7A. French Codes - Concrete Design Per B.A.E.L 337
7B. French Codes - Steel Design Per the French Code 342
Section 8 German Codes 353
8A. German Codes - Concrete Design Per DIN 1045 353
8B. German Codes - Steel Design Per the DIN Code 360
Section 9 Indian Codes 371
9A. Indian Codes - Concrete Design per IS456 371
9A1. Indian Codes - Concrete Design per IS13920 394
9B. Indian Codes - Steel Design per IS800:1984 415
9C. Indian Codes - Steel Design per IS802 432

iv — STAAD.Pro

9D. Indian Codes - Design per Indian Cold Formed Steel Code
451
9E. Indian Codes - Steel Design per IS 800:2007 457
Section 10 Japanese Codes 465
10A. Japanese Codes - Concrete Design Per 1991 AIJ 465
10C. Japanese Codes - Steel Design Per 2005 AIJ 474
Section 11 Mexican Codes 497
11A. Mexican Codes - Concrete Design Per MEX NTC 1987 497
11B. Mexican Codes - Steel Design Per Mexican Code 511
Section 12 Russian Codes 523
12A. Russian Codes - Concrete Design Per Russian Code (SNiP
2.03.01-84*) 523
12B. Russian Codes - Steel Design Per Russian Code SNIP
2.23-81* (Edition 1990) 546
Section 13 South African Codes 567
13A. South African Codes - Concrete Design Per SABS-0100-1
567
13B. South African Codes - Steel Design Per SAB Standard
SAB0162-1:1993 574
Section 14 American Aluminum Code 601
Section 15 American Transmission Tower Code 613
15A. American Transmission Tower Code - Steel Design per
ASCE 10-97 613
15B. American Transmission Tower Code - Steel Design per
ASCE Manuals and Reports 618
Section 16 Steel Design per American Petroleum Insti-
tute Code 625
Section 17 ANSI/AISC N690 Design Codes 639
17A. ANSI/AISC N690-1994 Code 639
17B. ANSI/AISC N690-1984 Code 649

International Design Codes Manual — v

Section 18 American Society of Mechanical Engineers
– Nuclear Facility (ASME NF) Codes 659
18A. ASME NF 3000 - 1974 & 1977 Codes 659
18B. ASME NF 3000 - 1989 Code 670
18C. ASME NF 3000 - 1998 Code 682
Section 19 Norwegian Codes 695
19A. Norwegian Codes - Steel Design per NS 3472 / NPD 695
Technical Support 751
Index 753

vi — STAAD.Pro

This documentation has been prepared to provide information pertaining to the
various international codes supported by STAAD. These codes are provided as
additional codes by Research Engineers. In other words, they do not come with the
standard package. Hence, information on only some of the codes presented in this
document may be actually pertinent to the individual user's package.
This document is to be used in conjunction with the STAAD Technical Reference
Manual and the STAAD Examples Manual. Effort has been made to provide some
basic information about the analysis considerations and the logic used in the design
approach. A brief outline of the factors affecting the design along with references to
the corresponding clauses in the codes is also provided. Examples are provided at
the appropriate places to facilitate ease of understanding of the usage of the
commands and design parameters. Users are urged to refer to the Examples Manual
for solved problems that use the commands and features of STAAD. Since the
STAAD output contains references to the clauses in the code that govern the
design, users are urged to consult the documentation of the code of that country
for additional details on the design criteria.

International Design Codes Manual — 1

About STAAD.Pro
STAAD.Pro is a general purpose structural analysis and design program with
applications primarily in the building industry - commercial buildings, bridges and
highway structures, industrial structures, chemical plant structures, dams,
retaining walls, turbine foundations, culverts and other embedded structures, etc.
The program hence consists of the following facilities to enable this task.

1. Graphical model generation utilities as well as text editor based commands
for creating the mathematical model. Beam and column members are
represented using lines. Walls, slabs and panel type entities are represented
using triangular and quadrilateral finite elements. Solid blocks are
represented using brick elements. These utilities allow the user to create the
geometry, assign properties, orient cross sections as desired, assign
materials like steel, concrete, timber, aluminum, specify supports, apply
loads explicitly as well as have the program generate loads, design
parameters etc.
2. Analysis engines for performing linear elastic and pdelta analysis, finite
element analysis, frequency extraction, and dynamic response (spectrum,
time history, steady state, etc.).
3. Design engines for code checking and optimization of steel, aluminum and
timber members. Reinforcement calculations for concrete beams, columns,
slabs and shear walls. Design of shear and moment connections for steel
members.
4. Result viewing, result verification and report generation tools for examining
displacement diagrams, bending moment and shear force diagrams, beam,
plate and solid stress contours, etc.
5. Peripheral tools for activities like import and export of data from and to other
widely accepted formats, links with other popular softwares for niche areas
like reinforced and prestressed concrete slab design, footing design, steel
connection design, etc.
6. A library of exposed functions called OpenSTAAD which allows users to
access STAAD.Pro’s internal functions and routines as well as its graphical
commands to tap into STAAD’s database and link input and output data to
third-party software written using languages like C, C++, VB, VBA,
FORTRAN, Java, Delphi, etc. Thus, OpenSTAAD allows users to link in-house
or third-party applications with STAAD.Pro.

2 — STAAD.Pro

About the STAAD.Pro Documentation

About the STAAD.Pro Documentation
The documentation for STAAD.Pro consists of a set of manuals as described below.
These manuals are normally provided only in the electronic format.
All the manuals can be accessed from the Help facilities of STAAD.Pro. If you wish
to obtain a printed copy of the books, visit the docs.bentley.com site to check
availability and order. Bentley also supplies the manuals in the PDF format at no
cost for those who wish to print them on their own. See the back cover of this book
for addresses and phone numbers.

Getting Started and Tutorials
This manual contains information on the contents of the STAAD.Pro package,
computer system requirements, installation process, copy protection issues and a
description on how to run the programs in the package. Tutorials that provide
detailed and step-by-step explanation on using the programs are also provided.

Examples Manual
This book offers examples of various problems that can be solved using the STAAD
engine. The examples represent various structural analyses and design problems
commonly encountered by structural engineers.

Graphical Environment
This document contains a detailed description of the Graphical User Interface (GUI)
of STAAD.Pro. The topics covered include model generation, structural analysis
and design, result verification, and report generation.

Technical Reference Manual
This manual deals with the theory behind the engineering calculations made by the
STAAD engine. It also includes an explanation of the commands available in the
STAAD command file.

International Design Codes
This document contains information on the various Concrete, Steel, and Aluminum
design codes, of several countries, that are implemented in STAAD.

International Design Codes Manual — 3

The documentation for the STAAD.Pro Extension component(s) is available
separately.

4 — STAAD.Pro

Section 1

Australian Codes

1A. Australian Codes - Concrete Design Per AS3600 -
2001
1A.1 Design Operations
STAAD has the capabilities for performing concrete design based on the Australian
code AS3600-2001 Australian Standard-Concrete Structures.

1A.2 Section Types for Concrete Design
The following types of cross sections for concrete members can be designed.

l For Beams: Prismatic (Rectangular & Square)
l For Columns: Prismatic (Rectangular, Square and Circular)

1A.3 Member Dimensions
Concrete members which will be designed by the program must have certain
section properties input under the MEMBER PROPERTY command. The following

International Design Codes Manual — 5

example shows the required input:

UNIT MM
MEMBER PROPERTY
1 3 TO 7 9 PRISM YD 450. ZD 250.
11 13 PR YD 350.

In the above input, the first set of members are rectangular (450 mm depth and
250mm width) and the second set of members, with only depth and no width
provided, will be assumed to be circular with 350 mm diameter. It is absolutely
imperative that the user not provide the cross section area (AX) as an input.

1A.4 Design Parameters
The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform the
design. Default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently
used numbers for conventional design requirements. These values may be
changed to suit the particular design being performed. Table 1A.1 of this manual
contains a complete list of the available parameters and their default values. It is
necessary to declare length and force units as Millimeter and Newton before
performing the concrete design.

Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number
till it is specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.

Table 1A.1 Australian Concrete Design per AS 3600 Parameters
Parameter Default
Description
Name Value
CODE AUSTRALIAN Invokes design per AS3600 - 2001.
Design Code to follow. See section
5.48.1 of the Technical Reference
Manual.
FYMAIN* 450/mm 2 Yield Stress for main reinforcing
steel.
FYSEC* 450/mm 2 Yield Stress for secondary
reinforcing steel.
FC** 40 N/mm2 Concrete Yield Stress.
CLEAR 25 mm For beam members.
40 mm For column members

6 — STAAD.Pro

Section 1 Australian Codes

Parameter Default
Description
Name Value
MINMAIN 10 mm Minimum main reinforcement bar
size.
MAXMAIN 60 mm Maximum main reinforcement bar
size.
MINSEC 8 mm Minimum secondary reinforcement
bar size.
MAXSEC 12 mm Maximum secondary reinforcement
bar size.
RATIO 4.0 Maximum percentage of longitudinal
reinforcement in columns.
WIDTH ZD Width to be used for design. This
value defaults to ZD as provided
under MEMBER PROPERTIES.
DEPTH YD Total depth to be used for design.
This value defaults to YD as provided
under MEMBER PROPERTIES.
TRACK 0.0 BEAM DESIGN:
For TRACK = 0.0, output consists of
reinforcement details at START,
MIDDLE and END.
For TRACK = 1.0, critical moments
are printed in addition to TRACK 0.0
output.
For TRACK = 2.0, required steel for
intermediate sections defined by
NSECTION are printed in addition to
TRACK 1.0 output.
COLUMN DESIGN:
With TRACK = 0.0, reinforcement
details are printed.
REINF 0.0 Tied column. A value of 1.0 will
mean spiral reinforcement.
* - applicable values are 250, 400, 450 and 500 as per Table 6.2.1 of the AS 3600-
2001code.

International Design Codes Manual — 7

** - applicable values are 20, 25, 32, 40, 50, and 65 as per Clause 6.1.1.1 of the
AS 3600-2001 code.

1A.5 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Consideration
Slenderness effects are extremely important in designing compression members.
There are two options by which the slenderness effect can be accommodated. One
option is to perform an exact analysis which will take into account the influence of
axial loads and variable moment of inertia on member stiffness and fixed end
moments, the effect of deflections on moment and forces and the effect of the
duration of loads. Another option is to approximately magnify design moments.
STAAD has been written to allow the use of the first option. To perform this type
of analysis, use the command PDELTA ANALYSIS instead of PERFORM ANALYSIS.
The PDELTA ANALYSIS will accommodate the requirements of the second- order
analysis described by AS 3600, except for the effects of the duration of the loads.
It is felt that this effect may be safely ignored because experts believe that the
effects of the duration of loads are negligible in a normal structural configuration.
Although ignoring load duration effects is somewhat of an approximation, it must
be realized that the evaluation of slenderness effects is also by an approximate
method. In this method, additional moments are calculated based on empirical
formula and assumptions on sidesway.
Considering all of the above information, a PDELTA ANALYSIS, as performed by
STAAD may be used for the design of concrete members. However the user must
note that to take advantage of this analysis, all the combinations of loading must
be provided as primary load cases and not as load combinations. This is due to the
fact that load combinations are just algebraic combinations of forces and
moments, whereas a primary load case is revised during the P-delta analysis based
on the deflections. Also, note that the proper factored loads (like 1.5 for dead load
etc.) should be provided by the user. STAAD does not factor the loads
automatically.

1A.6 Beam Design
Beams are designed for flexure, shear and torsion. For all these forces, all active
beam loadings are prescanned to identify the critical load cases at different
sections of the beams. The total number of sections considered is 13( e.g.
0.,.1,.2,.25,.3,.4,.5,.6,.7,.75,.8,.9 and 1). All of these sections are scanned to
determine the design force envelopes.

8 — STAAD.Pro

Final provisions of flexural reinforcements are made then. effective depths of the sections are determined with the assumption of single layer of assumed reinforcement and reinforcement requirements are calculated. Flexural design of beams is performed in two passes. Example of Input Data for Beam Design: UNIT NEWTON MMS START CONCRETE DESIGN CODE AUSTRALIAN FYMAIN 415 ALL FYSEC 415 ALL International Design Codes Manual — 9 . Section 1 Australian Codes Design for Flexure Maximum sagging (creating tensile stress at the bottom face of the beam) and hogging (creating tensile stress at the top face) moments are calculated for all active load cases at each of the above mentioned sections. Currently. If the section dimensions are inadequate as a singly reinforced section.to 1. Although exact curtailment lengths are not mentioned explicitly in the design output (finally which will be more or less guided by the detailer taking into account of other practical consideration). After the preliminary design. user has the choice of printing reinforcements provided by STAAD at 13 equally spaced sections from which the final detailed drawing can be prepared. reinforcing bars are chosen from the internal database in single or multiple layers. Two-legged stirrups are provided to take care of the balance shear forces acting on these sections. such a message will be permitted in the output. Shear capacity calculation at different sections without the shear reinforcement is based on the actual tensile reinforcement provided by STAAD program. Shear design is performed at 13 equally spaced sections (0. The entire flexure design is performed again in a second pass taking into account the changed effective depths of sections calculated on the basis of reinforcement provided after the preliminary design. Design for Shear Shear reinforcement is calculated to resist both shear forces and torsional moments. In the first pass. design of singly reinforced sections only is permitted. Efforts have been made to meet the guideline for the curtailment of reinforcements as per AS 3600.) for the maximum shear forces amongst the active load cases and the associated torsional moments. Each of these sections is designed to resist both of these critical sagging and hogging moments.

The command specifications are in accordance with Chapter 2. All active load cases are tested to calculate reinforcement. square and rectangular columns are designed with reinforcement distributed on each side equally. Elements are designed for the moments Mx and My.0 MEMB 2 TO 9 DESIGN BEAM 2 TO 9 END CONCRETE DESIGN 1A. rectangular and circular sections. This may cause slightly conservative results in some cases. Column design is done for square. FC 35 ALL CLEAR 25 MEM 2 TO 6 MAXMAIN 40 MEMB 2 TO 6 TRACK 1.8 of the Technical Reference 10 — STAAD. By default.Pro . These moments are obtained from the element force output (see Section 3. All major criteria for selecting longitudinal and transverse reinforcement as stipulated by AS 3600 have been taken care of in the column design of STAAD. and Chapter 6 of the Technical Reference Manual. The loading which yields maximum reinforcement is called the critical load.8 Slab/Wall Design To design a slab or wall. That means the total number of bars will always be a multiple of four (4).7 Column Design Columns are designed for axial forces and biaxial moments at the ends. it must be modeled using finite elements. Example of Input Data for Column Design: UNIT NEWTON MMS START CONCRETE DESIGN CODE AUSTRALIAN FYMAIN 415 ALL FC 35 ALL CLEAR 25 MEMB 2 TO 6 MAXMAIN 40 MEMB 2 TO 6 DESIGN COLUMN 2 TO 6 END CONCRETE DESIGN 1A.

Steel Design Per AS 4100 - 1998 1B. Australian Codes .1 General This section presents some general statements regarding the implementation of the specifications recommended by Standards Australia for structural steel design (AS 4100) in STAAD. MINMAIN and CLEAR listed in Table 1A. The reinforcement required to resist Mx moment is denoted as longitudinal reinforcement and the reinforcement required to resist My moment is denoted as transverse reinforcement. The design philosophy and procedural logistics are based on the International Design Codes Manual — 11 . Other parameters mentioned in Table 1A. FC. Section 1 Australian Codes Manual).1 are not applicable to slab design.1 are relevant to slab design. The parameters FYMAIN. Figure: Element moments Example of Input Data for Slab/Wall Design UNIT NEWTON MMS START CONCRETE DESIGN CODE AUSTRALIAN FYMAIN 415 ALL FC 25 ALL CLEAR 40 ALL DESIGN ELEMENT 15 TO 20 END CONCRETE DESIGN 1B. MAXMAIN.

The next section describes the syntax of commands used to assign properties from the built-in steel table. Member properties may also be specified using the User Table facility. 1B.ultimate and serviceability.Pro . while that in serviceability is deflection. The user is allowed complete flexibility in providing loading specifications and using appropriate load factors to create necessary loading situations. Appropriate load and resistance factors are used so that a uniform reliability is achieved for all steel structures under various loading conditions and at the same time the chances of limits being surpassed are acceptably remote. A detailed description of the design process along with its underlying concepts and assumptions is available in the specification document. The following sections describe the salient features of the STAAD implementation of AS 4100. stability and serviceability. Facilities are available for member selection as well as code checking. the most economic section is selected on the basis of the least weight criteria as augmented by the designer in specification of allowable member depths. refer to the STAAD Technical Reference Manual.2 Analysis Methodology Elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design. The code checking portion of the program checks whether code requirements for each selected section are met and identifies the governing criteria. regular stiffness analysis or P-Delta analysis may be specified. The design philosophy embodied in this specification is based on the concept of limit state design. 12 — STAAD. For more information on these facilities. Dynamic analysis may also be performed and the results combined with static analysis results. desired section type.3 Member Property Specifications For specification of member properties. Two major categories of limit-state are recognized . Structures are designed and proportioned taking into consideration the limit states at which they would become unfit for their intended use. the steel section library available in STAAD may be used. Analysis is done for the primary and combination loading conditions provided by the user. Accordingly. members are proportioned to resist the design loads without exceeding the limit states of strength. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state design are strength and stability. or other such parameters.principles of elastic analysis and limit state method of design. 1B. Depending upon the analysis requirements. In the STAAD implementation.

4 Built-in Steel Section Library The following information is provided for use when the built-in steel tables are to be referenced for member property specification. Section 1 Australian Codes 1B. If called for. A complete listing of the sections available in the built-in steel section library may be obtained by using the tools of the graphical user interface. UB Shapes These shapes are designated in the following way.8 23 56 TA ST UC310X96. 25 TO 35 TA ST WC400X114 23 56 TA ST WC400X303 International Design Codes Manual — 13 .1 UC Shapes The designation for the UC shapes is similar to that for the UB shapes. 25 TO 35 TA ST WB700X115 23 56 TA ST WB1200X455 Welded Columns Welded Columns are designated in the following way.8 Welded Beams Welded Beams are designated in the following way. These properties are stored in a database file.0 36 TO 46 TA ST UB180X16. An example of the member property specification in an input file is provided at the end of this section. Since the shear areas are built into these tables. 25 TO 35 TA ST UC100X14. Following are the descriptions of different types of sections. 20 TO 30 TA ST UB150X14. the properties are also used for member design. shear deformation is always considered during the analysis of these members.

If the local Y axis corresponds to the z-z axis. respectively.5 In the above set of commands. member 11 is a back to back double channel PFC230 with no spacing in between.Pro . This specification may be used when the local Z axis corresponds to the z-z axis specified in Chapter 2.6 37 39 TA LD A75X50X6 14 — STAAD.5 length units between the channels. either SD or LD will serve the purpose. In case of an equal angle. in front of the angle size. Member 17 is a double channel PFC300 with a spacing of 0. The letter D in front of the section name will specify a double channel. The standard angle section is specified as follows: 16 20 TA ST A30X30X6 The above section signifies an angle with legs of length 30mm and a leg thickness of 6 mm.Parallel Flange Channels Shown below is the syntax for assigning names of channel sections. are available. 1 TO 5 TA ST PFC75 6 TO 10 TA ST PFC380 Double Channels Back to back double channels. 17 21 TA RA A150X150X16 Double Angles Short leg back to back or long leg back to back double angles can be specified by means of input of the words SD or LD. 11 TA D PFC230 17 TA D C230X75X25 SP 0. Angles Two types of specification may be used to describe an angle. 33 35 TA SD A65X50X5 SP 0. type specification "RA" (reverse angle) may be used. with or without a spacing between them.

1 TO 5 TA ST TUB20202. Pipes (Circular Hollow Sections) Pipes can be assigned in 2 ways. Only code checking.0 ID 20. The name is obtained as 10 times the depth. 1 TO 5 TA ST PIP180X5 6 TO 10 TA ST PIP273X6. and members 6 to 10 consist of 10X5X0. This method is meant for tubes whose property name is available in the steel table.5 In the second method. tubes are specified by their dimensions.0 specifies a pipe with outside diameter of 25 length units and inside diameter of 20 length units. 1 TO 9 TA ST PIPE OD 25. For example. For example. International Design Codes Manual — 15 .5 6 TO 10 TA ST TUB100503.1875 inch size tube section. the designation for the tube is as shown below. and 16 times the thickness. the designation for the pipe is as shown below. no member selection.5 is a tube that has a height of 8 length units. Section 1 Australian Codes 43 TO 47 TA LD A100X75X10 SP 0. In the first method. 6 TA ST TUBE DT 8. In the first method.0 TH 0. width of 6 length units.5 length units. and a wall thickness of 0.75 Tubes (Rectangular or Square Hollow Sections) Tubes can be assigned in 2 ways. will be performed for TUBE sections specified in this latter manner. In these examples. will be performed on pipes specified in this latter manner. Only code checking.0 WT 6.5 inch size tube section. no member selection.0 In the second method. pipe sections may be provided by specifying the word PIPE followed by the outside and inside diameters of the section. This method is meant for pipes whose property name is available in the steel table. members 1 to 5 consist of a 2X2X0. 10 times the width.

0 ID 20.LONG LEGS BACK TO BACK 8 TA LD A100X75X10 SP 0.5 * PIPES (CIRCULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS) 10 TA ST PIPE OD 25.75 * TUBES (RECTANGULAR OR SQUARE HOLLOW SECTIONS) 9 TA ST TUBE DT 8.SHORT LEGS BACK TO BACK 7 TA SD A65X50X5 SP 0.6 * DOUBLE ANGLES .4 * UC SHAPES 2 TA ST UC250X89.Pro .0 TH 0.0 PRINT MEMB PROP FINI 16 — STAAD.Sample File Containing Australian Shapes STAAD SPACE UNIT METER KN JOINT COORD 1 0 0 0 11 100 0 0 MEMB INCI 1 1 2 10 UNIT CM MEMBER PROPERTIES AUSTRALIAN * UB SHAPES 1 TA ST UB200X25.5 * CHANNELS 3 TA ST PFC125 * DOUBLE CHANNELS 4 TA D PFC200 * ANGLES 5 TA ST A30X30X6 * REVERSE ANGLES 6 TA RA A150X150X16 * DOUBLE ANGLES .0 WT 6.

6. This depends on several factors such as members' unsupported lengths. Kt and NSF are applicable for these calculations.1 and Cl.1 of the code. Parameters FYLD. FU. Steel sections are classified as compact. cross-sectional properties.6.1 gives the default b value of this parameter (named ALB). The user through the use of the parameter NSC (see Table 1B. The effective length for the calculation of International Design Codes Manual — 17 .1) may specify the net section area. STAAD calculates the tension capacity of a member based on these two limit states per Cl.6. Limit State of yielding of the gross section is intended to prevent excessive elongation of the member. Thus.7. The program automatically calculates form factor. Section 1 Australian Codes 1B.2 respectively of AS 4100.7. Nominal section capacity is a function of form factor (Cl. This classification is a function of the geometric properties of the section. The second limit state involves fracture at the section with the minimum effective net area. Axial Tension The criteria governing the capacity of tension members are based on two limit states. 1B.3).3). net area of the cross section and yield stress of the material. Design is performed for all three categories of section as mentioned above. Note here. support conditions and so on.1) may specify the net section area. non-compact or slender depending upon their local buckling characteristics.2). Nominal member capacity is a function of nominal section capacity and member slenderness reduction factor (Cl. The design procedures are different depending on the section class. local buckling becomes an important criterion. It is taken as the lesser of nominal section capacity and nominal member capacity. Here user is required to supply the value of a (Cl.6 Member Resistances The member resistance is calculated in STAAD according to the procedures outlined in AS 4100. The procedure adopted in STAAD for calculating the member resistance is explained here.5 Section Classification The AS 4100 specification allows inelastic deformation of section elements. The user through the use of the parameter NSF (see Table 1B.3. Axial Compression The compressive strength of members is determined based on Clause 6.3. Table 1B. STAAD determines the section classification for the standard shapes and user specified shapes. that this parameter is different from that corresponding to tension.2.

0 or the allowable value provided using the RATIO parameter (see Table 1B. addressed by the above clauses.3.Cl.4.Pro .5.4) and member capacity (ref. some or all of these parameter values may be changed to exactly model the physical structure. If the summation of the left hand side of the equations.5. The nominal member capacity depends on overall flexural-torsional buckling of the member (ref. Once the capacity is obtained.7 Design Parameters The design parameters outlined in Table 1B. Bending The allowable bending moment of members is determined as the lesser of nominal section capacity and nominal member capacity (ref. These parameters communicate design decisions from the engineer to the program and thus allow the engineer to control the design process to suit an application's specific needs.5). Here also the adequacy of a member is examined against both section (ref. compact.2). Depending on the particular design requirements. the section is considered to have failed under shear. User may refer to Cl. the member is considered to have FAILed under the loading condition. exceed 1. KZ.compressive strength may be provided through the use of the parameters KY. Cl. Cl.5.0 or the allowable value provided using the RATIO parameter (see Table 1B.Cl. 18 — STAAD. the ratio of the shear force acting on the cross section to the shear capacity of the section is calculated.11 in this context. LY and LZ (see Table 1B. The nominal section moment capacity is the capacity to resist cross-section yielding or local buckling and is expressed as the product of yield stress of material and effective section modulus (ref.1).1). If any of the ratios (for both local Y & Z-axes) exceed 1.8. The default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for conventional design.5. Shear Shear capacity of cross section is taken as the shear yield capacity.1).3). non-compact or slender. 1B. The effective section modulus is a function of section type i.e. Interaction of axial force and bending The member strength for sections subjected to axial compression and uniaxial or biaxial bending is obtained through the use of interaction equations.8. Cl.1 may be used to control the design procedure.1).

Section 1 Australian Codes Note: Once a parameter is specified.0 is used as the limit for slenderness in compression. LY Member Length for general column flexural Length buckling about the local Y-axis.0 MPa Yield strength of steel.0 K value for general column flexural buckling about the local Z-axis. Used to calculate slenderness ratio. KZ 1. See section 5. This is the way STAAD works for all codes. TMAIN 180. Used to calculate slenderness ratio.48.0 Any value greater than 1. Table 1B. KY 1. FYLD 250.1 Australian Steel Design Parameters Parameter Default Description Name Value CODE AUSTRALIAN Invokes design per AS4100 .1 of the Technical Reference Manual. Slen- derness limit is checked based MAIN parameter.0 0.0 Net section factor for tension members. FU 500. Used to calculate slenderness ratio. LZ Member Length for general column flexural Length buckling about the local Z-axis.0 K value for general column flexural buckling about the local Y-axis. International Design Codes Manual — 19 .0 = Suppress the slenderness ratio check. 1. Used to calculate slenderness ratio. NSF 1.0 Slenderness limit in tension.1998.0 = Check slenderness ratio against the limits.0 MPa Ultimate strength of steel. Design Code to follow. MAIN 0.0 Default limit in tension = 400. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again. Default limit for compression = 180.

0 = Report only minimum design results.0.3.6.0.0 Net section factor for compression members = An / Ag (refer cl. KT 1.1) ALM 0.6.3(2).0 Correction factor for distribution of forces (refer cl. 6. Maximum allowable depth (Applicable for member selection) DMIN 0. 2.1 .3(1). ALB 0.0 A twist restraint factor given in Table 5. DMAX 45.0 in. Parameter Default Description Name Value TRACK 0.3(1) SKL 1.1.6.HW PHI 0. 5.0 in.0 0.2. 6. otherwise the input value is used.SR.3.3) If ALB is 0.9 Capacity reduction factor NSC 1. 1. otherwise the input value is used.1) If ALM is 0.0 = Report design strengths also. it is automatically calculated based cl.Pro . Minimum required depth (Applicable for member selection) RATIO 1.5. 4 - LW.0 Moment modification factor (refer cl.0 A load height factor given in Table 20 — STAAD.1.CF. it is automatically calculated based on TABLE 6. IST 1 Steel type .0 Permissible ratio of actual load effect to the design strength.1. 6. 2 .0 = Provide full details of design. 5 .0 Member section constant (refer cl. 3 .HR.2) SKT 1.3. 7.

for deflection check) DJ1 Start Joint of Joint No. denoting start point for member calculation of “deflection length” DJ2 End Joint of Joint No. Code checking is done using forces and moments at every twelfth point along the beam. The adequacy is checked as per AS 4100 requirements.0 = Perform design for moments at twelfth points along the beam. Section 1 Australian Codes Parameter Default Description Name Value 5.0 0. location (distance from the start joint) and magnitudes of the governing forces and moments are also printed. UNT Member Unsupported length in bending Length compression of the top flange for calculating moment resistance. denoting end point for member calculation of “deflection length” 1B. The code checking output labels the members as PASSed or FAILed.8 Code Checking The purpose of code checking is to check whether the provided section properties of the members are adequate.6. the critical condition. Example of commands for CODE CHECKING: UNIT NEWTON METER PARAMETER International Design Codes Manual — 21 . UNB Member Unsupported length in bending Length compression of the bottom flange for calculating moment resistance.6.0 A lateral rotation restraint factor given in Table 5.3(2) SKR 1. 1. In addition. Allowable (Mandatory local deflection.3(3) BEAM 0. DFF None “Deflection Length”/ Maxm. governing load case.0 = design only for end moments and those at locations specified by SECTION command. The extent of detail of the output can be controlled by using the TRACK parameter.

85 ALL KY 1. The section selected will be of the same type as that specified initially. CODE AUSTRALIAN FYLD 330E6 MEMB 3 4 NSF 0. For example.9 ALL CHECK CODE MEMB 3 4 Code checking cannot be performed on composite and prismatic sections. Selection of members whose properties are originally provided from a user table will be limited to sections in the user table. Example of commands for MEMBER SELECTION: UNIT NEWTON METER PARAMETER FYLD 330E6 MEMB 3 4 NSF 0.85 ALL KY 1.2 MEMB 3 4 RATIO 0.9 Member Selection The member selection process basically involves determination of the least weight member that PASSes the code checking procedure based on the forces and moments of the most recent analysis. The term CRITICAL COND refers to the section of the AS 4100 specification which governs the design. a member specified initially as a channel will have a channel selected for it.2 MEMB 3 4 RATIO 0. 22 — STAAD.9 ALL SELECT MEMB 3 4 1B. 1B.10 Tabulated Results of Steel Design Results of code checking and member selection are presented in a tabular format.Pro . Composite and prismatic sections cannot be selected.

The following is provided to allow old STAAD files to be run. The 1997 revision of the code is currently implemented. 2A. British Codes . columns and slabs according to BS8110.Concrete Design Per BS8110 2A. STAAD will calculate the required reinforcement to resist the forces and moments. STAAD has the capability of performing design of concrete beams. Section 2 British Codes 2A.1 Design Operations It is strongly recommended that the user should perform new concrete design using the RC Designer Module.2 Design Parameters The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform and control the design to BS8110. These parameters not only act as a method to input required data for code calculations but give the Engineer control over the actual International Design Codes Manual — 23 . Given the width and depth (or diameter for circular columns) of a section.

it is for reinforcement in both directions) FYSEC *460N/mm Yield Stress for secondary reinforcement 2 a.0 Face of support location at start of beam. See section 5.use MEMBER OFFSET for bending ) EFACE *0. CODE BRITISH Design Code to follow. British Codes . Applicable to shear bars in beams FC * Concrete Yield Stress / cube strength 30N/mm2 MINMAIN 8mm Minimum main reinforcement bar size Acceptable bar sizes: 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 32 40 50 MINSEC 8mm Minimum secondary bar size a. (NOTE : Both SFACE & EFACE must be 24 — STAAD. Default values of commonly used parameters for conventional design practice have been chosen as the basis. Table 2A.Pro .Section 2 British Codes 2A.British Concrete Design BS 8110 Parameters Parameter Default Description Name Value Invokes design per BS8110.0 Face of support location at end of beam. Applicable to shear reinforcement in beams CLEAR * 20mm Clearance of reinforcement measured from concrete surface to closest bar perimeter.1 . This is the way STAAD works for all codes.Concrete Design Per BS8110 design process. FYMAIN *460 Yield Stress for main reinforcement (For 2 N/mm slabs. (Only applicable for shear . Note: Once a parameter is specified.48.1 contains a complete list of available parameters with their default values. SFACE *0. Table 2A. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again.1 of the Technical Reference Manual. MAXMAIN 50mm Maximum required reinforcement bar size Acceptable bars are per MINMAIN above.

0 0.0 = Column braced in both directions. BRACE 0.0 = Output of TRACK 1. For columns gives a detailed table of output with additional moments calculated. ELZ 1.0 List of design sag/hog moments and corresponding required steel area at each section of member MMAG 1. DEPTH *YD Depth of concrete member. 1. 2. Column design gives no detailed results. WIDTH *ZD Width of concrete member.0 = Critical Moment will not be printed with beam design report. This value default is as provided as ZD in MEMBER PROPERTIES.0 Member length factor about local Z International Design Codes Manual — 25 .0 = Column unbraced about local Z direction only 2.0 Factor by which column design moments are magnified NSECTION 10 Number of equally-spaced sections to be considered in finding critical moment for beam design. Section 2 British Codes Parameter Default Description Name Value positive numbers.0 0.0 = For beam gives min/max steel % and spacing.0 Member length factor about local Y direction for column design.0 = Column unbraced in both Y and Z directions ELY 1.) TRACK 0. 1. The upper limit is 20.0 = Column unbraced about local Y direction only 3. This value default is as provided as YD in MEMBER PROPERTIES.

British Codes .0 = Perform serviceability check for beams as if they were cantilever beams.0 0. 3.Section 2 British Codes 2A. In a PDELTA analysis.Concrete Design Per BS8110 Parameter Default Description Name Value direction for column design.0 =  Orthogonal reinforcement layout without considering torsional moment Mxy -slabs only -500 =  Orthogonal reinforcement layout with Mxy used to calculate WOOD & ARMER moments for design. Alternatively STAAD houses a PDELTA ANALYSIS facility. * Provided in current unit system 2A.8. 2. The first method is equivalent to the procedure presented in BS8110 Part 1 1985 Section 3. SRA 0. This is the method used in the design for concrete in STAAD.3 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Considerations STAAD provides the user with two methods of accounting for the slenderness effects in the analysis and design of concrete members.2 In this section. SERV 0.3.0 = Perform serviceability check for beams as if they were continuous.0 = No serviceability check performed.2.Pro . the code recognizes that additional moments induced by deflection are present and states that these 'secondary' moments are accounted for by the design formula in Section 3. A=  Skew angle considered in WOOD & ARMER equations where A is the angle in degrees. which allows the effects of these second order moments to be considered in the analysis rather than the design.0 0.8. 1. after solving the joint displacements of the 26 — STAAD.0 = Perform serviceability check for beams as if they were simply supported.

2A. These can be compared to those calculated using the formulation of BS8110. stirrup sizes are calculated with proper spacing. the user may provide them along with YD and ZD.4 Member Dimensions Concrete members that are to be designed by STAAD must have certain section properties input under the MEMBER PROPERTIES command.4. the program will calculate them from YD and ZD. all active beam loadings are scanned to create moment and shear envelopes and locate the critical sections. Section 2 British Codes structure. * T-SECTION .FLANGE 1000. Note that area (AX) is not provided for these members.(DEEP) 14 PRISM YD 550. the required positive and negative bar pattern is developed with cut-off lengths calculated to include required development length. ZB 250. unless that number is redefined with the NSECTION parameter. 2A. For both types of beam action. depending on the International Design Codes Manual — 27 . Also note that if moments of inertias are not provided. The total number of sections considered is ten. Shear design as per BS8110 clause 3.5 has been followed and the procedure includes critical shear values plus torsional moments. The program will scan from each end of the member and provide a total of two shear regions at each.(YD-YB) * . If shear area areas ( AY & AZ ) are to be considered in analysis. Finally a T section can be considered by using the third definition above. ZD 300. The following example demonstrates the required input: UNIT MM MEMBER PROPERTIES *RECTANGULAR COLUMN 300mm WIDE X 450mm DEEP 1 3 TO 7 9 PRISM YD 450.5 Beam Design Beam design includes both flexure and shear.X 200.STEM 250(THICK) X 350. In the above input. ZD 1000. the additional moments induced in the structure are calculated. YB 350. From these values. the first set of members are rectangular (450mm depth x 300mm width) and the second set of members. *CIRCULAR COLUMN 300mm diameter 11 13 PR YD 300. with only depth and no width provided. From the critical moment values. will be assumed to be circular with 300mm diameter.

Section 2 British Codes 2A. LOAD 3 REQD STEEL = 261. 2) HEIGHT . mm. The following annotations apply to Table 2A. mm 2 565.4./ 40.Height of bar level from the soffit of the beam in relation to its local y axis.Serial number of the bar centre which may contain one or more bar groups.Pro . 3854. either a hook or (STA. SIZE .30.460. British Codes .31 KN-M AT 1927. FC .8 MM 0.ACTUAL DESIGN OUTPUT B E A M N O.3854. 6) ANCHOR . 6. ROWMX= 0.2. 4) FROM . ROWMN = 0. is needed at start (STA) or at the end (END).8 MM 0.FLEXURE LEN . X 600. If torsion is present.Distance from the start of the beam to the end of the reinforcing bar. mm FY .mm2. Table 2A.0013 MAX/MIN/ACTUAL BAR SPACING = 189.Part 2 -section 2. TABLE 2A. A table of shear and/or combined torsion is then provided with critical shear. YES YES 28 — STAAD. 5) TO . 2 DESIGN R E S U L T S .0400.2 shows a sample output of an actual reinforcement pattern developed by STAAD. 3) BAR INFO . YES YES CRITICAL POS MOMENT = 55.2 1) LEVEL .States whether anchorage. mm LEVEL HEIGHT BAR INFO FROM TO ANCHOR mm mm mm STA END 1 29.END) continuation.0014.Reinforcement bar information specifying number of bars and their size. 3854.Concrete Design Per BS8110 change of shear distribution along the beam. the program will also consider the provisions of BS8110 . 6./ 33.Distance from the start of the beam to the start of the reinforcing bar. Stirrups not bent up bars are assumed in the design.300. ROW = 0.

rectangular and circular sections. the recommendations of 3.4.8 are followed. The loading which produces maximum reinforcement is called the critical load and is displayed. All active loadings are tested to calculate reinforcement. mm B E A M N O.1.6 Column Design Columns are designed for axial force and biaxial bending at the ends.5 of the code are considered.2. For rectangular and square sections. LOAD 4 REQD STEEL = 261. For biaxial bending. ROW = 0.section 3. The requirements of BS8110 Part 1 ./ 33. ROWMX= 0.4. The program will then decide whether or not the column is short or slender and whether it requires additional moment calculations.0014.mm2. SPACING mm C/C mm kN kNm S T SIZE S T S+T S T S+T END 1 1156 84. Section 2 British Codes CRITICAL NEG MOMENT = 55./ 40. mm.8.0013 MAX/MIN/ACTUAL BAR SPACING = 189. Bracing conditions are controlled by using the BRACE parameter.3 .6 12 3 2 8 mm 3 5 9 335 199 116 EXTRA PERIPHERAL LONGITUDINAL TORSION STEEL: 402 mm2 EVENLY DISTRIBUTED * TORSIONAL RIGIDITY SHOULD CONFORM TO CL.4 12 4 2 8 mm 3 5 9 335 199 116 2697 END 2 86.31 KN-M AT 1927. with the user having control on the effective length in each direction by using the ELZ and ELY parameters as described in table 2A.BS8110 * 2A. ROWMN = 0.0400. 2 DESIGN R E S U L T S . the reinforcement is always assumed to be International Design Codes Manual — 29 . Column design is done for square.SHEAR PROVIDE SHEAR AND TORSIONAL LINKS AS FOLLOWS FROM .TO SHEAR TORSN LOAD LINK NO.

X 600.L.= 187 2A.8.L. CLEAR .Yield stress for all reinforcing steel 2. 1 DESIGN RESULTS FY . This causes slightly conservative results in certain cases.0 would merely give the bar configuration. The following parameters are those applicable to slab design: 1. A typical example of element design output is shown in Table 2A. required steel area and percentage.Concrete grade 3. KNM: MOMZ = 0 MOMY = 2 DESIGN LOADS KN METER: MOM. N/MM2 RECT SIZE . MM. FC .3 of the Technical Reference Manual.4.8. AREA OF STEEL REQUIRED = 875. column size and critical load case.460. MM.Distance from the outer surface to the edge of the bar. = 64 AXIAL LOAD = 84 DESIGNED CAP. 30 — STAAD.300.z = 4500 mm ( 3. 4.1. BAR CONFIGURATION REINF PCT. the detailed output below is obtained. This is considered the same on both surfaces. SQ. FYMAIN .51.0.7 Slab Design Slabs are designed to BS8110 specifications. KN METER: MOM. To design a slab. TRACK 0.3 shows typical column design results.3 & 5 ) END MOMS. it must first be modeled using finite elements.y = 4500 mm ( 3.1 ).1. British Codes . FC -30.Pro .Section 2 British Codes 2A.Concrete Design Per BS8110 arranged symmetrically. Table 2A. = 64 AXIAL CAP.3 -COLUMN DESIGN OUTPUT COLUMN No. MZ1 = 1 MZ2 = 25 MY1 = 53 MY2 = 40 SLENDERNESS MOMTS. TABLE 2A. Using parameter TRACK 1.3 & 5 ) BRACED /SLENDER in y E. The command specifications are in accordance with section 5. The reinforcement required to resist the Mx moment is denoted as longitudinal reinforcement and the reinforcement required to resist the My moment is denoted as transverse reinforcement ( Fig. LOAD LOCATION  8 12 MM 0.486 3 EACH END (ARRANGE COLUMN REINFORCEMENTS SYMMETRICALLY) BRACED /SHORT in z E.

SRA .249 0.000 30. as shown in Table 2A. The resulting Mx* and My* moments are calculated and shown in the design format.855 30.358 30.000 TOP International Design Codes Manual — 31 . 4No. These new design moments allow the Mxy moment to be considered when designing the section.4 -ELEMENT DESIGN OUTPUT ELEMENT DESIGN SUMMARY-BASED ON 16mm BARS MINIMUM AREAS ARE ACTUAL CODE MIN % REQUIREMENTS.000 2. Ref: R H WOOD CONCRETE 1968 (FEBRUARY) If the default value of zero is used for the parameter SRA.1 are not applicable. WOOD & ARMER equations. Orthogonal or skew reinforcement may be considered.000 0. REINF MOM-X /LOAD TRANS. PRACTICAL LAYOUTS ARE AS FOLLOWS: FY=460.619 0.16mm BARS AT 250mm C/C = 804mm2/metre ELEMENT LONG. My moments.586 1. 6No. The design of the slab considers a fixed bar size of 16mm in both directions with the longitudinal bar being the layer closest to the slab exterior face. REINF MOM-Y /LOAD (mm2/m) (kN-m/m) (mm2/m) (kN-m/m) WOOD & ARMER RESOLVED MOMENTS FOR ELEMENT: 13 UNITS: METER KN LOAD MX MY MXY MX* MY*/Ma* ANGLE 1 0.000 0. Section 2 British Codes 4. the design will be based on the Mx and My moments which are the direct results of STAAD analysis.249 0. an angle is given in degrees measured anticlockwise (positive) from the element local x-axis to the reinforcement bar.226 1. Other parameters. If however a skew is to be considered.437 0.000 BOTT 3 0. The SRA parameter (Set Reinforcement Angle) can be manipulated to introduce WOOD & ARMER moments into the design replacing the pure Mx. Typical output is as follows: TABLE 2A. SRA set to -500 will assume an orthogonal layout.184 -0.007 1.000 TOP 1 0.619 0.16mm BARS AT 150mm C/C = 1206mm2/metre FY=250.Parameter which denotes the angle of the required transverse reinforcement relative to the longitudinal reinforcement for the calculation of WOOD & ARMER design moments.

British Codes . 1. The use of the Surface element enables the designer to treat the entire wall as one entity. 0. the concentrated (in-plane bending) reinforcing and the link required due to out-of- plane shear. The shear wall is designed at these horizontal sections.00 / 3 195.000 30. It performs in-plane shear. The results are presented in the context of the entire wall rather than individual finite elements thereby allowing users to quickly locate required information.Concrete Design Per BS8110 3 0. as well as in-plane and out-of-plane bending design of reinforcing. The shear wall is modeled by a single or a combination of Surface elements. General Format START SHEARWALL DESIGN CODE BRITISH FYMAIN f1 FC f2 HMIN f3 HMAX f4 VMIN f5 VMAX f6 32 — STAAD.86 / 1 BOTT : 195.Pro . compression.Section 2 British Codes 2A.007 0. 2.437 0.000 BOTT 13 TOP : 195. The output includes the required horizontal and vertical distributed reinforcing.23 / 1 195.8 Shear Wall Design Purpose Design of shear walls in accordance with BS 8110 has been added to the features of the program. The program reports shear wall design results for each load case/combination for user specified number of sections given by SURFACE DIVISION (default value is 10) command.00 / 3 2A. Description The program implements the provisions of BS 8110 for the design of shear walls.184 -0. 0.000 0. It greatly simplifies the modeling of the wall and adds clarity to the analysis and design output.

in current units. Note: Once a parameter is specified. in current units. If input is 6 (integer number) the program will a diameter bar. This is the way STAAD works for all codes. Table 2A. International Design Codes Manual — 33 . If input is 6 ( the program will assume 6 mm diameter bar. If input is 6 ( the program will assume 6 mm diameter bar. LMAX 16 Maximum size of links (range 6mm – 16mm).Shear Wall Design Parameters Parameter Name Default Value Description FYMAIN 460 Mpa Yield strength of steel. Section 2 British Codes EMIN f7 EMAX f8 LMIN f9 LMAX f10 CLEAR f11 TWOLAYERED f12 KSLENDER f13 DESIGN SHEARWALL LIST shearwall-list END The next table explains parameters used in the shear wall design command block above. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again. EMAX 36 Maximum size of vertical reinforcing bars located in edge z – 36mm). HMIN 6 Minimum size of horizontal reinforcing bars (range 6 mm – is 6 (integer number) the program will assume 6 mm diam HMAX 36 Maximum size of horizontal reinforcing bars (range 6 mm – is 6 (integer number) the program will assume 6 mm diam VMIN 6 Minimum size of vertical reinforcing bars (range 6mm – 36 (integer number) the program will assume 6 mm diameter VMAX 36 Maximum size of vertical reinforcing bars (range 6mm – 36 (integer number) the program will assume 6 mm diameter EMIN 6 Minimum size of vertical reinforcing bars located in edge zo – 36mm). LMIN 6 Minimum size of links (range 6mm – 16mm). FC 30 Mpa Compressive strength of concrete.8 . If input is 6 (integer number) the program will a diameter bar.

Example . TWOLAYERED 0 Reinforcement placement mode: 0 . . each direction KSLENDER 1. . SURFACE PROPERTY 1 TO 4 THI 18 SUPPORTS 1 7 14 20 PINNED 2 to 5 gen pin 6 to 10 gen pin 11 to 15 gen pin 19 to 16 gen pin . .5 Slenderness factor for finding effective height.single layer. in current units. SURFACE CONSTANTS E 3150 34 — STAAD.Pro . British Codes .Concrete Design Per BS8110 Parameter Name Default Value Description CLEAR 25 mm Clear concrete cover. . each direction 1 . The following example starts from the definition of shear wall and ends at the shear wall design. SET DIVISION 12 SURFACE INCIDENCES 2 5 37 34 SUR 1 19 16 65 68 SUR 2 11 15 186 165 SUR 3 10 6 138 159 SUR 4 .two layers.Section 2 British Codes 2A.

For instance.5e-006 . . Command SET DIVISION 12 indicates that the surface boundary node-to- node segments will be subdivided into 12 fragments prior to finite element mesh generation. all 13 nodes will be assigned pinned supports. Section 2 British Codes POISSON 0. the line 2 TO 5 GEN PIN assigns pinned supports to all nodes between nodes 2 and 5. 2. respectively. 3. The SUPPORTS command includes the new support generation routine. START SHEARWALL DES CODE BRITISH UNIT NEW MMS FC 25 FYMAIN 460 TWO 1 VMIN 12 HMIN 12 EMIN 12 DESIGN SHEA LIST 1 TO 4 END Notes 1. 4. there will be an additional 11 nodes between nodes 2 and 5. Please note that the additional 11 nodes are not individually accessible to the user.17 DENSITY 8. As the node-to-node distances were previously subdivided by the SET DIVISION 12 command. The shear wall design commands are listed between lines START SHEARWALL DES and END. They are created by the program to enable the finite element mesh generation and to allow application of boundary constraints. The CODE command selects the design code International Design Codes Manual — 35 . Four surfaces are defined by the SURFACE INCIDENCES command. As a result. 5. Surface thickness and material constants are specified by the SURFACE PROPERTY and SURFACE CONSTANTS.68e-005 ALPHA 5.

is taken as 0.8 horizontal length of the wall. Minimum reinforcements are according to table 3.2 and 3. Extreme compression fibre to centroid of tension (concentrated) reinforcement distance. for all active load cases. The DESIGN SHEARWALL LIST command is followed by a list of previously defined Surface elements intended as shear walls and/or shear wall components.2 are applicable. The flexural (concentrated vertical ) reinforcing is located at both ends (edges) of the length of the wall. Technical Overview The program implements provisions of section 3. For British code the parameter is BRTISH. The limit for slenderness is as per table 3.5.5. v is calculated as per clause no.Pro .5 times the clear height. British Codes .25. 3. Checking of slenderness limit The slenderness checking is done for out-of-plane direction. The design shear stress is computed as per clause no.4. Design for compression and out-of-plane vertical bending (denoted by Fy and My respectively in the shear wall force output) 36 — STAAD.Section 2 British Codes 2A.2.9.7. For out-of-plane direction.3. User can change the effective height.2. This length is inclusive of the thickness of the wall.Concrete Design Per BS8110 that will be the basis for the design.9 of BS 8110:Part 1:1997 and relevant provisions as referenced therein. The wall is designed as unbraced reinforced wall. the provisions of clause 3.12. 3.4. The area of reinforcement is calculated and checked against the minimum area as per clause no. The edge reinforcement is assumed to be distributed over a length of 0. The following steps are performed for each of the horizontal sections of the wall set using the SURFACE DIVISION command (see Description above). Hence. which is taken as 30. Flexural design of the wall is carried out in accordance with the provisions of clause no.2 times horizontal length on each side. Design for in-plane bending (denoted by Mz in the shear wall force output) Walls are assumed to be cantilever beams fixed at their base and carrying loads to the foundation.4.23 for unbraced wall. the wall is assumed to be simply supported. The default effective height is 1. Design for in-plane shear (denoted by Fxy in the shear wall force output) Limit on the nominal shear strength.4.4. 3.12 taking into consideration the effect of axial load. Nominal shear strength of concrete is computed as per table 3.4. 3.8.9. d.

opening(s) corner coordinates.4.8 considering vertical reinforcement as tension reinforcement.8. SURFACE INCIDENCE n1. Design and output are available for user selected locations. The section is again designed as axially loaded column under uni-axial bending as per the provisions of clause 3.12. . The maximum reinforcement percentage of vertical reinforcement is as per clause no.12. Design for out-of-plane horizontal bending (denoted by Mx in the shear wall force output) The horizontal reinforcement already calculated from in-plane shear is checked against the whole section subjected to out-of-plane bending and axial load..25. Shear reinforcements in the form of links are computed as per table 3.4 for axially loaded column with uni-axial bending. 1. axially loaded with out-of-plane uniform lateral load. Section 2 British Codes The wall panel is designed as simply supported (at top and bottom). Shear Wall Design With Opening The Surface element has been enhanced to allow design of shear walls with rectangular openings. Design for out-of-plane shear (denoted by Qy in the shear wall force output) The out-of-plane shear arises from out-of-plane loading. the wall may comprise up with different wall panels. ni SURFACE s DIVISION sd1.2 and shear strength of concrete section is calculated as per table 3. 3.6. with maximum moments and deflections occurring at mid-height. Due to the presence of openings. Design is done as per clause no.7. The minimum reinforcement percentage is as per table 3. Description Shear walls modeled in STAAD..7 and the provisions of clause 3. International Design Codes Manual — 37 . Shear wall set-up Definition of a shear wall starts with a specification of the surface element perimeter nodes.7. meshing divisions along node-to-node segments. and meshing divisions of four edges of the opening(s).5. 3. is reported. The axial load in this case is the in-plane shear.5. Extra reinforcement in the form of horizontal bars.3.5. The automatic meshing algorithm has been improved to allow variable divisions along wall and opening(s) edges.12.. Links if necessary are calculated as per the provisions of clause 3.8. The design shear stress is calculated as per 3.Pro may include an unlimited number of openings.4. if necessary.

odk  . yd .number of divisions along Y axis. Default locations for stress/force output. or as previously input by the SET DIVISION command). sdj - RECOPENING x1 y1 z1 x2 y2 z2 x3 y3 z3 x4 y4 z4 DIVISION od1.Concrete Design Per BS8110 ... For example.. British Codes .) ... sdj .Pro ... ni .. sd1. s . odk list does not include all node-to-node segments. 38 — STAAD. . surface ordinal number. Note: xd and yd represent default numbers of divisions for each edge of the surface where output is requested... od1.number of divisions along X axis.. and design output are set as follows: SURFACE DIVISION X xd SURFACE DIVISION Y yd where: xd . design.. x1 y1 z1 (.number of divisions for each of the node-to-node distance on the surface perimeter. then the output will be produced for only one section (at the center of the edge). Note: If the sd1... . then the corresponding division number is set to the default value (=10.... divisions along edges of the opening.. odk where: n1. or if any of the numbers listed equals zero.. node numbers on the perimeter of the shear wall. The output is provided for sections located between division segments..Section 2 British Codes 2A. coordinates of the corners of the opening.. ... if the number of divisions = 2. . sdj or the od1. . .

..distance along the x axis from start of the member to the full cross-section of the wall.si . . The general format of the command is as follows: PRINT SURFACE FORCE (ALONG x) (AT a) (BETWEEN d1.coordinates in the direction orthogonal to x. Note: If command ALONG is omitted. direction Y (default) is assumed.. delineating a fragment of the full cross-section for which the output is desired. a . If command AT is omitted.** s1. Section 2 British Codes 2.si where: x ... Definition of wall panels Input syntax for panel definition is as follows: START PANEL DEFINITION SURFACE i PANEL j ptype x1 y1 z1 x2 y2 z2 x3 y3 z3 x4 y4 z4 ENDPANEL DEFINITION where: i . International Design Codes Manual — 39 .. 3. d1. d2 .ordinal surface number. j . d2) LIST s1.ordinal panel number. If the BETWEEN command is omitted.local axis of the surface element (X or Y). output is provided for all sections along the specified (or default) edge. the negative range is to be entered. If the local axis is directed away from the surface.. Stress/force output printing Values of internal forces may be printed out for any user-defined section of the wall. the output is generated based on full cross-section width.list of surfaces for output generation ** The range currently is taken in terms of local axis. Number of sections will be determined from the SURFACE DIVISION X or SURFACE DIVISION Y input values.

.Pro . defined by the SURFACE DIVISION X or SURFACE DIVISION Y input values...full design output will be generated. b..coordinates of the corners of the panel Note: Design of COLUMN and BEAM panels is currently not available. the design proceeds for all cross sections of the wall or panels. Panels have been defined. Design is performed for all panels. 4. 1 . a.) . British Codes . If opening is found then reinforcement is provided along sides of openings.indicates a basic set of results data (default).) DESIGN SHEARWALL (AT c) LIST s TRACK tr ENDSHEARWALL DESIGN Parameter TRACK specifies how detailed the design output should be: 0 . No panel definition.Concrete Design Per BS8110 ptype . located at a distance c from the origin of the local coordinates system. 40 — STAAD. If the command AT is omitted. Shear wall design The program implements different provisions of design of walls as per code BS 8110. Design is performed for the specified horizontal full cross-section.Section 2 British Codes 2A.WALL x1 y1 z1 (. The area of horizontal and vertical bars provided along edges of openings is equal to that of the respective interrupted bars. as applicable. for the cross-section located at a distance c from the start of the panel. General syntax of the design command is as follows: START SHEARWALL DESIGN (.

C. u-u and v-v and two geometric. tubes and angles. columns. joists. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state design are strength and stability while that in serviceability limit state is deflection. members are proportioned to resist the design loads without exceeding the limit states of strength and stability. See section 2B. STAAD. is taken as the LVV vv parameter or LY * KY. The code checking portion of the program checks that code requirements for each selected section are met and identifies the governing criteria. Appropriate safety factors are used so that the chances of limits being surpassed are acceptably remote.13 for a complete description. Section 2 British Codes 2B. See section 2B. if not specified. channels.serviceability and ultimate. desired section type or other such parameters. steel tables for both hot rolled and hollow sections are built into the program for use in specifying member properties as well as for the actual design process. a-a and b-b. The International Design Codes Manual — 41 . In addition to universal beams. ‘a-a’ and ‘b-b’ axes. has introduced the additional option to design tapered I shaped (wide flange) beams according to Annex G of BS5950. see section 2B6.6 for more information on the LEG parameter.0 design output. used today in most modern steel design codes. L . two principal. piles. In a TRACK 2. In the STAAD implementation of BS5950:2000. pipes. The a-a and b-b axes are determined by which leg of the angle is fixed by the connection and should be specified using the LEG parameter.4 for information regarding the referencing of these sections. the most economic section is selected on the basis of the least weight criteria. Structures are designed and proportioned taking into consideration the limit states at which they become unfit for their intended use.Steel Design Per BS5950:2000 2B. beams with cover plates. composite sections. the ‘Buckling Calculations’ displays results for the ‘v-v’. The complete B. Single Angle Sections Angle sections are un-symmetrical and when using BS 5950:2000 table 25 we must consider four axes. The effective length for the v-v axis. This procedure is controlled by the designer in specification of allowable member depths. Two major categories of limit state are recognized .Pro 2006. tees.S.1 General The design philosophy embodied in BS5950:2000 is built around the concept of limit state design. there is a provision for user provided tables. British Codes . Accordingly.

i.2 Analysis Methodology Elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design. Member properties may also be specified using the User Table facility. The user is allowed complete flexibility in providing loading specifications and using appropriate load factors to create necessary loading situations.e. Depending upon the analysis requirements. regular stiffness analysis or P-Delta analysis may be specified.3 Member Property Specifications For specification of member properties. Analysis is done for the primary and combination loading conditions provided by the user. The next section describes the syntax of commands used to assign properties from the built-in steel table.Pro . the steel section library available in STAAD may be used. Dynamic analysis may also be performed and the results combined with static analysis results.effective length in the a-a axis is taken as LY * KY and the effective length in the b- b axis as LZ * KZ. a-a axis is parallel to the longer leg. 2B. 2B. refer to the STAAD Technical Reference Manual. For more information on these facilities. The following diagram shows the axes for angles which have been defined with either an ST or RA specification and is connected by its longer leg. 42 — STAAD.

These properties are stored in a database file. The following examples illustrate the designation scheme. shear deformation is always considered during the analysis of these members. Following are the descriptions of different types of sections available: Universal Beams. Almost all BSI steel sections are available for input. The designation is similar to that of the joists. If called for. The same designation scheme as in BSI tables may be used with the weight omitted. Section 2 British Codes 2B. the lighter section should be specified with an "A" at the end. the properties are also used for member design. 10 TO 15 TA ST CH305X102 55 57 59 61 TA ST CH178X76 International Design Codes Manual — 43 . Columns And Piles All rolled universal beams. Since the shear areas are built into these tables. 10 TO 20 TA ST JO152X127 1 2 TA ST JO127X114A Channel Sections All rolled steel channel sections from the BSI table have been incorporated in STAAD. In those cases where two joists have the same specifications but different weights.4 Built-In Steel Section Library The following information is provided for use when the built-in steel tables are to be referenced for member property specification. columns and pile sections are available. 20 TO 30 TA ST UB305X165X54 33 36 TA ST UC356X406X287 100 102 106 TA ST UP305X305X186 Rolled Steel Joists Joist sections may be specified as they are listed in BSI-80 with the weight omitted. A complete listing of the sections available in the built-in steel section library may be obtained by using the tools of the graphical user interface.

g. The letter "D" in front of the section name will specify a double channel.Double Channels Back to back double channels. either LD or SD will serve the purpose. For example. The standard angle section is specified as follows: 15 20 25 TA ST UA200X150X18 This specification may be used when the local STAAD z-axis corresponds to the V- V axis specified in the steel tables. that only angles specified with an RA specification can be designed. either a standard. RA specification. but instead by referring to the universal beam shapes from which they are cut. For example. If the local STAAD y-axis corresponds to the V- V axis in the tables. 54 55 56 TA T UB254X102X22 (tee cut from UB254X102X22) Angles All equal and unequal angles are available for analysis. 35 TO 45 TA RA UA200X150X18 Double Angles Short leg back to back or long leg back to back double angles can be specified by inputting the word SD or LD. ST specification or reversed angle. respectively. (specifies a double channel with a spacing of 5 length units) Tee Sections Tee sections are not input by their actual designations. type specification "RA" (reverse angle) may be used. 51 52 53 TA D CH152X89 70 TO 80 TA D CH305X102 SP 5. D CH102X51.Pro . e. however. with or without spacing between them. Two types of specifications may be used to describe an angle section. are available. 44 — STAAD. Note. In case of an equal angle. D CH203X89 etc. in front of the angle size.

2 (specifies a 21. 10 15 TA ST PIP213.0 (specifies a pipe with outside dia.19 User Steel Table Specification) Pipes (Circular Hollow Sections) To designate circular hollow sections from BSI tables. Tubes (Rectangular or Square Hollow Sections) Designation of tubes from the BSI steel table is illustrated below: Example: International Design Codes Manual — 45 . 5.2 mm wall thickness) Circular hollow sections may also be provided by specifying the outside and inside diameters of the section. For example. pipe with 3.3 mm dia. use PIP followed by the numerical value of diameter and thickness of the section in mm omitting the decimal section of the value provided for diameter. of 20 in current length units) Only code checking and no member selection will be performed if this type of specification is used. of 25 and inside dia. Section 2 British Codes 14 TO 20 TA LD UA200X200X16 SP 1. then the section properties must be defined with an 11th value which defines the radius of gyration about an individual sections’ principal v-v axis (See Technical Reference Manual. 1 TO 9 TA ST PIPE OD 25. Note: If the section is defined from a Double Angle User Table. The following example will illustrate the designation.5 23 27 TA SD UA80X60X6 "SP" denotes spacing between the individual angle sections.0 ID 20.

0 is present but may be altered by changing the input value . 15 TO 25 TA ST TUB160808.Pro . Class 2. The section classification is a function of the geometric properties of the section. slender.0 TH 0. This factor is again a function of the geometry of the section and is automatically determined by STAAD for use in the design process.see Table 2B.6 of the code.5 Member Capacities The basic measure of capacity of a beam is taken as the plastic moment of the section.0 WT 6.0 Tubes. In addition. 46 — STAAD.1). This is a significant departure from the standard practice followed in BS449. 2B. BS5950 does not have any slenderness limitations for tension members. sections are classified as either Class 1. in which the limiting condition was attainment of yield stress at the extreme fibres of a given section. To assist this. can also be input by their dimensions (Height. and a wall thickness of 0. plastic. With the introduction of the plastic moment as the basic measure of capacity.5 (a tube that has a height of 8. Width and Thickness) and not by any table designations. Axial Tension In members with axial tension. careful consideration must be given to the influence of local buckling on moment capacity. the tensile load must not exceed the tension capacity of the member. compact. like pipes. for slender sections. 6 TA ST TUBE DT 8. STAAD calculates the tension capacity of a given member per this procedure. based on a user supplied net section factor (NSF-a default value of 1. Class 3.5 length units) Note: Only code checking and no member selection is performed for TUBE sections specified this way. STAAD is capable of determining the section classification for both hot rolled and built up sections. which governs the decision whether to use the plastic or the elastic moment capacity. The tension capacity of the member is calculated on the basis of the effective area as outlined in Section 4. BS5950 recommends the use of a 'stress reduction factor' to reduce the design strength. semi-compact or Class 4. a width of 6. proceeding with member selection or code check accordingly.

the elastic moment is used. this option can be included by specifying a MAIN parameter. For plastic or compact sections with high shear loads. Axially Loaded Members With Moments In the case of axially loaded members with moments.6 to calculate the appropriate moment capacities of the section. the moment capacity of the member must be calculated about both principal axes and all axial forces must be taken into account. a slenderness limit of 50 is still applied on double angles checked as battened struts as per clause 4. It has been found that I-shaped sections are less sensitive to imperfections when constrained to fail about an axis parallel to the flanges. Based on data collected from extensive research.5 and 4. Note. which is a function of the slenderness of the gross section. A departure from BS5950:1990.8. generally compression members are no longer required to be checked for slenderness limitations. If the section is plastic or compact. however. limiting slenderness of the member and appropriate design strength. The purpose of this elastic limitation is to prevent plasticity at working load. International Design Codes Manual — 47 .2. For semi- compact or slender sections.2 is applied based on effective tension capacity. For members with axial tension and moment. Strut characteristics take into account the considerable influence residual rolling and welding stresses have on column behavior. Section 2 British Codes Compression Compression members must be designed so that the compression resistance of the member is greater than the axial compressive load. it has been determined that sections such as tubes with low residual stresses and Universal Beams and Columns are of intermediate performance. The STAAD implementation of BS5950 incorporates the procedure outlined in section 4. Compression resistance is determined according to the compressive strength.9.7. the plastic modulus has to be reduced to accommodate the shear loads. Compression strength for a particular section is calculated in STAAD according to the procedure outlined in Annex C of BS5950 where compression strength is seen to be a function of the appropriate Robertson constant ( representing Strut Curve) corresponding Perry factor.2. plastic moment capacities will constitute the basic moment capacities subject to an elastic limitation. These research observations are incorporated in BS5950 through the use of four strut curves together with a selection of tables to indicate which curve to use for a particular case. the appropriate design strength and the relevant strut characteristics. the interaction formula as outlined in section 4.

The procedure to check for lateral torsional buckling as outlined in section 4.3.the simplified approach (4. Lateral Torsional Buckling Since plastic moment capacity is the basic moment capacity used in BS5950. Shear capacity is calculated in STAAD using the procedure outlined in section 4. considering the appropriate shear area for the section specified. and limiting equivalent 48 — STAAD.4. however. the more exact approach (4. According to this procedure. For calculation of the buckling resistance moment. In Annex B. m m and m .2) and the Member Buckling Resistance check (4. for a member subjected to moments about the major axis. members are likely to experience relatively large deflections.3 ).8. two principal interaction formulae must be satisfied – Cross Section Capacity check (4.3 has been incorporated in the STAAD implementation of BS5950. which for compact/plastic sections may be more critical. can be specified by x y yx the user or calculated by the program. Perry coefficient. lateral torsional buckling must be considered carefully.Pro .For members with axial compression and moment. STAAD also carries out cross checks for compression only.8.3. Shear Load A member subjected to shear is considered adequate if the shear capacity of the section is greater than the shear load on the member.2. If this is the case.3. also 4. may result in severe serviceability limit state. the 'equivalent uniform moment' on the section must be less than the lateral torsional buckling resistance moment. coupled with lateral torsional buckling..3.8.2 has been implemented for all sections with the exception of angles.2) and Annex I1 for stocky members.5 and Annex H3 if appropriate. Additionally the equivalent moment factors. comparing the results in order that the more appropriate criteria can be used. Members subject to biaxial moments in the absence of both tensile and compressive axial forces are checked using the appropriate method described above with all axial forces set to zero. the procedure outlined in Annex B.2.3. the more exact approach may be more conservative than the simplified approach. COMPRESSION will be the critical condition reported despite the presence of moments.1). It has been found. Hence. This effect.8. in cases where neither the major axis nor the minor axis moment approaches zero. As noted in the code. that this is not always the case and STAAD therefore performs both checks.3. the resistance moment is given as a function of the elastic critical moment. Three types of approach for the member buckling resistance check have been outlined in BS5950:2000 .3.

(TRACK . (PY – Steel Design Strength ) The design parameter PY should only be used when a uniform design strength for an entire structure or a portion thereof is required. R.0 or 2.C. 1.0. International Design Codes Manual — 49 . not lengths) to define lateral torsional buckling and compression effective lengths respectively.0. and the equivalent moment factor.6 Design Parameters Available design parameters to be used in conjunction with BS5950 are listed in table 2B.Additional Provisions Rectangular Hollow sections are treated in accordance with S. which are calculated within the program. 3.Relevant Effective Length) The values supplied for UNL. LY and LZ should be real numbers greater than zero in current units of length. They are supplied along with or instead of UNF. LY and LZ . Generally speaking this option is not required and the program should be allowed to ascertain the appropriate value. 2. In such cases. H.Control of Output Formats ) When the TRACK parameter is set to 0. recommendations in cases when the plastic axis is in the flange. member capacities will be printed in design related output (code check or member selection) in kilonewtons per square metre. (UNL.I. the following expressions are used to calculate the reduced plastic moduli: Srx = (A*A/4(B-t))(1-n) [ 2D(B-t)/A + n-1 ] for n>= 2t(D-2t)/A Sry = (A*A/4(D-t))(1-n) [ 2B(D-t)/A + n-1 ] for n>= 2t(B-2t)/A 2B. S Sections . The following items should be noted with respect to their use. Otherwise the value of PY will be set according to the stipulations of BS5950 table 9 in which the design strength is seen as a function of cross sectional thickness for a particular steel grade (SGR parameter) and particular element considered. which is determined as a function of the loading configuration and the LT nature of the load (stabilizing. Section 2 British Codes slenderness. m . 1. etc). destabilizing. Please note that both UNL or UNF and LY or KY values are required even though they are often the same values. KY and KZ (which are factors.1 along with their default values. The former relates to compression flange restraint for lateral torsional buckling while the latter is the unrestrained buckling length for compression checks.

usually with a different load list to the main code check.8.50 --------------------------------- TRACK 1.KNS METR (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED) MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/ FX  MY MZ LOCATION ===================================- ============================== 1 ST UB686X254X170 PASS BS-4. The members that are to be checked must have the parameters.0 OUTPUT STAAD CODE CHECKING .036 3 86.(BSI ) --------------------------- ****************************** ALL UNITS ARE .036 3 50 — STAAD.2 0.00 - 22. An example of each TRACK setting follows:- TRACK 0.Pro . DJ1 and DJ2 set.0 causes the design to carry out a deflection check.KNS METR (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED) MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/ FX  MY MZ LOCATION ===================================- ============================== 1 ST UB686X254X170 PASS BS-4.3.2 0. DFF.3.02 4.0 OUTPUT STAAD CODE CHECKING .72 C 0.TRACK 4.8.(BSI ) --------------------------- ****************************** ALL UNITS ARE .

KN METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)  MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/ FX MY  MZ LOCATION  ==================================================== 1 ST UB533X210X92 PASS BS-4.00 Major axis Minor axis Moment of inertia : 55229.996 2389.00 Gross Area = 117.3.902 100 0.90 FX/PZ = 0.00 - 22.4 TRACK 2.4 PC= 3451.000 Elastic modulus : 2072.02 MRZ= 1141.000 n = 1.02 4.(BSI ) --------------------------- *************************** ALL UNITS ARE .9 MRY= 120.1 PV= 1597.5 PT= 5739.9 MCY= 120.000 PZ= 5739.cm) Member Length = 325.00 0.000 Plastic modulus : 2360. Section 2 British Codes 86.9 MB= 1084.0 OUTPUT STAAD.00  ==================================================== MATERIAL DATA Grade of steel = S 275 Modulus of elasticity = 205 kN/mm2 Design Strength (py) = 275 N/mm2 SECTION PROPERTIES (units .41 0.m SECTION CLASS 4 MCZ= 1141.00  585.000  356.6  0.5 BUCKLING CO-EFFICIENTS m AND n : m = 1.Pro CODE CHECKING .50 CALCULATED CAPACITIES FOR MEMB 1 UNIT .kN.031 228.285 International Design Codes Manual — 51 .00 Net Area = 117.72 C 0.

9 Shear Capacity : 969.3.2 Reduced Moment Capacity : 649.8.  - 585.4 0.4 BUCKLING CALCULATIONS (units .3.m) (axis nomenclature as per design code) LTB Moment Capacity (kNm) and LTB Length (m): 649.0  97. - - BS-4.41 : My = 0.902 100 0. - 585.6 0.  - 585. 0.3.4 0.Pro .00.kN.7 888.41 : Mx = 585.329 100 .m) BS5950-1/2000 Section Class : PLASTIC Major axis Minor axis Moment Capacity : 649.843 DESIGN DATA (units .771 53.00 : mx = 1. Shear Area :  58.3.00 Mlt = 585.3 .8.1 1.4 0.0 .0 BS-4.814 100 0.0 BS-4.4 0.0 68.00 : myx = 1. (MX.2 0. 292. MYX and MLT – Equivalent Moment Factors) 52 — STAAD.027 100  0.2 0.00 : my = 1.902 100 0.3.4 - BS-4. 292.m): CLAUSE RATIO LOAD FX VY VZ MZ MY BS-4.3-(Y) 0.0 585.3  - 585. _________________________ 4.0 Annex I.902 100 .1 0.kN.0 .0 Torsion and deflections have not been considered in the design.00 : My = 0.3.0  94.2.00 CRITICAL LOADS FOR EACH CLAUSE CHECK (units- kN.0  0.001 LTB Coefficients & Associated Moments (kNm): mLT = 1.0 .8. MY.

0 for MX.0 for MLT. consider a series of 5 beam elements as a single continuous member as shown below: To enable the steel design.4 and 1. MY and MYX and 0. called MainBeam: START GROUP DEFINITION MEMBER _MainBeam 11 2 38 12 3 END GROUP DEFINITION Note that this can be done in the GUI by selecting the beams and clicking on the menu option: ‘Tools | Create New Group…’ Therefore. Additionally for the MLT parameter. The program can be used to calculate the values for the equivalent moment factors by defining the design member with a GROUP command (see the Technical Reference Manual section 5. For example. the beam needs to be defined as a group. Section 2 British Codes The values for the equivalent moment factors can either be specified directly by the user as a positive value between 0. The nodes along the beam can then be defined as the location of restraint points with J settings.44 and 1. this 5 beam member has 6 joints such that:- International Design Codes Manual — 53 .16 Listing of Members/Elements/Joints by Specification of GROUPS). the joint can be defined as having the upper flange restrained (positive local Y) with the a U setting or the lower flange restrained (negative local Y) with a L setting.

10. The following list indicates the value of the LEG parameter required to match the BS5950 connection definition: Clause 4. In the minor axis (local Z) it has been restrained at the ends and also at node number 33 (joint 3). To define the appropriate connection.Pro . MY and MYX Say that this member has been restrained in its’ major axis (local Y) only at the ends. Consider MLT Say that this member has been restrained at its’ ends against lateral torsional buckling and the top flange has been restrained at node number 33 (joint 3) and only the lower flange at node number 7. For local flexural buckling. Consider MX. local X axis:- MYX _ MainBeam J1 J6 b. Hence:- MLT _MainBeam J1 T3 L5 J6 To split the beam into two buckling lengths for L at joint 14:- y MY _groupname J1 J4 J6 5. (LEG .7. local Z axis:- MY _ MainBeam J1 J3 J6 For the lateral flexural buckling. local Y axis:- MX _MainBeam J1 J6 For the minor axis. it has only been restrained at its ends.Joint 1 = Node 3 Joint 2 = Node 1 Joint 3 = Node 33 Joint 4 = Node 14 Joint 5 = Node 7 Joint 6 = Node 2 a. (joint 5). a LEG parameter should be assigned to the member. channel and tee sections are specified in BS 5950 table 25 depending on the connection provided at the end of the member.2 Single Angle: 54 — STAAD.Table 25 BS5950 for Fastener Control) The slenderness of single and double angle. Hence:- For the major axis.

The following is the correct syntax for the parameter:- Parameter Default Value Description Name SWAY (load case ALL number) MEMBER (member list) _(group name) Example SWAY 5 MEM 1 to 10 International Design Codes Manual — 55 .3.4. The maximum slenderness of the a-a and b-b axes is used to calculate the compression strength p for the stronger principal axis. the LVV parameter is available to comply with note 5 in table 25. This load case would be set up to represent the “k M ” mentioned in this clause and the steel design module would add the amp s forces from this load case to the forces of the other load case it is designed for. Long Leg = 3. the slenderness is calculated for the geometric axes. r . The effective lengths of the geometric axes are defined as:- La = KY * KY Lb = KZ * LZ The slenderness calculated for the v-v axis is then used to calculate the compression strength p for the weaker principal axis (z-z for ST angles or y-y for c RA specified angles). (SWAY – Sway Loadcase) This parameter is used to specify a load case that is to be treated as a sway load case in the context of clause 4. Note that the load case specified with this parameter will not be designed as a separate load case. 2 Bolts: Short leg = 1.3. c Alternatively for single angles where the connection is not known or Table 25 is not appropriate.0. if using double angles from user tables. Section 2 British Codes a. (Technical Reference Manual section 5.19) an eleventh value.0 b.8. slenderness is calculated for the two principal axes y-y and z-z only. a-a and b-b as well as the weak v-v axis. should be supplied at the end of the ten vv existing values corresponding to the radius of gyration of the single angle making up the pair. The LVV parameter is not used. 6.0 For single angles. Long Leg = 2. 1 Bolt: Short Leg = 0. For double angles. In addition. by setting the LEG parameter to 10.0.

See G. SWAY 6 _MainBeams Table 2B.0 = Grade S 460 3. LZ * Member Length Length in local z .0 Steel Grade per BS4360 0.0 = Grade S 355 2. KZ 1. Usually.axis (current units) to calculate (KZ)(LZ)/Rzz slenderness ratio. this is the minor axis. UNF 1.British Steel Design BS5950:2000 Parameters Parameter Default Value Description Name CODE BS5950 Design Code to follow.3 PY * Set according to Design strength of steel steel grade (SGR) KY 1.0 K factor value in local y .axis (current units) to calculate (KY)(LY)/Ryy slenderness ratio.0 K factor value in local z .48. this is the major axis.0 Factor applied to unsupported length for Lateral Torsional Buckling effective length per 56 — STAAD.2.1 . See section 5.axis.Pro .axis.1 of the Technical Reference Manual. SGR 0. LY * Member Length Length in local y . Usually.0 = As per GB 1591 – 16 Mn AD Depth at end/2 Distance between the reference axis and the axis of restraint.0 = Grade S 275 1.

(250) 3.0 = Cold formed section MAIN 0.0 Slenderness limit for members with compression forces.7 of BS5950.0 0.6. SBLT 0.0 Identify Section type for section classification 0. for a given axis:- 0.0 = Built up Section 2.0 = Secondary member.0 = Bracing etc (350) TRACK 0.0 = Suppress all member capacity info. effective length/ radius of gyration.7 of BS5950.0 = Rolled Section 1. International Design Codes Manual — 57 .6. UNL * Member Length Unsupported Length for calculating Lateral Torsional Buckling resistance moment section 4. 1. NSF 1.0 = Main structural member (180) 2.3. Section 2 British Codes Parameter Default Value Description Name section 4.3.0 Net section factor for tension members.0 = Slenderness not performed.

0 = Same as BEAM = 1. The values correspond to table 25 of BS5950 for fastener 58 — STAAD.Pro .0 = Design only for end moments or those locations specified by the SECTION command.0 Valid range from 0 – 7 and 10.5 for details. Use the forces and moments at that location.0 0. LEG 0. See section 2B. 3. 2.0 = Deflection Check (separate check to main select / check code) BEAM 3.0 = Calculate moments at 12th points along the member. Clause checks at each location including the ends of the member.6.0 but additional checks are carried out for each end.0 = Print all member capacities. Clause checks at one location.0 = Print detailed design sheet. 2. 4. Parameter Default Value Description Name 1.0 = Calculate forces and moments at 12th points along the member. Establish the location where Mz is the maximum. 1.

(Mandatory for allowable local deflection deflection check.7 as opposed to Mb.7.5 (continuous) to calculate Mb. 2. denoting end point for member calculation of "Deflection Length" (See Note 1) CAN 0 0 = deflection check based on the principle that maximum deflection occurs within the span between DJ1 and DJ2.0 = BS5950 per clause B. denoting starting point of member for calculation of "Deflection Length" (See Note 1) DJ2 End Joint of Joint No.0) DJ1 Start Joint Joint No.0 1. used by BS5950) CB 1. note 5.0 = To calculate Mbs (simple) as per Clause 4. TRACK 4. 1 = deflection check based on the principle that maximum deflection is of the cantilever type (see note below) International Design Codes Manual — 59 . LVV * Maximum of Lyy Used in conjunction with LEG for and Lzz Lvv as per BS5950 table 25 for (Lyy is a term double angles. DFF None "Deflection Length" / Maxm.2. Section 2 British Codes Parameter Default Value Description Name conditions.

3.3.0 Clauses 4.3. WELD 1. 4.0 = Plastic stress analysis PNL * 0. 1.0 closed Weld Type.3.0 Transverse stiffener spacing (‘a’ in Annex H1) 0.8.0 = Fail ratio uses MAX of 4.3.3.0 0.1.3. 60 — STAAD. Welding on one side only (except for webs of wide flange and tee sections) 2.3.3.Pro .0 = Open sections. Welding on both sides (except pipes and tubes) TB 0.8.3.3.8.1 and 4.8.2 0.1.0 open design 1.8. and Annex I1 checks. Parameter Default Value Description Name ESTIFF 0.0 = Elastic stress analysis 1.0 = Infinity Any other value used in the calculations. and Annex I1 checks.0 = Closed sections.0 = Fail ratio uses MIN of 4. see AISC steel 2.3. 4.8.2.2.

0 cm Minimum allowable depth RATIO 1.4 MY 1.8. e.4 MYX 1.3. then only HEA sections will be selected.0 Permissible ratio of the actual capacities. MX 1.4 SWAY none Specifies a load case number to provide the sway loading forces in clause 4.0 Controls the sections to try during a SELECT process.0 Equivalent moment factor for lateral torsional buckling as defined in clause 4.3.3.0 Equivalent moment factor for major axis flexural buckling as defined in clause 4. even if there are HEM’s in the same table.g. International Design Codes Manual — 61 .3. Section 2 British Codes Parameter Default Value Description Name SAME** 0.0 Equivalent moment factor for minor axis flexural buckling as defined in clause 4. if the original is an HEA 100.3.4 MLT 1.3.8.3.8.8.0 = Try every section of the same type as original 1. 0.4 (See additional notes) DMAX * 100.3.0 = Try only those sections with a similar name as original.0cm Maximum allowable depth DMIN * 0.3.3.8.0 Equivalent moment factor for minor axis lateral flexural buckling as defined in clause 4.

deflection length is defined as the length that is used for calculation of local deflections within a member. If the CAN parameter is set to 1. Thus. between start node and end node. the start node of the member). The first method. If CAN = 0. DY1. **For angles. the “Deflection Length” may be different. DZ2) represent the deflection values at DJ2 or the end node of the member. Similarly.43 of this manual. It may be noted that for most cases the “Deflection Length” will be equal to the length of the member. for all three members here. * current units must be considered. defined by a value 0 for the CAN parameter. When performing the deflection check. DJ1 should be "1" and DJ2 should be "4". This is the way STAAD works for all codes. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again. (DX2. Note: Once a parameter is specified. Note: There was an NT parameter in STAAD. refer to the figure below where a beam has been modeled using four joints and three members. Then. Also the straight line joining DJ1 and DJ2 is used as the reference line from which local deflections are measured. The “Deflection Length” for all three members will be equal to the total length of the beam in this case. in some situations. DY2. DZ1) represent the nodal displacements (in global axes) at the node defined by DJ1 (or in the absence of DJ1.Pro 2005 build 1003 which is now automatically calculated during the design as it is load case dependant. For example. dff = L/Delta Ratio due to deflection = DFF/dff 2.Pro . then the selected section will be an equal angle and vice versa for unequal angles. the user can choose between two methods. as the case may be. NOTES: 1. However. 62 — STAAD. if the original section is an equal angle. is based on the local displacement. the check will be based on cantilever style deflection. The parameters DJ1 and DJ2 should be used to model this situation. Let (DX1. if CAN is specified a value 1. Compute Delta = SQRT((DX2-DX1)**2 + (DY2-DY1)**2 + (DZ2-DZ1)**2) Compute Length = distance between DJ1 & DJ2 or. Local displacement is described in section 5.

If DJ1 and DJ2 are not used.7 Design Operations STAAD contains a broad set of facilities for the design of structural members as individual components of an analysed structure. 4. When code checking is selected. l Specify design parameter values. 5. The operations to perform a design are: l Specify the load cases to be considered in the design. These operations may be repeated by the user any number of times depending upon the design requirements. the default is all load cases.8 Code Checking The purpose of code checking is to ascertain whether the provided section properties of the members are adequate. Code checking is done using the forces and moments at specific sections of the members. l Specify whether to perform code checking or member selection along with the list of members. These facilities may be used selectively in accordance with the requirements of the design problem. 2B. the critical condition of BS5950 code International Design Codes Manual — 63 . 2B. the program calculates and prints whether the members have passed or failed the checks. This is in accordance with the fact that there is no default value for DFF (see Table 2. if different from the default values. "Deflection Length" will default to the member length and local deflections will be measured from original member line. If no sections are specified. The adequacy is checked as per BS5950. the program uses the start and end forces for code checking. The above parameters may be used in conjunction with other available parameters for steel design. Section 2 British Codes 3. The member design facilities provide the user with the ability to carry out a number of different design operations. It is important to note that unless a DFF value is specified.1). STAAD will not perform a deflection check.

etc. Code checking can be done with any type of steel section listed in Section 2B. If the RESULT is FAIL. The section selected will be of the same type section as originally designated for the member being designed. the program can select the most economical section. which has been checked against the steel code or has been selected.CODE CHECKING.9 Member Selection STAAD is capable of performing design operations on specified members. the value of the ratio of the critical condition (overstressed for value more than 1. MEMBER refers to the member number for which the design is per- formed.). b.4 of the STAAD Technical Reference Manual or any of the user defined sections in section 5.e. Member selection can also be constrained by the parameters DMAX and DMIN. the governing load case. whose properties are originally input from a user created table. TABLE refers to steel section name. the lightest section. RESULTS prints whether the member has PASSED or FAILED.19 with two exceptions.0 or any other specified RATIO value). In BS5950.8 . GENERAL and ISECTION. there will be an asterisk (*) mark on front of the member.(like any of the BS5950 specifications for compression. c. i. Once an analysis has been performed. Note: PRISMATIC sections are also not acceptable steel sections for design per BS5950 in STAAD. 64 — STAAD. will be limited to sections in the user table. which limits the maximum and minimum depth of the members.Pro. 2B. tension. Selection of members. Member selection cannot be performed on members whose section properties are input as prismatic or as above limitations for code checking.10 Tabulated Results of Steel Design For code checking or member selection. which fulfills the code requirements for the specified member. 2B. Member selection can be performed with all the types of steel sections with the same limitations as defined in section 2B. shear.Pro . The items in the output table are explained as follows: a. these will only be considered for design as I-shape sections. and the location (distance from the start of the member of forces in the member where the critical condition occurs). the program produces the results in a tabulated fashion.

2 - Simplified method’ and the result is included in the ratio checks. in most cases. allow- able axial capacity in compression (PC) and tension (PT) and shear capacity (PV).0 will produce the design results as shown in section 2B. i.12 Composite Sections Sections that have been defined as acting compositely with a concrete flange either from a standard database section using the CM option.5.3. LOCATION specifies the actual distance from the start of the member to the section where design forces govern. LOADING provides the load case number.2 - Minimum web thickness for serviceability’ and ‘4. and MZ provide the axial force. If the plate girder has intermediate stiffeners.4.0 or less will mean the member has passed. CRITICAL COND refers to the section of the BS5950 code which governs the design.3 status = PASS The section is then checked for shear buckling resistance using clause ‘4.0.0 output is selected:- Shear Buckling check is required: Vb = 1070 kN : qw = 118 N/mm2 d = 900 mm : t = 10 mm : a = 200 mm : pyf = 275 N/mm2 BS-4. These are then used to check against the code clauses ‘4. TRACK 2.4) if d/t > 70 e for ‘rolled sections’ or d/t >62 e for ‘welded sections’. see the parameter list for more information. 2B. Section 2 British Codes d. g. only FX.3 . MY. 2B. FX.3. the spacing is set with the PNL parameter.3. The parameter SBLT should be used to identify sections as rolled or welded.2 status = PASS : BS-4. or from a modified user International Design Codes Manual — 65 .4. e. the program will block out part of the table and will print the allowable bending capacities in com- pression (MCY & MCZ) and reduced moment capacities (MRY & MRZ). MY and MZ are printed since they are the ones which are of interest.4. which governed the design. TRACK If the parameter TRACK is set to 1. f. h.4. RATIO prints the ratio of the actual stresses to allowable stresses for the critical condition.9.3. Normally a value of 1. The following printout is then included if a TRACK 2.11 Plate Girders Sections will be considered for the Plate Girder checks (BS 5950 Section 4.4. Although STAAD does consider all the member forces and moments (except torsion) to perform design. moment in local Y-axis and the moment in local z-axis respectively.Minimum web thickness to avoid compression flange buckling’.

5 75 25 4 25 4 or from a USER table. e.2.WIDE FLANGE database with the additional composite parameters.Pro .2. The results are presented in a form of a PASS/FAIL identifier and a RATIO of load effect to resistance for each member checked. The user may choose the degree of detail in the output data by setting the TRACK parameter.g. START USER TABLE TABLE 1 UNIT CM ISECTION 1000mm_TAPER 100 2. check. The beam is designed as other wide flange beams apart from the Lateral Torsional Buckling check which is replaced by the Annex G.5 50 25 4 25 4 0 0 0 END The user must specify the effective length of unrestrained compression flange using the parameter UNL. UNIT CM MEMBER PROPERTY 1 TO 5 TAPERED 100 2.13 Design of Tapered Beams Design Procedure Sections will be checked as tapered members provided that are defined either as a Tapered I section.5 75 25 4 25 4 0 0 0 750mm_TAPER 75 2. e. in accordance with BS 5950-1:2000. 2B. Design Equations 66 — STAAD.g. cannot be designed with BS5950:2000. The program compares the resistance of members with the applied load effects. Code checking is carried out for locations specified by the user via the SECTION command or the BEAM parameter.

3. S . Where  F is the longitudinal compression at the check location.3.4. h is the distance between the shear centers of the flanges.2.2.2 Equivalent slenderness lTB for Taper members International Design Codes Manual — 67 .3 Slenderness lTC l = yl TC In which: l = L /r y y Where a is the distance between the reference axis and the axis of restraint. xi P is the compression resistance from 4. Check Moment for Taper Members as per clause G. Section 2 British Codes A beam defined with tapered properties as defined above will be checked as a regular wide flange (e.2.7. see G.2 The following criterion is checked at each defined check position in the length of the member defined by the BEAM parameter. s L is the length of the segment. M  is the moment about the major axis acting at the point i considered.4 for a slenderness lTC . c M is the buckling resistance moment M from 4. the lateral torsional buckling check. see c y G.6. UB or UC). except that the following is used in place of clause 4. based on the appropriate modulus S.2.g.2. y x torsional index G. .6 for an equivalent bi b slenderness l . Z or Z of TB eff eff the cross-section at the point i considered.3.4. based on the properties of the minimum depth of cross-section within the segment length L G. y r is the radius of gyration for buckling about the minor axis.2.

G.3. Structures are designed and proportioned taking into consideration the limit states at which they become unfit for their intended use. 68 — STAAD. Appropriate safety factors are used so that the chances of limits being surpassed are acceptably remote.5 Taper factor For an I-section with D ≥ 1.2B and x ≥ 20 the taper factor c should be obtained as follows: D is the maximum depth of cross-section within the length Ly. British Codes .2. The design philosophy embodied in BS5950 is built around the concept of limit state design. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state design are strength and stability while that in serviceability limit state is deflection.Steel Design Per BS5950:1990 2B1.3.serviceability and ultimate.0 2B1.Pro for comparative purposes only. x is the torsional index of the minimum depth cross-section.2. see G. British Codes .Pro .1 General This code has been withdrawn by the British Standards.5.3. Two major categories of limit state are recognized . used today in most modern steel design codes.Steel Design Per BS5950:1990 l = cn n l TB t t In which for a two-flange haunch: Where C is the taper factor.6. see min Figure G. but has been retained in STAAD. Section 2 British Codes 2B1.8 Otherwise c is taken as 1. max D is the minimum depth of cross-section within the length Ly. see Figure G. see 4.

2 Analysis Methodology Elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design. Section 2 British Codes In the STAAD implementation of BS5950. members are proportioned to resist the design loads without exceeding the limit states of strength and stability.3 Member Property Specifications For specification of member properties.4 Built-In Steel Section Library The following information is provided for use when the built-in steel tables are to be referenced for member property specification.4 for information regarding the referencing of these sections. desired section type or other such parameters. tubes and angles. tees. 2B1. Analysis is done for the primary and combination loading conditions provided by the user. The code checking portion of the program checks that code requirements for each selected section are met and identifies the governing criteria. The user is allowed complete flexibility in providing loading specifications and using appropriate load factors to create necessary loading situations. steel tables for both hot rolled and hollow sections are built into the program for use in specifying member properties as well as for the actual design process. shear deformation is always considered during the analysis of these members.C. refer to the STAAD Technical Reference Manual. the most economic section is selected on the basis of the least weight criteria. regular stiffness analysis or P-Delta analysis may be specified. The next section describes the syntax of commands used to assign properties from the built-in steel table. Since the shear areas are built into these tables.S. Members properties may also be specified using the User Table facility. 2B1. joists. The complete B. In addition to universal beams. Dynamic analysis may also be performed and the results combined with static analysis results. pipes. columns. piles. composite sections. 2B1. there is a provision for user provided tables. channels. the steel section library available in STAAD may be used. Depending upon the analysis requirements. International Design Codes Manual — 69 . See section 2B. Almost all BSI steel sections are available for input. This procedure is controlled by the designer in specification of allowable member depths. If called for. For more information on these facilities. the properties are also used for member design. These properties are stored in a database file. beams with cover plates. Accordingly. A complete listing of the sections available in the built-in steel section library may be obtained by using the tools of the graphical user interface.

Steel Design Per BS5950:1990 Following are the descriptions of different types of sections available: Universal Beams. columns and pile sections are available.g. D CH102X51.Section 2 British Codes 2B1. British Codes . with or without spacing between them. 10 TO 20 TA ST JO152X127 1 2 TA ST JO127X114A Channel Sections All rolled steel channel sections from the BSI table have been incorporated in STAAD. The same designation scheme as in BSI tables may be used with the weight omitted. Columns And Piles All rolled universal beams. In those cases where two joists have the same specifications but different weights.Pro . are available. 51 52 53 TA D CH152X89 70 TO 80 TA D CH305X102 SP 5. The following examples illustrate the designation scheme. (specifies a double channel with a spacing of 5 length units) 70 — STAAD. The designation is similar to that of the joists. the lighter section should be specified with an "A" at the end. 10 TO 15 TA ST CH305X102 55 57 59 61 TA ST CH178X76 Double Channels Back to back double channels. D CH203X89 etc. The letter "D" in front of the section name will specify a double channel. 20 TO 30 TA ST UB305X165X54 33 36 TA ST UC356X406X287 100 102 106 TA ST UP305X305X186 Rolled Steel Joists Joist sections may be specified as they are listed in BSI-80 with the weight omitted. e.

In case of an equal angle. Pipes (Circular Hollow Sections) To designate circular hollow sections from BSI tables. 14 TO 20 TA LD UA200X200X16 SP 1. Section 2 British Codes Tee Sections Tee sections are not input by their actual designations. The following example will illustrate the designation. For example. 10 15 TA ST PIP213. in front of the angle size.2 (specifies a 21. type specification "RA" (reverse angle) may be used.3 mm dia. Two types of specifications may be used to describe an angle. respectively. The standard angle section is specified as follows: 15 20 25 TA ST UA200X150X18 This specification may be used when the local STAAD z-axis corresponds to the V-V axis specified in the steel tables. 35 TO 45 TA RA UA200X150X18 Double Angles Short leg back to back or long leg back to back double angles can be specified by inputting the word SD or LD. but instead by referring to the universal beam shapes from which they are cut. For example. pipe with International Design Codes Manual — 71 . either LD or SD will serve the purpose. use PIP followed by the numerical value of diameter and thickness of the section in mm omitting the decimal section of the value provided for diameter. If the local STAAD y-axis corresponds to the V-V axis in the tables.5 23 27 TA SD UA80X60X6 "SP" denotes spacing between the individual angle sections. 54 55 56 TA T UB254X102X22 (tee cut from UB254X102X22) Angles All equal and unequal angles are available for input.

can also be input by their dimensions (Height. of 25 and inside dia.2 mm wall thickness) Circular hollow sections may also be provided by specifying the outside and inside diameters of the section.Section 2 British Codes 2B1. 6 TA ST TUBE DT 8. a width of 6.5 Member Capacities The basic measure of capacity of a beam is taken as the plastic moment of the section. and a wall thickness of 0.0 ID 20.Steel Design Per BS5950:1990 3. British Codes . 1 TO 9 TA ST PIPE OD 25.5 length units. 2B1. like pipes.0 Tubes. Tubes (Rectangular or Square Hollow Sections) Designation of tubes from the BSI steel table is illustrated below: Figure: BSI tube nomenclature Example: 15 TO 25 TA ST TUB160808.0 TH 0.5 (specifies a tube that has a height of 8.0 WT 6.0 (specifies a pipe with outside dia. Width and Thickness) and not by any table designations. of 20 in current length units) Only code checking and no member selection will be performed if this type of specification is used.Pro . For example. This is a significant departure from the standard practice followed in 72 — STAAD. Note: Only code checking and no member selection is performed for TUBE sections specified this way.

It has been found that I-shaped sections are less sensitive to imperfections when constrained to fail about an axis parallel to the flanges. compact. The tension capacity of the member is calculated on the basis of the effective area as outlined in Section 4.6 of the code. The section classification is a function of the geometric properties of the section. for slender sections. the tensile load must not exceed the tension capacity of the member.1 ). To assist this. the appropriate design strength and the relevant strut characteristics. proceeding with member selection or code check accordingly. Compression strength for a particular section is calculated in STAAD according to the procedure outlined in Appendix C of BS5950 where compression strength is seen to be a function of the appropriate Robertson International Design Codes Manual — 73 . semi-compact or slender. BS5950 does not have any slenderness limitations for tension members. BS5950 recommends the use of a 'stress reduction factor' to reduce the design strength. STAAD calculates the tension capacity of a given member per this procedure.0 is present but may be altered by changing the input value . This factor is again a function of the geometry of the section and is automatically determined by STAAD for use in the design process. based on a user supplied net section factor (NSF-a default value of 1. STAAD is capable of determining the section classification for both hot rolled and built up sections. sections are classified as either plastic. in which the limiting condition was attainment of yield stress at the extreme fibres of a given section. Compression Compression members must be designed so that the compression resistance of the member is greater than the axial compressive load. Strut characteristics take into account the considerable influence residual rolling and welding stresses have on column behavior. In addition. These research observations are incorporated in BS5950 through the use of four strut curves together with a selection of tables to indicate which curve to use for a particular case. Axial Tension In members with axial tension. Based on data collected from extensive research. Compression resistance is determined according to the compressive strength which is a function of the slenderness of the gross section. Section 2 British Codes BS449. which governs the decision whether to use the plastic or the elastic moment capacity. careful consideration must be given to the influence of local buckling on moment capacity. it has been determined that sections such as tubes with low residual stresses and Universal Beams and Columns are of intermediate performance.see Table 2B. With the introduction of the plastic moment as the basic measure of capacity.

If this is the case. bracing member etc). For members with axial compression and moment. STAAD also carries out cross checks for compression only. the interaction formula as outlined in section 4. which for compact/plastic sections may be more critical.the simplified approach and the more exact approach.2.5 and 4.3. Axially Loaded Members With Moments In the case of axially loaded members with moments. The STAAD implementation of BS5950 incorporates the procedure outlined in section 4. plastic moment capacities will constitute the basic moment capacities subject to an elastic limitation. the elastic moment is used. For members with axial tension and moment.2.local capacity check (4.3). For plastic or compact sections with high shear loads. The purpose of this elastic limitation is to prevent plasticity at working load. In addition to the compression resistance criteria.Steel Design Per BS5950:1990 constant (representing Strut Curve) corresponding Perry factor. comparing the results in order that the more appropriate criteria be used. the plastic modulus has to be reduced to accommodate the shear loads.2) and overall buckling check (section 4.8. In both the member selection and the code checking process. Two types of approach for the overall buckling check have been outlined in BS5950 .Section 2 British Codes 2B1.2 is applied based on effective tension capacity. limiting slenderness of the member and appropriate design strength. If the section is plastic or compact. in cases where neither the major axis nor the minor axis moment approaches zero. that this is not always the case and STAAD therefore performs both checks.8. For semi-compact or slender sections.6 to calculate the appropriate moment capacities of the section. It has been found. the more exact approach may be more conservative than the simplified approach.8. two principal interaction formulae must be satisfied . however.3. COMPRESSION will be the critical condition reported despite the presence of moments. 74 — STAAD. the moment capacity of the member must be calculated about both axes and all axial forces must be taken into account. STAAD immediately does a slenderness check on appropriate members before continuing with the other procedures for determining the adequacy of a given member.Pro . Members subject to biaxial moments in the absence of both tensile and compressive axial forces are checked using the appropriate method described above with all axial forces set to zero. As noted in the code. compression members are required to satisfy slenderness limitations which are a function of the nature of the use of the member (main load resisting component. British Codes .

and the equivalent moment factor. etc ). Similarly parameter CMN may be used for the calculation of coefficient 'n'. The user is allowed to control these values through the parameters CMM & CMN. This effect. which are determined as a function of the loading configuration and the nature of the load ( stabilizing. For calculation of the buckling resistance moment. BS5950 recommends the use of tables 15 & 16 for the calculation of coefficient 'n'. If a positive value is provided for either CMN or CMM.1 of this document. members are likely to experience relatively large deflections.2 has been implemented for all sections with the exception of angles.2. and limiting equivalent slenderness. which are calculated within the program. and slenderness correction factor. the 'equivalent uniform moment' on the section must be less than the lateral torsional buckling resistance moment. destabilizing. coupled with lateral torsional buckling. The default value for each of these parameters is 1.0 as shown in table 2B. lateral torsional buckling must be considered carefully. Section 2 British Codes Shear Load A member subjected to shear is considered adequate if the shear capacity of the section is greater than the shear load on the member. for a member subjected to moments about the major axis. the program will always reset CMN to 1 and over-ride the provided value.3 and considering the appropriate shear area for the section specified. The following table illustrates the use of parameters 'm' and 'n'. If CMM is set to -1. the resistance moment is given as a function of the elastic critical moment. According to this procedure. The parameter CMN may be set to -1 or -2 to instruct the program to obtain coefficient 'n' from table 15 or 16 respectively. Perry coefficient. Shear capacity is calculated in STAAD using the procedure outlined in section 4. Hence. Lateral Torsional Buckling Since plastic moment capacity is the basic moment capacity used in BS5950. m. the program will use this value directly in calculations. The procedure to check for lateral torsional buckling as outlined in section 4. the procedure outlined in Appendix B..Table 16 International Design Codes Manual — 75 .1 Use of CM parameters in BS 5950 1990 design Parameter Value STAAD Action -2 Program calculates 'n' per BS5950 . It may be noted that BS5950 recommends the use of either 'm' or 'n' in lateral torsional buckling calculations.2. If both 'm' and 'n' are set to values less than 1 in error. In Appendix B. n.3 has been incorporated in the STAAD implementation of BS5950. the program automatically calculates the coefficient 'm'. may result in severe serviceability limit state. Table 2B.

3. lateral restraints should be modeled by nodes and the section command incorporated to find Mo. the following expressions are used to calculate the reduced plastic moduli: Srx = (A*A/4(B-t))(1-n) [ 2D(B-t)/A + n-1 ] for n>= 2t(D-2t)/A Sry = (A*A/4(D-t))(1-n) [ 2B(D-t)/A + n-1 ] for n>= 2t(B-2t)/A 2B1.Section 2 British Codes 2B1. section 4. H.Additional Provisions Rectangular Hollow sections are treated in accordance with S. the member properties must be British ( or British combined with user table sections).5 command will cause the program to reset CMN to 1. 76 — STAAD.Steel Design Per BS5950:1990 Parameter Value STAAD Action -1 Program calculates 'm' per BS5950 -2 Calculate ‘m’ for both axes CMN any positive value Direct use of this value in calculations -1 Program calculates 'n' per BS5950.6 Design Parameters Available design parameters to be used in conjunction with BS5950 are listed in table 2B. The following items should be noted with respect to their use.8 of the code is followed. If other profiles such as European are being used then 'n' values are reset conservatively to 1. S Sections .1 along with their default values.Table 16 If negative value options are chosen. In the case of angles.0 by the program. In requesting 'n' to be calculated by the program by using a negative CMN value.Pro . recommendations in cases when the plastic axis is in the flange. British Codes .C. Table 15 -2 Program calculates 'n' per BS5950 .0 and over-ride any value that may have been provided.I. In such cases. R. Failure to use the SECTION 0.

KNS METR (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED) MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/ FX MY MZ LOCATION International Design Codes Manual — 77 .0. Please note that both UNL or UNF and LY or KY values are required even though they are often the same values. (UNL.0 4. KY KZ ( which are factors. An example of each follows. not lengths) to define lateral torsional buckling and compression effective lengths respectively.control of output formats ) When the TRACK parameter is set to 1.7 of this manual CMM and CMN should not both be used in a given design. Generally speaking this option is not required and the program should be allowed to ascertain the appropriate value. LY and LZ . LY and LZ should be real numbers greater than zero in current units of length.relevant EFFECTIVE LENGTHS) The values supplied for UNL. In such a case the program will reset CMN to 1.STEEL DESIGN STRENGTH ) The design parameter PY should only be used when a uniform design strength for an entire structure or a portion thereof is required. They are supplied along with or instead of UNF. Otherwise the value of PY will be set according to the stipulations of BS5950 table 7 in which the design strength is seen as a function of cross sectional thickness for a particular steel grade and particular element considered. The former relates to compression flange restraint for lateral torsional buckling while the latter is the unrestrained buckling length for compression checks. Section 2 British Codes 1.Lateral torsional buckling coefficients) As per section 2B. (TRACK . 3. TRACK 0. member capacities will be printed in design related output ( code check or member selection ) in kilonewtons per square meter.0 OUTPUT STAAD CODE CHECKING - (BSI ) --------------------------- ****************************** ALL UNITS ARE . (PY .0 or 2. (CMN and CMM . 2.

0 OUTPUT STAAD CODE CHECKING - (BSI ) 78 — STAAD.2 0.3. British Codes .50 --------------------------------- TRACK 1.1 PV= 1597.4 PC= 3451.KNS METR (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED) MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/ FX MY MZ LOCATION ================================- ================================- = 1 ST UB686X254X170 PASS BS-4.0 OUTPUT STAAD CODE CHECKING - (BSI ) --------------------------- ****************************** ALL UNITS ARE .00 -22.02 4.50 CALCULATED CAPACITIES FOR MEMB 1 UNIT .00 -22.000 PZ= 5739.72 C 0.m SECTION CLASS 4 MCZ= 1141.9 MB= 1084.5 PT= 5739.9 MCY= 120.02 4.4 TRACK 2.000 n = 1.036 3 86.Pro .5 BUCKLING CO-EFFICIENTS m AND n : m = 1.036 3 86.72 C 0.2 0.90 FX/PZ = 0.8.3.9 MRY= 120.kN.02 MRZ= 1141.8.Steel Design Per BS5950:1990 ================================- ================================- = 1 ST UB686X254X170 PASS BS-4.Section 2 British Codes 2B1.

470 International Design Codes Manual — 79 .036 3 86.00 Gross Area = 216.72 C 0.2 0.cm) Member Length = 450.156 517.00 -22.02 4.60 Net Area = 216.50 =================================- ================================ MATERIAL DATA Grade of steel = 43 Modulus of elasticity = 205 kN/mm2 Design Strength (py) = 265 N/mm2 Reduced = 232N/mm2 SECTION PROPERTIES (units .000 Plastic modulus : 5624.3.000 810.KNS METR (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED) MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/ FX MY MZ LOCATION =================================- ================================ 1 ST UB686X254X170 PASS BS-4. Section 2 British Codes --------------------------- ****************************** ALL UNITS ARE .000 Elastic modulus : 4911.670 Shear Area : 109.122 100.8.60 z-axis y-axis Moment of inertia : 170147.000 6621.

1) co-efficients m & n : m =1.4 Shear Capacity : 1561.m): CLAUSE RATIO LOAD FX VY VZ MZ MY BS-4.0 -22.500 CRITICAL LOADS FOR EACH CLAUSE CHECK (units- kN.Section 2 British Codes 2B1.kN.m) Lateral Torsional Buckling Moment (MB = 1084.00.9 Moment Capacity : 1141.0 0.5 Tension Capacity : 5739.3.7 3.m) BS5950/1990 Section Class : SLENDER Squash Load : 5739.2 0.Steel Design Per BS5950:1990 Radius of gyration : 28.2 0.5 1597.0 80 — STAAD.7 3.90 Axial force/Squash load : 0.025 3 86.0 BS-4.1 81.9 120.kN. Effective Length =4.7 (C) 0.0 0.4 Compression Capacity : 5036.000 450.9 5739.8.000 DESIGN DATA (units .9 120.00 n =1.529 Effective Length : 450.2 0.2 3451.027 5. British Codes .4 Reduced Moment Capacity : 1141.Pro .5 BUCKLING CALCULATIONS (units .0 -22.015 z-axis y-axis Slenderness ratio (KL/r) : 16.036 3 86.

4 0. Tee sections. long leg 3.2 a.0 b.0 b.10. Single Angle. Tee sections. Channels.3-(Y) 0. short leg 4.0 -27.0 e. long leg 7.0 22.3.0 BS-4. 2 or more rows 1. Double angle. double angles.7. Single Angle.3 7.10. ( LEG .4 0. This table concerns the fastner restraint conditions for angles.table 24/28 BS5950 for fastner control ) The LEG parameter follows the requirements of BS5950 table 28. Double angle. The following values are available: Clause 4.10.0 b.005 1 83.6 0.0 c.0 Clause 4.7.5 a.3 7.0 b. 1 row 0. Double angle.4 a.0 International Design Codes Manual — 81 .0 d.3.0 Torsion and deflections have not been considered in the design 5. long leg 6. Double angle.0 d.020 4 -86.3.0 0.026 1 83.3 a. tee sections and channels for slenderness.0 Clause 4. long leg 2. Single Angle.0 c.3. Section 2 British Codes BS-4.0 g.0 Clause 4. Double angle.8.0 -27.8.0 -27.0 f.0 BS-4. long leg 0. Channels.0 h.1 0.3 (LTB) 0. 1 row 0. short leg 5. Double angle.7.3 7.047 1 83. short leg 1.7 3. Double angle.2.6 0. short leg 3.2 0. long leg 1.2 0.10. short leg 0. Single Angle. short leg 2. 2 or more rows 1.6 0. Double angle.0 BS-4.4 0.7.

axis. Lvv will be considered as the minimum of the KY*LY and KZ*LZ values. In addition. British Codes . the LVV parameter is available to comply with note 5 table 28. this is the minor axis.3.0 K factor value in local z . See fig 1. See section 5.0 K factor value in local y .axis.Steel Design Per BS5950:1990 When defining member properties for single angles.3. (Technical Reference Manual section 5.5 of BS5950.1) should be provided as RA and not ST. Usually. Table 28 may be by-passed in favor of table 24 by using: l 10 = Table 24 for equal angles or long legs of unequal angles l 11 = Table 24 for short legs of unequal angles For single angles.19) an eleventh value. KY 1. LZ * Member Length in local z . PY * Set Design Strength of steel according to steel grade (SGR) 82 — STAAD. the spec (manual ref: 5.Pro .1 British Steel Design BS5950:1990 Parameters Parameter Default Description Name Value CODE BS5950 Design Code to follow. LY and KY parameters should be provided relative to the raa axis while LZ and KZ are related to rbb.axis (current units) to Length calculate (KY)(LY)/Ryy slenderness ratio. UNL * Member Unsupported Length for calculating Length Lateral Torsional Buckling resistance moment section 4.1 of the Technical Reference Manual. For double angles. rvv. Table 2B1.0 Factor applied to unsupported length for Lateral Torsional Buckling effective length per section 4. if using double angles from user tables.6 of the Technical Reference Manual.20.Section 2 British Codes 2B1.47. KZ 1. should be supplied at the end of the ten existing values corresponding to the radius of gyration of the single angle making up the pair.5 of BS5950. this is the major axis.axis (current units) to Length calculate (KZ)(LZ)/Rzz slenderness ratio. Usually. UNF 1.7. LY * Member Length in local y .7.

0cm Maximum allowable depth DMIN * 0. 1.0 = Print all member capacities.0 = Suppress all member capacity info. (250) 3.0 = Bracing etc (350) CMM ! 1.0 but additional checks are carried out for each end.0 = Grade 55 3.0 = Print detailed design sheet.5) CMN ! 1. BEAM 0.5) TRACK 0.0 0.3 1.0 = Grade 50 2. 2. SGR 0.0 Permissible ratio of the actual capacities.0 0.0 = Rolled Section 1.0 = Secondary member. (see section 2B.0 Coefficient n for lateral torsional buckling.0 As per BS5950 4.0 = Built up Section MAIN 1.0 = Calculate moments at 12th points along the member and use the maximum Mz value for design.0 = Deflection Check (separate check to main select / check code) DMAX * 100.7.0 = Design only for end moments or those locations specified by the SECTION command.0 Steel Grade per BS4360 0.0 = Same as BEAM = 1.0 = Main structural member (180) 2.0 Coefficient m for lateral torsional buckling. Section 2 British Codes Parameter Default Description Name Value NSF 1. (see section 2B.0 Net section factor for tension members. 1. 4. Clause checks at one location 2.0 = As per GB 1591 – 16 Mn SBLT 0.0 0.0cm Minimum allowable depth RATIO 1.0 = Grade 43 1. International Design Codes Manual — 83 .

DFF None "Deflection Length" / Maxm.2. See section 2B. 2.0 1.3. LEG 0. denoting end point for of member calculation of "Deflection Length" (See Note 1) ESTIFF 0.7.8. 1.Pro .8. allowable (Mandatory local deflection for deflection check) DJ1 Start Joint Joint No.0 = Calculate moments at 12th points along the member. (Lyy is a term used by BS5950) CB 1. The values correspond to table 24/28 of BS5950 for fastner conditions.Section 2 British Codes 2B1.3. Lzz note 5.Steel Design Per BS5950:1990 Parameter Default Description Name Value 3.5 (continuous) to calculate Mb.2 0.0 = Pass if member passes EITHER clause. denoting starting point for of member calculation of "Deflection Length" (See Note 1) DJ2 End Joint Joint No.12.3. British Codes .3.6. Clause checks at each location including the ends of the member. 84 — STAAD.7 as opposed to Mb.0 = Pass if member passes BOTH clauses.0 Values range from 0 .0 = To calculate Mbs (simple) as per Clause 4.5 for details.0 Clauses 4.1 and 4. LVV * Maximum Used in conjunction with LEG for Lvv as of Lyy and per BS5950 table 28 for double angles.0 = BS5950 per clause B.

its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again.0 0. if the original is an HEA 100. Note: Once a parameter is specified. then only HEA sections will be selected. This is the way STAAD works for all codes. Section 2 British Codes Parameter Default Description Name Value WELD 1.0 = Elastic stress analysis 1. the "Deflection Length" may be different. ** For angles.0 = Try only those sections with a similar name as original. It may be noted that for most cases the "Deflection Length" will be equal to the length of the member.0 = Infinity Any other value used in the calculations.0 = Plastic stress analysis PNL * 0. Notes: 1. then the selected section will be an equal angle and vice versa for unequal angles.0 = Try every section of the same type as original 1. SAME ** 0. e.0 Controls the sections to try during a SELECT process.g. However. "Deflection Length" is defined as the length that is used for calculation of local deflections within a member. refer to the figure below where a beam has been modeled using four joints and International Design Codes Manual — 85 .0 = Welding on both sides (except pipes and tubes) TB 0. if the original section is an equal angle.0 open 1. even if there are HEM’s in the same table. ! CMN & CMM cannot both be provided.0 closed Weld Type.0 Transverse stiffener spacing (‘a’ in Appendix H1) 0. For example. see AISC steel design 2. 0. * current units must be considered. in some situations.0 = Welding on one side only (except for webs of wide flange and tee sections) 2.

If DJ1 and DJ2 are not used. DJ1 should be "1" and DJ2 should be "4". The above parameters may be used in conjunction with other available parameters for steel design. Also the straight line joining DJ1 and DJ2 is used as the reference line from which local deflections are measured. 3. These facilities may be used selectively in accordance with the requirements of the design problem. The adequacy is checked as per BS5950. Code checking is done using the forces and moments at specific sections of the members. if different from the default values. for all three members here. the program uses the start and end forces for code checking.Steel Design Per BS5950:1990 three members. 2B1. "Deflection Length" will default to the member length and local deflections will be measured from original member line. l Specify design parameter values.8 Code Checking The purpose of code checking is to ascertain whether the provided section properties of the members are adequate. The member design facilities provide the user with the ability to carry out a number of different design operations. l Specify whether to perform code checking or member selection along with the list of members. These operations may be repeated by the user any number of times depending upon the design requirements. British Codes . The parameters DJ1 and DJ2 should be used to model this situation.Section 2 British Codes 2B1. 86 — STAAD.7 Design Operations STAAD contains a broad set of facilities for the design of structural members as individual components of an analyzed structure. Note that the "Deflection Length" for all three members will be equal to the total length of the beam in this case. Thus. 2.Pro . The operations to perform a design are: l Specify the load cases to be considered in the design. 2B1. If no sections are specified.

19 with two exceptions .8 . the governing load case. The items in the output table are explained as follows: Table 2B.9 Member Selection STAAD is capable of performing design operations on specified members. Member selection can also be constrained by the parameters DMAX and DMIN which limits the maximum and minimum depth of the members. the value of the ratio of the critical condition (overstressed for value more than 1. i. 2B1. b) TABLE refers to steel section name which has been checked against the steel code or has been selected. International Design Codes Manual — 87 . the program calculates and prints whether the members have passed or failed the checks.2 Results Legend Item Description a) refers to the member number for which the MEMBER design is performed. and the location (distance from the start of the member of forces in the member where the critical condition occurs).10 Tabulated Results of Steel Design For code checking or member selection.). 2B1. the critical condition of BS5950 code (like any of the BS5950 specifications for compression. Once an analysis has been performed. Code checking can be done with any type of steel section listed in Section 2B. will be limited to sections in the user table.CODE CHECKING.4 of the STAAD Technical Reference Manual or any of the user defined sections in section 5. the lightest section.0 or any other specified RATIO value).e. the program produces the results in a tabulated fashion. Section 2 British Codes When code checking is selected. The section selected will be of the same type section as originally designated for the member being designed. GENERAL and ISECTION. Member selection can be performed with all the types of steel sections with the same limitations as defined in section 2B. which fulfills the code requirements for the specified member. tension . Selection of members. these will not be considered for design along with PRISMATIC sections which are also not acceptable. whose properties are originally input from a user created table. Member selection can not be performed on members whose section properties are input as prismatic or as above limitations for code checking. shear. etc. In BS5950. the program can select the most economical section.

0 will produce the design results as shown in section 2B. The code requires that for d/t >63E. d) refers to the section of the BS5950 code which CRITICAL governs the design. i) TRACK If the parameter TRACK is set to 1. moment in local Y-axis and MZ and the moment in local z-axis respectively. only FX.4. The "py" used in the calculation of compressive strength is reduced by 20N/mm2 as per the code if parameter SBLT is set to 1.0. British Codes .Steel Design Per BS5950:1990 Item Description c) prints whether the member has PASSED or RESULTS FAILED. Normally a value of 1. there will be an asterisk (*) mark on front of the member. in most cases.2a and 88 — STAAD. provide the axial force.4.9. the interaction checks be modified in order to check for shear buckling of the web. MY and MZ are printed since they are the ones which are of interest.0 and over) following clause 4.0 or less will mean the member has passed. h) specifies the actual distance from the start of the LOCATION member to the section where design forces govern. This is considered in STAAD (versions 15. COND e) RATIO prints the ratio of the actual stresses to allowable stresses for the critical condition. g) FX.Pro .0.Section 2 British Codes 2B1. f) provides the load case number which governed LOADING the design. TRACK 2.11 Plate Girders Plate girders may be considered for design in BS5950. the program will block out part of the table and will print the allowable bending capacities in compression (MCY & MCZ) and reduced moment capacities (MRY & MRZ). If the RESULT is FAIL. allowable axial capacity in compression (PC) and tension (PT) and shear capacity (PV). MY. 2B1. Although STAAD does consider all the member forces and moments (except torsion) to perform design.

0 BS-4.0 150.151 1 0. In order to account for these checks. The above values are accepted in the program by adding a '-' at the first position on the first International Design Codes Manual — 89 .4. showing the bottom part of the output having been modified as follows: BS5950 Table 7<note 2>: d/t > 63E Web Is Checked For Shear Buckling d/t =101.0 2B1.3. For more control with British sections two new options are available in user provided tables. 4 additional values can now be provided.0 - 1125.4 kN Flange =COMPACT Pyf=344 N/mm2 4.2.2 (a) =0.3-(Y) 0.0 0.0 0. the output has been modified to show these variations from the more common critical checks.203 1 0.3 a=PASS Flange Ratio 4.0 0.7 qcr=191.3a are also considered.4. The last is the modular ratio.053 1 0.2 0. The second is the concrete width to the right (b2).3 of the code.2a and 4.2.0 -150.kN.m): CLAUSE RATIO LOAD FX VY VZ MZ MY BS-4. using TRACK 2.5.049 1 0. clauses 4.4.177 1 0.5.4. The third is the concrete depth (d1) to be considered.4. An example is as follows.0 -150.4.section 5.3.0 BS-4.0 -1125.4.8. It uses the American requirement of 18 times depth (CT) as the effective depth.0 0.4.0 0.2. For plate girders.0 0.20.05 L= 1 CRITICAL LOADS FOR EACH CLAUSE CHECK (units.0 150.3.2.3 0.4.3)Vcr= 2809.0 -1125. This is purely for analysis and for obtaining the right section properties.3 (LTB) 0.2 a 0. The first is the width of concrete to the left of centre of the steel web (b1).2 a=PASS 4.20 L= 1 Web Ratio =0.0 0.0 0.0 -150.2.0 BS-4.4.0 -1125.4.4.0 BS-4. The shear capacity is found from table 21 of the code and used in clause 4.12 Composite Sections The definition of composite sections has been provided for in the standard sections definition .9 N/mm2 d*t=14639 mm2 (4.0 -1125.0.0 0.4.5. Wide Flange Composite Using the standard definition of I sections in WIDE FLANGE.0 0.1 of the Technical Reference Manual. Section 2 British Codes 4.

05 42. If (-) is provided on the second line the program requires another 2 breadths + 1 thickness for the bottom plate. 2C.9 153. 90 — STAAD. It is assumed that the depth remains constant and both construction and composite stages of steel I-Sections can be checked.5 44.66 197.05 2.15 92.223 150 150 30 10 ISECTION PG9144 -92. Please note however that composite design IS NOT available in this portion of STAAD.24 1.05 3.09 21345 645 21.9 1730 40 40 12 1 The larger British sections have been coded as USER TABLES under wide flange and are available on request to any existing user. The program now awaits four extra values on line 2 as described above. It does not come as standard with British versions. ISection The same is true for ISECTION definition in user table.Pro .3 34. The code is in 10 parts covering various aspects of bridge design.185 33. The following sections describe in more detail features of the design process currently available in STAAD.05 3. The implementation of part 3. in STAAD is restricted in its scope to simply supported spans. concrete and composite construction. line of data.76 15. British Codes .Design Per BS5400 2C. The British Standard. Example UNIT CM WIDE FLANGE C45752 -66.66 42. BS5400 adopts the limit state design philosophy and is applicable to steel. Code of practice for design of steel bridges.1 General Comments BS5400 is an additional code available from Bentley Systems.98 .

the code sets limits to the ratio as per clause 9. In order to prevent this.2. Depending on the value assigned to the 'WET' parameter. l.5 Shear Capacity The shear capacity.12. as outlined in clause is a function of the limiting shear strength. taking into International Design Codes Manual — 91 .6 Design Parameters Available design parameters to be used in conjunction with BS5400 are listed in table 2C. STAAD follows the iterative procedure of appendix G8 to determine the limiting shear strength of the web panel. for the composite stage. assuming full restraint throughout.2. The shear capacity is then calculated based on the formula given under clause 9.1. Once the allowable compressive stress is determined then the moment capacity appropriate to the section type can be calculated. The code deals with this effect by limiting the compressive stress to a value depending on the slenderness parameter which is a modified form of the ratio Le/Ry.2.3 Section Class Sections are further defined as compact or non-compact.4 Moment Capacity Lateral torsional buckling may occur if a member has unrestrained elements in compression.9.7 and the checks that follow will relate to the type of section considered. In the case of compact sections. the users can determine the stage under consideration.1. Le is the effective length governed by the provision of lateral restraints satisfying the requirements of clause 9. In the case of non compact sections. section types are determined as per clause 9. In the event of exceeding these limits. 2C. For a composite design check. the design process will terminate with reference to the clause. 2C.2 Shape Limitations The capacity of sections could be limited by local buckling if the ratio of flange outstand to thickness is large. the full plastic moment capacity can be attained.3. 2C.3. Section 2 British Codes 2C. local buckling of elements may occur prior to reaching the full moment capacity and for this reason the extreme fibre stresses are limited to first yield. In STAAD. STAAD takes the effective length as that provided by the user. The program then proceeds to calculate the allowable compressive stress based on appendix G7 from which the moment capacity is then determined. which is dependant on the slenderness ratio. defaulting to the length of the member during construction stage and as zero. 2C.

SGR* 0.0 Net section factor for tension members.0 = Grade 50 2.0 1.1 BS5400 Design Parameters Parameter Default Description Name Value UNL* Member Unsupported Length for calculating Length allowable compressive bending stress.0 = Composite stage only. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again.0 = Composite and wet stage combined.0 = Rolled Section 1. Note: Once a parameter is specified. Table 2C. PY* Set according to Design Strength of steel SGR NSF 1. TRACK 1.0 0. In the second.0 = Grade of concrete 50 N/mm2 WET 0.Pro . member properties should be changed to composite and the WET parameter set to 2. come under WIDE FLANGE section-type and built-up sections under ISECTION. See user table examples provided.0 = Grade 43 1.0 = Wet stage with no data saved for composite stage. 2.0. In the first. 1. Member properties for composite or non-composite sections should be specified from user provided tables (refer to section 5.0 1.0 . This is the way STAAD works for all codes.0 = Built up Section MAIN 1.0 = Grade 55 SBLT 0. 3.0 = Wet stage with data saved for composite stage.0 = Grade of concrete 30 N/mm2 2. member properties are non-composite and the WET parameter is set to 1.0 Steel Grade per BS4360 0.0 = Grade of concrete 40 N/mm2 3.19 of the manual for specification of user tables).0 0. two separate analyses are required. 92 — STAAD.0 = Print all member capacities. composite or non-composite.consideration the construction stage. Rolled sections. When specifying composite properties the first parameter is assigned a negative value and four additional parameters provided giving details of the concrete section.

Wide Flange Composite Using the standard definition of I sections in WIDE FLANGE. BEAM 0. The program now awaits four extra values on line 2 as described above. Usually this is minor axis.0 K value for bending about Y-axis. STIFF 1.0 K value for bending about Z-axis. ISection The same is true for ISECTION definition in user table.0 Factor of length for panel length in the shear calculation. For more control with British sections two new options are available in user provided tables. If (-) is provided on the second line the program requires another 2 breadths + 1 thickness for the bottom plate.20. International Design Codes Manual — 93 . Section 2 British Codes Parameter Default Description Name Value 0. * Provided in current unit systems. LZ* Member Length to calculate slenderness ratio for Length bending about Z-axis. Usually this is major axis. KY 1.0 = suppress all member capacities. KZ 1. The third is the concrete depth (d1) to be considered. 4 additional values can now be provided. The above values are accepted in the program by adding a '-' at the first position on the first line of data. It uses the American requirement of 18 times depth (CT) as the effective depth.0 FOR ALL RUNS LY* Member Length to calculate slenderness ratio for Length bending about Y-axis. 2C.section 5. This is purely for analysis and for obtaining the right section properties.7 Composite Sections The definition of composite sections has been provided for in the standard sections definition . The last is the modular ratio. The second is the concrete width to the right (b2).0 MUST BE CHANGED TO 1.1 of the Technical Reference Manual. The first is the width of concrete to the left of centre of the steel web (b1).

1 General Comments BS8007 is an additional code available from Bentley Systems.05 3.BS8110.66 42. Please use the following in conjunction with Section 2A of this Manual .05 42. Please note however that composite design IS NOT available in this portion of STAAD. 2D.2 Design Process The design process is carried out in three stages.66 197. STAAD has the capability of performing concrete slab design according to BS8007.09 21345 645 21. Example UNIT CM WIDE FLANGE C45752 -66.Design Per BS8007 2D.185 33. British Codes . BS8007 provides recommendations for the design of reinforced concrete structures containing aqueous liquids.9 1730 40 40 12 1 The larger British sections have been coded as USER TABLES under wide flange and are available on request to any existing user.Design Per BS8007 2D. 94 — STAAD.05 2. It is recommended that the design of the structure is carried out according to BS8110.76 15.15 92.9 153.223 150 150 30 10 ISECTION PG9144 -92.98 .05 3.3 34.Pro .24 1. It does not come as standard with British versions. British Codes .5 44. unless modified by the recommendations given in BS8007.

A tabulated output indicating critical serviceability load cases and moments for top and bottom of the slab is then produced. Crack widths due to longitudinal and transverse moments are calculated directly under bars. midway between and at corners. Through available parameters. flexural crack widths under serviceability load cases are calculated.150. Maximum bar spacing to limit crack widths to the user's limit is also printed under each bar size. Minimum reinforcement is in any case checked and provided in each direction. International Design Codes Manual — 95 . Surface zone depths are determined based on the type of slab and critical areas of reinforcements are calculated and printed in a tabulated form. 3.3 Design Parameters The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform and control the design to BS8007. temperature range and crack width limits. Within these spacings. 12. Ultimate Limit States The program is structured so that ultimate design is first carried out in accordance with recommendations given in BS8110. crack width calculations are carried out. The FIRST and EVERY OTHER OCCURING design load case is considered as a serviceability load case and crack widths are calculated based on bar sizes and spacings proposed at the ultimate limit state check.175 and 200 mm.125. 2. max crack spacing. 16 and 20 mm bars are considered with possible spacings from 100. Four bar sizes are considered and for each. the layout providing the closest area of steel is printed under each bar size. 2D. Serviceability Limit States In the second stage. the user is able to provide information on the type of slab. Section 2 British Codes 1. Smax and crack widths are calculated for the critical reinforcements and printed under each bar size. WOOD & ARMER moments may also be included in the design. All active design load cases are considered in turn and a tabulated output is printed showing possible reinforcement arrangements. Longitudinal and transverse moments together with critical load cases for both hogging and sagging moments are also printed. Thermal crack widths Finally thermal.

ground or suspended as defined in BS8007 1 = Suspended Slab 2 = Ground Slab TEMP 30°C Temperature range to be considered in thermal crack width calculations CRACK * 0. A* Skew angle considered in WOOD & ARMER EQUATIONS.4 Structural Model Structural slabs that are to be designed to BS8007 must be modeled using finite elements. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again.2 mm Limiting thermal crack width * Provided in current unit systems 2D.Pro . A* is any angle in degrees.slabs on -500. Table 2D.These parameters not only act as a method to input required data for code calculations but give the Engineer control over the actual design process. (See main manual section 2-6). The manual provides information on the sign convention used in the program for defining elements. An example of a rectangular tank is provided to demonstrate the above procedure. SCON 1 Parameter which indicates the type of slab ee. Note: Once a parameter is specified.1 . orthogonal reinforcement layout with Mxy used to calculate WOOD &ARMER moments for design.1 contains a complete list of available parameters with their default values. N/mm2 CLEAR * 20 mm Distance from the outer surface to the edge of the bar. 96 — STAAD. In this manner the "Top" of elements will consistently fall on the outer surface and internal pressure loads will act in the positive direction of the local z axis.BS8007 Design Parameters Parameter Default Description Name Value FC * 30 Concrete grade. Default values of commonly used values for conventional design practice have been chosen as the basis. Table 2D. This is considered the same on both surfaces. It is recommended to connect elements in such a way that the positive local z axis points outwards away. This is the way STAAD works for all codes. from the center of the container.0 Orthogonal reinforcement layout without considering torsional moment Mxy . SRA 0.

The Tables are currently available for the following shapes: l Channel with Lips l Channel without Lips International Design Codes Manual — 97 .0 2D.5 Wood & Armer Moments This is controlled by the SRA parameter. These new design moments allow the Mxy moment to be considered when designing the section. The SRA parameter (Set Reinforcement Angle) can be manipulated to introduce WOOD & ARMER moments into the design replacing the pure Mx.2 Cross-Sectional Properties The user specifies the geometry of the cross-section by selecting one of the section shape designations from the Gross Section Property Tables published in the “The Steel Construction Institute”. shear. UNIT MM ELEMENT PROPERTIES 1 TO 10 THI 300. 2E. bending. My moments. The resulting Mx* and My* moments are calculated and shown in the design format. (Design of Structures using Cold Formed Steel Sections).1 General Provisions of BS 5950-5:1998. SRA set to -500 will assume an orthogonal layout. as well as their combinations. The program allows design of single (non-composite) members in tension. an angle is given in degrees. have been implemented. compression. The following example demonstrates the required input for a 300 mm slab modeled with 10 elements. Orthogonal or skew reinforcement may be considered.Design Per British Cold Formed Steel Code 2E. British Codes . Section 2 British Codes Element properties are based on the thickness given under ELEMENT PROPERTIES command. If however a skew is to be considered. the design will be based on the Mx and My moments which are the direct results of STAAD analysis. 2E. measured between the local element x axis anti-clockwise (positive). If the default value of zero is used. Cold work of forming strengthening effects have been included as an option.

. regardless of whether it passes the code check or not.e.2. Cross-sectional properties and overall slenderness of members are checked for compliance with l Clause 6. The properties listed in the tables are gross section properties. if a suitable replacement is found. channel. STAAD. Maximum Effective Slenderness Ratio for members in Compression 98 — STAAD. Both unreduced and effective section properties are used in the design stage.Pro . the program leaves the member unchanged. The results are presented in a form of a PASS/FAIL identifier and a RATIO of load effect to resistance for each member checked. 2. Member Selection The user may request that the program search the cold formed steel shapes database (BS standard sections) for alternative members that pass the code check and meet the least weight criterion. The program will then evaluate all database sections of the type initially specified (i. as applicable. angle. etc.Pro uses unreduced section properties in the structure analysis stage. The user may choose the degree of detail in the output data by setting the TRACK parameter. In addition. in accordance with BS 5950-5:1998.2. 2E. presents design results for that section. The program calculates effective section properties in accordance with Section 4 of the subject code. a minimum and/or maximum acceptable depth of the member may be specified. If no section satisfying the depth restrictions or lighter than the initial one can be found. l Z with Lips l Pipe l Tube Shape assignment may be done using the member property pages of the graphical user interface (GUI) or by specifying the section designation symbol in the input file. Code checking is carried out for locations specified by the user via the SECTION command or the BEAM parameter.3 Design Procedure The following two design modes are available: 1. Code Checking The program compares the resistance of members with the applied load effects.) and.

P of the member should be determined from clause 7.2. The tensile strength.4 Design Equations Tensile Strength The allowable tensile strength.4 e  p is the design strength y Combined bending and tension As per clause 7.2.5.1 t Where  A is the net area An determined in accordance with cl. Section 2 British Codes l Clause 4. as calculated in STAAD as per BS5950-5.3. section 7 is described below. Maximum Flat Width Ratios for Elements in Compression 2E.3 of BS 5950-5:1998 members subjected to both axial tension and bending should be proportioned such that the following relationships are satisfied at the ultimate limit state Where F is the applies tensile strength t International Design Codes Manual — 99 .

4.3 of the subject code For Sections symmetrical about a single axis and which are not subject to torsional flexural buckling.2.Pro . Torsional flexural buckling Design of the members which have at least one axis of symmetry. Pc. may be obtained from the following equation as per clause 6.2 of the subject code z y cz cy Compressive Strength The allowable Compressive strength.2 using factored slenderness ratio aL /r in place of actual E slenderness ratio while reading Table 10 for the value of Compressive strength(p ).M . the buckling resistance under axial load.1 of the subject code M .M . as calculated in STAAD as per BS5950-5.M are as defined in clause 6. the buckling resistance under axial load.3. may be obtained from the following equation as per clause 6. section 6 is described below For sections symmetrical about both principal axes or closed cross-sections which are not subjected to torsional flexural buckling. c Where 100 — STAAD.2. P is the tensile capacity determined in accordance with clause t 7. Pc. and which are subject to torsional flexural buckling should be done according to the stipulations of the clause 6.4 of the subject code Where the meanings of the symbols used are indicated in the subject clauses.2.

4. the following relationship should be satisfied For Beams subjected to lateral buckling.3 of the subject code For Beams not subjected to lateral buckling.4. Section 2 British Codes Where the meanings of the symbols used are indicated in the subject clause. the following relationship should be satisfied  F is the applied axial load c International Design Codes Manual — 101 .2 of the subject code Overall buckling check as per clause 6. Combined bending and compression Members subjected to both axial compression and bending should be checked for local capacity and overall buckling Local capacity check as per clause 6.

6 c y  M is the moment capacity in bending about the local Y axis.2.C  are taken as unity unless their values are specified by the user bz by The M M and M  are calculated from clause numbers 5. M c M =S ´p cz zz o M  = S ´ p cy yy o Where M is the Moment resistance of the section in z axis cz M is the Moment resistance of the section in z axis cz p is the limiting stress for bending elements under stress gradient o and should not greater then design strength p y 102 — STAAD.2 b  P is the flexural buckling load in compression for bending about Ez the local Z axis  P is the flexural buckling load in compression for bending about Ey the local Y axis C .2. in the cy absence of F and M .3 cs  M is the applied bending moment about z axis z  M is the applied bending moment about y axis y  M is the moment capacity in bending about the local Z axis in the cz absence of F and M . cy b the manner described herein below.6 in cz. Calculation of moment capacities For restrained beams.Pro . the applied moment based on factored loads should not be greater then the bending moment resistance of the section.6 c z  M.2 and 5. as per clause 5.2 and 5.  P is the short strut capacity as per clause 6.2.2.2 and 5. is the lateral buckling resistance moment as per clause 5.6.as per clause 5.

and c the buckling resistance moment of the beam.7 ´ p as per clause 5. The parameters are calculated as follows :- pv = 0. M is the yield moment of the section . Section 2 British Codes For unrestrained beams the applied moment based on factored loads should not be greater than the smaller of the bending moment resistance of the section .2 E is the Perry coefficient Please refer clause numbers 5. product of design strength p Y y and elastic modules of the gross section with respect to the compression flange Zc M  is the elastic lateral buckling resistance as per clause 5. Shear Strength The maximum shear stress should not be greater then 0.2 y The average shear stress should not exceed the lesser of the shear yield strength.4. M may be calculated as follows b.6 of the subject code for a detailed discussion regarding the parameters used in the abovementioned equations. p or the shear buckling strength. M . M b Then buckling resistance moment.6 ´ p y International Design Codes Manual — 103 .3 of the subject v cr code.4. q as stipulated in clause 5.6.2.2.2 and 5.

2 c The next table contains the input parameters for specifying values of design variables and selection of design options. 104 — STAAD.2 of the subject code Where  F is the shear force v  M is the bending moment acting at the same section as F v  M is the moment capacity determined in accordance with 5. P = A*Min(p . Note: Once a parameter is specified.Pro . This is the way STAAD works for all codes.q ) v v cr Where P is the shear capacity in N/mm^2 v  p is the design strength in N/mm^2 y  t is the web thickness in mm  D is the web depth in mm Combined bending and Shear For beam webs subjected to both bending and shear stresses the member should be designed to satisfy the following relationship as per the stipulations of clause 5.2. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again.5.

4 Values: 0 – effect should not be included 1 – effect should be included FLX 1 Specifies whether torsional-flexural buckling restraint is provided or is not necessary for the member.British Cold Formed Steel Design Parameters Parameter Default Description Name Value BEAM 1. International Design Codes Manual — 105 .6. See BS:5950-5:1998. CWY 1. For TRUSS members only start and end locations are designed.5.0 Coefficient of equivalent uniform bending C . Used for b Combined axial load and bending design.6.0 When this parameter is set to 1. Section 2 British Codes Table 2E.0 Coefficient of equivalent uniform bending C .0 Specifies whether the cold work of forming strengthening effect should be included in resistance computation.3. See BS:5950- 5:1998. checking is done only at the locations specified by the SECTION command (See STAAD manual for details.5. the adequacy of the member is determined by checking a total of 13 equally spaced locations along the length of the member. CMZ 1.6 Values: 0 – Section not subject to torsional flexural buckling 1 – Section subject to torsional flexural buckling FU 430 MPa Ultimate tensile strength of steel in current units. and instead.0 (default).0. Used for b Combined axial load and bending design. See BS:5950-5:1998. If the BEAM value is 0. CMY 1. the 13 location check is not conducted.1 . See BS:5950-5:1998. 5.

KZ 1.0 Effective length factor for torsional buckling. Values can range from 0.01 (for a column completely prevented from buckling) to any user specified large value. It is a fraction and is unit-less. LX Member Unbraced length for twisting. KY 1. Values can range from 0.0 Effective length factor for overall buckling about the local Y-axis.01 (for a column completely prevented from buckling) to any user specified large value.01 (for a member completely prevented from buckling) to any user specified large value. Values can range from 0. It is a fraction and is unit-less. It is input in length the current units of length. It is used to compute the KL/R ratio for determining the capacity in axial compression. KX 1. It is used to compute the KL/R ratio for twisting for determining the capacity in axial compression. Parameter Default Description Name Value FYLD 250 MPa Yield strength of steel in current units.0 Effective length factor for overall buckling in the local Z-axis. 106 — STAAD.Pro .01 (for a member completely prevented from torsional buckling) to any user specified large value. It is used to compute the KL/R ratio for determining the capacity in axial compression. It is a fraction and is unit-less. It is used to compute the KL/R ratio for twisting for determining the capacity in axial compression. Values can range from 0.

01 (for a member completely prevented from buckling) to any user specified large value. It is used to compute the KL/R ratio for determining the capacity in axial compression. RATIO 1.0 Maximum allowable depth. Section 2 British Codes Parameter Default Description Name Value LY Member Effective length for overall buckling in the length local Y-axis.0 Net section factor for tension members DMAX 2540.Prints only the member number.0 Permissible ratio of actual to allowable stresses TRACK 0 This parameter is used to control the level of detail in which the design output is reported in the output file. ratio. It is input in the current units of length. and PASS/FAIL status. Values can range from 0. The allowable values are: 0 .Prints member and material properties in addition to that printed by TRACK 2.Prints the design summary in addition to that printed by TRACK 1 2 . the current units of length. Values can range from 0. International Design Codes Manual — 107 . It is input in cm. section name.01 (for a member completely prevented from buckling) to any user specified large value. It is used to compute the KL/R ratio for determining the capacity in axial compression. MAIN 0 0 – Check slenderness ratio 0 – Do not check slenderness ratio NSF 1. LZ Member Effective length for overall buckling in the length local Z-axis. 1 . It is input in the current units of length.

7 TO 14 have been assigned the section 170CLHS56X18. Other sections have been assigned from the AISI shapes database (American cold-formed steel) and designed in accordance with that code.5 Verification Problem . In this problem.member numbers 3 TO 6 and 15 TO 19 have been assigned the section 230CLMIL70X30 and member numbers 1. we have assigned Channel sections with lips to different members.2. 2. Bending Check As per Clause 5.2 of BS 5950 –Part 5 the limiting compressive stress(p ) for stiffened webs is given by the minimum of o 108 — STAAD. The excerpts from the design output for member number 1 are given herein below. 1.2.Pro . These members have been designed as per BS 5950 Part 5.2E.1 Shown below is a verification example for reference purposes. Member numbers 28 to 31 have been assigned section 230CLHS66X16.

2. The Yield moment(M ) of section is given by M = S ´ p = 9.19 X 106 N- Y Y zz o mm International Design Codes Manual — 109 .6.0057 ……hence verified Buckling resistance moment M b As per section 5.46 X106 = 0.235 ……hence verified Bending Ratio Y = 19755.755 N-m at node 7 Bending Ratio Z = 2.15 X106 / 9. Section 2 British Codes The limiting compressive moments in local Y and Z axes will be given by Maximum bending moment about local Z = 2159 N-m at node 7 Maximum bending moment about local Y = 19.3 / 3. The buckling resistance moment Where.19 X106 = 0.

6.02074 For Channel section(being singly symmetric) as per clause 6.2 is E calculated to be  4.2. Compression Check The Axial force induced in member# 1 is 3436. The elastic buckling resistance moment(M ) as per clause 5.649 X106 N-mm 2.75 N The elastic flexural buckling load P = 1.2.Pro .4 Where 110 — STAAD.698 * 344 = eff 157448 N Perry Coefficient (h) = 0.185 X 106 N E The short strut capacity (Pcs ) is given by A X py = 457.

as calculated above And the distance(e ) of the geometric neutral axis of the gross cross section s and that of the effective cross section = 38. Axial Compression and Bending Local capacity check as per clause 6.24 m So that.4. Compression ratio =  ……hence verified 3. Section 2 British Codes The limiting compressive moment(M ) in the relevant direction = 9.19 X 106 c N-mm.2 International Design Codes Manual — 111 .

Shear Check as per clause 5.2 112 — STAAD.2 and 5.6 ´ 379.6 ´ p = 0.4.52 N/mm2 y 5.3 pv = 0. 4.4. Shear Check with Bending as per clause 5.212 = 227.Pro .5.

14 10 5 8. MEMBER INCIDENCES International Design Codes Manual — 113 . 13 10 5 6. 20 10 0 10. 6 5 5 10. 10 0 5 8. 15 5 5 2. 21 0 0 10. 8 0 5 4. 12 10 5 4. 11 10 5 2. 18 5 5 8. 4 10 5 10. 9 0 5 6. 16 5 5 4. 19 10 0 0. 17 5 5 6. Section 2 British Codes Input File: STAAD SPACE SET ECHO OFF INPUT WIDTH 79 UNIT FEET KIP JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 5 0. 7 0 5 2. 2 0 5 10. 5 5 5 0. 3 10 5 0. 22 0 0 0.

20 7 15.3 DENSITY 0. 6 6 4. 1 1 7. 13 13 14. 22 8 16.Pro . 11 11 12. 28 1 22. 12 12 13. 31 4 20. 34 4 19. 8 8 9. 39 22 2.5e-006 DAMP 0. 29 2 21. 35 19 1. 32 1 21. MEMBER PROPERTY COLDFORMED AMERICAN 32 TO 39 TABLE ST 3LU3X060 20 TO 27 TABLE ST 3HU3X075 MEMBER PROPERTY COLDFORMED BRITISH 28 TO 31 TABLE ST 230CLHS66X16 3 TO 6 15 TO 19 TABLE ST 230CLMIL70X30 1 2 7 TO 14 TABLE ST 170CLHS56X18 UNIT MMS PRINT MEMBER PROPERTIES LIST 32 20 28 3 1 SUPPORTS 19 TO 22 PINNED UNIT FEET DEFINE MATERIAL START ISOTROPIC STEEL E 4. 7 7 8.176e+006 POISSON 0. 37 20 3. 36 2 20. 18 17 18. 24 9 17. 9 9 10.03 END DEFINE MATERIAL CONSTANTS BETA 90 MEMB 20 TO 27 MATERIAL STEEL MEMB 1 TO 39 MEMBER TENSION 32 TO 39 114 — STAAD. 5 5 3. 33 21 4.489024 ALPHA 6. 21 15 11. 38 3 22. 14 14 4. 16 15 16. 25 17 13. 26 10 18. 30 3 19. 2 3 11. 4 2 6. 23 16 12. 15 5 15. 10 10 2. 27 18 14. 17 16 17. 3 1 5. 19 18 6.

6 PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT STATICS CHECK UNIT KGS CM PRINT JOINT DISP LIST 1 4 16 PRINT SUPPORT REACTIONS PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST 3 24 28 UNIT KIP INCH PARAMETER 1 CODE AISI FYLD 55 ALL CWY 1 ALL BEAM 1 ALL TRACK 2 ALL CHECK CODE MEMB 20 21 PARAMETER 2 CODE BS5950 COLD TRACK 2 MEMB 1 TO 19 28 TO 31 CHECK CODE MEMB 1 2 FINISH Output File: **************************************************** * * International Design Codes Manual — 115 .3 0 5 JOINT LOAD 1 2 FX 0. Section 2 British Codes UNIT FEET KIP LOAD 1 VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL MEMBER LOAD 3 TO 6 20 TO 27 UNI GY -0.6 2 4 FZ -0.

78 663.30 42.15 40.Pro .93 9.72 3. SET ECHO OFF MEMBER PROPERTIES.91 63.66 0.84 80.49 0.Pro * * Version Bld * * Proprietary Program of * * * * Date= * * Time= * * * * USER ID: * **************************************************** 1.06 1.40 10.05 1.26 21.18 5.63 9.40 868.17 0.82 0.15 1 ST 170CLHS56X18 5.50 20.93 0.13 14. STAAD SPACE 2.36 6.81 5.02 1.29 3 ST 230CLMIL70X30 11.51 4.CM ----------------- MEMB PROFILE AX/ IZ/ IY/ IX/ AY AZ SZ SY 32 ST 3LU3X060 2. UNIT .93 20 ST 3HU3X075 4.90 66.23 224. * STAAD.51 1.94 60.06 116 — STAAD.59 28 ST 230CLHS66X16 8.24 2.40 2.

Section 2 British Codes 3.00 MY= 12. Case= 1 STATIC LOAD/REACTION/EQUILIBRIUM SUMMARY FOR CASE NO.20 SUMMATION OF MOMENTS AROUND THE ORIGIN- MX= 84.89 27.00 ***TOTAL REACTION LOAD( KIP FEET ) SUMMARY (LOADING 1 ) SUMMATION FORCE-X = -1.00 MZ= -96.20 SUMMATION FORCE-Y = -18.20 SUMMATION FORCE-Y = 18.20 SUMMATION OF MOMENTS AROUND THE ORIGIN- MX= -84. 1 VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL ***TOTAL APPLIED LOAD ( KIP FEET ) SUMMARY (LOADING 1 ) SUMMATION FORCE-X = 1.00 MY= -12.00 SUMMATION FORCE-Z = -1.96 5.00 1.00 SUMMATION FORCE-Z = 1.00 MZ= 96. 2 **NOTE-Tension/Compression converged after 2 iterations.43 ************ END OF DATA FROM INTERNAL STORAGE ************ **START ITERATION NO.00 International Design Codes Manual — 117 .

0000 ************** END OF LATEST ANALYSIS RESULT ************** SUPPORT REACTIONS -UNIT KGS CM STRUCTURE TYPE = SPACE ----------------- 118 — STAAD.0352 -1.0000 0.0025 0.0074 0.0184 -0.80071E-01 16 Z = -1.Pro .0000 - 0.0397 -0.0074 0.10910E-05 14 RZ= -8.56266E-02 1 Y = -4.0027 4 1 0.0339 0.2194 -0. MAXIMUM DISPLACEMENTS ( INCH /RADIANS) (LOADING 1) MAXIMUMS AT NODE X = 1.0000 0.0185 -0.0025 16 1 0.74873E-02 4 RX= -8.0444 -0.0305 -0.0392 0.28375E-03 6 RY= -2.31623E-03 7 ************ END OF DATA FROM INTERNAL STORAGE ************ JOINT DISPLACEMENT (CM RADIANS) STRUCTURE TYPE = SPACE ------------------  JOINT LOAD X-TRANS Y-TRANS Z-TRANS X-ROTAN Y-ROTAN Z-ROTAN 1 1 0.

00 0.18 - 9.68 -196.09 0.10 107256.00 0.06 -395.00 0.62 28 1 1 2155.00 12961.68 -215.40 International Design Codes Manual — 119 .75 61582.50 24 1 9 -0.00 0.33 187.00 22 1 175.85 2041.11 -85.00 0.42 -767.42 1448.12 5 -669.00 21 1 174.00 0.79 0.06 -285.05 0.00 20 1 -447.04 17 0.26 1768.06 2.63 0.08 0.10 2041.70 1.64 85.30 -0.39 0.01 -61586.63 -0.KGS CM (LOCAL ) MEMBER LOAD JT AXIAL SHEAR-Y SHEAR-Z TORSION MOM-Y MOM-Z 3 1 1 669. Section 2 British Codes  JOINT LOAD FORCE-X FORCE-Y FORCE-Z MOM-X MOM-Y MOM Z 19 1 -447.98 -404.67 -2.00 0.04 -8366.85 186.00 0.04 -0.85 85.05 0.70 -1.32 2312.00 ************** END OF LATEST ANALYSIS RESULT ************** MEMBER END FORCES STRUCTURE TYPE = SPACE ----------------- ALL UNITS ARE -.08 1.

98 SHEAR Z: 11. Y: 30.5173E+00 IZE: 1.00 ************** END OF LATEST ANALYSIS RESULT ************** STAAD.TENS: 0.LOC: 60.MODE: Bend + Compress GOV.Pro CODE CHECKING .3374E-01 |  |-------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------| 120 — STAAD.98 404.21 BEND.4841E-01 SZE_C: 6.76 AE: 0.7684E-01 |  | SZE_T: 6.Pro .00 0.(AISI) *********************** UNITS ARE: IN.00 COMPRESS: 7. KIP-IN.5173E+00 IY: 9. KIP.71 FU: 58.76 SHEAR Y: 5.7684E-01 IYE: 9.00 COLD WORK FYLD: 55. KSI  |-------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------|  | MEMBER# 20 SECTION: 3HU3X075 LEN: 60.LOAD: 1 |  | |  | RESISTANCES: AX.05 0.00 GOV.8539E-01 SYE_C: 7.11 85.88 |  | |  | FYLD: 55.00 A: 0.TENS: 0.4841E-01 SYE_T: 5.00 ECC.76 |  | IZ: 1. Z: 28.00 |  | STATUS: PASS RATIO = 0.285 GOV.00 0.51 |  | BEND. 22 -2155.

60 | International Design Codes Manual — 121 .76 |  | IZ: 1.00 COLD WORK FYLD: 55.00 GOV.76 AE: 0.21 BEND.MODE: Bend + Compress GOV.0115E+00 SYE_T: 7.LOC: 0.88 |  | |  | FYLD: 55.0) *********************** UNITS : MM.51 |  | BEND.7684E-01 IYE: 9.0115E+00 SZE_C: 1.76 SHEAR Y: 5.5173E+00 IY: 9.(BS5950-5- v1.00 ECC.5173E+00 IZE: 1.8539E-01 |  |--------------------------------------------------------------------- --------| STAAD/Pro CODE CHECKING . KN.285 GOV.71 FU: 58. Section 2 British Codes  |--------------------------------------------------------------------- --------|  | MEMBER# 21 SECTION: 3HU3X075 LEN: 60.00 A: 0.LOAD: 1 |  | |  | RESISTANCES: AX.3374E-01 SYE_C: 5. Z: 28. KNM.60 LOCATION: 609.98 SHEAR Z: 11.00 |  | STATUS: PASS RATIO = 0. MPA  ---------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------  | MEMBER# 1 SECTION: 170CLHS56X18 LEN: 609. Y: 30.TENS: 0.TENS: 0.00 COMPRESS: 7.7684E-01 |  | SZE_T: 1.

Pro .63 10.46 Net Area (Ae): 4.91 5.00 Compression Capacity (Pc): 93.cm) Section Name: 170CLHS56X18 Member Length: 60.79 Moment Capacity (Mc): 9.19 3.58 122 — STAAD.41 DESIGN DATA: z-z axis y-y axis Tension Capacity (Pt): 0.46 Shear Capacity (Pc): 21.99 Moment of inertia (Ie): 236.68 21.00 N/mm2 SECTION PROPERTIES:(units .15 33.58 z-z axis y-y axis Moment of inertia (I) : 237.96 Gross Area(Ag): 5.LOAD: 1 |  |-----------------------------------------------.277 GOV.  | STATUS: PASS RATIO = 0.------------------ --------| MATERIAL DATA: Yield strength of steel: 379.44 Elastic modulus (Zet): 27.MODE: Bend + Compress GOV.21 N/mm2 Ultimate tensile strength: 430.04 19.21 Elastic modulus (Zec): 27.

006 BS-5.------------------- -------| MATERIAL DATA: International Design Codes Manual — 123 .4 Shear Ratio .241 BS-5.1 Bending Ratio .Axial 0.Y Ratio 0.3 Compression ratio .60 |  | STATUS: PASS RATIO = 0.168 BS-5.277 BS-5.4 Bend-Compression ratio 0. Section 2 British Codes EACH CLAUSE CHECK UNDER CRITICAL LOAD : CLAUSE COMBINATION RATIO BS-6.5.083 BS-5.037 BS-6.1 Bending Ratio .1 Biaxial Bending Ratio 0.Z 0.000  ---------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------  | MEMBER# 2 SECTION: 170CLHS56X18 LEN: 609.MODE: Bend + Compress GOV.Y 0.2 Bending -Y & Shear .003 BS-5.235 BS-5.4 Shear Ratio .60 LOCATION: 609.Z 0.282 GOV.Z Ratio 0.2 Bending -Z & Shear .LOAD: 1 |  |-----------------------------------------------.Y 0.5.

3 Compression ratio .21 N/mm2 Ultimate tensile strength: 430.00 Compression Capacity (Pc): 93.cm) Section Name: 170CLHS56X18 Member Length: 60.00 N/mm2 SECTION PROPERTIES:(units .Axial 0.81 Shear Capacity (Pc): 21.96 Gross Area(Ag): 5.46 Net Area (Ae): 4.010 124 — STAAD.Z 0.235 BS-5.58 z-z axis y-y axis Moment of inertia (I) : 237.79 Moment Capacity (Mc): 9.15 33.282 BS-5.68 21.43 DESIGN DATA: z-z axis y-y axis Tension Capacity (Pt): 0.63 5.19 1.04 21.20 Elastic modulus (Zec): 27.58 EACH CLAUSE CHECK UNDER CRITICAL LOAD : CLAUSE COMBINATION RATIO BS-6.Pro .91 14.1 Bending Ratio .99 Elastic modulus (Zet): 27.1 Bending Ratio .4 Bend-Compression ratio 0.99 Moment of inertia (Ie): 236.Y 0. Yield strength of steel: 379.037 BS-6.

003 BS-5.Z Ratio 0.Y Ratio 0.168 BS-5.245 BS-5.Pro RUN *********** International Design Codes Manual — 125 .2 Bending -Z & Shear .4 Shear Ratio .1 Biaxial Bending Ratio 0. Section 2 British Codes BS-5.Y 0.5.000 *********** END OF THE STAAD.4 Shear Ratio .083 BS-5.5.2 Bending -Y & Shear .Z 0.

Pro .Section 2 British Codes 126 — STAAD.

Square and Circular) l For Slabs 4-noded Plate Elements International Design Codes Manual — 127 . Section 3 Canadian Codes 3A. Given the dimensions of a section. STAAD will calculate the required reinforcement necessary to resist the various input loads.3-94 3A.3-94. l For Beams Prismatic (Rectangular. Square & Tee) l For Columns Prismatic (Rectangular. columns and slabs according to CSA STANDARD A23.1 Design Operations STAAD can perform design of concrete beams. 3A.2 Section Types for Concrete Design The following types of cross sections for concrete members can be designed. Canadian Codes .Concrete Design Per CSA Standard A23.

It should be noted that STAAD does not factor loads automatically for concrete design. member forces are calculated which will require no user modification before beginning member design.3-94 Clause 10. While performing a PDELTA ANALYSIS. All the proper factored loads must be provided by the user before the ANALYSIS specification. Therefore. Here the user approximates the additional moment by supplying a factor by which moments will be multiplied before beginning member design. with only depth and no width provided. STAAD accounts for the secondary moments. the first set of members are rectangular (450mm depth and 300mm width) and the second set of members. will be assumed to be circular with a 300mm diameter 3A. it should be done either by using the REPEAT LOAD command or by specifying the load 128 — STAAD. when the PDELTA ANALYSIS command is used.1).13. by performing a PDELTA ANALYSIS.4 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Considerations STAAD provides the user with two methods of accounting for the slenderness effect in the analysis and design of concrete members. The second method by which STAAD allows the user to account for the slenderness effect is through user supplied moment magnification factors (see the parameter MMAG in Table 3A.Pro . After solving for the joint displacements of the structure. due to axial loads and deflections. If the effects of separate load cases are to be combined.3A. ZD 300. the program calculates the additional moments induced in the structure due to the P-Delta effect. In the above input.14 of the code. The first method is equivalent to the procedure presented in CSA STANDARD A23. This second procedure allows slenderness to be considered in accordance with Clause 10. The following example demonstrates the required input: UNIT MM MEMBER PROPERTIES 1 3 TO 7 9 PRISM YD 450. 11 14 PR YD 300. all load cases must be defined as primary load cases.3 Member Dimensions Concrete members that are to be designed by STAAD must have certain section properties input under the MEMBER PROPERTIES command.

CLT 40mm Clear cover to reinforcing bar at top of cross section. Table 3A. This is the way STAAD works for all codes. It is necessary to declare length and force units as Millimeter and Newton before performing the concrete design. CLS 40mm Clear cover to reinforcing bar along the side of the cross section. Table 3A. Default values.information of these individual loading cases under one single load case. bar International Design Codes Manual — 129 . Usage of the LOAD COMBINATION command will yield incorrect results for PDELTA ANALYSIS. have been used for simplicity. FC 30 N/mm2 Specified compressive strength of concrete. FYSEC 400 N/mm2 Yield Stress for secondary reinforcing steel. These parameters not only act as a method to input required data for code calculations but give the engineer control over the actual design process.3-94.Canadian Concrete Design CSA-A23.3-94 Parameters Parameter Default Description Name Value FYMAIN 400N/mm2 Yield Stress for main reinforcing steel. MAXMAIN Number 55 Maximum main reinforcement bar size. MINMAIN Number 10 Minimum main reinforcement bar size bar MINSEC Number 10 Minimum secondary (stirrup) bar reinforcement bar size. CLB 40mm Clear cover to reinforcing bar at bottom of cross section. 3A. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again.1 .1 contains a list of available parameters and their default values.5 Design Parameters The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform design per CSA STANDARD A23. Note: Once a parameter is specified. which are commonly used numbers in conventional design practice.

unless that number is redefined with the NSECTION parameter.0 For TRACK = 0. Used for shear and torsion calculation. Critical Moment will not be printed out with beam design report.0 Distance of face of support from start node of beam. and locate critical sections. WIDTH ZD Width of the concrete member. REINF 0. Used for shear and torsion calculation. NSECTION 12 Number of equally-spaced sections to be considered in finding critical moments for beam design. DEPTH YD Depth of the concrete member.0 A factor by which the column design moments will be magnified. 130 — STAAD.0 will mean spiral. A value of 1.0. 3A. EFACE 0. all active beam loadings are scanned to create moment and shear envelopes.0 Tied Column.0. moments will be printed. Parameter Default Description Name Value SFACE 0. For all these forces. This value defaults to YD as provided under MEMBER PROPERTIES. For TRACK=1.0 Face of Distance of face of support from end node Support of beam. TRACK 0. (Note: Both SFACE and EFACE are input as positive numbers). end and 11 intermediate). The total number of sections considered is thirteen (start. MMAG 1.Pro . This value defaults to ZD as provided under MEMBER PROPERTIES. shear and torsion.6 Beam Design Beams are designed for flexure.

States whether anchorage. Maximum sagging (creating tensile stress at the bottom face of the beam) and hogging (creating tensile stress at the top face) moments are calculated for all active load cases at each of the thirteen sections. 5. BAR INFOrmation . LEVEL . such a message will be printed in the output.END) or continuation.Distance from the start of the beam to the end of the rebar. The entire flexure design is performed again in a second pass taking into account the changed effective depths of sections calculated on the basis of reinforcement provided after the preliminary design. In the first pass. The following annotations apply to the output for Beam Design.3-94. Each of these sections are designed to resist the critical sagging and hogging moments. Although exact curtailment lengths are not mentioned explicitly in the design output (which finally will be more or less guided by the detailer taking into account other practical considerations).Serial number of bar level which may contain one or more bar group. Flexural design of beams is performed in two passes. 1. If the section dimensions are inadequate as a singly reinforced section. 6. Final provision of flexural reinforcements are made then.Height of bar level from the bottom of beam. TO . FROM .Design for Flexure Design for flexure is performed per the rules of Chapter 10 of CSA Standard A23. 2. 4. effective depths of the sections are determined with the assumption of single layer of assumed reinforcement and reinforcement requirements are calculated.Reinforcement bar information specifying number of bars and size. After the preliminary design. either a hook (STA. HEIGHT .3- 94. 3. reinforcing bars are chosen from the internal database in single or multiple layers. International Design Codes Manual — 131 . the user has the choice of printing reinforcements provided by STAAD at 13 equally spaced sections from which the final detailed drawing can be prepared.Distance from the start of the beam to the start of the rebar. is needed at start (STA) or at the end (END) of the bar. Efforts have been made to meet the guideline for the curtailment of reinforcements as per CSA Standard A23. ANCHOR . design of singly reinforced sections only is permitted. Currently.

The stirrups are assumed to be U-shaped for beams with no torsion. Shear design is performed at the start and end sections. That means the total number of bars will always be a multiple of four (4).3-94. 132 — STAAD. Column design is done for square.3-94. rectangular and circular sections. Shear reinforcement is calculated to resist both shear forces and torsional moments. The loading which produces maximum reinforcement is called the critical load.7 Column Design Column design is performed per the rules of Chapters 7 & 8 of the CSA Standard A23. The load case which gives rise to the highest stirrup area for shear & torsion is chosen as the critical one. the reinforcement is always assumed to be equally distributed on each side. This may cause slightly conservative results in some cases. Columns are designed for axial force and biaxial moments at the ends.Pro . The location along the member span for design is chosen as the effective depth + SFACE at the start. For rectangular and square sections. and effective depth + EFACE at the end. All active loadings are tested to calculate reinforcement. The calculations are performed assuming 2-legged stirrups will be provided.Design for Shear and Torsion Design for shear and torsion is performed per the rules of Chapter 11 of CSA Standard A23. The additional longitudinal steel area required for torsion is reported. Example of Input Data for Beam Design UNIT NEWTON MMS START CONCRETE DESIGN CODE CANADA FYMAIN 415 ALL FYSEC 415 ALL FC 35 ALL CLEAR 25 MEMB 2 TO 6 MAXMAIN 40 MEMB 2 TO 6 TRACK 1. and closed hoops for beams subjected to torsion.0 MEMB 2 TO 9 DESIGN BEAM 2 TO 9 END CONCRETE DESIGN 3A.

Other parameters mentioned in Table 3A. CLT and CLB listed in Table 3A. International Design Codes Manual — 133 . The parameters FYMAIN. The effective depth is calculated assuming #10 bars are provided. The width of the beam is assumed to be unity for this purpose. FC. Example of Input Data for Column Design UNIT NEWTON MMS START CONCRETE DESIGN CODE CANADIAN FYMAIN 415 ALL FC 35 ALL CLEAR 25 MEMB 2 TO 6 MAXMAIN 40 MEMB 2 TO 6 DESIGN COLUMN 2 TO 6 END CONCRETE DESIGN 3A. it must be modeled using finite elements.1 are relevant to slab design. These moments are obtained from the element force output (see the relevant sections of the Technical Reference Manual). Elements are designed for the moments Mx and My using the same principles as those for beams in flexure. Actual bar arrangement is not calculated because an element most likely represents just a fraction of the total slab area. The output consists only of area of steel required. The reinforcement required to resist Mx moment is denoted as longitudinal reinforcement and the reinforcement required to resist My moment is denoted as transverse reinforcement.1 are not applicable to slab design. The commands for specifying elements are in accordance with the relevant sections of the Technical Reference Manual.8 Slab/Wall Design To design a slab or wall.

Two major categories of limit-state are recognized .1 General Comments The design of structural steel members in accordance with the specification CAN/CSA S16-01 Limit States Design of Steel Structures is now implemented. This code supercedes the previous edition of the code CAN/CSA – S16. Canadian Codes . Example of Input Data for Slab/Wall Design UNIT NEWTON MMS START CONCRETE DESIGN CODE CANADA FYMAIN 415 ALL FC 35 ALL CLB 40 ALL DESIGN ELEMENT 15 TO 20 END CONCRETE DESIGN 3B.Pro .ultimate and serviceability. The design philosophy embodied in this specification is based on the concept of limit state design.1-94. Structures are designed and proportioned taking into consideration the limit states at which they would become unfit for their intended use. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state design are 134 — STAAD.Steel Design Per CSA Stand- ard CAN/CSA-S16-01 3B.

shear deformation is always considered during the analysis of these members. regular stiffness analysis or P-Delta analysis may be specified. In the STAAD implementation. The next section describes the syntax of commands used to assign properties from the built-in steel table.strength and stability. the properties are also used for member design. These properties are stored in a database file. refer to the STAAD Technical Reference Manual. For more information on these facilities. the most economic section is selected on the basis of the least weight criteria as augmented by the designer in specification of allowable member depths. Dynamic analysis may also be performed and the results combined with static analysis results. International Design Codes Manual — 135 .4 Built-in Steel Section Library The following information is provided for use when the built-in steel tables are to be referenced for member property specification. 3B. The following sections describe the salient features of the STAAD implementation of CAN/CSA-S16-01. the steel section library available in STAAD may be used. Since the shear areas are built into these tables. Analysis is done for the primary and combination loading conditions provided by the user.2 Analysis Methodology Elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design. Member properties may also be specified using the User Table facility. If called for. members are proportioned to resist the design loads without exceeding the limit states of strength. A detailed description of the design process along with its underlying concepts and assumptions is available in the specification document. Accordingly. Depending upon the analysis requirements. 3B. or other such parameters. The user is allowed complete flexibility in providing loading specifications and using appropriate load factors to create necessary loading situations. 3B. Appropriate load and resistance factors are used so that a uniform reliability is achieved for all steel structures under various loading conditions and at the same time the chances of limits being surpassed are acceptably remote. stability and serviceability.3 Member Property Specifications For specification of member properties. desired section type. The code checking portion of the program checks whether code requirements for each selected section are met and identifies the governing criteria. while that in serviceability is deflection.

10 TO 20 BY 2 TA ST S510X98 45 TO 55 TA ST M150X6 88 90 96 TA ST HP310X79 Channel Sections (C & MC shapes) C and MC shapes are designated as shown in the following example. M310X17. For example. Thus.6 should be specified as M310X17 and S180X22.8 should be specified as S180X22. Following is the description of the different types of sections available: Welded Wide Flanges (WW shapes) Welded wide flange shapes listed in the CSA steel tables can be designated using the same scheme used by CSA. M and HP shapes are also available. the portion after the decimal point must be omitted in section 136 — STAAD. While specifying the sections. The following example illustrates the specification of welded wide flange shapes.Almost all Canadian steel sections are available for input. The designation scheme is identical to that listed in the CSA tables. HP shapes In addition to welded wide flanges and regular wide flanges. it should be remembered that the portion after the decimal point should be omitted. 10 TO 75 95 TO 105 TA ST W460X106 100 TO 200 TA ST W610X101 S. M. 100 TO 150 TA ST WW400X444 34 35 TA ST WW900X347 Wide Flanges (W shapes) Designation of wide flanges in STAAD is the same as that in CSA tables. Examples illustrating specifications of these shapes are provided below. other I shaped sections like S. M and HP sections. As in S. A complete listing of the sections available in the built-in steel section library may be obtained by using the tools of the graphical user interface.Pro .

with or without spacing between them.6 of the STAAD Technical Reference manual. 55 TO 90 TA ST C250X30 30 TO 45 TA ST MC200X33 Double Channels Back to back double channels.5 length units is used. A reverse angle may be specified by substituting the word ST with the word RA. 10 TO 15 TA RA L55X35X4 The local axis systems for STANDARD and REVERSE angles is shown in Fig.5 Note that the specification SP after the section designation is used for providing the spacing. MC250X42. 2. are specified by preceding the section designation by the letter D. the angle name is preceded by the letter L. Thus. For example. To specify angles in accordance with this convention. Angles To specify angles.4 should be designated as MC250X42. Refer to the following example for details. the reverse angle designation facility has been provided. The spacing should always be provided in the current length unit. 75 TO 95 TA ST L100X100X8 33 34 35 TA ST L200X100X20 Note that the above specification is for “standard” angles. Another common practice of specifying angles assumes the local y-axis to correspond to the Y’-Y’ axis. The following examples illustrate angle specifications. a 200X200 angle with a 25mm thickness is designated as L200X200X25. the local z-axis (see Fig. 2. In this specification. International Design Codes Manual — 137 . Thus. a back to back double channel section C200X28 without any spacing in between should be specified as: 100 TO 120 TA D C200X28 If a spacing of 2.6 in the Technical Reference Manual) corresponds to the Y’- Y’ axis shown in the CSA table. the specification should be as follows: 100 TO 120 TA D C200X28 SP 2.designations.

25 35 45 TA LD L150X100X16 80 TO 90 TA SD L125X75X6 SP 2. For example: 138 — STAAD. and TH(for thickness) specifications.Pro . Spacing between angles may be provided by using the word SP followed by the value of spacing (in current length unit) after section designation.5 The second example above describes a double angle section consisting of 125X75X6 angles with a spacing of 2. 55 TO 75 TA ST TUB80X60X4 In addition. either SD or LD will serve the purpose.5 length units. Tees Tee sections obtained by cutting W sections may be specified by using the T specification instead of ST before the name of the W shape. any tube section may be specified by using the DT(for depth). the specification ST should be substituted with LD (for long leg back to back) or SD (short leg back to back).Double Angles To specify double angles. Those sections listed in the CSA tables may be specified as follows. For example: 100 TO 120 TA T W200X42 will describe a T section cut from a W200X42 section. Rectangular Hollow Sections These sections may be specified in two possible ways. For equal angles. WT(for width).

0 ID 9.5 In addition to sections listed in the CSA tables. circular hollow sections may be specified by using the OD (outside diameter) and ID (inside diameter) specifications. For example: 70 TO 90 TA ST PIPE OD 10. 100 TO 200 TA ST TUBE DT 8. Sample input file to demonstrate usage of Canadian shapes STAAD SPACE UNIT METER KNS JOINT COORD 1 0 0 0 17 160 0 0 MEMBER INCIDENCES 1 1 2 16 UNIT CM MEMBER PROPERTIES CANADIAN International Design Codes Manual — 139 .5 inches.0 length units. width and thickness must be provided in current length unit.0 TH 0. and a wall thickness of 0.0 WT 6.. width of 6 in. Note that the values of outside and inside diameters must be provided in terms of current length unit.5 will describe a tube with a depth of 8 in. Circular Hollow Sections Sections listed in the CSA tables may be provided as follows: 15 TO 25 TA ST PIP33X2. Note that the values of depth.0 will describe a pipe with an outside diameter of 10 length units and inside diameter of 9.

5 * TUBES 13 TA ST TUB120807 * TUBES 14 TA ST TUBE DT 16.0 ID 13.8 * PIPES 15 TA ST PIP273X6.0 WT 8.0 PRINT MEMBER PROPERTIES 140 — STAAD.0 TH 0.Pro . LONG LEG BACK TO BACK 11 TA LD L100X90X6 SP 2.3 * PIPES 16 TA ST PIPE OD 16. SHORT LEG BACK TO BACK 12 TA SD L125X75X6 SP 2.0 * ANGLES 9 TA ST L55X35X5 * REVERSE ANGLES 10 TA RA L90X75X5 * DOUBLE ANGLES. * W SHAPES 1 TA ST W250X18 * WW SHAPES 2 TA ST WW700X185 * S SHAPES 3 TA ST S200X27 * M SHAPES 4 TA ST M130X28 * HP SHAPES 5 TA ST HP310X132 * MC CHANNELS 6 TA ST MC150X17 * C CHANNELS 7 TA ST C180X18 * DOUBLE CHANNELS 8 TA D C250X37 SP 1.0 * DOUBLE ANGLES.

FINISH 3B.2 of CAN/CSA-S16-01. Explained here is the procedure adopted in STAAD for calculating the member resistances. The design procedures are different depending on the section class. unsupported width to thickness ratios and so on. local buckling becomes an important criterion. Note that the program automatically takes into consideration appropriate resistance factors to calculate member resistances. The second limit state involves fracture at the section with the minimum effective net area.2 or 3 sections only. These depend on several factors such as members unsupported lengths. STAAD determines the section classification for the standard shapes and user specified shapes.1). Class 4 sections are not designed by STAAD.13. The limit state of yielding in the gross section is intended to prevent excessive elongation of the member. slenderness factors. Steel sections are classified as plastic (Class 1). Thus. Parameters FYLD.5 Section Classification The CSA specification allows inelastic deformation of section elements. This classification is a function of the geometric properties of the section. cross-sectional properties. compact (Class 2). FU and NSF are applicable for these calculations. STAAD calculates the tension capacity of a member based on these two limits states per Cl.3 of the code. Axial Tension The criteria governing the capacity of tension members is based on two limit states. 3B.6 Member Resistances The member resistances are calculated in STAAD according to the procedures outlined in section 13 of the specification. non compact (Class 3) or slender element (Class 4) sections depending upon their local buckling characteristics (See Clause 11. Design is performed for sections that fall into the category of Class 1. The net section area may be specified by the user through the use of the parameter NSF (see Table 3B.2 and Table 1 of CAN/CSA-S16-01). Axial Compression The compressive resistance of columns is determined based on Clause 13. The equations presented in this section of the code assume that the compressive resistance is a function of the compressive strength of the gross section (Gross section Area times the Yield Strength) as well as the slenderness International Design Codes Manual — 141 .

Parameters KX and LX may be used to provide the effective length factor and effective length value for flexural- torsional buckling. The effective length for the calculation of compression resistance may be provided through the use of the parameters KX. The equations of Clause 13. 2. 4.8. KY. the member is treated as being continuously laterally supported.Pro . For frame members not subjected to any bending. The rules of Appendix D.1(b). 1994. Lambda = 0 for 13.1). For single angles. 13. The parameters KY.34 for all other shapes.3. Some of the aspects of the axial compression capacity calculations are : 1. The axial compression capacity is also calculated by taking flexural-torsional buckling into account. etc. K=1 for 13.1 is assumed as 2.6 of the code are used to arrive at the moment of resistance of laterally unsupported members.) Bending The laterally unsupported length of the compression flange for the purpose of computing the factored moment resistance is specified in STAAD with the help of the parameter UNL..factor (KL/r ratios). and for truss members.5 of the code. KZ and LZ are applicable for this. its value is used as the laterally unsupported length. single angles.1 using the slenderness ratios for the local Y-Y and Z-Z axis. Flexural-torsional buckling capacity is computed for single channels.3.8. For example. the special provisions of 13. the axial compression capacity in general column flexural buckling is calculated from Cl. Some of the aspects of the bending capacity calculations are : 142 — STAAD.1(a). The parameters KY. the moment resistance is computed from Clause 13. The reason for this is that the Canadian code doesn’t provide any clear guidelines for calculating this value. 5. the axial compression capacity in general column flexural buckling and local buckling of thin legs is calculated using the rules of the AISC . If UNL is greater than or equal to one tenth the member length. The variable “n” in Cl. page 1-109 of CAN/CSA- S16-01are used for this purpose. LY.13.1(c) are applied. While computing the general column flexural buckling capacity of sections with axial compression + bending. KZ and LZ are applicable for this.13. In this case.8.8. Tees and Double angles.1(a). LY. 2nd ed. 3.8. LX. If UNL is less than one tenth the member length (member length is the distance between the joints of the member). KZ.1(b) and 13.LRFD code. LY and LZ (see Table 3B. which are frame members not subjected to any bending or truss members.24 for WWF shapes and 1.

3.0 or the allowable value provided using the RATIO parameter (see Table 3B.1). the member is considered to have FAILed under the loading condition.8 of the code provides the equations for this purpose. page 6-283 of AISC-LRFD 1994. such as that given in SSRC’s Guide to Stability Design Criteria of Metal Structures.9 of the code is used to perform these checks. page 6-55 of AISC-LRFD 1994. If the summation of the left hand side of these equations exceed 1. STAAD uses the rules of Section 2c. For single angles. page 1-31.9 Py = Plastic section modulus about the local Y axis Sy = Elastic section modulus about the local Y axis Fy = Yield stress of steel 2. Once this is obtained. Phi*Sy*Fy where Phi = Resistance factor = 0. Clause 13. CAN/CSA-S16-01 stipulates in Clause 13. Shear The shear resistance of the cross section is determined using the equations of Clause 13. Clause 13.. For calculating the bending capacity about the Z-Z axis of singly symmetric shapes such as Tees and Double angles. 2nd ed. Instead. Axial compression and bending The member strength for sections subjected to axial compression and uniaxial or biaxial bending is obtained through the use of interaction equations. 2nd ed. 1. The specifications of Section 5. that a rational method. Axial tension and bending Members subjected to axial tension and bending are also designed using interaction equations. the ratio of the shear force acting on International Design Codes Manual — 143 . the additional bending caused by the action of the axial load is accounted for by using amplification factors. are used for this purpose because the Canadian code doesn’t provide any clear guidelines for calculating this value. The weak axis bending capacity of all sections except single angles is calculated as For Class 1 & 2 sections.6(d). the bending capacities are calculated for the principal axes. be used. Phi*Py*Fy For Class 3 sections.4 of the code. The actual RATIO is determined as the value of the left hand side of the critical equation. In these equations.

Checks for safety in shear are performed only if this value is within the allowable limit. the section is considered to have failed under shear. This is the way STAAD works for all codes. page 1-29 of CAN/CSA-S16-01).13. Used to calculate slenderness ratio.1 . The default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for conventional design.Pro . Users may by-pass this limitation by specifying a value of 2. Note: Once a parameter is specified. The code also requires that the slenderness ratio of the web be within a certain limit (See Cl.1). KZ 1. Used to calculate slenderness ratio. Used to calculate slenderness ratio. KY 1. LZ Member Length Length for general column flexural buckling about the local Z-axis.4. LT Member Length Length for flexural torsional buckling. Table 3B. Depending on the particular design requirements.0 for the MAIN parameter.0 K value for general column flexural buckling about the local Y-axis. some or all of these parameter values may be changed to exactly model the physical structure.1 may be used to control the design procedure.0 K value for general column flexural buckling about the local Z-axis.Canadian Steel Design CSA-S16-01 Parameters Parameter Default Value Description Name KT 1. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again. These parameters communicate design decisions from the engineer to the program and thus allow the engineer to control the design process to suit an application's specific needs. LY Member Length Length for general column flexural buckling about the local Y-axis.7 Design Parameters The design parameters outlined in Table 3B.1.the cross section to the shear resistance of the section is calculated.0 or the allowable value provided using the RATIO parameter (see Table 3B.3. 144 — STAAD.0 K value for flexural torsional buckling. If any of the ratios (for both local Y & Z axes) exceed 1. Used to calculate slenderness ratio. 3B.

0 = Provide full details of design.0 = Check slenderness ratio only for column buckling. 2.0 0.0 : Calculate Omega_2 CMY 1.0 MPa Ultimate strength of steel.0 = Do not calculate Omega-1 for local Y axis.0 0.6.0 and less than 2. Shear) CB 1.13. MAIN 0.8.Parameter Default Value Description Name FYLD 300.4 of code TRACK 0.5 : Value of Omega_2 (Cl. Equal to 0.4 of code CMZ 1. NSF 1. FU 345.8. Used in Cl. International Design Codes Manual — 145 . 1. 1.0 Greater than 0.13. not for web (See Section 3B.0 Net section factor for tension members.0 = Report only minimum design results.0 = Calculate Omega-1 for local Z axis. UNT Member Length Unsupported length in bending compression of the top flange for calculating moment resistance.0 1.6) to be used for calculation.0 = Do not calculate Omega-1 for local Z axis.0 MPa Yield strength of steel. UNB Member Length Unsupported length in bending compression of the bottom flange for calculating moment resistance.0 = Calculate Omega-1 for local Y axis. 2.0 1. 2. 2.0 = Check slenderness ratio against the limits.0 = Report design strengths also.0= Suppress the slenderness ratio check. Used in Cl.13.

1. for deflection Allowable local deflection.0 Permissible ratio of actual load effect to the design strength. The extent of detail of the output can be controlled by using the TRACK parameter. design will be based on member start and end forces only. Code checking is done using forces and moments at specified sections of the members.Pro . check) DJ1 Start Joint of Joint No. Example of commands for CODE CHECKING: UNIT NEWTON METER PARAMETER 146 — STAAD. Minimum required depth (Applicable for member selection) RATIO 1.0 = Perform design for moments at twelfth points along the beam. In addition.0 in.8 Code Checking The purpose of code checking is to check whether the provided section properties of the members are adequate. governing load case. denoting start point for member calculation of “deflection length” DJ2 End Joint of Joint No. DFF None(Mandatory “Deflection Length”/Maxm. location (distance from the start joint) and magnitudes of the governing forces and moments are also printed. If the BEAM parameter for a member is set to 1.0 0. The adequacy is checked as per the CAN/CSA-S16- 01 requirements. BEAM 1. Maximum allowable depth (Applicable for member selection) DMIN 0. the critical condition. moments are calculated at every twelfth point along the beam.0 in. denoting end point for member calculation of “deflection length” 3B. Parameter Default Value Description Name DMAX 45.0 = design only for end moments and those at locations specified by SECTION command. The code checking output labels the members as PASSed or FAILed. When no sections are specified and the BEAM parameter is set to zero (default).

The section selected will be of the same type as that specified initially. a member specified initially as a channel will have a channel selected for it. For example.2 MEMB 3 4 UNL 15 MEMB 3 4 RATIO 0. Example of commands for MEMBER SELECTION: UNIT NEWTON METER PARAMETER FYLD 330E6 MEMB 3 4 NSF 0. Following is a description of some of the items printed.9 ALL SELECT MEMB 3 4 3B. Selection of members whose properties are originally provided from a user table will be limited to sections in the user table. If the TRACK parameter is set to 1.85 ALL KY 1. The term CRITICAL COND refers to the section of the CAN/CSA-S16-01 specification which governed the design. CR = Factored compressive resistance International Design Codes Manual — 147 .0.85 ALL KY 1. factored member resistances will be printed.2 MEMB 3 4 UNL 15 MEMB 3 4 RATIO 0. CODE CANADIAN FYLD 330E6 MEMB 3 4 NSF 0.9 Member Selection The member selection process basically involves determination of the least weight member that PASSes the code checking procedure based on the forces and moments of the most recent analysis.10 Tabulated Results of Steel Design Results of code checking and member selection are presented in a tabular format. Member selection cannot be performed on TUBES.9 ALL CHECK CODE MEMB 3 4 3B. PIPES or members listed as PRISMATIC.

8. the solved examples of the 1994 edition of the CISC Handbook have been used as reference material for these examples. Limit States Design of Steel Structures.0.8. unsupported length 1.2(b) r CRZ = SEE 13. 1994 with CISC (Canadian Institute of Steel Construction) handbook.1-94. TR = Factored tensile resistance VR = Factored shear resistance MRZ = Factored moment resistance (about z-axis) MRY = Factored moment resistance (about y-axis) Further details can be obtained by setting TRACK to 2. The Canadian Standards Association.2(a) r CR2 = CAPACITY (C ) PER 13.8. wide flange section.0. Ky is 1. GIVEN: E = 200000 MPa (STEEL). 3D beam element.8.0. Steel section is W410X54. Since the S16-01 code is similar in many respects to the previous edition of the code (CAN/CSA S16. SOLUTION COMPARISON: 148 — STAAD. PROBLEM: Find the interaction ratio. Verification Problem No. National Standard of Canada. REFERENCE: CAN/CSA-S16.11 Verification Problems In the next few pages are included 3 verification examples for reference purposes.Pro . CISC Example 1 page 5_91. L/300 = 8000/300 = 27 mm Factored Uniform Load IS 7 kN/m DEAD. 1 TITLE Steel beam with uniform load. CR1 = CAPACITY (C ) PER 13. TYPE Static analysis.1-94). beam resistance and beam deflection. F = 300 Mpa CSA G40.0 m Allowable Live Load deflection.0 m span. 15 kN/m LIVE. Kz 1.2(b) for uniaxial bending (called C in that Clause) RX CTORFLX = Capacity in accordance with 13.2(c) 3B.21-M y Beam has a 8.

88 284 21 STAAD. MEMBER INCIDENCES 11.Pro 0. JOINT COORDINATES 9. * CISC EXAMPLE 1 PAGE 5-91. * * Date= * * Time= * * * * USER ID: * **************************************************** 1. 2 8000 0 0 10. UNIT MMS KN 8. STAAD SPACE VERIFICATION CISC 1994 HANDBOOK EXAMPLE PAGE 5-91 3. LIMIT STATES DESIGN. MEMBER PROPERTY CANADIAN International Design Codes Manual — 149 .20 20. 1 1 2 13.883 283. * LIVE LOAD DEFLECTION OF L/300 7. * SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM WITH UNIFORM LOAD 5. CAN/CSA-S16 Interaction Beam Beam Ratio Resistance Deflection (kN*m) (mm) REFERENCE 0.81 **************************************************** * * * STAAD.1-94 4. 1 0 0 0.Pro * * Version Bld * * Proprietary Program of * * Research Engineers. Intl. CSA-S16.

E STEEL ALL 18.5 36. TOTAL DEGREES OF FREEDOM = 5 SIZE OF STIFFNESS MATRIX = 1 DOUBLE KILO- WORDS REQRD/AVAIL.3 ALL 20. 1 1. 1 UNI GY -7 29. 2 FIXED BUT MY MZ 24. POISSON 0. 14. PRINT SECTION DISPLACEMENTS MEMBER SECTION DISPLACEMENTS ---------------------------- 150 — STAAD. SUPPORTS 21.5 LL 34. DISK SPACE = 12. LOAD 1 DEAD 26.25 2 1. LOAD COMB 3 1. 1 TABLE ST W410X54 16. 1 UNI GY -15 33.Pro . 1 PINNED 22. PERFORM ANALYSIS PROBLEM STATISTICS ----------------------------------- NUMBER OF JOINTS/MEMBER+ELEMENTS/SUPPORTS = 2/ 1/ 2 ORIGINAL/FINAL BAND-WIDTH= 1/ 1/ 5 DOF TOTAL PRIMARY LOAD CASES = 2. LOAD LIST 2 38.25DL + 1. LOAD 2 LIVE 30. MEMBER LOAD 27.0/ 19641. MEMBER LOAD 31.6 MB 37. UNIT METER KN 25. CONSTANTS 17.

0120 0.0000 0.0000 -2.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -1.0000 MAX LOCAL DISP = 2.8086 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -1.0000 -2.5471 0.0812 0.0000 -2.0000 0.0000 -0.00 LOAD 2 L/DISP= 384 ************ END OF SECT DISPL RESULTS *********** 40.0000 -1. BEAM 1 ALL 47.PRO CODE CHECKING .4824 0. LOAD LIST 3 41.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -1. CHECK CODE ALL STAAD.Y. CODE CANADIAN 43.0120 0.0000 0.4824 0.0000 -1.5471 0. UNL 1 ALL 45.08115 AT 400.0000 0.8086 0. UNIT =INCHES FOR FPS AND CM FOR METRICS/SI SYSTEM MEMB LOAD GLOBAL X.0000 0. PARAMETER 42.0000 0.Z DISPL FROM START TO END JOINTS AT 1/12TH PTS 1 2 0.0000 -1.0000 0.0000 0. TRACK 2 ALL 44.(CAN/CSA- S16-01) ******************************************  ALL UNITS ARE .0528 0. FYLD 300000 ALL 46.0000 0.KNS MET (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)  MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/ FX MY MZ LOCATION International Design Codes Manual — 151 .0528 0.

2+ 0.KN.170 KL/RZ = 48.846E+03 CR2 = 2.805E+03 COMPRESSIVE CAPACITY = 2.77E+02 MATERIAL PROPERTIES (UNIT = MPA) -------------------------------- FYLD = 300.00E+02 IZ = 1.000 KL/RY = 207.732E+02 CRZ = 1.000 UNSUPPORTED LENGTH OF THE COMPRESSION FLANGE (M) = 1.02E+03 SY = 1.379E+02 VRZ = 4.84E+01 MEMBER LENGTH = 8.00 152 — STAAD.732E+02 FACTORED MOMENT RESISTANCE : MRY = 4.M) --------------------------------- CR1 = 1.00 4.8.05E+03 IY = 1.00 OMEGA-2 = 1.0 FU = 345.00 MEMBER PROPERTIES (UNIT = CM) ----------------------------- CROSS SECTION AREA = 6.0 SECTION CAPACITIES (UNIT .883 3 0.832E+02 FACTORED SHEAR RESISTANCE : VRY = 5.604E+02 MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION -------------------------- NET SECTION FACTOR FOR TENSION = 1.00 C 0.86E+04 SZ = 9.570E+03 CTORFLX = 2.778E+01 MRZ = 2.000 OMEGA-1 (Y-AXIS) = 1.00 OMEGA-1 (Z-AXIS) = 1.26E+02 PZ = 1.15E+02 PY = 1.447 ALLOWABLE KL/R = 300.  ==================================================== 1 ST W410X54 (CANADIAN SECTIONS) PASS CSA-13.00 -250.Pro .732E+02 TENSILE CAPACITY = 1.

08E+01 48.00 4. FINISH Verification Problem No. PROBLEM: Find the interaction ratio.203 PRISMATIC STEEL 0.203 ************ END OF DATA FROM INTERNAL STORAGE ************ 49. 2 TITLE: Steel beam/column. National Standard of Canada. SHEAR FORCE (KNS) : Y AXIS = 0. Limit States Design of Steel Structures.000E+00 SLENDERNESS RATIO OF WEB (H/W) = 5. 1994 with CISC (Canadian Institute of Steel Construction) handbook. Page 4_106. TYPE: Static Analysis.000 ---------------- TOTAL = 4.000E+00 Z AXIS = 0. REFERENCE: CAN/CSA-S16. ST W410X54 8. beam and column resistance.1-94. International Design Codes Manual — 153 . STEEL TAKE OFF ALL STEEL TAKE-OFF -------------- PROFILE LENGTH(METE) WEIGHT(KN ) In Steel Takeoff the density of steel is assumed for members with no density.00 0. 3D beam element. wide flange section. CISC Handbook Example. The Canadian Standards Association.

7 m span.GIVEN: E = 200000 MPa (STEEL). Ky is 1. Kz 1.98 584 3820 **************************************************** 154 — STAAD.Pro .96 583 3800 STAAD. F = 300 MPa CSA G40.Pro 0.0 factored axial load is 2000 kN and end moments of 200 kN*m and 300 kN*m Steel section is W310X129 SOLUTION COMPARISON: Beam Column CAN/CSA.0.21-M y Beam/Column has a 3. Interaction Resistance Resistance S16 Ratio (kN*m) (kN) REFERENCE 0.

UNIT METER KN 6. * 12. MEMBER PROPERTY CANADIAN 13.Pro * * Version Bld * * Proprietary Program of * * Research Engineers. CONSTANTS 16. SUPPORTS 20. 1 TABLE ST W310X129 14. * * Date= * * Time= * * * * USER ID: * **************************************************** 1.7 0 8. * COMPRESSION + MAJOR AXIS BENDING 4. JOINT COORDINATES 7. MEMBER INCIDENCES 10. * 5. 1 1 2 11. * * * STAAD. * 15. STAAD SPACE VERIFICATION CISC 1994 HANDBOOK EXAMPLE PAGE 4-106 2. 1 0 0 0. * 9. 2 0 3. * 19. 1 FIXED BUT MX MZ International Design Codes Manual — 155 . * 3. E STEEL ALL 17. POISSON STEEL ALL 18. Intl.

14 0.2 MB ++ Adjusting Displacements 8:54:35 ++ Adjusting Displacements 8:54:35 ++ Adjusting Displacements 8:54:35 31.00 0.0/ 19641.14 0.00 135. 2 FY -2000 26. 21.KN METE MEMBER LOAD JT AXIAL SHEAR-Y SHEAR-Z TORSION MOM-Y MOM-Z 1 1 1 2000. * 29.00 200. 2 MZ 200 27.00 0.00 -135. PRINT MEMBER FORCES MEMBER END FORCES STRUCTURE TYPE = SPACE ----------------- ALL UNITS ARE -.00 0. PDELTA 3 ANALYSIS PROBLEM STATISTICS ----------------------------------- NUMBER OF JOINTS/MEMBER+ELEMENTS/SUPPORTS = 2/ 1/ 2 ORIGINAL/FINAL BAND-WIDTH= 1/ 1/ 5 DOF TOTAL PRIMARY LOAD CASES = 1. 2 FIXED BUT FY MY MZ 22.00 156 — STAAD. DISK SPACE = 12. JOINT LOAD 25.00 0. 1 MZ 300 28.Pro .00 300. * 23.00 2 -2000. TOTAL DEGREES OF FREEDOM = 5 SIZE OF STIFFNESS MATRIX = 1 DOUBLE KILO- WORDS REQRD/AVAIL. LOAD 1 FACTORED LOAD 24.

459E+03 CR2 = 3.PRO CODE CHECKING .70E+02 IZ = 3. PARAMETER 34. LY 3.7 ALL 38.94E+03 PZ = 2. TRACK 2 ALL 36. CHECK CODE ALL STAAD.820E+03 International Design Codes Manual — 157 .7 ALL 39.980 1 2000.KN.65E+02 MEMBER LENGTH = 3. CODE CANADIAN 35.00 0.00E+04 SY = 6.0 SECTION CAPACITIES (UNIT .8.0 FU = 345.2C 0.08E+04 SZ = 1.16E+03 IY = 1. FYLD 300000 ALL 37.00 300.820E+03 CRZ = 4.(CAN/CSA- S16-01) ******************************************  ALL UNITS ARE .00 C 0.90E+02 MATERIAL PROPERTIES (UNIT = MPA) -------------------------------- FYLD = 300. LZ 3.00 MEMBER PROPERTIES (UNIT = CM) ----------------------------- CROSS SECTION AREA = 1.KNS MET (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)  MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/ FX MY MZ LOCATION  ==================================================== 1 ST W310X129 (CANADIAN SECTIONS) PASS CSA-13.296E+03 CTORFLX = 3. ************** END OF LATEST ANALYSIS RESULT ************** 33.M) --------------------------------- CR1 = 4.51E+02 PY = 9.

70 4.505E+03 MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION -------------------------- NET SECTION FACTOR FOR TENSION = 1. STEEL MEMBER TAKE OFF ALL STEEL TAKE-OFF -------------- PROFILE LENGTH(METE) WEIGHT(KN ) In Steel Takeoff the density of steel is assumed for members with no density.694 MEMBER PROFILE LENGTH WEIGHT (METE) (KN ) 1 ST W310X129 3.12E+01 40.094 ALLOWABLE KL/R = 200.820E+03 FACTORED MOMENT RESISTANCE : MRY = 2.700 OMEGA-1 (Y-AXIS) = 1. FINISH 158 — STAAD.Pro .000 ---------------- TOTAL = 4.00 OMEGA-1 (Z-AXIS) = 1. ST W310X129 3.477 KL/RZ = 27.419E+02 VRZ = 1.00 OMEGA-2 = 1.672E+02 MRZ = 5.000 UNSUPPORTED LENGTH OF THE COMPRESSION FLANGE (M) = 3.00 SHEAR FORCE (KNS) : Y AXIS = 1.000E+00 SLENDERNESS RATIO OF WEB (H/W) = 2.351E+02 Z AXIS = 0.694 ************ END OF DATA FROM INTERNAL STORAGE ************ 42.00 0.000 KL/RY = 47.70 4. TENSILE CAPACITY = 4.359E+03 COMPRESSIVE CAPACITY = 3.694 PRISMATIC STEEL 0.840E+02 FACTORED SHEAR RESISTANCE : VRY = 7.

F = 300 MPa CSA G40. Verification Problem No. Steel section is W310X143. Limit States Design of Steel Structures. beam and column resistance. CISC Handbook Example.7 m factored axial load is 2000 kN and end moments of 200 kN*m and 300 kN*m in the strong axis and 100 kN*m at each end in the weak axis. REFERENCE: CAN/CSA-S16. GIVEN: E = 200000 MPa (STEEL). Kz 1. National Standard of Canada. 3D beam element. The Canadian Standards Association.1-94.0.21-M y Beam/Column has a 3.7 m span. SOLUTION COMPARISON: International Design Codes Manual — 159 . Ky is 1. 3 TITLE: Steel beam/column. Page 4_108. Lu = 3. PROBLEM: Find the interaction ratio.0. 1994 with CISC (Canadian Institute of Steel Construction) handbook. TYPE: Static Analysis. wide flange section.

STAAD SPACE VERIFICATION CISC 1994 HANDBOOK EXAMPLE PAGE 4-108 2.7 0 8. MEMBER INCIDENCES 10. 1 1 2 11. * ( COMPRESSION + BIAXIAL BENDING ) 4.Pro . JOINT COORDINATES 7. 1 0 0 0. UNIT METER KN 6.Pro * * Version Bld * * Proprietary Program of * * Research Engineers. * * Date= * * Time= * * * * USER ID: * **************************************************** 1. Intl.Pro 1.00 299 650 4222 **************************************************** * * * STAAD. * 5. * 9. Beam Resistance Interaction Column Resistance (kN*m) CAN/CSA-S16 Ratio (kN) weak strong REFERENCE 0. * 3. 2 0 3. * 160 — STAAD.998 300 653 4200 STAAD.

* 19. 12. 1 TABLE ST W310X143 14. 2 FIXED BUT FY MX MY MZ 22. CONSTANTS 16. PERFORM ANALYSIS PROBLEM STATISTICS ----------------------------------- NUMBER OF JOINTS/MEMBER+ELEMENTS/SUPPORTS = 2/ 1/ 2 ORIGINAL/FINAL BAND-WIDTH= 1/ 1/ 6 DOF TOTAL PRIMARY LOAD CASES = 1. * 15. 1 MZ 300 29.2 MB 33. POISSON STEEL ALL 18. PARAMETER International Design Codes Manual — 161 . E STEEL ALL 17. LOAD 1 FACTORED LOAD 24. 2 FY -2000 26. * 23. 2 MZ 200 27. MEMBER PROPERTY CANADIAN 13. SUPPORTS 20. JOINT LOAD 25.0/ 19641. 2 MX 100 28. 1 MX 100 30. 1 FIXED BUT MX MZ 21. * 31. DISK SPACE = 12. TOTAL DEGREES OF FREEDOM = 6 SIZE OF STIFFNESS MATRIX = 1 DOUBLE KILO- WORDS REQRD/AVAIL.

28E+02 PY = 1. TRACK 2 ALL 39. FYLD 300000 ALL 40.0 FU = 345. CB 1 ALL 38.737E+03 CTORFLX = 4.M) --------------------------------- CR1 = 4. CMY 2 ALL 36.000 1 2000.222E+03 162 — STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING .0 SECTION CAPACITIES (UNIT .47E+04 SZ = 2. CODE CANADIAN 35.15E+03 PZ = 2. CMZ 2 ALL 37. 34.12E+04 SY = 7.KN.11E+03 MATERIAL PROPERTIES (UNIT = MPA) -------------------------------- FYLD = 300.Pro .00 C -100.KNS MET (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)  MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/ FX MY MZ LOCATION  ====================================================  * 1 ST W310X143 (CANADIAN SECTIONS) FAIL CSA-13.912E+03 CR2 = 4.82E+02 MEMBER LENGTH = 3.70E+02 IZ = 3.00 300.00 MEMBER PROPERTIES (UNIT = CM) ----------------------------- CROSS SECTION AREA = 1.41E+03 IY = 1.(CAN/CSA- S16-01) ******************************************  ALL UNITS ARE .2A 1.8. CHECK CODE ALL STAAD.00 0.222E+03 CRZ = 4.

700 OMEGA-1 (Y-AXIS) = 0. TENSILE CAPACITY = 4.00 SHEAR FORCE (KNS) : Y AXIS = 1.40 OMEGA-2 = 1.171 ************ END OF DATA FROM INTERNAL STORAGE ************ 42.077 KL/RZ = 26. STEEL MEMBER TAKE OFF ALL STEEL TAKE-OFF -------------- PROFILE LENGTH(METE) WEIGHT(KN ) In Steel Takeoff the density of steel is assumed for members with no density. FINISH International Design Codes Manual — 163 .037E+02 VRZ = 1.171 MEMBER PROFILE LENGTH WEIGHT (METE) (KN ) 1 ST W310X143 3. ST W310X143 3.678E+03 MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION -------------------------- NET SECTION FACTOR FOR TENSION = 1.171 PRISMATIC STEEL 0.70 5.405E+01 SLENDERNESS RATIO OF WEB (H/W) = 1.351E+02 Z AXIS = 5.40 OMEGA-1 (Z-AXIS) = 0.98E+01 41.000 KL/RY = 47.70 5.504E+02 FACTORED SHEAR RESISTANCE : VRY = 8.987E+02 MRZ = 6.000 UNSUPPORTED LENGTH OF THE COMPRESSION FLANGE (M) = 3.802E+03 COMPRESSIVE CAPACITY = 4.802 ALLOWABLE KL/R = 200.000 ---------------- TOTAL = 5.912E+03 FACTORED MOMENT RESISTANCE : MRY = 2.00 0.

bending. shear. Both unreduced and effective section properties are used in the design stage.3C. The properties listed in the tables are gross section properties. 1995. have been implemented.Pro .3 Design Procedure The following two design modes are available: 164 — STAAD. including revisions dated May. Cold work of forming strengthening effects have been included as an option. as well as their combinations.Pro uses unreduced section properties in the structure analysis stage. 3C. 3C. as applicable.2 Cross-Sectional Properties The user specifies the geometry of the cross-section by selecting one of the section shape designations from the Gross Section Property Tables published in the "Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual". 1996 Edition. The Tables are currently available for the following shapes: l Channel with Lips l Channel without Lips l Angle with Lips l Angle without Lips l Z with Lips l Z without Lips l Hat Shape selection may be done using the member property pages of the graphical user interface (GUI) or by specifying the section designation symbol in the input file. the Initiation of Yielding method has been used. Canadian Codes . The program allows design of single (non-composite) members in tension. For laterally supported members in bending. AISI.Design Per Canadian Cold Formed Steel Code 3C. STAAD. compression.1 General Provisions of CSA S136-94.

3.) and. angle.3.3. 1. 6. If no section satisfying the depth restrictions or lighter than the initial one can be found. Cross-sectional properties and overall slenderness of members are checked for compliance with l Clause 5.6. Members in bending and shear Resistance calculations are based on Clauses: a.4.1 General.1 through 3 and 5. The results are presented in a form of a PASS/FAIL identifier and a RATIO of load effect to resistance for each member checked. The program will then evaluate all database sections of the type initially specified (i. in accordance with CSA 136. The program will check member strength in accordance with Clause 6 of the Standard as follows: a. Member Selection The user may request that the program search the cold formed steel shapes database (AISI standard sections) for alternative members that pass the code check and meet the least weight criterion.6.2.. Members in tension .Resistance is calculated in accordance with Clauses 6. International Design Codes Manual — 165 . The user may choose the degree of detail in the output data by setting the TRACK parameter. Maximum Effective Slenderness Ratio for members in Compression l Clause 5. etc. (b). b. channel. In addition. as applicable.5. c. Maximum Flat Width Ratios for Elements in Compression l Clause 5. a minimum and/or maximum acceptable depth of the member may be specified.2. Code checking is carried out for locations specified by the user via the SECTION command or the BEAM parameter. present design results for that section.4.e.6 through 8. 2.2. Maximum Section Depths. Resistance factors listed in Clauses 6. Code Checking The program compares the resistance of members with the applied load effects.2 (a). regardless of whether it passes the code check or not.1 and 6. and (e) are used. The program calculates effective section properties in accordance with Clauses 5. the program leaves the member unchanged. if a suitable replacement is found.

7.4. e. c.1.4. and 6.6.2 and 6. c. 6.b.1. d. 6.1. f. e.1 Laterally Supported Members.6.3 Laterally Unsupported Members. 6.4.6 Combined Bending and Shear in Webs. The following table contains the input parameters for specifying values of design variables and selection of design options.4 Channels and Z-Shaped Members with Unstiffened Flanges . 6.2. 6.6. Singly and Doubly Symmetric Sections. b.6.1.2 (a) and (d).1.6. 6. 6.4. Members in compression Resistance calculations are based on Clauses: a.5 Shear in Webs. 6.additional limitations. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again. b.3 Singly Symmetric Sections. Input for the coefficients of uniform bending must be provided by the user.6.5 Cylindrical Tubular Sections. 6.2 Sections Not Subject to Torsional-Flexural Buckling. 166 — STAAD.3 General. Note: Once a parameter is specified.Pro .6. 6. compressive limit stress based on Initiation of Yielding. d.4. a.4. Members in compression and bending Resistance calculations are based on Clause 6. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.4 Point-Symmetric Sections. 6.

0 (default). Values range from 0. and instead.3-1 Canadian Cold Formed Steel Design Parameters Parameter Default Description Name Value BEAM 1. See CSA 136.7.0.2. 6. If neither the BEAM parameter nor any SECTION command is specified. International Design Codes Manual — 167 .0 Coefficient of equivalent uniform bending Wy. Values range from 0. STAAD will terminate the run and ask the user to provide one of those 2 commands.2.0. checking is done only at the locations specified by the SECTION command (See STAAD manual for details). Table 3C.4 to 1.0. the adequacy of the member is determined by checking a total of 13 equally spaced locations along the length of the member. CMZ 1. CMY 0. the 13 location check is not conducted. See CSA 136.4 to 1. This rule is not enforced for TRUSS members. 6. Used for Combined axial load and bending design.0 When this parameter is set to 1.7. Used for Combined axial load and bending design.0 Coefficient of equivalent uniform bending Wz. If the BEAM value is 0.

See CSA 136. See CSA 136.2. FLX 1 Specifies whether torsional-flexural buckling restraint is provided or is not necessary for the member.2 Values: 0 – Section subject to torsional flexural buckling and restraint not provided 1 – restraint provided or unnecessary FU 450 MPa Ultimate tensile strength of steel in current units. Parameter Default Description Name Value CWY 0 Specifies whether the cold work of forming strengthening effect should be included in resistance computation.0 Minimum depth required for the section during member selection. Values: 0 – effect should not be included 1 – effect should be included DMAX 1000. FYLD 350 MPa Yield strength of steel in current units.6. 6. 168 — STAAD. This value must be provided in the current units.Pro . This value must be provided in the current units.0 Maximum depth permissible for the section during member selection. DMIN 0. 5.

Values can range from 0. Parameter Default Description Name Value KT 1. It is used to compute the KL/R ratio for determining the capacity in axial compression. It is a fraction and is unit- less. It is a fraction and is unit-less. KZ 1.0 Effective length factor for overall column buckling about the local Y- axis. Values can range from 0.01 (for a column completely prevented from buckling) to any user specified large value. It is used to compute the KL/R ratio for twisting for determining the capacity in axial compression. International Design Codes Manual — 169 .01 (for a column completely prevented from torsional buckling) to any user specified large value.01 (for a column completely prevented from buckling) to any user specified large value. It is used to compute the KL/R ratio for determining the capacity in axial compression.0 Effective length factor for overall column buckling in the local Z-axis. It is a fraction and is unit-less. KY 1.0 Effective length factor for torsional buckling. Values can range from 0.

Values can range from 0. It is used to compute the KL/R ratio for determining the capacity in axial compression. Parameter Default Description Name Value LT Member Unbraced length for twisting.3.1. It is used to compute the KL/R ratio for twisting for determining the capacity in axial compression. Values can range from 0. See CSA 136. 6. Values can range from 0.0 Net section factor for tension members. NSF 1. It is input in the current units of length. It is input in the current units of length. LZ Member Effective length for overall column length buckling in the local Z-axis.01 (for a column completely prevented from buckling) to any user specified large value.01 (for a column completely prevented from buckling) to any user specified large value.01 (for a column completely prevented from torsional buckling) to any user specified large value. It is used to compute the KL/R ratio for determining the capacity in axial compression. LY Member Effective length for overall column length buckling in the local Y-axis. It is length input in the current units of length.Pro . 170 — STAAD.

ratio. TSA 1 Specifies whether bearing and intermediate transverse stiffeners satisfy the requirements of CSA 136. Parameter Default Description Name Value STIFF Member Spacing in the longitudinal direction of length shear stiffeners for stiffened flat webs. It is input in the current units of length.5.5 1 – stiffeners comply with 6. 6. the program uses the more liberal set of interaction equations in 6.Prints the design summary in addition to that printed by TRACK 1 2 . and PASS/FAIL status. 1 .4.Prints only the member number. Values: 0 – stiffeners do not comply with 6.5 International Design Codes Manual — 171 . section name.5 TRACK 0 This parameter is used to control the level of detail in which the design output is reported in the output file.6. The allowable values are: 0 .Prints member and material properties in addition to that printed by TRACK 2. See section CSA 136.4. 6. If true.

Wood Design Per CSA Stand- ard CAN/CSA-086-01 3D. In the STAAD implementation. A detailed description of the design process along with its underlying concepts and assumptions is available in the specification document.1 General Comments The Canadian Wood Design facility in STAAD is based on CSA086-01. the code checking portion of the program checks whether code requirements for each selected section are met and identifies the governing criteria. Analysis Methodology Member Property Specifications Built-in Steel Section Library Member Resistances Design Parameters Code Checking Member Selection Tabulated Results of Timber Design Verification Problems 172 — STAAD. Two major categories of limit-state are recognized . The design philosophy of this specification is based on the concept of limit state design. Appropriate load and resistance factors are used so that a uniform reliability is achieved for the entire structure under various loading conditions and at the same time the chances of limits being surpassed are acceptably remote. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state design are strength and stability. A timber section library consisting of Sawn and Glulam timber is available for member property specification.3D.Pro . Structures are designed and proportioned taking into consideration the limit states at which they would become unfit for their intended use.ultimate and serviceability. while that in serviceability is deflection. Canadian Codes . The following sections describe the salient features of the STAAD implementation of CSA086-01.

These properties are stored in a database file. for Sawn timber the timber section library available in STAAD may be used. The assignment is done with the help of the PRISMATIC option which is explained in STAAD’s Technical Reference Manual. Following are the description of the different types of species combination available: Douglas Fir-Larch The following example illustrates the specification of Douglas Fir-Larch species combination.2 Analysis Methodology Analysis is done for the primary and combination loading conditions provided by the user. International Design Codes Manual — 173 .3D.3 Member Property Specifications For specification of member properties. the properties are also used for member design. 3D. For Glulam timber. The user is allowed complete flexibility in providing loading specifications and using appropriate load factors to create necessary loading situations. member properties can be specified using the YD(depth) and ZD(width) specifications and selecting Combination and Species specifications from the built-in table.4 Built-in Timber Section Library The following information is provided for use when the built-in timber tables are to be referenced for member property specification. If called for. 3D. 100 TO 150 TABLE ST DFL_SelStr_2X2_BM Hem-Fir Designation of Hem-Fir species combination in STAAD is as follows. The next section describes the syntax of commands used to assign properties from the built-in timber table.

7 POISSON 0.15 DENSITY 2.Pro . 100 TO 150 TABLE ST Northern_SelStr_3X12_BM Spruce-Pine-Fir Designation of Spruce-Pine-Fir species combination in STAAD is as follows. UNIT CM KN DEFINE MATERIAL START ISOTROPIC GLT_D. 100 TO 150 TABLE ST Hem-Fir_SelStr_2X10_BM Northern Species Designation of Northern species combination in STAAD is as follows. 100 TO 150 TABLE ST SPF_SelStr_3X8_BM Glu Laminated timber Designation of Glu-lam timber in STAAD involves defining the material.5e-005 ALPHA 1. specifying the dimensions.2e-011 END DEFINE MATERIAL MEMBER PROPERTY TIMBER CANADIAN 1 PRIS YD 12 ZD 6 CONSTANTS MATERIAL GLT_D.Fir-L-24f-EX E 51611. and associating the material with the member through the CONSTANTS command.Fir-L-24f-EX MEMB 1 174 — STAAD.

UNIT FEET POUND DEFINE MATERIAL START ISOTROPIC SPF_SelStr_4X10_BM E 1224 POISSON 0. 6 6 3 0.15 DENSITY 25 ALPHA 5. 8 18 3 0.Sample input file to demonstrate usage of Canadian timber STAAD PLANE EXAMPLE FOR DIMENSIONAL LUMBER UNIT FEET POUND JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0. 7 7 8. 11 4 8.5e-006 END DEFINE MATERIAL MEMBER PROPERTY tim can 1 TO 4 9 TO 11 TABLE ST SPF_SelStr_4X10_BM 5 TO 8 12 13 TABLE ST SPF_SelStr_4X10_BM CONSTANTS MATERIAL SPF_SelStr_4X10_BM memb 1 TO 4 9 TO 11 MATERIAL SPF_SelStr_4X10_BM memb 5 TO 8 12 13 PRINT MEMBER PROPERTIES FINISH International Design Codes Manual — 175 . 12 6 3. 10 3 7. 5 1 6. 5 24 0 0. 4 18 0 0. 9 2 6. 6 6 7. 7 12 6 0. 3 12 0 0. 8 8 5. 13 3 8. MEMBER INCIDENCES 1 1 2. 2 6 0 0. 3 3 4. 4 4 5. 2 2 3.

5.5 -CSA086- 01) 12.3.2 CSA086-01) 7.5 and Table 5.5.4. KZT = size factor applicable to tension parallel to grain (Clause 5.4.4.3 and Table 5. KZB = Size factor applicable to bending (Clause 5.7. K_T = Treatment factor (Clause 5.5.4 -CSA086-01) 4.4.2 CSA086-01) 10. KST = Service condition factor applicable to tension parallel to the grain (Table 5.5 -CSA086-01) 14.5 and Table 5.4. Table 4. KD = Load duration factor (Clause 4.4.5.2 and 6. KH = System factor (Clause 5. KN = Notch factor(Clause 5. CV = shear load coefficient (Table 6.2 CSA086-01) 6.5.5 and Table 5.4.4.2.6. CHIX = Curvature factor (Clause 6.4.2 CSA086-01) 9.2 and 6. K_SCP = Service condition factor applicable to Compression perpendicular to the grain (Table 5.3. KSB = Service condition factor applicable to Bending at extreme fibre (Table 5.2-CSA086-01. KZV = size factor applicable to shear(Clause 5.5 -CSA086-01) 15.5 Member Resistance The member resistances are calculated in STAAD according to the procedures outlined in section 5 (for sawn lumber) and 6 (for Glulam) of CSA086-01.4.4. KSC = Service condition factor applicable to Compression parallel to the grain (Table 5.4.Pro .4. K_ZC = size factor applicable to compression parallel to grain (Clause 5.CSA086-01) 17.2-CSA086-01) 16.4.2 and 6.4.5 and Table 5. KSE = Service condition factor applicable to modulus of elasticity (Table 5.2 and 6. KZCP = size factor applicable to compression perpendicular to grain (Clause 5.5 and Table 5.4.4.4.2 and 6.4.3D.4.4 -CSA086-01) 3.3 and 6.4-CSA086-01) 176 — STAAD.4.2) 2.4.4 and 6.2 and 6.4. KSV = Service condition factor applicable to longitudinal shear (Table 5.4.5 -CSA086-01) 13.4.4A.5 - CSA086-01) 11. These depend on several adjustment factors as follows: 1.4.4.2 CSA086-01) 8.2.2 -CSA086-01) 5.

STAAD calculates the tension capacity of a member based on this limit state per Clause 5.5 of CSA086-01.5.4 of CSA086-01 and for glulam members are determined based on Clause 6. For Sawn timber The criterion governing the capacity of tension members is based on one limit state. Axial Compression The compressive resistance of columns is determined based on Clause. LX.4 of CSA086-01.5.6 and Clause. International Design Codes Manual — 177 . Axial Tension i. KZ. The first one is the limit state of yielding in the gross section.The user has to give all these factors as input according to the classification of timber and stress grade.6. LY and LZ (see Table 3B. STAAD calculates the tension capacity of a member based on these two limits states per Clause.1).9 of CSA086- 01.8. Therefore. The effective length for the calculation of compression resistance may be provided through the use of the parameters KX.1). Explained here is the procedure adopted in STAAD for calculating the member resistances. The equations presented in this section of the code assume that the compressive resistance is a function of the compressive strength of the gross section (Gross section Area times the Yield Strength) as well as the slenderness factor (Kc).6.5.6. ii. Glulam tension members are designed based on two limit states. The limit state involves fracture at the section with the minimum effective net area. Bending The bending resistance of Sawn members are determined based on Clause 5. For Glulam timber The design of glulam tension members differs from sawn timber since CSA 086-01 assigns different specified strength for gross and net section. The second limit state involves fracture at the section with the minimum effective net area. The specified strength at net section is slightly higher than the strength of the gross section.5.5.11 of CSA086-01. The net section area may be specified by the user through the use of the parameter NSF (see Table 3B. KY. The allowable stress in bending is multiplied by Lateral stability factor.5.1).5. The net-section area may be specified by the user through the use of the parameter NSF (see Table 3B.

Clause 5.0 or the allowable value provided using the RATIO parameter (see Table 3B.0 or the allowable value provided using the RATIO parameter (see Table 3B. If any of the ratios (for both local Y & Z axes) exceed 1.1). the member is considered to have FAILed under the loading condition.1). Axial tension and bending The member strength for sections subjected to axial tension and uniaxial or biaxial bending is obtained through the use of interaction equations. the ratio of the shear force acting on the cross section to the shear resistance of the section is calculated.12 of the code provides the equations for this purpose.5 and 6. Depending on the particular design requirements.10 and 6.5.5. Clause 5. If the summation of the left hand side of these equations exceeds 1. These parameters communicate design decisions from the engineer to the program and thus allows the engineer to control the design process to suit an application's specific needs.5. the section is considered to have failed under shear.7. some or all of these parameter values may be changed to exactly model the physical structure.2 of the code.5.1).10 and 6.5. 178 — STAAD.Pro .6 Design Parameters The design parameters outlined in Table below may be used to control the design procedure. If the summation of the left hand side of these equations exceeds 1.12 of the code provides the equations for this purpose. Shear The shear resistance of the cross section is determined using the equations of Clause 5. The default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for conventional design.KL to take in account whether lateral support is provided at points of bearing to prevent lateral displacement and rotation Axial compression and bending The member strength for sections subjected to axial compression and uni-axial or biaxial bending is obtained through the use of interaction equations.0 or the allowable value provided using the RATIO parameter (see Table 3B. 3D. Once this is obtained. the member is considered to have FAILed under the loading condition.5.

4.4] KSB 1.3.3. Table 3D.0 Load Duration Factor [Clause.1 .4.Note: Once a parameter is specified.0 Service Condition Factor for Compression.0 Service Condition Factor for Bending at Extreme Fibre Applicable for bending at extreme fibre [Table 5.4.4. Applicable for longitudinal shear [Table 5.4. This is the way STAAD works for all codes. usually minor axis KZ 1.4.2] KSC 1.2] KSV 1.2 and 6.0 Service Condition Factor for Shear.2 and 6.4. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again.3/6. Table 4.4.4/6.4.4.4.0 K value in local Z-axis.0 K value for flexural torsional buckling KY 1.0 Net section factor for tension members KX 1.4.3. usually major axis LX Member Length for flexural torsional buckling length LY Member Length in local Y axis for slenderness length value KL/r LZ Member Length in local Z axis for slenderness length value KL/r KD 1.2 and 6.0 Treatment Factor [Clause 5. Table 5.2] KH 1. Applicable for compression parallel to grain [Table 5.2] International Design Codes Manual — 179 .0 K value in local Y-axis.Canadian Timber Design Parameters Parameter Default Description Name Value Nsf 1.0 System Factor [Clause 5.2.4] K_T 1.

4.0 Curvature Factor for Compression [Clause 6.4.5] KZCP 1.0 Size Factor for Bending.4.5 and Table 5.2 and 6. Parameter Default Description Name Value KSE 1.0 Size Factor for Tension. Applicable for compression perpendicular to grain [Clause .5] K_ZC 1.5.7.4.4.4A] KN 1.0 Size Factor for Compression.0 Size Factor for Compression.0 Service Condition Factor for Tension.5.7.5.5 and Table 5.0 Shear Load Coefficient [Table 6.0 Notch Factor [Clause 5.5] KZT 1.4.5.5 and Table 5.0 Service Condition Factor for Modulus of Elasticity.2] KST 1.0 Size Factor for Shear [Clause 5.5] CV 1.4. Applicable for compression parallel to grain [Clause 5.2] 180 — STAAD.4.4. Applicable for tension parallel to grain [Table 5.4.2 and Table 6.4. Applicable for compression perpendicular to grain [Clause 5.4.5.6.4.4. Applicable for modulus of elasticity [Table 5.0 Service Condition Factor for Compression.5] KZV 1.2] KZB 1.2 and 6. Applicable for bending [Clause.4.Pro .2.5 and Table 5.2] CHIX 1.5 and Table 5. Applicable for tension parallel to grain [Clause 5.2] K_SCP 1.4.4.

7 Code Checking The purpose of code checking is to check whether the provided section properties of the members are adequate. International Design Codes Manual — 181 . Code checking is done using forces and moments at specified sections of the members.0 Permissible Ratio of Actual to Allowable Value 3D. governing load case. The adequacy is checked as per the CSA086-01 requirements. Parameter Default Description Name Value RATIO 1. the critical condition. location (distance from the start joint) and magnitudes of the governing forces and moments are also printed. The code checking output labels the members as PASSed or FAILed. In addition.

99 ALL KSC 0.99 ALL KZB 0. Pu = Actual Load in Compression Tu = Actual Load in Tension 182 — STAAD.99 ALL KSE 0.99 ALL KN 0. which governed the design.Pro .99 ALL KZCP 0.8 Member Selection Member selection based CSA086-2001 is not available. The term CRITICAL COND refers to the section of the CSA086-01 specification.99 ALL KH 0.99 ALL K_T 0. PARAMETER CODE TIMBER CAN KD 0.99 ALL KZV 0.99 ALL K_ZC 0.99 ALL KST 0.99 ALL K_SCP 0.99 ALL RATIO 0.99 ALL KZT 0.99 ALL KSB 0.99 ALL KSV 0. 3D.99 ALL CHIX 0.99 ALL CHECK CODE ALL FINISH 3D.9 Tabulated Results of Timber Design Results of code checking and member selection are presented in a tabular format.99 ALL CV 0.

Verification Problem: 1 Objective: . Muy = Ultimate moment in y direction Muz = Ultimate moment in z direction V = Ultimate shear force SLENDERNESS_Y = Actual Slenderness ratio in y direction SLENDERNESS_Z = Actual Slenderness ratio in z direction PY = Factored Compressive capacity in y direction PZ = Factored Compressive capacity in z direction T = Factored tensile capacity MY = Factored moment of resistance in y direction MZ = Factored moment of resistance in z direction V = Factored shear resistance SLENDERNESS = Allowable slenderness ratio 3D. 2001 Given: .10 Verification Problems In the next few pages are included 6 verification examples for reference purposes.Example 4. Canadian Wood Design Manual. Design Code: . page 116. Column is effectively pinned at both ends and braced at mid-height in all direction.Length = 9000mm Comparison: - Solution Design Strength (kN) Theory 295 STAAD 293.To determine the Canadian Glulam section column in axial compression..Canadian wood design code (CSA:086-01) Reference: .427 % Input: - STAAD PLANE EXAMPLE FOR GLULAM DESIGN INPUT FILE: International Design Codes Manual — 183 .739 Difference -0.

MEMBER INCIDENCES 1 1 2.STD START JOB INFORMATION ENGINEER DATE 10-JUN-05 END JOB INFORMATION INPUT WIDTH 79 UNIT METER KN JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0.Pro .15 DENSITY 1.748031 ZD 0.574147 UNIT INCHES KIP CONSTANTS MATERIAL GLT_SPRUCE-PINE-12C-E MEMB 1 SUPPORTS 1 PINNED UNIT METER KN LOAD 1 LOADTYPE None TITLE LOAD CASE 1 JOINT LOAD 2 FY -214 PERFORM ANALYSIS PARAMETER CODE TIMBER CANADIAN 184 — STAAD.7 POISSON 0.44676e-005 ALPHA 5. UNIT INCHES KIP DEFINE MATERIAL START ISOTROPIC GLT_SPRUCE-PINE-12C-E E 9. GLULAMCOLUMN.5e-006 END DEFINE MATERIAL UNIT FEET POUND MEMBER PROPERTY TIMBER CANADIAN 1 PRIS YD 0. 2 0 9 0.

000 | | V = 0.000 KZCP = 1.(S086) *********************** ALL UNITS ARE .000mm | || | KD = 1.KN METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED) MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/ FX MY MZ LOCATION =================================================- ====================== 1 175.00 C 0.728 1 214.000 KT = 1.000 KN = 1.00X228.000 | | KZV = 1. KY 0.000 KSB = 1.000 CHIX = 1.000 K_SCP = 1.5 0.10/6.5 ALL KZ 0.5 ALL CHECK CODE ALL FINISH Relevant portion of Output:- STAAD.000 KZT = 1.000 KZB = 1.000 LUZ = 9000.000 LUY = 9000.000 K_ZC = 1.000 KSV = 1.000 LEY = 4500.0000 |--------------------------------------------------------------------------| | LEZ = 4500.000 | | Muy = 0.000 | | KSC = 1.000 | | Tu = 0.5.714 | International Design Codes Manual — 185 .000 | || | ACTUAL LOADS : (KN-m) | | Pu = 214.5.000 KSE = 1.00 0.000 | | Muz = 0.737 | | SLENDERNESS_Z = 25.00 CANADIAN GLULAM GRADE:GLT_SPRUCE-PINE-12C-E PASS CL.000 KST = 1.000 KH = 1.00 0.Pro CODE CHECKING .000 | | SLENDERNESS_Y = 19.000 | | CV = 1.

Standard load condition. Untreated Comparison: - Solution Design Strength Design in bending (kN.323 100.221 % Input: - STAAD PLANE EXAMPLE FOR GLULAM DESIGN INPUT FILE: glulamBEAM. Beam Spacing = 5000mm.Pro .155% -0.STD START JOB INFORMATION ENGINEER DATE 10-JUN-05 END JOB INFORMATION INPUT WIDTH 79 UNIT METER KN 186 — STAAD.000 | | SLENDERNESS = 50.943 | | PZ = 293. The compression edge assumed fully supported.Canadian wood design code (CSA:086-01) Reference: . FINISH Verification Problem: 2 Objective: .793 | | T = 0.To determine the bending capacity of a Canadian Glulam section single span floor beam.776 Difference 0. 2001 Given: .Example 2. Canadian Wood Design Manual.000 | | MY = 0.000 | |--------------------------------------------------------------------------| 37.| ALLOWABLE CAPACITIES OF THE SECTION: (KN-m) | | PY = 413. page 59.000 | | V = 0. Strength in m) shear (kN) Theory 208 101 STAAD 208.Length =7500mm. Dry service condition.000 | | MZ = 0. Design Code: .

2 7.11942 ZD 0.15 DENSITY 1.05 END DEFINE MATERIAL UNIT FEET POUND MEMBER PROPERTY TIMBER CANADIAN 1 PRIS YD 2.17 DENSITY 8.5E-006 ISOTROPIC GLT_D.5E-006 ISOTROPIC CONCRETE E 3150 POISSON 0.JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0.15 DENSITY 1.FIR-L-20F-E MEMB 1 SUPPORTS 1 2 PINNED UNIT METER KN LOAD 1 LOADTYPE NONE TITLE LOAD CASE 1 International Design Codes Manual — 187 .7 POISSON 0.5 0 0 MEMBER INCIDENCES 112 UNIT INCHES KIP DEFINE MATERIAL START ISOTROPIC GLT_SPRUCE-PINE-12C-E E 9.FIR-L-20F-E E 12.4 POISSON 0.426508 UNIT INCHES KIP CONSTANTS MATERIAL GLT_D.44676E-005 ALPHA 5.68E-005 ALPHA 5.5E-006 DAMP 0.44676E-005 ALPHA 5.

000 K_SCP = 1.000 KN = 1.5/6.000 KT = 1.000 KSV = 1.00 0.5.000 | || | ACTUAL LOADS : (KN-m) | | Pu = 0.000 KZT = 1.1 PERFORM ANALYSIS PARAMETER CODE TIMBER CANADIAN CHECK CODE ALL FINISH Relevant portion of Output:- STAAD.KN METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED) MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/ FX MY MZ LOCATION ================================================- ======================= 1 130.000 LUY = 7500.FIR-L-20F-E FAIL CL.000 KZCP = 1.0000 |--------------------------------------------------------------------------| | LEZ = 7500.5.000 KH = 1.000 | | Tu = 0.5.(S086) *********************** ALL UNITS ARE .00 0.000 KST = 1.000 KSE = 1.000 | | Muy = 0.000 | | KZV = 1.000 LUZ = 7500.000 LEY = 7500.000 KSB = 1.00X646.000 | 188 — STAAD.Pro .Pro CODE CHECKING .000mm | || | KD = 1.00 CANADIAN GLULAM GRADE:GLT_D.00 T 0.000 KZB = 1.000 K_ZC = 1.008 1 0. MEMBER LOAD 1 UNI GY -27.000 | | CV = 1.000 | | KSC = 1. 1.000 CHIX = 1.

323 | | V = 100.000 | | MY = 41.141 % Input: - STAAD PLANE EXAMPLE FOR GLULAM DESIGN INPUT FILE: glulamTENSION.STD International Design Codes Manual — 189 .Example 3.| Muz = 0.000 | | PZ = 0.932 | | SLENDERNESS_Z = 1. Canadian Wood Design Manual.To determine the capacity of a Canadian Glulam section in axial tension.776 | | SLENDERNESS = 50.625 | | SLENDERNESS_Y = 16.Canadian wood design code (CSA:086-01) Reference: . Untreated Comparison: - Solution Design Strength in Tension (kN) Theory 257 STAAD 256. Design Code: .Dry service condition.529 | | ALLOWABLE CAPACITIES OF THE SECTION: (KN-m) | | PY = 0.000 | | T = 0. 2001 Given: .923 | | MZ = 208.636 Difference -0.000 | |--------------------------------------------------------------------------| 46.000 | | V = 101. page 158. FINISH Verification Problem: 3 Objective: .

262467 UNIT INCHES KIP CONSTANTS MATERIAL GLT_SPRUCE-PINE-14T-E MEMB 1 SUPPORTS 1 PINNED UNIT METER KN LOAD 1 LOADTYPE NONE TITLE LOAD CASE 1 190 — STAAD. 2 0 9 0 MEMBER INCIDENCES 112 UNIT INCHES KIP DEFINE MATERIAL START ISOTROPIC GLT_SPRUCE-PINE-14T-E E 10.Pro .5E-006 ISOTROPIC CONCRETE E 3150 POISSON 0.872702 ZD 0.05 END DEFINE MATERIAL UNIT FEET POUND MEMBER PROPERTY TIMBER CANADIAN 1 PRIS YD 0. START JOB INFORMATION ENGINEER DATE 10-JUN-05 END JOB INFORMATION INPUT WIDTH 79 UNIT METER KN JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0.68E-005 ALPHA 5.5E-006 DAMP 0.17 DENSITY 8.15 DENSITY 1.44676E-005 ALPHA 5.7 POISSON 0.

000 KSB = 1.000 KT = 1.000 KST = 1.000 KSE = 1.5.000 LUY = 9000.000 | | KZV = 1.5 ALL CHECK CODE ALL FINISH Relevant portion of Output:- STAAD. JOINT LOAD 2 FY 250 PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT STATICS CHECK PARAMETER CODE TIMBER CANADIAN KY 0.000 KZB = 1.000 KH = 1.000 | | CV = 1.00 T 0.00 0.974 1 250.00 0.000 | | Tu = -250.00X266.000 KZT = 1.5 0.000mm | || | KD = 1.000 LEY = 4500.5.00 CANADIAN GLULAM GRADE:GLT_SPRUCE-PINE-14T-E PASS CL.0000 |--------------------------------------------------------------------------| | LEZ = 4500.000 KSV = 1.000 | | KSC = 1.Pro CODE CHECKING .000 CHIX = 1.000 LUZ = 9000.000 K_SCP = 1.000 K_ZC = 1.(S086) *********************** ALL UNITS ARE .10/6.5 ALL KZ 0.KN METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED) MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/ FX MY MZ LOCATION =================================================- ====================== 1 80.000 KN = 1.000 KZCP = 1.000 | International Design Codes Manual — 191 .000 | || | ACTUAL LOADS : (KN-m) | | Pu = 0.

000 | | Muz = 0.Pro .Unbraced Length = 5000mm Comparison: - Solution Design Strength (kN) Theory 130 STAAD 129. page 113.000 | |--------------------------------------------------------------------------| Verification Problem: 4 Objective: .000 | | V = 0.223 Difference -0.| Muy = 0.To determine the Canadian Sawn section column in axial compression.000 | | V = 0. Column is effectively pinned at both ends.000 | | T = 256.STD START JOB INFORMATION ENGINEER DATE 08-JUN-05 END JOB INFORMATION UNIT FEET POUND 192 — STAAD.597 % Input: - STAAD PLANE EXAMPLE FOR DIMENSIONAL LUMBER INPUT FILE: sawn_ lumber_ COLUMN.000 | | MZ = 0.000 | | ALLOWABLE CAPACITIES OF THE SECTION: (KN-m) | | PY = 0.636 | | MY = 0.000 | | PZ = 0. Design Code: . 2001 Given: .Example 2. Canadian Wood Design Manual.Canadian wood design code (CSA:086-01) Reference: .

15 DENSITY 25 ALPHA 5.368E+006 POISSON 0. 2 0 16.05 ALL CHECK CODE FINISH Relevant portion of Output:- STAAD.5E-006 END DEFINE MATERIAL UNIT METER KN CONSTANTS MATERIAL DFL_NO2_8X8_POST MEMB 1 UNIT FEET POUND MEMBER PROPERTY TIMBER CANADIAN 1 TABLE ST DFL_NO2_8X8_POST SUPPORTS 1 PINNED UNIT METER KN LOAD 1 DEAD+LIVE LOAD JOINT LOAD 2 FY -114 PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT STATICS CHECK PARAMETER CODE TIMBER CANADIAN KSC 0.(S086) International Design Codes Manual — 193 .4042 0 MEMBER INCIDENCES 112 DEFINE MATERIAL START ISOTROPIC DFL_NO2_8X8_POST E 1. JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0.Pro CODE CHECKING .91 ALL K_ZC 1.

000 KZB = 1.000 KSV = 1.000 | | V = 0.12 0.00 0.KN METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED) MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/ FX MY MZ LOCATION ================================================- ======================= 1 ST DFL_NO2_8X8_POST PASS CL.000 | | SLENDERNESS_Y = 26.00 0.178 | | SLENDERNESS_Z = 26.*********************** ALL UNITS ARE .000 LEY = 5000.000 | | MY = 0.000 KSB = 1.000mm | || | KD = 1.0000 |--------------------------------------------------------------------------| | LEZ = 5000.000 | || | ACTUAL LOADS : (KN-m) | | Pu = 114.000 KH = 1.000 | | MZ = 0.223 | | PZ = 129.000 | | Muy = 0.5.10/6.050 CHIX = 1.000 KZCP = 1.000 KT = 1.000 | | KZV = 1.000 | | Muz = 0.5.000 LUZ = 5000.000 KZT = 1.000 | | Tu = 0.000 | 194 — STAAD.5.000 KN = 1.000 K_ZC = 1.223 | | T = 0.000 | | KSC = 0.910 K_SCP = 1.178 | | ALLOWABLE CAPACITIES OF THE SECTION: (KN-m) | | PY = 129.Pro .000 | | CV = 1.00 C 0.882 1 114.000 KSE = 1.000 KST = 1.000 LUY = 5000.

170 Difference -0. Untreated Comparison: - Solution Design Strength Design in bending (kN. 2 6 0 0. UNIT FEET POUND DEFINE MATERIAL START ISOTROPIC DFL_NO1_10X16_BM E 1.8 46.732 46. Strength in m) shear (kN) Theory 79.000 | |--------------------------------------------------------------------------| Verification Problem: 5 Objective: .728e+006 International Design Codes Manual — 195 . Canadian Wood Design Manual.Example 1. Dry service condition. 2001 Given: .085% No Input: - STAAD PLANE EXAMPLE FOR DIMENSIONAL LUMBER: SAWN_LUMBER_BEAM. 2 3 2.STD START JOB INFORMATION ENGINEER DATE 08-JUN-05 END JOB INFORMATION UNIT METER KN JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0.1 STAAD 79. Standard load condition. Design Code: .Canadian wood design code (CSA:086-01) Reference: .| V = 0. page 58. Beam Spacing = 3000mm.To determine the bending capacity of a Canadian sawn section single span floor beam. MEMBER INCIDENCES 1 1 3.000 | | SLENDERNESS = 50. 3 3 0 0.Length =6000mm.

90 ALL K_ZC 1. POISSON 0.0 ALL K_T 1.0 ALL KSB 1.15 DENSITY 25 ALPHA 5.KN METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED) MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/ FX MY MZ LOCATION 196 — STAAD.Pro .0 ALL KZB 0.5e-006 END DEFINE MATERIAL UNIT METER KN CONSTANTS MATERIAL DFL_NO1_10X16_BM MEMB 1 2 UNIT FEET POUND MEMBER PROPERTY TIMBER CANADIAN 1 2 TABLE ST DFL_NO1_10X16_BM SUPPORTS 1 2 FIXED UNIT METER KN LOAD 1 DEAD+LIVE LOAD MEMBER LOAD 1 2 UNI GY -16.05 ALL CHECK CODE ALL FINISH Relevant portion of Output:- ALL UNITS ARE .4 PERFORM ANALYSIS PARAMETER CODE TIMBER CANADIAN KD 1.90 ALL KZV 0.

20 3.000 KST = 1.000 | | MY = 79.000 | | PZ = 0.000mm | || | KD = 1.5/6.000 LEY = 3000.000 LUY = 3000.800 | | MZ = 79.066 1 0.200 | | SLENDERNESS_Y = 4.000 | | T = 0.000 KSV = 1.00 49.000 | | Muz = 49.0000 |--------------------------------------------------------------------------| | LEZ = 3000.=================================================- ====================== 2 ST DFL_NO1_10X16_BM FAIL CL.000 K_ZC = 1.000 | | CV = 1.000 KSE = 1.900 | | KZV = 0.000 | | KSC = 1.000 LUZ = 3000.000 | | Muy = 0.170 | | SLENDERNESS = 50.900 KZT = 1.050 CHIX = 1.00 T 0.200 | | V = -49.6 1.000 KH = 1.000 | | Tu = 0.732 | | V = 46.000 KN = 1.000 KSB = 1.000 KZB = 0.5.5.000 | |--------------------------------------------------------------------------| International Design Codes Manual — 197 .000 KZCP = 1.511 | | SLENDERNESS_Z = 2.5.158 | | ALLOWABLE CAPACITIES OF THE SECTION: (KN-m) | | PY = 0.000 K_SCP = 1.000 KT = 1.000 | || | ACTUAL LOADS : (KN-m) | | Pu = 0.

2 0 16. 2001 Given: .338 Difference -0.15 DENSITY 25 ALPHA 5.357 % Input: - STAAD PLANE EXAMPLE FOR DIMENSIONAL LUMBER SAWN_LUMBER_TENSION.Example 2.Dry service condition.728e+006 POISSON 0.Pro .Canadian wood design code (CSA:086-01) Reference: .Verification Problem: 6 Objective: . Design Code: .4042 0.STD START JOB INFORMATION ENGINEER DATE 08-JUN-05 END JOB INFORMATION UNIT FEET POUND JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0.5e-006 END DEFINE MATERIAL 198 — STAAD. MEMBER INCIDENCES 1 1 2. DEFINE MATERIAL START ISOTROPIC DFL_NO1_6X8_BM E 1. Untreated Comparison: - Solution Design Strength in Tension (kN) Theory 185 STAAD 184. Canadian Wood Design Manual.To determine the capacity of a Canadian Sawn section in axial tension. page 158.

0000 |--------------------------------------------------------------------------| International Design Codes Manual — 199 .781 1 144.5.(S086) *********************** ALL UNITS ARE .00 0.00 0.91 ALL K_ZC 1.10/6.KN METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED) MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/ FX MY MZ LOCATION =================================================- ====================== 1 ST DFL_NO1_6X8_BM PASS CL.12 0.5.5.1 ALL KSC 0. UNIT METER KN CONSTANTS MATERIAL DFL_NO1_6X8_BM MEMB 1 UNIT FEET POUND MEMBER PROPERTY TIMBER CANADIAN 1 TABLE ST DFL_NO1_6X8_BM SUPPORTS 1 PINNED UNIT METER KN LOAD 1 DEAD+LIVE LOAD JOINT LOAD 2 FY 144 PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT STATICS CHECK PARAMETER CODE TIMBER CANADIAN KH 1.Pro CODE CHECKING .00 T 0.05 ALL CHECK CODE ALL FINISH Relevant portion of Output:- STAAD.

000 | | V = 0.000 | | Muz = 0.000 | | V = 0.000 | | Muy = 0.000 KZT = 1.000 | || | ACTUAL LOADS : (KN-m) | | Pu = 0.000 K_ZC = 1.100 KT = 1.000 KSE = 1.000 KSB = 1.000 | |--------------------------------------------------------------------------| 200 — STAAD.000 KZCP = 1.| LEZ = 5000.000 | | T = 184.000 | | PZ = 0.000 KN = 1.000 | | Tu = -144.000mm | || | KD = 1.Pro .000 KH = 1.000 | | MZ = 0.000 LUY = 5000.000 KST = 1.000 | | KSC = 0.338 | | MY = 0.000 | | ALLOWABLE CAPACITIES OF THE SECTION: (KN-m) | | PY = 0.000 | | KZV = 1.000 LEY = 5000.000 | | CV = 1.910 K_SCP = 1.000 KZB = 1.000 KSV = 1.000 LUZ = 5000.050 CHIX = 1.

Concrete Design Per GB50010- 2002 4A. Chinese Codes . Tee and Trapezoidal) For Columns Prismatic (Rectangular. Square and Circular) International Design Codes Manual — 201 . Square. The concrete design calculations are based on the limit state method of GB50010-2002.1 Design Operations STAAD has the capabilities for performing concrete design per GB50010-2002. It can calculate the reinforcement needed for sections assigned through the PRISMATIC attribute. 4A.2 Section Types for Concrete Design The following types of cross sections for concrete members can be designed. For Beams Prismatic (Rectangular. Section 4 Chinese Codes 4A.

3-1 respectively. will be assumed to be circular with 350 mm diameter. Table 9A.1.2).4A. ZD 250. 400 mm overall depth and 100 mm flange depth (See section 6. In the above input. 4A.Pro .20. will be done accordingly. Note: Once a parameter is specified. The following example shows the required input: UNIT MM MEMBER PROPERTY 1 3 TO 7 9 PRISM YD 450. the first set of members are rectangular (450 mm depth and 250mm width) and the second set of members.4 Design Parameters The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform design as per GB50010-2002. 202 — STAAD. flanged or circular and the beam or column design. ZD 750.1 of this manual contains a complete list of the available parameters and their default values. Default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for conventional design requirements. The program will determine whether the section is rectangular.3 Member Dimensions Concrete members which will be designed by the program must have certain section properties input under the MEMBER PROPERTY command. It is necessary to declare length and force units as Millimeter and Newton before performing the concrete design. ZB 200. STAAD supports Characteristic Values of Concrete Strength and Design Value of Strength of Steel Bar only as per Table 4. YB 300.2. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again.4 and Table 4. These values may be changed to suit the particular design being performed. 11 13 PR YD 350. 200 width. with only depth and no width provided. Please note as per GB50010- 2002. The third set numbers in the above example represents a T-shape with 750 mm flange width. This is the way STAAD works for all codes. 14 TO 16 PRIS YD 400.

MAXMAIN 60 mm Maximum main reinforcement bar size.0 means the effect of axial force will be taken into account for beam design.Chinese Concrete Design GB50010-2002 Parameters Parameter Default Description Name Value FYMAIN 210 Yield Stress for main reinforcing steel. FC 15 Concrete Yield Stress. A value of 3. MAXSEC 12 mm Maximum secondary reinforcement bar size. COLUMN DESIGN A value of 1. N/mm2 CLEAR 25 mm For beam members. RATIO 4.0 means the column is unbraced about both axis. International Design Codes Manual — 203 . 40 mm For column members MINMAIN 10 mm Minimum main reinforcement bar size. A value of 2. MINSEC 8 mm Minimum secondary reinforcement bar size.1 . BRACING 0.0 means the column is unbraced about minor axis. Section 4 Chinese Codes Table 4A.0 BEAM DESIGN A value of 1. N/mm2 FYSEC 210 Yield Stress for secondary reinforcing N/mm2 steel.0 Maximum percentage of longitudinal reinforcement in columns.0 means the column is unbraced about major axis.

This value defaults to ZD as provided under MEMBER PROPERTIES.0 invokes 2 faced distribution about major axis. This value defaults to YD as provided under MEMBER PROPERTIES.Pro . A value of 3. Parameter Default Description Name Value RFACE 4. 204 — STAAD.0 invokes 2 faced distribution about minor axis. DEPTH YD Total depth to be used for design. A value of 2. WIDTH ZD Width to be used for design.0 means longitudinal reinforcement in column is arranged equally along 4 faces.0 A value of 4.

For TRACK = 1. critical moments are printed in addition to TRACK 0. With TRACK = 1. ELZ 1.0 output.0.0. A value of 1. Section 4 Chinese Codes Parameter Default Description Name Value TRACK 0. output consists of reinforcement details at START.0 output. MIDDLE and END.0 Ratio of effective length to actual length of column about major axis. COLUMN DESIGN: With TRACK = 0.0 Ratio of effective length to actual length of column about minor axis.0 will mean spiral reinforcement.0 Tied column. For TRACK = 2.0.0 output. With TRACK = 2.0.0. ELY 1. reinforcement details are printed. required steel for intermediate sections defined by NSECTION are printed in addition to TRACK 1. column interaction analysis results are printed in addition to TRACK 0. REINF 0. a schematic interaction diagram and intermediate interaction values are printed in addition to TRACK 1. International Design Codes Manual — 205 .0 BEAM DESIGN: For TRACK = 0.0.0 output.

. 0. Shear capacity calculation at different sections without the shear reinforcement is based on the actual tensile reinforcement provided by STAAD program. Final provision of flexural reinforcements is made then. In the first pass.. presently the flanged section is designed only as singly reinforced section under sagging moment.. Design for Flexure Maximum sagging (creating tensile stress at the bottom face of the beam) and hogging (creating tensile stress at the top face) moments are calculated for all active load cases at each of the above mentioned sections.4A.....6.5 Beam Design Beams are designed for flexure. Each of these sections are designed to resist both of these critical sagging and hogging moments. doubly reinforced section is tried. shear and torsion. Two-legged stirrups are provided to take care of the balance shear forces acting on these sections..9 and 1).. Shear design are performed at 11 equally spaced sections (0.3. For all these forces.Pro .5. Design for Shear Shear reinforcement is calculated to resist both shear forces and torsional moments. The entire flexure design is performed again in a second pass taking into account of the changed effective depths of sections calculated on the basis of reinforcement provide after the preliminary design.8.4.2. Where ever the rectangular section is inadequate as singly reinforced section. All of these sections are scanned to determine the design force envelopes. However. all active beam loadings are prescanned to identify the critical load cases at different sections of the beams. The total number of sections considered is 13( e. Efforts have been made to meet the guideline for the reinforcement detailing as per GB50010-2002 Although exact curtailment lengths are not mentioned explicitly in the design output (finally which will be more or less guided by the detailer taking into account of other practical consideration).) for the maximum shear forces amongst the active load cases and the associated torsional moments.75. reinforcing bars are chosen from the internal database in single or multiple layers... effective depths of the sections are determined with the assumption of single layer of assumed reinforcement and reinforcement requirements are calculated. 206 — STAAD. user has the choice of printing reinforcements provided by STAAD at 11 equally spaced sections from which the final detail drawing can be prepared.25.1. Flexural design of beams are performed in two passes. It may also be noted all flanged sections are automatically designed as rectangular section under hogging moment as the flange of the beam is ineffective under hogging moment. After the preliminary design.. If required the effect the axial force may be taken into consideration.to 1.7.g.

08 1.00 0.23 4 | -5.06 1.0 | 0.77 1.00 11.97 1.0 | 0.00 0.0 mm SIZE: 250.0 mm DESIGN LOAD SUMMARY (KN MET) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION |FLEXTURE (Maxm.23 4 | 0.23 4 | 0.) sections along the length of the beam.00 0.0 | 0.49 5 | 21..00 13.00 0. Section 4 Chinese Codes Beam Design Output The default design output of the beam contains flexural and shear reinforcement provided at 5 equally spaced (0.00 4 | 2800.00 0.12 1.00 4 | 2000.23 4 International Design Codes Manual — 207 .00 0.0 | 0.00 0.23 4 | 9.11 1.0 mm X 350. An example of rectangular beam design output with the default output option (TRACK 0.32 6 | 1600. User has option to get a more detail output.23 4 | 0.) LENGTH: 4000.97 0. All beam design outputs are given in IS units.23 4 | 2.0 | 0. 12 D E S I G N R E S U L T S C20 HRB400 (Main) HRB400 (Sec.14 1.23 4 | 15.00 0.00 0.25.45 1.23 4 | 0.0 | 0.0) is presented below: =================================================- =========================== B E A M N O.00 4 | 29.68 1.00 4 | 2400.0 | 0.23 4 | 400.00 4 | 27.0 mm COVER: 30.00 12.75 and 1.17 1. Sagging/Hogging moments)| SHEAR (in mm) | P MZ MX Load Case | VY MX Load Case ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 0.23 4 | 0.93 1.04 1.64 1.00 0..5.00 4 | 25.00 -7.23 4 | 0.00 -25.00 0.00 -16.05 1.00 -0.43 1..23 4 | 0.59 1.00 0.23 4 | 800.00 0.23 4 | 1200.0 | 0.00 6.

mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OF PROVIDED REINF. mm) (Sq.00 -17.23 4 | 0.00 4 | 4000.0 | 0.00 4 | 3200. (Sq.00 0.48 1.78 0. mm) (Sq. | 0. (Sq.Pro .55 1.00 4 | 3600.00 REINF.00 0.23 4 | 0.0 mm 2000.00 0.29 0. mm) (Sq. @ 100 mm c/c @ 100 mm c/c @ 100 mm c/c @ 100 mm c/c @ 100 mm c/c ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- ======================================================== 208 — STAAD.00 0. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 8Ø 2 legged 8Ø 2 legged 8Ø 2 legged 8Ø 2 legged 8Ø REINF.00 0.0 | 0. mm) (Sq.23 4 | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OF REINF.0 mm 4000. AREA (Sq.00 0.23 4 | -16.95 1.78 160. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.00 160.0 mm 1000.23 4 | -11.00 0.73 1.0 mm 2000.00 0. mm) (Sq.00 9.0 mm 3000. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 2-12Ø 2-12Ø 2-12Ø 2-12Ø 2-12Ø REINF. mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 0.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.00 176.00 4 | -25.23 4 | 0.00 0.0 mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 4-10Ø 3-10Ø 2-10Ø 2-10Ø 3-10Ø REINF.31 REINF.00 4.78 160. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.04 161.0 mm 3000.36 1.0 mm 1000.77 1.0 mm 4000.0 | 0.0 mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 259.

The loading which yield maximum reinforcement is called the critical load.6 Column Design Columns are designed for axial forces and biaxial moments at the ends.29 MOMENTS DUE TO MINIMUM ECC. 1 DESIGN RESULTS C20 HRB400 (Main) HRB400 (Sec.1). section dimensions and effective length coefficients specified by the user STAAD automatically determine the criterion (short or long) of the column design. Section 4 Chinese Codes 4A. additional moments etc. Column Design Output Default column design output (TRACK 0. the output contains intermediate results such as the design forces. Depending upon the member lengths.0) is given below. : 1. All major criteria for selecting longitudinal and transverse reinforcement as stipulated by GB50010-2002 have been taken care of in the column design of STAAD.21 32. Column design is done for square. User may change the default arrangement of the reinforcement with the help of the parameter RFACE (see Table 4A. All active load cases are tested to calculate reinforcement.0 mm dia. By default. All design output is given in SI units. =================================================- =========================== C O L U M N No.) LENGTH: 3000. A special output TRACK 9.0.24 SLENDERNESS RATIOS : 12.0 About Z About Y INITIAL MOMENTS : 2.0) contains the reinforcement provided by STAAD and the capacity of the section. square and rectangular columns and designed with reinforcement distributed on each side equally for the sections under biaxial moments and with reinforcement distributed equally in two faces for sections under uniaxial moment. effective length coefficients.00 12. With the option TRACK 1.24 1.0 mm ** GUIDING LOAD CASE: 5 BRACED LONG COLUMN DESIGN FORCES (KNS-MET) ----------------------- DESIGN AXIAL FORCE (Pu) : 62. rectangular and circular sections.0 mm CROSS SECTION: 250. COVER: 40.00 International Design Codes Manual — 209 . An example of a long column design output (with option TRACK 1.0 is introduced to obtain the details of section capacity calculations.

1922. MOMENTS DUE TO SLENDERNESS EFFECT : 1. (3.12 dia.70 Muz1 : 36.12 1. Chinese Codes . The following sections describe the salient features of the design approach. The design philosophy and procedural logistics are based on the principles of limit state design method.71 Sq. The most economical section is selected on the basis of the least weight criteria.00 1.40 REQD.32 33.mm.Pro . rectangular ties @ 190 mm c/c SECTION CAPACITY (KNS-MET) -------------------------- Puz : 992.00 ======================================================== 4B.12 TOTAL DESIGN MOMENTS : 3.65 Sq.92%. Members are proportioned to resist the design loads without exceedance of the capacities.12 1. Perform the analysis. web crippling etc.) (Equally distributed) TIE REINFORCEMENT : Provide 8 mm dia. Facilities are available for member selection as well as code checking. 210 — STAAD. Specify the design parameter values if different from the default values.12 MOMENT REDUCTION FACTORS : 1.00 ADDITION MOMENTS (Maz and May) : 1. MAIN REINFORCEMENT : Provide 17 . The code checking part of the program also checks the slenderness requirements and the stability criteria.87 INTERACTION RATIO: 1.1 General This section presents some general statements regarding the implementation in STAAD of the National Standard of the People’s Republic of China specifications for Design of Steel Structures (GB50017-2003).Steel Design Per GBJ 50017- 2003 4B. It is generally assumed that the user will take care of the detailing requirements like flange buckling. Specify the geometry and factored loads. Users are recommended to adopt the following steps in performing the steel design: 1. 2.87 Muy1 : 36. STEEL AREA : 1822.mm.

4B. 4B. Dynamic analysis may also be performed and the results combined with static analysis results. P-Delta analysis or Non-linear analysis may be specified. I Shapes I shaped sections are designated in the following way. Analysis is done for the primary and combination loading conditions provided by the user. the steel section library available in STAAD may be used. For more information on these facilities. 4B.3 Member Property Specifications For specification of member properties. Depending upon the analysis requirements. Since the shear areas are built into these tables. Specify whether to perform code checking or member selection. These properties are stored in a database file. An example of the member property specification in an input file is provided at the end of this section. refer to the STAAD Program Technical Reference manual. Member properties may also be specified using the User Table facility. regular stiffness analysis. If called for. the properties are also used for member design. Section 4 Chinese Codes 3.2 Analysis Methodology Elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design. International Design Codes Manual — 211 . The user is allowed complete flexibility in providing loading specifications and using appropriate load factors to create necessary loading situations. 1 TO 5 15 16 TABLE ST I22B H Shapes H shaped sections are designated in the following way. shear deformation is always considered for these members.4 Built-in Chinese Steel Section Library The following information is provided for use when the built-in steel tables are to be referenced for member property specification. A complete listing of the sections available in the built-in steel section library may be obtained by using the tools of the graphical user interface. Following are the descriptions of different types of sections. The next section describes the syntax of commands used to assign properties from the built-in steel table.

Pro . 11 TABLE D CH22B 17 TABLE D CH40C SP 0. Angles Two types of specifications may be used to describe an angle. 29 30 TABLE ST CH25A Double Channels Back to back double channels. are available.15 length units between the channels. Member 17 is a double channel CH40C with a spacing of 0.15 In the above set of commands. member 11 is a back to back double channel CH22B with no spacing in between. The letter D in front of the section name will specify a double channel. 24 25 33 to 36 TABLE ST TM244X300 Channels Channels are specified in the following way. The standard angle section is specified as follows: 27 TABLE RA L40X25X3 The above section signifies an angle with legs of length 40mm and 25mm and a leg thickness of 3 mm. with or without a spacing between them. The standard angle section is specified as follows: 19 TABLE ST L100X100X7 Two types of specifications may be used to describe an angle. 6 TO 8 TABLE ST HW250X250 T Shapes T shaped sections are designated in the following way. This specification may be used when the local Z axis 212 — STAAD.

either SD or LD will serve the purpose. the designation for the pipe is as shown below. in front of the angle size. member 12 consist of a 10X6X0. the designation for the tube is as shown below. tubes are specified by their dimensions. Double Angles Short leg back to back or long leg back to back double angles can be specified by means of input of the words SD or LD. 13 TABLE ST TUBE TH 0.55 International Design Codes Manual — 213 . width of 0. In these examples. This method is meant for pipes whose property name is available in the steel table. In the first method. For example. In the first method. Pipes (Circular Hollow Sections) Pipes can be assigned in 2 ways.3 cm size tube section.15 28 TABLE SD L56X36X4 SP 0.8 DT 0. In case of an equal angle.15 length units. 22 TABLE LD L56X36X3 32 TABLE SD L45X28X4 20 TABLE LD L56X36X3 SP 0.0 In the second method. 21 31 TABLE ST PIP203X6.15 WT 0.6 length units. type specification "RA" (reverse angle) may be used.15 Tubes (Rectangular or Square Hollow Sections) Tubes can be assigned in 2 ways.6 length units.6 ID 0.6 is a tube that has a height of 0.5 In the second method. pipe sections may be provided by specifying the word PIPE followed by the outside and inside diameters of the section. 12 TABLE ST TUB100603. If the local Y axis corresponds to the z-z axis. This method is meant for tubes whose property name is available in the steel table. Section 4 Chinese Codes corresponds to the z-z axis specified in Chapter 2. 9 10 14 18 23 26 TABLE ST PIPE OD 0. and a wall thickness of 0. respectively. For example.

14 0 3. 17 9 10.55 length units. 6 0 0 8.5 4. 18 4 7 0. 16 16 24. 2 4 0 0. 29 10 13. 19 9 7 0. MEMBER INCIDENCES 1 1 9. 28 12 14. 9 0 3. 13 13 21. 27 9 12. 14 14 22. 17 0 7 0. 24 9 7 8.5 8. 3 3 11.5 0. 35 21 23. 4 0 0 4. 24 20 21. 21 15 16. 22 17 18. 12 12 20. 3 9 0 0. 4 4 12. 26 23 24. 20 0 7 4. 36 19 24. 16 9 3. 10 10 18.5 0. 21 4 7 4. 12 0 3. 5 4 0 4.5 8. 34 18 21. 10 4 3. 15 4 3. 13 4 3.5 8. 5 5 13. 18 10 11. 30 13 15. 33 20 22.5 0. 9 9 17.5 4. 20 14 15. Sample File Containing Chinese Shapes STAAD SPACE START JOB INFORMATION ENGINEER DATE 04-Aug-05 END JOB INFORMATION UNIT METER KN JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0.specifies a pipe with outside diameter of 0. 15 15 23. 11 11 19. 2 2 10. 7 7 15.Pro . 23 4 7 8. 25 22 23. 8 9 0 8. 32 17 20. 6 6 14. 31 11 16. 22 0 7 8. 8 8 16.6 length units and inside diameter of . 23 18 19. MEMBER PROPERTY CHINESE *I SHAPES 1 TO 5 15 16 TABLE ST I22B *H SHAPES 6 TO 8 TABLE ST HW250X250 *T SHAPES 24 25 33 to 36 TABLE ST TM244X300 *CHANNELS 214 — STAAD. 7 4 0 8. 11 9 3. 19 12 13.

1-1 of the code. STAAD calculates the tension capacity of a given member per this allowable stress value International Design Codes Manual — 215 .6 ID 0. unsupported width to thickness ratios and so on.6 *PIPES 21 31 TABLE ST PIP203X6.4. The tension capacity of the member is calculated on the basis of allowable tensile stresses provided in Table 3. Section 4 Chinese Codes 29 30 TABLE ST CH25A *DOUBLE CHANNELS 11 TABLE D CH22B 17 TABLE D CH40C SP 0. Allowable stress for Axial Tension In members with axial tension. slenderness factors.15 WT 0.15 *TUBES 12 TABLE ST TUB100603.55 PRINT MEMBER PROPERTIES FINISH 4B.0 13 TABLE ST TUBE TH 0.15 28 TABLE SD L56X36X4 SP 0.5 9 10 14 18 23 26 TABLE ST PIPE OD 0. allowable compressive stress etc.15 *ANGLES 19 TABLE ST L100X100X7 *DOUBLE ANGLES 27 TABLE RA L40X25X3 22 TABLE LD L56X36X3 32 TABLE SD L45X28X4 20 TABLE LD L56X36X3 SP 0. These depend on several factors such as cross sectional properties. Explained here is the procedure adopted in STAAD for calculating such capacities.8 DT 0. the tensile load must not exceed the tension capacity of the member.5 Member Capacities The basic measure of member capacities are the allowable stresses on the member under various conditions of applied loading such as allowable tensile stress.

applicable interaction formulas are checked at different locations of the member for all modeled loading situations. 4B. The default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for conventional design. Compressive resistance is a function of the slenderness of the cross- section (Kl/r ratio) and the user may control the slenderness value by modifying parameters such as KY. The permissible bending compressive and tensile stresses are dependent on such factors as outstanding legs and thickness of flanges. Allowable stress for Axial Compression The allowable stress for members in compression is determined according to Table 3. 4B. KZ and LZ.1-1 and Section 4 and are a function of web depth. Shear capacities are calculated according to Table 3. The procedure of Section 5 is implemented for combined axial load and bending. bending and shear). Users may use a value of 1. see Table 1) and proceeds with member selection or code checking. LY.0 is present but may be altered by changing the input value. defaults to member length) etc.and a user supplied net section factor (NSF-a default value of 1.1-1. The procedure of Section 5 is implemented for combined axial load and bending.7 Design Parameters The user is allowed complete control over the design process through the use of parameters mentioned in Table 4B. bending and shear).Pro . unsupported length of the compression flange (UNL.0 for the TRACK parameter to obtain a listing of the bending and shear capacities. These parameters communicate design decisions from the engineer to the program.4.6 Combined Loading For members experiencing combined loading (axial force. Allowable stress for Combined Loading For members experiencing combined loading (axial force. web thickness etc. Depending on the particular design 216 — STAAD. applicable interaction formulas are checked at different locations of the member for all modeled loading situations. The provisions of Section 5 are used to check the adequacy of sections in compression.1 of this chapter.4.0 or 2. Allowable stress for Bending and Shear Sections subjected to bending moments and shear forces are to be designed according to the provisions of section 4.

Chinese Steel Design GBJ 50017-2003 Parameters Parameter Default Code Ref- Definition Remarks Name Value erence Length in local Y Default is axis for Ly 0 . some or all of these parameter values may have to be changed to exactly model the physical structure. usually . controlling . Note: Once a parameter is specified. Main . 1 = Do not slenderness check check for slenderness International Design Codes Manual — 217 . - minor axis K value in local Z- Kz 1 axis. Section 4 Chinese Codes requirements of an analysis. - allowable depth Minimum required Dmin 0 cm . usually . selected slenderness value beam's length KL/r Maximum Dmax 100 cm . - major axis Net section factor Nsf 1 for tension . - members 0 = Check for Flag for slenderness.1 . - depth K value in local Y- Ky 1 axis. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes. Table 4B. selected slenderness value beam's length KL/r Length in local Z Default is axis for Lz 0 .

2 = Print expanded output. - allowable stress 0 = Perform design at ends and those locations specified in the section command. 1 = Print all Track 0 Track parameter . 218 — STAAD. critical member stress. Permissible ratio Ratio 1 of actual to . Beam 1 Beam parameter . 1 = Perform design at ends and 1/12th section locations along member length.Pro . Parameter Default Code Ref- Definition Remarks Name Value erence 0 = Suppress critical member stress.

4 Allowable KL/r Compression 150 value in . 3. Section 4 Chinese Codes Parameter Default Code Ref- Definition Remarks Name Value erence The Following values represent the various Clause grades of Grade 1 Grade of steel steel.4.1 Q235 .2 adaptation factor - 5.05 adaptation factor - 5.1 Z direction International Design Codes Manual — 219 .1 Y direction Plasticity Table - Pfz 1.2.3 Q420 .2. - compression Allowable KL/r Tension 300 .2 Q390 .1 Q345 . - value in tension Plasticity Table - Pfy 1.

classification of the section in Table 5.1. yield strength.1. yield strength.2-1 and Table 5.1.1.2-2 Overall Stability SBY 1 factor for Y Appendix-B - direction 220 — STAAD. Parameter Default Code Ref- Definition Remarks Name Value erence Stability factor for axial compression members shall be selected from appendix –C Stability factor for Sfy 1 Appendix-C based on its Y direction slenderness ratio. classification of the section in Table 5.2-2 Stability factor for axial compression members shall be selected from appendix –C Stability factor for Sfz 1 Appendix-C based on its Z direction slenderness ratio.Pro .2-1 and Table 5.

Section 4 Chinese Codes Parameter Default Code Ref- Definition Remarks Name Value erence Overall Stability SBZ 0 factor for Z Appendix-B - direction 4B.9 ALL TRACK 1. Code checking is done using forces and moments at specified sections of the members. 4B. When no sections are specified and the BEAM parameter is set to zero (default).0 MEMBER 7 KY 1. The section selected will be of the same type as that specified initially. Sample Input data for Steel Design UNIT METER PARAMETER CODE CHINESE NSF 0.9 Member Selection The member selection process basically involves determination of the least weight member that PASSes the code checking procedure based on the forces and moments of the most recent analysis.2 MEMBER 3 4 RATIO 0. The code checking output labels the members as PASSed or FAILed.85 ALL GRADE 3. and the maximum moment about the major axis is used. In addition. Selection of members whose properties are originally provided from a user table will be limited to sections in the user table. design will be based on member start and end forces. For example.0 ALL CHECK CODE AL International Design Codes Manual — 221 . If the BEAM parameter for a member is set to 1. the critical condition. location (distance from start joint) and magnitudes of the governing forces and moments are also printed. moments are calculated at every twelfth point along the beam. a member specified initially as a channel will have a channel selected for it. The adequacy is checked per the GB50017-2003 requirements.8 Code Checking The purpose of code checking is to check whether the provided section properties of the members are adequate. governing load case.

Section 4 Chinese Codes 222 — STAAD.Pro .

European Codes . In general. The parameters referred to above provide the user with International Design Codes Manual — 223 . follow the same procedure for the design of the concrete members. Perform the design for the member as appropriate. Selecting the applicable load cases to be considered in the design process. Section 5 European Codes 5A.Concrete Design Per Eurocode EC2 5A. all the available codes. Providing appropriate parameter values if different from the default values. including EC2. The main steps in performing a design operation are: 1.1 Design Operations STAAD provides a comprehensive set of national codes for the design of concrete structures. These operations can be repeated by the user any number of times depending on the design requirements. 3. 2.

3 National Application Documents Various authorities of the CEN member countries have prepared National Application Documents to be used with EC2. Modulus of Elasticity E = 21. It is based on the limit state philosophy common to modern standards. as given in table 2.5 for concrete and 1.2 Eurocode 2 (EC2) Eurocode 2. 5A. The magnitude in STAAD is 1. 5A.the ability to allocate specific design properties to individual members considered in the design operation. STAAD provides a number of methods for analysis.Pro . Material coefficients in STAAD take the following default values unless replaced by user's numerical values provided in the input file. The objective of this method of design is to ensure that possibility of failure is reduced to a negligible level. This is achieved through application of factors to both the applied loads and the material properties. provides design rules applicable to plain. General rules and rules for buildings. Part 1. These documents provide alternative factors for loads and may also provide supplements to the rules in EC2. 5A.71 KN/mm2 Shear Modulus  G = E / 2 (1 + v) Poisson's Ratio  v = 0.15 for s reinforcements. allowing Geometric Nonlinearity as well as P-Delta effects to be considered. The current version of EC2 implemented in STAAD adheres to the factors and rules provided in EC2 and has not been modified by any National Application Documents. by the material partial safety factors g for concrete and c g for reinforcements.4 Material Properties and Load Factors Design resistances are obtained by dividing the characteristic yield strengths. The code also provides guidelines on the global method of analysis to be used for calculating internal member forces and moments. Design of concrete structures. reinforced or prestressed concrete used in buildings and civil engineering works.56 KN/m3 224 — STAAD.25 Unit weight r = 23.3 of EC2.

In STAAD the user is allowed total control in providing applicable values for the factors and their use in various load combinations. Please note that sway type structures are not directly covered in the current implementation of EC2.3. 5A. If required. Design for Shear Shear reinforcement design is based on the standard method mentioned in clause 4.2. Depending International Design Codes Manual — 225 . Design for flexure Reinforcement for both positive and negative moments is calculated on the basis of the section properties provided by the user. Parabolic-rectangular stress distribution for the concrete section is adopted and as moment redistribution is not available in STAAD analysis.3. Maximum torsional moment is also identified and incorporated in the design.5.6 Beams Beams are designed for flexure. 5A.4. It is important to know that beams are designed for the flexural moment MZ only. the design proceeds with a warning message given to that affect. If the required reinforcement exceeds the maximum allowable then the section size is inadequate and a massage to that effect is given in the output. can be catered for by the P-DELTA analysis option. This effect. the limit for N. Slender columns are also covered in the design process. compression reinforcement will be provided in order to satisfy the above limits. however. If a particular load case causes tension in the column being designed that load case is ignored.The magnitude of design loads is dependent on g .A to depth ratio is set according to clause 2. The moment MY is not considered in the design at all. the program will make due allowance for the additional moment that has to be considered in the design. All active load cases will be considered in the design and reinforcements are assumed symmetrically arranged in the cross section. For all these actions active load cases are scanned to create appropriate envelopes for the design process.3 where it is assumed the notional strut inclination is constant.4.5 Columns Columns are designed for axial compressive loads and possible moments at the ends of the member. The maximum reinforcement calculated after all design load cases have been considered is then reported as the critical required area of reinforcement.2 (5) of the code. shear and torsion. the partial safety factor for the F action under consideration.

5A. The maximum shear force that can be carried without crushing the concrete is also checked and if exceeded. Design for Torsion Torsional moments arising as a result of equilibrium requirements need to be designed for at the ultimate limit state. full design is carried out and both shear links and longitudinal bars required are calculated and. where necessary. which coincides with the local x direction of the element. If this is not the case an attempt is made to identify regions where nominal reinforcement is insufficient and appropriate reinforcement is then calculated to cover the excess design shear force. The output for the slab design refers to longitudinal reinforcements. The combined magnitude of shear stress arising from shear forces and torsional moments are checked in order to establish whether the section size is adequate. and. If section size is inadequate a massage is given in the output file. Reinforcement for torsional moments consists of stirrups combined with longitudinal bars. The design of the slab considers a fixed bar size of 16mm in both directions with the longitudinal bar being the layer closest to the slab exterior faces. Depending on the model being designed. users must ensure this through the numbering scheme of the elements (see figure 1. if desired. the user may have to change 226 — STAAD.on the shear distribution within the member it may be possible that nominal shear reinforcement will be sufficient to cater for the design shear forces. links are combined with the shear force links and printed in a tabulated manner in the output file.7 Slabs Slabs can only be designed for if finite elements are used to represent them in the model of the structure. Also. This may not coincide with the slab's actual top and bottom and. In the main the design follows the same procedure as for flexure except that shear forces are assumed to be resisted without the provision of shear reinforcements. a message to revise the section size is given in the output file. In cases where this may not be the case users must ensure that necessary checks are carried out. They are set to default values to begin with and may be altered to suite the particular structure.Pro .13 in the STAAD Technical Reference Manual). reference is made to 'TOP' and BOTT' reinforcement which relates to the element's 'TOP' and 'BOTTOM' as determined from the connectivity of the element.8 Design Parameters Design parameters communicate specific design decisions to the program. transverse reinforcement. 5A. otherwise. which coincides with the local y direction of the element.

Table 5A.0 0.1 .1 lists all the relevant EC2 parameters together with description and default values. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again. (Only applicable for shear - use MEMBER OFFSET for bending ) EFACE *0.0 = Critical Moment will not be International Design Codes Manual — 227 . MAXMAIN 50mm Maximum required reinforcement bar size Acceptable bars are per MINMAIN above. Table 5A. Applicable to shear reinforcement in beams CLEAR * 20mm Clearance of reinforcement measured from concrete surface to closest bar perimeter.) TRACK 0.0 Face of support location at end of beam. the new setting must be compatible with the active "unit" specification. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.some or all of the parameter default values. Note: Once a parameter is specified. (NOTE: Both SFACE & EFACE must be positive numbers. it is for reinforcement in both directions) FYSEC *460N/mm 2 Yield Stress for secondary reinforcement.0 Face of support location at start of beam. Applicable to shear bars in beams FC * 30N/mm2 Concrete Yield Stress / cube strength MINMAIN 8mm Minimum main reinforcement bar size Acceptable bar sizes: 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 32 40 50 MINSEC 8mm Minimum secondary bar size a. SFACE *0.Concrete Design EC2 Parameters Parameter Default Value Description Name FYMAIN *460 N/mm2 Yield Stress for main reinforcement (For slabs. Some parameters are unit dependent and when altered.

BRACE 0.Pro . For columns gives a detailed table of output with additional moments calculated.0 = Output of TRACK 1. This value default is as provided as ZD in MEMBER PROPERTIES.0 = Column braced in both directions.0 0. This value default is as provided as YD in MEMBER PROPERTIES.0 Member length factor about local Y direction for column design.0 Factor by which column design moments are magnified NSECTION 10 Number of equally-spaced sections to be considered in finding critical moment for beam design.0 List of design sag/hog moments and corresponding required steel area at each section of member MMAG 1.0 = Column unbraced in both Y and Z directions ELY 1. WIDTH *ZD Width of concrete member.0 = Column unbraced about local Y direction only 3.0 = Column unbraced about local Z direction only 2. Column design gives no detailed results. DEPTH *YD Depth of concrete member. Parameter Default Value Description Name printed with beam design report.0 Member length factor about local Z direction for column design. 2. 228 — STAAD. 1. The upper limit is 20.0 = For beam gives min/max steel % and spacing. ELZ 1. 1.

STAAD.0 = Perform serviceability check for beams as if they were cantilever beams. the EC3_94/1 and BS EN 1993-1-1:2005. specify the commands. 3.0 0.Pro has implemented several countries' National Annex documents. Two versions of the code are currently implemented.0 = Perform serviceability check for beams as if they were simply supported. European Codes .Steel Design Per Eurocode 3 The design of structural steel members in accordance with the specification Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures .part 1-1: General Rules and rules for buildings has been implemented. 2.0 = No serviceability check per- formed.0 = Perform serviceability check for beams as if they were continuous. Additionally.0 0. * Provided in current unit system 5B. 1. To access the EC3_94/1 edition. Parameter Default Value Description Name SRA 0. Parameters Code EC3 International Design Codes Manual — 229 .0 = Orthogonal rein- forcement layout without con- sidering torsional moment Mxy - slabs only -500 = Orthogonal reinforcement layout with Mxy used to calculate WOOD & ARMER moments for design. SERV 0. A= Skew angle considered in WOOD & ARMER equations where A is the angle in degrees.

The objective of this method of design is to ensure that possibility of failure is reduced 230 — STAAD.1 General rules and rules for buildings (EC3 DD) provides design rules applicable to structural steel used in buildings and civil engineering works. 2. Providing appropriate ‘Parameter’ values if different from the default values.Pro . including EC3.Or Parameters Code Euro To access the BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 edition. In general. It is based on the ultimate limit states philosophy that is common to modern standards. These operations can be repeated by the user any number of times depending on the design requirements.1 (A) General Description Introduction STAAD provides a comprehensive set of national codes for the design of steel structures. follow the same procedure to either code-check or select suitable members of an analyzed structure. Eurocode 3 DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 (EC3 DD) The DD ENV version of Eurocode 3.Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992] 5B. The main steps in performing a design operation are: 1. Specify whether to perform code-checking and/or member selection. specify the commads: Parameters Code EC3 BS 5B. 3.(A) European Codes . Part 1. Design of steel structures. Selecting the applicable load cases to be considered in the design process. The ‘Parameters’ referred to above provide the user with the ability to allocate specific design properties to individual members or member groups considered in the design operation. all the available codes.

Users must bear this difference in mind when examining the code-check output from STAAD. The longitudinal axis of the member is defined as X and joins the start joint of the member to the end with the same positive direction. A special case where Z-Z is the minor axis and Y-Y is the major axis is available if the “SET Z UP” command is used and is discussed in the Technical Reference Manual. Also there are three types of framing referred to in EC3. EC3. National Application Documents Various authorities of the CEN member countries have prepared National Application Documents to be used with EC3. International Design Codes Manual — 231 . “Continuous”. See figure below. Axes convention in STAAD and EC3 By default. defines the principal cross-section axes in reverse to that of STAAD. STAAD uses the elastic method of analysis which may be used in all cases. STAAD defines the major axis of the cross-section as Z-Z and the minor axis as Y-Y.to a negligible level. Both of these axes definitions follow the orthogonal right hand rule. This is achieved through application of safety factors to both the applied loads and the material properties. but the longitudinal axis is defined in the same way. These documents provide alternative factors for loads and may also provide supplements to the rules in EC3. In STAAD only “Simple” and “Continuous” joint types can be assumed when carrying out global analysis. The current version of EC3 DD implemented in STAAD adheres to the factors and rules provided in DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and has not been modified by any National Application Document. These are “Simple”. and “Semi-continuous” which reflect the ability of the joints to developing moments under a specific loading condition. however. The code also provides guidelines on the global methods of analysis to be used for calculating internal member forces and moments.

5B.1 of the code. the partial safety factor for the f action under consideration. The magnitude of Γm in STAAD is 1.1 which is applicable to all section types. The user is allowed complete flexibility in providing loading specifications and using appropriate load factors to create necessary loading situations. Modulus of Elasticity E = 205000 N/mm2 Shear Modulus G = E/2(1+ ν) Poisson’s Ratio ν = 0. A separate safety factor parameter named GB1 is used to check the resistance of a member to buckling and also has a default value of 1.Pro . Design resistances are obtained by dividing the characteristic yield strength by the material partial safety factor Γm. 232 — STAAD.2(A) Analysis Methodology Elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design. In STAAD the user is allowed total control in providing applicable values for the factors and their use in various load combinations. 5B.8 KN/m3 The magnitude of design loads is dependent on Γ .3 Unit weight Γ = 76.3(A) Material Properties and Load Factors The characteristic yield strength of steel used in EC3 DD design is based on table 3. Analysis is done for the primary and combination loading conditions provided by the user.1. Material coefficients for steel in STAAD take the following default values unless replaced by user’s numerical values provided in the input file.

The EC3 DD design module in STAAD can design members with all section profiles that are of Class 1 2 or 3 as defined in section 5. The main requirement for a beam is to have sufficient cross-section resistance to the applied bending moment and shear force. SINGLE CHANNEL. There are four classes of cross-sections defined in EC3. The bending capacity is primarily a function of the section type and the material yield strength and is determined according to Cl.4. Class 3 sections. due to local buckling. SINGLE ANGLE AND RECTANGULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS. Class 4 sections do suffer from International Design Codes Manual — 233 .4. The possibility of lateral-torsional buckling is also taken into consideration when the full length of the member has not been laterally restrained.Pro. The shear capacity and the corresponding shear checks are done as per section 5. The elastic section modulus is used to determine the moment capacity for class 3 sections. It is therefore imperative to establish this possibility prior to determining the section capacities. cannot develop plastic moment capacity and the yield stress is limited to the extreme compression fibre of the section. Class 1 and 2 sections can both attain full capacity with the exception that the class 2 sections cannot sustain sufficient rotation required for plastic analysis of the model.5B. 5. Also built-up user sections that are class 4 sections are not dealt with in the current version of EC3 design in STAAD. 5B. However. Hence the full plastic section modulus is used in the design calculations.Pro.3.2 of the code.4(A) Section Classification The occurrence of local buckling of the compression elements of a cross-section prevents the development of full section capacity. Laced and battened members are not considered in the current version of EC3 DD design module in STAAD.6 of the code.5 of the code.5(A). STAAD determines the section class and calculates the capacities accordingly. the design of members that have a ‘Class 4’ section profile are limited to WIDE FLANGE. Cross sections are classified in accordance with their geometrical properties and the stress pattern on the compression elements. For each load case considered in the design process.1 Design of Beams as per DD ENV 1993-1- 1:1992 EC3 DD design in STAAD.Pro considers members that are primarily in bending and/or shear as beams and performs cross section and member capacity checks in accordance with the code.5(A) Member Design 5B. TEE.

beams are also checked for shear as per section 5. The buckling capacity is dependent on the section type as well as the unrestrained length.4. The effective section properties for class 4 sections will be worked out as given in Cl.3 of the code.5 of the code.2 of the code. When bolt holes need to be considered in the capacity calculations the value used for Γm is 1. SINGLE CHANNEL. does not occur unless the value of applied shear forces exceeds 50% of the plastic shear capacity of the section.4. Beams are also checked for lateral-torsional buckling according to section 5.3 of the code. 5.2 and the yield strength is replaced with the ultimate tensile strength of the material.3.5 of the code.2 Design of Axially Loaded Members The design of members subject to tension loads alone are performed as per Cl 5. In cases where the members are subject to combined bending and shear. Mcr.5(A).4. In the presence of a shear force. because of interaction between shear force and bending moment.5.local buckling and explicit allowance must be made for the reduction in section properties before the moment capacity can be determined. the combined bending and shear checks are done in STAAD as per clause 5. As mentioned earlier the design of class 4 sections is limited to WIDE FLANGE. restraint conditions and type of applied loading. This. In such cases the web is assumed to resist the applied shear force as well as contributing towards the moment resistance of the cross-section. the ‘effective cross-section’ is considered to calculate the compressive strength. The tension capacity is calculated based on yield strength. material factor Γm and cross-sectional area of the member with possible reduction due to bolt holes.Pro .4. The design of members subject to axial compression loads alone are performed as per Cl 5. For members with class 1 2 or 3 section profiles. 5B. The effective section properties are worked out as described in Cl. Also any additional moments induced in the section due to the shift of the centroidal axis of the effective section will also be taken into account as per clause 5.4 of the code. However in case of class 4 sections.3.5. Further. the moment resistance of the cross-section may be reduced. 234 — STAAD.4. the full section area is considered in calculating the section capacity.7 of the code. however. The tension capacity is then taken as the smaller of the full section capacity and the reduced section capacity as stated above. TEE. SINGLE ANGLE AND RECTANGULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS. The lateral torsional buckling checks involves the calculation of the ‘Elastic critical moment’. which is calculated in STAAD as per the method given in Annex F of the code.6 of the code.8.

Lvv.5 of the code.10 and table 25 of BS 5950-1:2000 are used in the current version of the EC3 DD design module Note: Single Angle Sections Angle sections are un-symmetrical and when using BS 5950:2000 table 25 we must consider four axes. Cl. DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 does not specifically deal with single angle. The a-a and b-b axes are determined by which leg of the angle is fixed by the connection and should be specified using the LEG parameter. 5. 4. This is often the critical case as the buckling strength of the member is influenced by a number of factors including the section type and the unbraced length of the member. The effective length in the a-a axis is taken as LY * KY and the effective length in the b-b axis as LZ * KZ. The effective length for the v-v axis.6 for more information on the LEG parameter.e. In these cases. if not specified. a-a axis is parallel to the longer leg. i. two principal. u-u and v-v and two geometric. see section 5B.7. International Design Codes Manual — 235 .In addition to the cross section checks. The buckling capacity is calculated as per Cl. double channels or Tee sections and does give a method to work out the slenderness of such members. is taken as the LVV parameter or LY * KY. a-a and b-b. double angles.Pro uses the methods specified in BS 5950-1:2000 to calculate the slenderness of these members. the EC3 DD design module of STAAD. buckling resistance will also be checked for such members. The following diagram shows the axes for angles which have been defined with either an ST or RA specification and is connected by its longer leg.

double channels or Tee sections and does give a method to work out the slenderness of such members. In these cases. EC3 requires checking cross-section resistance for local capacity and also checking the overall buckling capacity of the member.4.1 and Class 3 and Class 4 sections are checked as per clauses 5. They are set to default values to begin with and may be altered to suite the particular 236 — STAAD.2 for St and RA angle specifications.Pro uses the methods specified in BS 5950- 1:2000 to calculate the slenderness of these members.9 of the code. Generally. Cl.3. 5B.5. This is achieved by modifying the extreme compression fibre stress and calculating an effective applied moment for the section. The effective section properties for class 4 sections are worked out as given in Cl. there is provision to take the stabilizing effect of the tension load into consideration. DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 does not specifically deal with single angle.5 of the code.6 (A)Design Parameters Design parameters communicate specific design decisions to the program. 5.5(A).4. As stated in the previous section.5. double angles. axial load and bending moment then the section capacity checks will be done as per Cl.4.2 and 5.3 of the code. The EC3 DD design module in STAAD takes such a scenario into account and performs the necessary checks as per Cl.Pro. The presence of large shear force can also reduce the bending resistance of the section under consideration. If the shear load is large enough to cause a reduction in bending resistance.8. 5.5B. 5.5. In the case of members subject to axial tension and bending.4 of the code.10 of BS 5950- 1:2000 is used in the current version of the EC3 DD design module.8.Pro . the member will be checked as per the rules in section 5. then the reduction due to shear has to be taken into account before calculating the effect of the axial load on the bending resistance of the section. Please refer to the note in section 5B. the EC3 DD design module of STAAD.8.3 respectively. 5. 4. The checks are done as per Cl. In case of a combined axial compressive load and bending moment. If the member is subject to a combined shear. Please note that laced or battened compression members are not dealt within the current version of EC3 DD design module in STAAD.8 of the code. 5.4.4. This is then checked against the lateral-torsional buckling resistance of the section.3 Design of members with combined axial load and bending The bending resistance of members could be reduced by the presence of a co- existent axial load.7. Class 1 and class 2 sections are checked as per cl.

Some parameters are unit dependent and when altered. 0. Table 5B. LY Member Length Compression length in local y axis.0 = Built-up International Design Codes Manual — 237 .0 Net tension factor for tension capacity calculation. 0.0 = Fe 430 2.1(A) lists all the relevant EC3 parameters together with description and default values. the user may have to change some or all of the parameter default values.1 in EC3.0 = Fe 510 SBLT 0.1(A) Steel Design Parameters EC3 DD Parameter Default Value Description Name KY 1. Slenderness ratio = (KZ)*(LZ)/(Rzz) UNL Member Length Unrestraint length of member used in calculating the lateral- torsional resistance moment of the member. Table 5B.0 = Rolled 1. Depending on the model being designed. the new setting must be compatible with the active “unit” specification. KZ 1.0 K factor in local z axis.0 Steel grade as per table 3. PY Yield Strength The yield strength default value is set based on the default value of the "SGR" parameter.0 = Fe 360 1. SGR 0. NSF 1. Slenderness ratio = (KY)*(LY)/(Ryy) LZ Member Length Compression length in local z axis.0 Indicates if the section is rolled or built-up.0 K factor in local y axis.structure.

2 for more information on its use. Consider 13 sections along the 238 — STAAD.7 = One end free and other end fixed DMAX 100.0 cm Maximum allowable depth for the member. BEAM 0 Indicates the number of sections to be checked for during the design. Refer to Table 5B.0 Indicates type of loading on member. Consider 13 sections along the member and select the maximum Mz location for the design check.0 Indicates the level of End- Restraint.5 = Full fixity 0. DMIN 0 Minimum required depth for the member.0 = No fixity 0. Same as BEAM = 1.0 but checks the end sections of the member as well. Check the end sections only or the locations specified by the SECTION command. CMN 1. Can take a value from 1 to 6. Parameter Default Value Description Name CMM 1. RATIO 1 Permissible ratio of loading to capacity. 1.Pro .

denoting starting point member for calculation of "Deflection Length". CAN 0 Member will be considered as a cantilever type member for deflection checks. International Design Codes Manual — 239 . 0 = minimum 1 = intermediate 2 = maximum 4 = option 4 for performing a deflection check UNF 1.0 Unsupported buckling length as a factor of the beam length LEG 0. denoting end point for member calculation of "Deflection Length". DJ2 End Joint of Joint No. TRACK 0 Controls the level of descriptivity of output.0 Connection type LVV Maximum of Lyy Buckling length for angle about and Lzz (Lyy is a its principle axis term used by BS5950) FU Ultimate tensile strength of steel DFF None Deflection limit (Mandatory for deflection check) DJ1 Start Joint of Joint No. CODE Undefined User must specify EC3.Parameter Default Value Description Name member and design check every section.

a LEG parameter should be assigned to the member. channel and tee sections are specified in BS 5950 table 25 depending on the connection provided at the end of the member (See section 5B.1 Partial safety factor used in buckling checks for compression members GM0 1. LEG – (Ref: Table 25 BS5950) The slenderness of single and double angle. Parameter Default Value Description Name 0 indicates that member will not be treated as a cantilever member 1 indicates that the member will be treated as a cantilever member GB1 1. To define the appropriate connection.8 Specifies a reduction factor for vectoral effects to be used in axial tension checks [Cl 5.1 Corresponds to the Γ factor in m2 DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 ZIV 0.5(A).1 Corresponds to the Γ factor in m1 DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 GM2 1.1 Corresponds to the Γ factor in m0 DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 GM1 1. The following table indicates the value of the LEG parameter required to match the BS5950 connection definition:- 240 — STAAD.2 above).3(2)] Notes: 1.5.Pro .

For single angles. a-a and b-b as well as the weak v-v axis. For double angles. BEAM International Design Codes Manual — 241 . In addition. (Technical Reference Manual section 5. rvv. the LVV parameter is available to comply with note 5 in table 25. by setting the LEG parameter to 10. Alternatively for single angles where the connection is not known or Table 25 is not appropriate. 2. if using double angles from user tables. The effective lengths of the geometric axes are defined as:-  La = KY * KY and Lb = KZ * LZ The slenderness calculated for the v-v axis is then used to calculate the compression strength pc for the weaker principal axis (z-z for ST angles or y- y for RA specified angles). should be supplied at the end of the ten existing values corresponding to the radius of gyration of the single angle making up the pair. The LVV parameter is not used. slenderness is calculated for the two principal axes y-y and z-z only. the slenderness is calculated for the geometric axes.19) an eleventh value. The maximum slenderness of the a-a and b-b axes is used to calculate the compression strength pc for the stronger principal axis.

Torsional Buckling. one with a TRACK 4 command and one with a TRACK 0. the members included in a CHECK CODE command will be checked for the local axis deflection rather than for the stress capacity using the current LOAD LIST. Ensure that the “BEAM” parameter is set to either 1 or 2 while performing code checking for members susceptible to Lateral . thus: LOAD LIST 1 TO 10 PARAMETER 1 CODE EN 1993 TRACK 2 ALL CHECK CODE MEMBER 1 *************************** LOAD LIST 100 TO 110 PARAMETER 2 TRACK 4 ALL 242 — STAAD.Pro . 1 or 2. then 2 parameter blocks with code checks are required. CHECKING BEAM DEFLECTION With the TRACK parameter set to 4. 3. If both stress capacity and deflection checks are required.

the program calculates and prints whether the members have passed or failed the checks.e.7(A) Code Checking The purpose of code checking is to ascertain whether the provided section properties of the members are adequate. 5B. GENERAL and ISECTION. which limits the maximum and minimum depth of the members. and the location (distance from the start of the member of forces in the member where the critical condition occurs). The adequacy is checked as per DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992.8(A) Member Selection STAAD is capable of performing design operations on specified members.0 or any other specified RATIO value). The EC3 DD design module does not consider these sections or PRISMATIC sections in its design process. Member selection can be performed with all the types of steel sections with the same limitations as defined in section 5B. the value of the ratio of the critical condition (overstressed for value more than 1. When code checking is selected. which fulfills the code requirements for the specified member. Code checking is done using the forces and moments at specific sections of the members.CODE CHECKING. Once an analysis has been performed. 5B. the lightest section.4 of the STAAD Technical Reference Manual or any of the user defined sections in section 5. the governing load case. Member selection can also be constrained by the parameters DMAX and DMIN. only the last code check results are reported in the GUI. Code checking can be done with any type of steel section listed in Section 2B.19 with two exceptions. International Design Codes Manual — 243 . the critical condition . i. DFF 300 MEMB 1 DJ1 1 MEMB 1 DJ2 4 MEMB 1 CODE MEMB 1 However.7 . The section selected will be of the same type section as originally designated for the member being designed. the program can select the most economical section. note that whilst both sets of code checks will be reported in the output file.

and MZ provide the axial force. d. in most cases. h. section capacity etc. FX. whose properties are originally input from a user created table. MY. section class. Normally a value of 1. MY and MZ are printed since they are the ones which are of interest. The items in the output table are explained as follows: a. 244 — STAAD. e. c. f.B. will be limited to sections in the user table. LOADING provides the load case number. Member selection cannot be performed on members whose section properties are input as prismatic or as the limitations specified in section 5. the program produces the results in a tabulated fashion. b. only FX. the module will also report all the relevant clause checks that have been performed and will also indicate the critical ratio and the load case that caused the critical ratio as well as the corresponding forces that were used for the respective checks. LOCATION specifies the actual distance from the start of the member to the section where design forces govern.9(A) Tabulated Results of Steel Design For code checking or member selection.0 or less will mean the member has passed.Pro . RATIO prints the ratio of the actual stresses to allowable stresses for the critical condition. there will be an asterisk (*) mark on front of the member. CRITICAL COND refers to the clause in DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 code which governs the design. TABLE refers to steel section name. which has been checked against the steel code or has been selected. Although STAAD does consider all the member forces and moments (except torsion) to perform design. moment in local Y-axis and the moment in local z-axis respectively. which governed the design. g. RESULTS prints whether the member has PASSED or FAILED. A TRACK 2 output will also include the various design data used for the calculations such as the section modulii. If the RESULT is FAIL.Selection of members.7 5B. MEMBER refers to the member number for which the design is per- formed. Note: For a TRACK 2 output.

all the available codes. Selecting the applicable load cases to be considered in the design process. Providing appropriate ‘Parameter’ values if different from the default values. Specify whether to perform code-checking and/or member selection. This is achieved through application of safety factors to both the applied loads and the material properties. and “Semi-continuous” which reflect the ability of the joints to developing moments under a specific loading condition. including EC3. Part 1.1(B) General Description STAAD provides a comprehensive set of national codes for the design of steel structures.Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 1993-1-1:2005] 5B. 2. Also there are three types of framing referred to in EC3. follow the same procedure to either code-check or select suitable members of an analyzed structure. International Design Codes Manual — 245 . The code also provides guidelines on the global methods of analysis to be used for calculating internal member forces and moments.(B) European Codes .EN 1993-1-1:2005 (EN 1993) The EN 1993 version of Eurocode 3. These documents provide alternative factors for loads and may also provide supplements to the rules in EC3. The objective of this method of design is to ensure that possibility of failure is reduced to a negligible level. “Continuous”. It is based on the ultimate limit states philosophy that is common to modern standards.1 General rules and rules for buildings (EN 1993) provides design rules applicable to structural steel used in buildings and civil engineering works. These operations can be repeated by the user any number of times depending on the design requirements. In STAAD only “Simple” and “Continuous” joint types can be assumed when carrying out global analysis. These are “Simple”.5B. STAAD uses the elastic method of analysis which may be used in all cases.  The main steps in performing a design operation are: 1. 3. Eurocode 3 . The ‘Parameters’ referred to above provide the user with the ability to allocate specific design properties to individual members or member groups considered in the design operation. National Annex Documents Various authorities of the CEN member countries have prepared National Annex Documents to be used with EC3. Design of steel structures. In general.

defines the principal cross-section axes in reverse to that of STAAD. A special case where Z-Z is the minor axis and Y-Y is the major axis is available if the “SET Z UP” command is used and is discussed in the Technical Reference Manual. The longitudinal axis of the member is defined as X and joins the start joint of the member to the end with the same positive direction. but the longitudinal axis is defined in the same way. 246 — STAAD. Axes convention in STAAD and EC3 By default. British National Annex [NA to BS EN 1993-1-1:2005] d. however. a. Norwegian National Annex [NS-EN 1993-1-1:2005/NA2008] c.Pro includes two National Annexes viz. The current version of STAAD.6 (B) for a description of the NA parameter. The current version of EC3 (EN 1993) implemented in STAAD adheres to the factors and rules provided in EN 1993-1-1:2005. See figure below. Users must bear this difference in mind when examining the code-check output from STAAD. Both of these axes definitions follow the orthogonal right hand rule. French National Annex [Annexe Nationale a la NF EN 1993-1-1:2005] The choice of a particular National Annex is based on the value of a new ‘NA’ parameter that is set by the user when specifying the EN 1993 version of Eurocode 3. Please refer to section 5B.Pro . EC3. STAAD defines the major axis of the cross-section as Z-Z and the minor axis as Y-Y. The Dutch National Annex [NEN-EN 1993-1-1/NB] and b.

SINGLE ANGLE AND RECTANGULAR HOLLOW International Design Codes Manual — 247 .2 (B) Analysis Methodology Elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design. STAAD determines the section class and calculates the capacities accordingly. 5B. the partial safety factor for the f action under consideration. The EC3 (EN 1993) design module in STAAD can design members with all section profiles that are of Class 1 2 or 3 as defined in section 5. In STAAD the user is allowed total control in providing applicable values for the factors and their use in various load combinations. The magnitude of Γm in STAAD is 1. It is therefore imperative to establish this possibility prior to determining the section capacities. SINGLE CHANNEL.3 (B) Material Properties and Load Factors The characteristic yield strength of steel used in EC3 (EN 1993) design is based on table 3. the design of members that have a ‘Class 4’ section profile are limited to WIDE FLANGE.5 of the code. Cross sections are classified in accordance with their geometrical properties and the stress pattern on the compression elements. However. For each load case considered in the design process. The user is allowed complete flexibility in providing loading specifications and using appropriate load factors to create necessary loading situations.5B.1 which is applicable to all section types. Modulus of Elasticity E = 205000 N/mm2 Shear Modulus G = E/2(1+ ν) Poisson’s Ratio ν = 0. TEE. Analysis is done for the primary and combination loading conditions provided by the user. Design resistances are obtained by dividing the characteristic yield strength by the material partial safety factor Γm.4 (B) Section Classification The occurrence of local buckling of the compression elements of a cross-section prevents the development of full section capacity. 5B. A separate safety factor parameter named GB1 is used to check the resistance of a member to buckling and also has a default value of 1.3 Unit weight Γ = 76.8 KN/m3 The magnitude of design loads is dependent on Γ . Material coefficients for steel in STAAD take the following default values unless replaced by user’s numerical values provided in the input file.1.1 of the code.

As mentioned earlier the design of class 4 sections is limited to WIDE FLANGE. due to local buckling. does not occur unless the value of applied shear forces exceeds 50% of the plastic shear capacity of the section. the moment resistance of the cross-section may be reduced. The shear capacity and the corresponding shear checks are done as per section 6. TEE. This. The possibility of lateral-torsional buckling is also taken into consideration when the full length of the member has not been laterally restrained.3. because of interaction between shear force and bending moment.5 (B) Member Design 5B.5(B). There are four classes of cross-sections defined in EC3. 6. The design of laced and battened members is not considered in the current version of EC3 (EN 1993) design module in STAAD.Pro. SINGLE CHANNEL.2. Further. Also built-up user sections that are class 4 sections are not dealt with in the current version of EC3 design in STAAD. The main requirement for a beam is to have sufficient cross-section resistance to the applied bending moment and shear force.2 of the code. The bending capacity is primarily a function of the section type and the material yield strength and is determined according to Cl.2. In such cases the web is assumed to resist the applied shear force as well as contributing towards the moment resistance of the cross-section.Pro. however. Hence the full plastic section modulus is used in the design calculations. Class 1 and 2 sections can both attain full capacity with the exception that the class 2 sections cannot sustain sufficient rotation required for plastic analysis of the model.Pro . The effective section properties are worked out as described in Cl.5 of the code.5 of the code.1 Design of Beams as per EN 1993-1-1:2005 EC3 (EN 1993) design in STAAD. 5B.2. The buckling capacity is dependent on the section type as well as the 248 — STAAD. Beams are also checked for lateral-torsional buckling according to section 6. SINGLE ANGLE AND RECTANGULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS. Class 3 sections. Class 4 sections do suffer from local buckling and explicit allowance must be made for the reduction in section properties before the moment capacity can be determined.6 of the code. 6.SECTIONS. cannot develop plastic moment capacity and the yield stress is limited to the extreme compression fibre of the section. The elastic section modulus is used to determine the moment capacity for class 3 sections.2.Pro considers members that are primarily in bending and/or shear as beams and performs cross section and member capacity checks in accordance with the code.

4 of the code. EN 1993-1-1:2005 does not specifically deal with single angle. the ‘effective cross-section’ is considered to calculate the compressive strength.2. The effective widths of the compression elements are worked out according to Clause 4.2. The effective section properties for class 4 sections will be worked out as given in Cl.3).2.25 and the yield strength is replaced with the ultimate tensile strength of the material. which is then used in the further LTB checks specified in EN 1993-1-1:2005. 5B. double angles.3 and 6.4 of the code. buckling resistance will also be checked for such members.2.Pro uses the methods specified in BS 5950-1:2000 to calculate the International Design Codes Manual — 249 .2.6. The tension capacity is then taken as the smaller of the full section capacity and the reduced section capacity as stated above.8 of the code.2.2. restraint conditions and type of applied loading.3 of EN 1993-1- 5:2005. However in case of class 4 sections. the EC3 (EN 1993) design module of STAAD. the full section area is considered in calculating the section capacity. 6. The tension capacity is calculated based on yield strength. This is often the critical case as the buckling strength of the member is influenced by a number of factors including the section type and the unbraced length of the member.2. In addition to the cross section checks.4 of the code. material factor Γm and cross-sectional area of the member with possible reduction due to bolt holes (clause 6.5 of the code. double channels or Tee sections and does give a method to work out the slenderness of such members. STAAD. beams are also checked for shear as per section 6.2 Design of Axially Loaded Members The design of members subject to tension loads alone are performed as per Clauses 6.2. In these cases. the combined bending and shear checks are done in STAAD as per clause 6. The buckling capacity is calculated as per Cl. In the presence of a shear force.unrestrained length.6 of the code. EN 1993-1- 1:2005 however does not specify a method to calculate the “Elastic critical moment” Mcr to be used in the LTB calculations.  The design of members subject to axial compression loads alone are performed as per Cl 6. Also any additional moments induced in the section due to the shift of the centroidal axis of the effective section will also be taken into account as per clause 6.Pro uses the method given in Annex F of the DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 to calculate Mcr.5(B).2. In cases where the members are subject to combined bending and shear. When bolt holes need to be considered in the capacity calculations the value used for Γm is 1.3 of the code. For members with class 1 2 or 3 section profiles.

The EC3 (EN 1993) design module in STAAD takes such 250 — STAAD. 4. The a-a and b-b axes are determined by which leg of the angle is fixed by the connection and should be specified using the LEG parameter.3 Design of members with combined axial load and bending The bending resistance of members could be reduced by the presence of a co- existent axial load. Note: Single Angle Sections Angle sections are un-symmetrical and when using BS 5950:2000 table 25 we must consider four axes.10 and Table 25 of BS 5950-1:2000 are used in the current version of the EC3 DD design module.7. a-a and b- b.5(B). a-a axis is parallel to the longer leg. The effective length in the a-a axis is taken as LY * KY and the effective length in the b-b axis as LZ * KZ. is taken as the LVV parameter or LY * KY. 5B.slenderness of these members. This is then checked against the lateral-torsional buckling resistance of the section. u-u and v-v and two geometric. Cl. i. see section 5B. if not specified.6 (B) for more information on the LEG parameter.Pro . The effective length for the v-v axis. two principal.e. The following diagram shows the axes for angles which have been defined with either an ST or RA specification and is connected by its longer leg. Lvv.

If the member is subject to a combined shear. If the shear load is large enough to cause a reduction in bending resistance. the member will be checked as per the rules in section 6.3 of the code.6 (B) Design Parameters Design parameters communicate specific design decisions to the program.3. In the case of members subject to axial tension and bending. double channels or Tee sections and does give a method to work out the slenderness of such members. EC3 requires checking cross-section resistance for local capacity and also checking the overall buckling capacity of the member. Depending on the model being designed. 6. Please refer to the note in section 5B. The presence of large shear force can also reduce the bending resistance of the section under consideration. 6.2 for St and RA angle specifications. Generally. double angles.1 (B) lists all the relevant EC3 parameters together with description and default values. In these cases.7. the n setting must be compatible with the active “unit” specification. This is achieved by modifying the extreme compression fibre stress and calculating an effective applied moment for the section. International Design Codes Manual — 251 . 5B.Pro.3 of the code. Cl. Table 5B.3. The checks are done as per Cl. As stated in the previous section.5. axial load and bending moment then the section capacity checks will be done as per Cl.10 of the code.2. They are set to default values to begin with and may be altered to suite the particular structure. the EC3 (EN 1993) design module of STAAD.9 of the code. 4.Pro uses the methods specified in BS 5950-1:2000 to calculate the slenderness of these members.2.10 of BS 5950-1:2000 is used in the current version of the EC3 DD design module. Please note that laced or battened compression members are not dealt within the current version of EC3 (EN 1993) design module in STAAD. In case of a combined axial compressive load and bending moment. 6. Some parameters are unit dependent and when altered. the user may have to change some or all of the parameter default values. EN 1993-1-1:2005 does not specifically deal with single angle. there is provision to take the stabilizing effect of the tension load into consideration.a scenario into account and performs the necessary checks as per Cl. then the reduction due to shear has to be taken into account before calculating the effect of the axial load on the bending resistance of the section.

SBLT 0.0 Indicates the level of End-Restraint.1(B) Steel Design Parameters EC3 EN Parameter Default Description Name Value KY 1. KZ 1.5 = Full fixity 0.0 Indicates type of loading on member. Length Slenderness ratio = (KY)*(LY)/(Ryy) LZ Member Compression length in local z axis. 1.0 = Built-up CMM 1. Table 5B. Length Slenderness ratio = (KZ)*(LZ)/(Rzz) UNL Member Unrestraint length of member used in Length calculating the lateral-torsional resistance moment of the member.Pro . 0.0 Maximum allowable depth for the cm member.7 = One end free and other end fixed DMAX 100.0 K factor in local y axis. LY Member Compression length in local y axis.2 for more information on its use. CMN 1. Can take a value from 1 to 8. DMIN 0 Minimum required depth for the 252 — STAAD.0 K factor in local z axis.0 Net tension factor for tension capacity calculation. PY Yield The yield strength default value is set Strength based on the default value of the "SGR" parameter.0 = Rolled 1.0 Indicates if the section is rolled or built- up.0 = No fixity 0. Refer to Table 5B. NSF 1.

0 .0 .3(2) of DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992] International Design Codes Manual — 253 .Parameter Default Description Name Value member.5.indicates S 460 grade steel ZIV 0. 0 indicates that member will not be treated as a cantilever member 1 indicates that the member will be treated as a cantilever member GM0 1. RATIO 1 Permissible ratio of loading to capacity.0 . CAN 0 Member will be considered as a cantilever type member for deflection checks.8 Specifies a reduction factor for vectoral effects to be used in axial tension checks [Cl 5.indicates S 235 grade steel 1.0 .1 Corresponds to the Γ factor in EN m0 1993-1-1:2005 GM1 1.1 of EN 1993-1- 1:2005 0.0 . NA 0 Choice of National Annex to be used for EC3 design.indicates S 255 grade steel 3.indicates S 275 grade steel 2.1 Corresponds to the Γ factor in EN m2 1993-1-1:2005 SGR 0 Steel grade as in table 3. (see below for more information) CODE None User must specify EN 1993.indicates S 420 grade steel 4.1 Corresponds to the Γ factor in EN m1 1993-1-1:2005 GM2 1.

Parameter Default
Description
Name Value
C1 0 Corresponds to the C1 factor to be used
to calculate Elastic critical moment Mcr as
per Clause 6.3.2.2
C2 0 Corresponds to the C2 factor to be used
to calculate Elastic critical moment Mcr as
per Clause 6.3.2.2
C3 0 Corresponds to the C3 factor to be used
to calculate Elastic critical moment Mcr as
per Clause 6.3.2.2
MU 0 To be used with CMM values of 7 and 8.
See Table 5B.2.
Currently valid only with the French NA.
ZG +Section Distance of transverse load from shear
Depth/2 Centre. Used to calculate Mcr.
KC 1.0 Corresponds to the correction factor as
per Table 6.6 of EN 1993-1-1:2005. Pro-
gram will calculate ‘kc’ automatically if
this parameter is set to 0.
Notes:

1. NA Parameter
The values for NA parameter are as follows:
Table 10B1.1 - Numerical Code for Eurocode National Annex
NA
Country
 Value
0 Uses the base EN 1993-1-1:2005 code. The default
values specified in En 1993-1-1:2005 will be used
for the partial safety factors and various parameter
values where applicable (default).
1 United Kingdom (British NA) — Uses the BS EN
1993-1-1:2005 version of Eurocode 3 along with
the UK National Annex.
2 Netherlands (Dutch NA) — Uses the NEN EN 1993-

254 — STAAD.Pro

NA
Country
 Value
1-1:2005 version of the code.
The Dutch National Annex [NEN-EN 1993-1-1/NB]
has been added in this module. Please note that the
Dutch National requires additional checks as per
NEN 6770 and NEN 6771 which will also be
performed during design checks with this parameter
value
3 Norway (Norwegian NA) — Uses the NS-EN 1993-1-
1:2005 version of the code. The Norwegian National
Annexe [ NS-EN 1993-1-1:2005/Na 2008] has been
added to this implementation.
4 France (French NA) — Uses the Annexe Nationale a
la NF EN 1993-1-1:2005 version of the code along
with the French National Annex..
2. LEG – (Ref: Table 25 BS5950)
The slenderness of single and double angle, channel and tee sections are
specified in BS 5950 table 25 depending on the connection provided at the
end of the member
(See section 5B.5.2 above). To define the appropriate connection, a LEG
parameter should be assigned to the member.
The following table indicates the value of the LEG parameter required to
match the BS5950 connection definition:-

International Design Codes Manual — 255

For single angles, the slenderness is calculated for the geometric axes, a-a
and b-b as well as the weak v-v axis. The effective lengths of the geometric
axes are defined as:-
La = KY * KY and Lb = KZ * LZ
The slenderness calculated for the v-v axis is then used to calculate the
compression strength pc for the weaker principal axis (z-z for ST angles or y-
y for RA specified angles). The maximum slenderness of the a-a and b-b
axes is used to calculate the compression strength pc for the stronger
principal axis.
Alternatively for single angles where the connection is not known or Table
25 is not appropriate, by setting the LEG parameter to 10, slenderness is
calculated for the two principal axes y-y and z-z only. The LVV parameter is
not used.
For double angles, the LVV parameter is available to comply with note 5 in
table 25. In addition, if using double angles from user tables, (Technical
Reference Manual section 5.19) an eleventh value, rvv, should be supplied at
the end of the ten existing values corresponding to the radius of gyration of
the single angle making up the pair.

256 — STAAD.Pro

3. CMM Parameter
The values of CMM for various loading and support conditions are as given
below:
Table 5B.2 - Values of CMM Parameter

4. SGR
Please note that as EN 1993-1-1:2005 does not provide a buckling curve in
table 6.2 for grade S 450 steel (in Table 3.1 of EN 1993-1-1:2005), the
program will use the same buckling curves as for grade S 460 when
calculating the buckling resistance as per clause 6.3
5. Checking beam deflection

International Design Codes Manual — 257

With the TRACK parameter set to 4, the members included in a BEAM CHECK
command will be checked for the local axis deflection rather than for the
stress capacity using the current LOAD LIST.
If both stress capacity and deflection checks are required, then 2 parameter
blocks with code checks are required, one with a TRACK 4 command and one
with a TRACK 0, 1 or 2, thus:

LOAD LIST 1 TO 10
PARAMETER 1
CODE EN 1993
TRACK 2 ALL
CODE CHECK MEMBER 1
***************************
LOAD LIST 100 TO 110
PARAMETER 2
TRACK 4 ALL
DFF 300 MEMB 1
DJ1 1 MEMB 1
DJ2 4 MEMB 1
CHECK CODE MEMB 1

However, note that whilst both sets of code checks will be reported in the
output file, only the last code check results are reported in the GUI.

5B.7 (B) Code Checking

The purpose of code checking is to ascertain whether the provided section
properties of the members are adequate. The adequacy is checked as per EN
1993-1-1:2005 and a corresponding National Annex (if specified). Code checking
is done using the forces and moments at specific sections of the members.
When code checking is selected, the program calculates and prints whether the
members have passed or failed the checks; the critical condition; the value of the
ratio of the critical condition (overstressed for value more than 1.0 or any other
specified RATIO value); the governing load case, and the location (distance from
the start of the member of forces in the member where the critical condition
occurs).

258 — STAAD.Pro

Code checking can be done with any type of steel section listed in Section 2B.4 of
the STAAD Technical Reference Manual or any of the user defined sections in
section 5.19 with two exceptions; GENERAL and ISECTION. The EC3 (EN 1993)
design module does not consider these sections or PRISMATIC sections in its
design process.

5B.8 (B) Member Selection

STAAD is capable of performing design operations on specified members. Once an
analysis has been performed, the program can select the most economical section,
i.e. the lightest section, which fulfills the code requirements for the specified
member. The section selected will be of the same type section as originally
designated for the member being designed. Member selection can also be
constrained by the parameters DMAX and DMIN, which limits the maximum and
minimum depth of the members.
Member selection can be performed with all the types of steel sections with the
same limitations as defined in section 5B.7(B) - CODE CHECKING.
Selection of members, whose properties are originally input from a user created
table, will be limited to sections in the user table.
Member selection cannot be performed on members whose section properties are
input as prismatic or as the limitations specified in section 5.B.7(B)

European Codes - Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 1993-1-
1:2005]

5B.9 (B) Tabulated Results of Steel Design

For code checking or member selection, the program produces the results in a
tabulated fashion. The items in the output table are explained as follows:

a. MEMBER refers to the member number for which the design is per-
formed.
b. TABLE refers to steel section name, which has been checked against
the steel code or has been selected.
c. RESULTS prints whether the member has PASSED or FAILED. If the
RESULT is FAIL, there will be an asterisk (*) mark on front of the member.
d. CRITICAL COND  refers to the clause in EN 1993-1-1:2005 code which gov-
erns the design.
e. RATIO prints the ratio of the actual stresses to allowable stresses for
the critical condition. Normally a value of 1.0 or less will mean the member
has passed.

International Design Codes Manual — 259

f. LOADING provides the load case number, which governed the design.
g. FX, MY, and MZ  provide the axial force, moment in local Y-axis and the
moment in local z-axis respectively. Although STAAD does consider all the
member forces and moments (except torsion) to perform design, only FX,
MY and MZ are printed since they are the ones which are of interest, in most
cases.
h. LOCATION specifies the actual distance from the start of the member to
the section where design forces govern.

Note: For a TRACK 2 output, the module will also report all the relevant clause
checks that have been performed and will also indicate the critical ratio and the
load case that caused the critical ratio as well as the corresponding forces that
were used for the respective checks. A TRACK 2 output will also include the
various design data used for the calculations such as the section modulii,
section class, section capacity etc.

If an NA parameter has been specified and if the particular National Annex
requires additional checks outside those specified in EN 1993-1-1:2005 (e.g. The
Dutch National Annex), the respective NA clauses and any associated code clauses
will be listed along with the critical ratios and the forces that were used for these
clause checks.

5B.(C) European Codes - National Annexes to Euro-
code 3 [EN 1993-1-1:2005]

Purpose

A number of countries that have signed up to the replace their current steel design
standards with the Eurocode, EN 1993-1-1:2005, known commonly as Eurocode
3, have published their National Annex documents. These documents make small
changes to the base document and STAAD.Pro has been updated to incorporate
some of these National Annex documents.

Description

The parameter NA sets the default material gamma factors and any additional
 changes outlined in the country specific National Annex such as specific equations
or methods.
The output file printout has been updated to indicate which National Annex (if
any) has been used in a code check / select process. (For all TRACK settings)

260 — STAAD.Pro

Note: This Eurocode 3 design code is secured using the 'Eurocode Design'
code pack.

General Format

The format of the EN 1993-1-1:2005 National Annex is as follows:
CODE EN 1993
NA f1

{Code parameters: See Eurocode 3 parameters}

Where: f1 represents the number designation for a specific country's National
Annex:
Table 10B1.1 - Numerical Code for Eurocode National Annex
NA
Country
 Value
0 None. This value represents using the base code only,
with no national annex changes or additions (default).
1 United Kingdom (British NA)
2 Netherlands (Dutch NA)
3 Norway (Norwegian NA)
4 France (French NA)

> Specify the design engine to use a National Annex with EC 3

Use the following procedure to include additional check specified by a National
Annex:

1. From the Modeling > Design > Steel tab, select EN 1993-1-1:2005 from the
current code list.
2. Click the Define Parameters… button to launch the Design Parameters dialog.
3. Select the parameter NA from the list.

International Design Codes Manual — 261

4. Select the radio button for the National Annex you wish to use; or leave as
Basic in order to use EC3 without additional checks.
5. Click the Add button to add the NA parameter to the code check.
6. Click Close to dismiss the dialog once parameter definitions are complete.
Refer to EC3 steel design for additional information on steel design per EC3.
A design performed to the new Eurocode 3 National Annex is displayed in the
output file (*.ANL) with the following header, in addition to the base EC3 output.

5B.1(C) EC3 NA Dutch National Annex

Purpose

Adds values from the Dutch National Annex - titled NEN-EN 1993-1-1/NB - for use
with Eurocode 3, or EN 1993-1-1:2005. The NA document makes small changes
to the base document.

Description

The clauses/sections in EN 1993-1-1:2005 (hereafter referred to as EC-3) that
require additional clauses from the Dutch National Annex (hereafter referred to as
D-NA) are:

l 6.1 General
l 6.2.8 Bending and shear

262 — STAAD.Pro

l 6.2.10 Bending shear and axial force
l 6.3 Buckling resistance of members
l 6.3.1.3 Slenderness for flexural buckling
l 6.3.1.4 Slenderness for torsional and torsional-flexural buckling
l 6.3.2.2 Lateral torsional buckling curves – General case
l 6.3.2.3 Lateral torsional buckling curves for rolled sections or equivalent
welded sections
l 6.3.2.4 Simplified assessment methods for beams
l 6.3.3 Members in bending and axial compression

Note: Refer to the basic code (EC3) for a description of these clauses. The
sections below refer to the corresponding clauses in the UK-NA.

Note: The local axis convention in the Dutch codes is: Y – major axis & Z –
minor axis (as opposed to the convention followed in STAAD.Pro).

Clause 6.1 – General

The partial safety factors will use the following values:

Resistance of cross-sections- ΓM0 = 1.0
Resistance of members to instability- ΓM1 = 1.0
Resistance of cross sections to tension- ΓM2 = 1.25

International Design Codes Manual — 263

The design function in STAAD.Pro will set these values as the default values for the
D-NA. The user is still however allowed to modify these factors using the Γ
parameters in the design input.

Clause 6.2.8 – Bending and shear

The D-NA requires the implementation of causes 11.3.1.1 and 11.3.1.3 of NEN
6770.

Clause 11.3.1.1 (NEN 6770): Class 1 and Class 2 I-section
profiles
Class 1 and class 2 I section profiles will need to satisfy the interaction formulae
given in tables 10 & 11 of NEN 6770.
Table 10: Provides interaction checks for bending about the major axis (All
necessary terms and formulae are described below):

l Check #1 – If Vz;s;d ≤ 0.5 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d ≤ 0.5 x a1 x Npl;d check equa-
tion 11.3.1
l Check #2 – If Vz;s;d ≤ 0.5 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d > 0.5 x a1 x Npl;d check equa-
tion 11.3.2
l Check #3 – If Vz;s;d > 0.5 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d ≤ 0.5 x a2 x Nv;u;d check equa-
tion 11.3-3
l Check #4 – If Vz;s;d > 0.5 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d > 0.5 x a2 x Nv;u;d check equa-
tion 11.3-4
Where,

Vz;s;d= Actual Shear force in the section along Z- axis
Vz;pl;d= Shear capacity of section along Z - axis
= Aw x fy;d / √3 - See fig below for Aw ; fy;d = yield stress

264 — STAAD.Pro

Ns;d= Axial force in the section
Npl;d= Axial capacity of section = A x fy;d
My;s;d= Bending moment about major axis
My;pl;d= Plastic moment capacity of section = fy;d x Wy;pl
Wy;pl = Plastic section modulus
a1 = = min( A-2bfx tf)/A , 0.5)- used in tables 10 & 11
a2 = = see eqn 11.3-10- used in tables 10 & 11
Mv;y;ud= see eqn 11.3.12
N;v;u;d= see eqn 11.3-13

Table 11: Provides interaction formulae for bending about the minor axis

l Check #1 – If Vy;s;d ≤ 0.25 Vy;pl;d and Ns;d ≤ 1.0 x a1 x Npl;d check equa-
tion 11.3-5
l Check #2 – If Vy;s;d ≤ 0.25 Vy;pl;d and Ns;d > 1.0 x a1 x Npl;d check equa-
tion 11.3-6
l Check #3 – If Vy;s;d > 0.25 Vy;pl;d and Ns;d ≤ 1.0 x a1 x Nv;u;d check
equation 11.3-7
l Check #4 – If Vy;s;d > 0.25 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d > 1.0 x a1 x Nv;u;d check
equation 11.3-8
Where,

Vy;s;d= Actual Shear force in the section along Y- axis
Vy;pl;d= Shear capacity of section along Y - axis
= Aw x fy;d / √3 - See fig below for Aw ; fy;d = yield stress

International Design Codes Manual — 265

Mv;z;u;d = q x Mz;pld = q x fy;d x Wpl;z;d (Wpl;z;d = plastic section
modulus about minor axis) & q as per eqn 11.3-14
Nv;u;d = N;pl;d – 2(1-q)bf x tf x fy;d

Clause 11.3.1.3 ( NEN 6770) : Class 1 and Class 2 Square
and rectangular hollow sections
This clause requires class 1 and class 2 square and rectangular tube profiles to
satisfy the interaction equations in Table 13.

l Check #1 – If Vz;s;d ≤ 0.25 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d ≤ 0.5 x a3 x Npl;d check equa-
tion 11.3.22
l Check #2 – If Vz;s;d ≤ 0.25 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d > 0.5 x a3 x Npl;d check equa-
tion 11.3.23
l Check #3 – If Vz;s;d > 0.25 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d ≤ 0.5 x a4 x Nv;u;d check
equation 11.3-24
l Check #4 – If Vz;s;d > 0.25 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d > 0.5 x a4 x Nv;u;d check
equation 11.3-25
Where

Vz;s;d= Actual Shear force in the section along Z- axis
Vz;pl;d= Shear capacity of section along Z – axis
[ b – breadth and h = height of section ; A= area of section]

a3 = min( (A-2xbxt)/A , 0.5)
a4 = from equation 11.3.27

Clause 6.2.10 – Bending shear and axial force

Requires the implementation of clauses 11.3.1.1 to 11.3.1.3 and 11.3.2.1 to
11.3.2.3 of NEN 6770 and clause 11.3 of NEN 6771

266 — STAAD.Pro

Clause 11.3.1.1 (NEN 6770) and Clause 11.3.1.3 ( NEN
6770)
See "5B.1(C) EC3 NA Dutch National Annex" on page 262 of this document
described above.

Clause 11.3.1.2 (NEN 6770): Class 1 and class 2 circular
hollow (CHS) profiles
Class 1 and class 2 sections with circular hollow profiles should satisfy the
interaction equations given in table 12.

l Check #1 – If Vz;s;d ≤ 0.25 Vz;pl;d check equation 11.3.17
l Check #2 – If Vz;s;d > 0.25 Vz;pl;d check equation 11.3.18.
See "5B.1(C) EC3 NA Dutch National Annex" on page 262 of this document for
equations to derive Vz;s;d

Vz;pl;d = Shear capacity of CHS sections

See equations 11.3-19 and 11.3-20 to work out Mv;y;u;d and N;v;u;d.
To check for these conditions about the y axis, substitute the index ‘z’ in the above
equations with ‘y’ (should be the same of CHS sections).

Clause 11.3.2 ( NEN 6770) :
Section 11.3.2 in general deals with Biaxial bending with axial force and shear. The
general condition to be satisfied in this case is given by equation 11.3-31 of NEN
6770

Clause 11.3.2.1 : Class 1 and class2 I-sections with biaxial
bending + shear + axial force.
The formula to work out M;N;v;y;u;d and M;N;v;z;u;d are to be taken from tables
14 and 15 of NEN 6770 respectively.
Checks for table 14:

International Design Codes Manual — 267

l Check #1 – If Vz;s;d ≤ 0.5 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d ≤ 0.5 x a1 x Npl;d use equa-
tion 11.3.32
l Check #2 – If Vz;s;d ≤ 0.5 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d > 0.5 x a1 x Npl;d use equa-
tion 11.3.33
l Check #3 – If Vz;s;d > 0.5 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d ≤ 0.5 x a2 x Nv;u;d use equa-
tion 11.3-34
l Check #4 – If Vz;s;d > 0.5 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d > 0.5 x a2 x Nv;u;d use equa-
tion 11.3-35
See "5B.1(C) EC3 NA Dutch National Annex" on page 262 of this document for
equations to work out Vz;s;d, My;pl;d, Npl;d, Mv;y;ud, N;v;u;d, a1 ,a2 and
Vz;pl;d.
Checks for table 15:

l Check #1 – If Vy;s;d ≤ 0.25 Vy;pl;d and Ns;d ≤ 1.0 x a1 x Npl;d use equa-
tion 11.3.36
l Check #2 – If Vy;s;d ≤ 0.25 Vy;pl;d and Ns;d > 1.0 x a1 x Npl;d use equa-
tion 11.3.37
l Check #3 – If Vy;s;d > 0.25 Vy;pl;d and Ns;d ≤ 1.0 x a1 x Nv;u;d check
equation 11.3-38
l Check #4 – If Vy;s;d > 0.25 Vy;pl;d and Ns;d > 1.0 x a1 x Nv;u;d check
equation 11.3-39
See "5B.1(C) EC3 NA Dutch National Annex" on page 262 of this document for
equations to work out Vy;s;d, Mz;pl;d, Npl;d, Mv;z;ud, N;v;u;d, a1 ,a2 and
Vy;pl;d.
See table 16 for α1, α1, β0 and β1 use in tables 14 and 15.

Clause 11.3.2.2 : Class 1 and Class 2 Circular hollow tubes
The formula to work out M;N;v;y;u;d and M;N;v;z;u;d (to be used in equation 11-
3-31, see description of clause 11.3.2 above) are to be taken from table 17 of
NEN 6770.

l Check #1 – If Vz;s;d ≤ 0.25 Vz;pl;d use equation 11.3.44
l Check #2 – If Vz;s;d > 0.25 Vz;pl;d use equation 11.3.45.
See "5B.1(C) EC3 NA Dutch National Annex" on page 262 of this document for
equations to work out Vz;pl;d, My;pl;d, and Npl;d use in equations 11.3.44 &
11.3.45.
For values to be used for α1, α2, β1 and β2 in this case refer to table 18 of NEN
6770.

268 — STAAD.Pro

Clause 11.3.2.3 : Class 1 and class2 Rectangular and
square hollow tubes
The formula to work out M;N;v;y;u;d and M;N;v;z;u;d (to be used in equation 11-
3-31, see description of clause 11.3.2 above) are to be taken from table 19 of NEN
6770.

l Check #1 – If Vz;s;d ≤ 0.25 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d ≤ 0.5 x a3 x Npl;d use equa-
tion 11.3-48
l Check #2 – If Vz;s;d ≤ 0.25 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d > 0.5 x a3 x Npl;d use equa-
tion 11.3.49
l Check #3 – If Vz;s;d > 0.25 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d ≤ 0.5 x a4 x Nv;u;d use equa-
tion 11.3-50
l Check #4 – If Vz;s;d > 0.25 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d > 0.5 x a4 x Nv;u;d check
equation 11.3-51
See "5B.1(C) EC3 NA Dutch National Annex" on page 262 of this document for
equations to work out Vz;pl;d, My;pl;d, Npl;d, Mv;y;ud, N;v;u;d, a3, a4 and
Vz;pl;d to be used in the above equations. For values to be used for α1, α2, β1 and
β2 in this case refer to table 20 of NEN 6770.
To check for these conditions about the y axis, substitute the index ‘z’ in the above
equations with ‘y’.

Clause 11.3 ( NEN 6771) :
In general, this section deals with Biaxial bending with axial force and shear for
class 3 and class 4 sections.
Check for class 3 sections: For class 3 sections use the method in section 11.3 NEN
6770. For class 3 sections the methods and equations discussed above can be used
with the ‘plastic section modulus’ being substituted with the ‘elastic modulus’.
Check for class 4 sections: Class 4 sections can be treated as class 3 sections if the
effective section properties are used as given in clause 10.2.4.2.3 of NEN 6771.
Working out the effective section properties for slender sections has already been
done in STAAD.Pro.
For I- section profiles and tubular sections the following procedure should be
adopted:

1. Case 1: -If M;y;s;d / MN;y;f;u;d ≤ 1 check equation 11.2-7 ( given below)

International Design Codes Manual — 269

13. For an I section.y.y.c.1. Case 2:. Where V.d ( A = area of section and fy.2 and 12. = ( fy * W.d ≤1 check equation 11.0.2 (NEN 6771) : This clause in NEN 6771 determines the relative torsional slenderness and is given as: Where: N.u.f.z.u.s.1.d is the shear for in the Z direction V.2.d is the moment capacity about the Y axis for the effective section.eff) 2.y.2-13 (given below): Clause 6.2.2. which in turns requires the checks as per clauses 12.d > 1 and M.u.2 of NEN 6771 to be applied.d / M.2.If M.3.y.d / MN.s.f.z. MN.y. 12.d the yield stress) is the Euler-torsion formula 270 — STAAD.u.2.3 – Buckling resistance of members The D-NA introduces a new clause 6.4. Clause 12.Pro .d = A * fy.s.u.ef = effective web area as given in section 10.4.1. Where Aw.f.3 .d is the shear capacity in the Z direction for ultimate limit state.

1.5.2 of NEN 6770 and clause 12. Note: STAAD.3 (NEN 6770): This clause gives the equations to work out the effective lengths for various support conditions. The relative torsional-flexural buckling slenderness is given as: Where Nc.u.4.Pro.1.1. Again.1.1.Pro is adequate to cater for adjusting the effective lengths as necessary. Clause 12. Clause 12.1.This value of slenderness is to be used to calculate the modification factors used in section 6.3.1. Clause 12. Hence this clause will be ignored for the proposed implementation.1.3 – Slenderness for flexural buckling The Dutch NA requires the implementation of clause 12.Pro does not allow for these end conditions.Pro uses the effective length factor ‘K’ which allows the user to set/modify the effective lengths for a member.3 and 12. Clause 12. In any case the buckling length can be adjusted using the ‘K’ factor.2 (NEN 6771): Buckling lengths of rotationally restrained bars with intermediate spring supports. STAAD.3.3.3 of EC-3.3 of NEN 6771.1. Clause 6.2 (NEN 6771): This clause works out the relative torsional-flexural buckling slenderness for compression members.3 (NEN 6771): This clause again deals with working out the effective lengths of prismatic and non- prismatic rods.5. specifically. We do not deal with latticed section in the current version of STAAD. the ‘K’ factor in the current implementation of STAAD.1.d ( A = area of section and fy.d = A * fy.1.1.d the yield stress) is the Euler torsional buckling strength Clause 12. You can set the effective length factors if the effective length values need to be altered.1.3. International Design Codes Manual — 271 .2 (NEN 6770): This clause gives methods to work out the buckling length of lattice sections.

2 and 12.2 of NEN 6771.Clause 6.1. HEA.s.3.1.3 (NEN 6770): Torsional flexural stability Doubly symmetric sections need not be checked for torsional flexural instability. However for I sections that have rigid supports that is not along the axis of the section and any other sections will need to be checked as per clause 12. The condition being: Where: Nc. If torsional checks need to be performed they should be done according to 12.2 (NEN 6771): This clause gives the condition to check for torsion instability.u.1.1.1.1.1.d is the applied axial load NC.3 of NEN 6771. The condition being: Where 272 — STAAD.1.4 – Slenderness for torsional and torsional-flexural buckling The D-NA requires the implementation of clauses 12.Pro . Clause 12.d is the axial capacity = A x fy. Clause 12. ωθ is given by Clause 12.3 (NEN 6771): This clause gives the condition to check for torsional flexural instability. HEB & HEM sections and pipe sections do not need to be checked for torsional instability.3 of NEN 6770 Clause 12.2 (NEN 6770): Torsional stability IPE.1.

The current implementation in STAAD.c.2 – Lateral torsional buckling curves .3. thus determining the value of the correction factor ‘kc’.3 – Lateral torsional buckling curves for rolled sections or equiv- alent welded sections The D-NA states that: 1.Pro.1.56 of EC-3 are to be obtained from table 6.5. Clause 6.6.75(to be used in equation 6.Pro uses the method in Annex B.3 of EC-3.d and N.5(1-kc)[1-2x (λLT -0. And Kc to be determined from table 6.c. The buckling curves shall be selected as per table 6.3 ( EC-3) checks.6.0. 2.2 above.3. Clause 6. Β = 0. kyz. Hence STTAD will ignore this clause for this implementation. Imperfection factor αLT0 = 0.33 – Uniform members in bending and axial compression The D-NA recommends the use of the method in Annex B of EC-3 to determine the values of kyy.3. This is what STAAD.4 – Simplified assessment method for restrained beams in build- ings The current implementation only uses the more accurate method (6.Pro currently implements.u. 3. This implementation use a new parameter ‘KC’ to identify the moment distribution as given in table 6.57 of EC-3) #. N.2 and 6. kzy and kzz to be used in 6. Again this is what is being used in the current implementation of EC3 (BS) in STAAD.s. International Design Codes Manual — 273 .3. The reduction factor f is given by F = 1 – 0.Pro.3 in EC-3). Clause 6.2.3.2. The values for the #.4 (to be used in equation 6. The current implementation of STAAD.57 of EC-3) These are the default values used in the current implementation in STAAD.8)^2].3.d as in clause 12. Clause 6.general The D-NA states that the values for the imperfection factor αLT to be used in equation 6.2.Pro conservatively uses a value of f = 1.2.2.

3 l ESTIFF = 1 (default) – Column is not part of a buttressed framework – Select- ing this value will internally perform the checks as per section 2 of clause 12.3.d ≥ 0.1.2.15 and the steel grade is S235 or S 275 then Where Nc.3 of NEN 6770 Clause 12.1.1. no additional checks are required If Nc.d/ Npl.d is the axial load in the section Npl. At present we do not distinguish between the two types of frameworks.2.1.15 and the steel grade is S355 then Where 274 — STAAD.d/ Npl. For columns in buttressed frameworks the buckling length is to be taken based on either l the system length or l the distance between adjacent lateral supports The following conditions should also be satisfied: If Nc.15.s.d < 0.The Dutch NA also requires additional checks as per clause 12.d= Axial capacity of section = A x fy.s.2.3 (NEN 6770): Rotation/bending capacity The checks given in this clause deals with additional checks for columns that form part of a buttressed or non-butressed framework.3 These checks are described below: 1.3.3.d Λy = Slenderness of the section about the major axis ( Y-axis) If Nc. The proposed implementation will use the ‘ESTIFF’ parameter with two different values: l ESTIFF = 0 (default) – Column part of a buttressed framework – Selecting this value will internally perform the checks as per section 1 of clause 12.d ≥ 0.d/ Npl.3.Pro .2.s.s. Hence we will need a new parameter that the user can choose to identify the framework type.

d ≥ 0.d= Axial capacity of section = A x fy.2 (c) EC3 NA Norwegian National Annex Purpose Adds values from the Norwegian National Annex . For columns that are not part of buttressed frameworks the following additional checks need to be done: If Nc.s.d Λy = Slenderness of the section about the major axis ( Y-axis) 2.titled NA to BS EN 1993-1- 1:2005 .s.d/ Npl.for use with Eurocode 3.s. no additional checks are required If Nc.d= Axial capacity of section = A x fy.1(1) The partial safety factors will use the following values: International Design Codes Manual — 275 .d ≥ 0.s.15.d is the axial load in the section Npl.d/ Npl.d < 0.15 and the steel grade is S235 or S 275 then Where Nc.d is the axial load in the section and Npl.s. Description The clauses/sections in EN 1993-1-1:2005 (hereafter referred to as EC-3) that require additional clauses from the Norwegian National Annex are: Section 6. The NA document makes small changes to the base document. or EN 1993-1-1:2005.15 and the steel grade is S355 then 5B.d/ Npl. Nc.d Λy = Slenderness of the section about the major axis ( Y-axis) If Nc.

Pro 2007 build 06) has been removed as this parameter is no longer required in EN 1993-1-1:2005.05 Resistance of members to instability .Pro .ΓM1 = 1. 5B. The design functions in STAAD.25. GM1 and GM2 parameters in the design module to the values as: GM0 = 1. These values will also need to be reported in the design output.05 and GM2 = 1. If any of these parameters have been specified by the user as ‘0’. this implementation will ignore the user specified value (i.05.25 This implementation will set the default values of the GM0. (Note: When NA 3 has been specified) The user will be allowed to override these default values and set custom values to these parameters.titled NA to BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 .for use with Eurocode 3.05 Resistance of cross sections to tension . GM1 = 1. Resistance of cross-sections .ΓM2 = 1. or EN 1993-1-1:2005.3 (c) EC3 NA UK National Annex Purpose Adds values from the UK National Annex . The user is still however allowed to modify these factors using the Γ parameters in the design input.ΓM0 = 1. Note: The ‘GB1’ parameter that is being used for compression checks in builds preceding this release (STAAD. 0) and use the default values as given above. The sections below refer to the corresponding clauses in the Norwegian -NA. Note: Refer to the basic code (EC3) for a description of these clauses.Pro will set these values as the default values for the French-NA. The NA document makes small changes to the base document. Description The clauses/sections in EN 1993-1-1:2005 that have been dealt with in the UK National Annex (hereafter referred to as the UK-NA) are: 276 — STAAD. Hence any legacy files that use GB1 parameter will indicate an error message and the user will need to substitute GB1 with GM1 in line with EN 1993-1-1:2005.e.

3 Method for calculation interaction factors for members in combined bending and compression l Annex B Members in bending and axial compression l 6. ΓM1 & ΓM2.ΓM2 = 1. GM1 and GM2 in the design module to the values as: GM0 = 1.Pro will set these values as the default values for the UK-NA. Note: If any of these parameters have been specified by the user as ‘0’.3(2) Modification factor calculations l 6.1 of the code. These factors are ΓM0.Pro will ignore the user specified value (i.e. However any National Annex is allowed to override these default values.10.2. International Design Codes Manual — 277 .3. l 6. You may override these default values and set custom values to these parameters.flexural buckling Note: Refer to the basic code (EC3) for a description of these clauses.2.4 Slenderness for torsional and torsional.1(1) – General: Partial Safety Factors for buildings EN 1993-1-1:2005 specifies the use of the partial safety factors to be used in for design as given in Cl.3. 6.3.0 Resistance of cross sections to tension.0 Resistance of members to instability.ΓM1 = 1.3.1(1) General l 6. GM1 = 1. The sections below refer to the corresponding clauses in the UK-NA. Clause 6.2.2 Lateral Torsional Buckling curves – General case l 6.4(2)B Modification factor ‘kfl’ l 6. These values will also be reported in the design output. 0) and use the default values as given above.3.3(1) Lateral Torsional buckling curves for rolled or equivalent welded sections l 6.1.3.1 This implementation will hence set the default values of the design parameters GM0. EN 1993 provides default values for these factors.ΓM0 = 1.4(1)B Slenderness limit λc0 l 6.2. STAAD. The partial safety factors will use the following values for the UK National Annex: Resistance of cross-sections.3.2.0 and GM2 = 1.0. (Note: When NA 1 has been specified) The design function in STAAD.

The UK National Annex does not specify a particular method to calculate Mcr.3.Pro 2007 build 06) has been removed as this parameter is no longer required in EN 1993-1-1:2005. Hence any legacy files that use GB1 parameter will indicate an error message and the user will need to substitute GB1 with GM1 in line with EN 1993-1-1:2005.2 –Elastic critical moment and imperfection factors for LTB checks The UK-NA recommends the use of Table 6. Clause 6. The NCCI provides values for C1 and C2 for the different cases as given in the tables below: 278 — STAAD. The equation to work out Mcr is given in the NCCI as C1 and C2 are factors that depend on the end conditions and the loading conditions of the member.3 and 6.4 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 to calculate the imperfection factors for Lateral Torsional Buckling (LTB) checks. The calculation of the LTB reduction factor X . Hence only doubly symmetric sections will be considered for this method in the proposed implementation. Hence the calculation of Mcr has been based on the following NCCI documents: 1. requires the calculation of the LT ‘Elastic Critical Buckling Moment’. SN003a-EN-EU – Elastic critical moment for Lateral torsional Buckling: This document provides a method to calculate ‘Mcr’ specifically for doubly symmetric sections only.Pro . Mcr. Warning: The ‘GB1’ parameter that is being used for compression checks in builds preceding this release (STAAD.2.

This NCCI considers three separate loading conditions: l Members with end moments l Members with transverse loading l Members with end moments and transverse loading. International Design Codes Manual — 279 .

Hence for this implementation the elastic critical moment for ‘Tee- Sections’ will be worked out using the method in this NCCI. The implementation of EC3 in STAAD.Pro currently does not have a means to specify/identify a mono-symmetric built-up section. which considers the member as a pin ended member with UDL along its span. The default value of CMM is 1. Hence this implementation will use this 280 — STAAD. Hence the appropriate values from this NCCI will be used for ‘C1’ and ‘C2’ coefficients depending on the value of CMM specified.Pro accounts for the loading condition and the bending moment diagram through the CMM parameter. However the “end moments and transverse loading” condition cannot be currently specified in the design input. STAAD. Note: Though this method could also be applicable to mono-symmetric built- up sections. 1 to 6). the NCCI provides graphs to work out the C1 and C2 coefficients. the program will issue a warning if C1 and C2 have not been specified.Pro the user will have to use the new ‘C1’ & ‘C2’ parameters to input the required values for C1 & C2 to be used in calculating Mcr. Hence in STAAD. provide a set of equations for these graphs.e. 2. For these two conditions. the UK National Annex (nor the NCCI) does not provide equations to work out C1 and C2. The first two loading conditions mentioned above and its variants can be dealt with by using the existing values of the CMM parameter (i. For values of 7 or 8 for the CMM parameter. CMM 8: Member with varying end moments and central point load. the program obtains the values of C1 and C2 from Annex F of DD ENV version of 1993-1- 1:1992. It does not however. CMM 7:Member with varying end moments and uniform loading. Hence this implementation will introduce two new values for the CMM parameter viz. The user will also have the option to specify specific values for C1 & C2 using the new ‘C1’ and ‘C2’ parameters in the design input mode. Note: If the NA parameter has not been specified. However for cases with end moments and transverse loading. SN030a-EN-EU – Mono-symmetrical uniform members under bending and axial compression: This document provides a method to evaluate the elastic critical moment (Mcr) for uniform mono symmetric sections that are symmetric about the weak axis.Pro .

C2 and C3 as given in the tables below: International Design Codes Manual — 281 . the actual LTB capacity will still be worked out as per BS 5950-1 as in the current EC3 implementation. This implementation will consider C1. C2 and C3 are dependent on the end conditions and loading criteria. The equation to work out Mcr for mono symmetric sections is given as : The factors C1. In any case.method only for Tee-Sections.

Hence the above methods will be used only for members which are free to rotate on plan and which have no warping restraints.0 and β. A value of K = kw =1 is indicated by a value of CMN = 1.Pro . which considers the member as a pin ended member with UDL along its span. C2 and C3 parameters to input the required values for C1.3. Clause 6. This NCCI does not however consider the “end moments and transverse loading” condition. For all cases that are not dealt with by the National Annex (or the NCCI documents) the proposed implementation will use the method as per the DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 code. the proposed implementation will fall back on to the method and coefficients in DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 – Annex F.e. CMN = 1. CMN = 0.pro does not differentiate between rolled and welded sections and uses the default values in BS EN 1993-1-1 for λLT. The current implementation of EC3 in STAAD takes into account of the end conditions using the CMN parameter. The current implementation in STAAD.0).0 and β factors to be used in equation 6.2. C2 and C3. The term ‘zg’ in the equation to calculate Mcr refers to the distance between the point of application of load on the cross section in relation to the shear centre of the cross section. For members with partial or end fixities (ie. C2 and C3 parameters along with CMM values of 7 and 8. The default value of CMM is 1.3(1) – LTB for rolled sections or equivalent welded section The UK-NA specifies different values for the λLT.57 of BS EN 1993-1-1 for rolled and equivalent welded sections. The user however can use the new C1.0 in the design input. Both the NCCI documents mentioned above assume that the member under consideration is free to rotate on plan and that there are no warping restraints for the member ( k = kw = 1. As described in section (i) above. The value of ‘zg’ is considered positive if the load acts towards the shear centre and is negative if it acts away from the shear centre. By default. the program will assume that the load acts towards the shear centre at a distance equal to (Depth of section/2) from the shear centre. i.7). 282 — STAAD. the user must use C1. Specifying a value of ZG = 0 in the design input would indicate that the load acts exactly at the shear centre of the section so that the term ‘zg’ in the equation will have a value of zero.0.5 or CMN = 0. The user will be allowed to modify this value by using the new ‘ZG’ parameter. C2 and C3 to be used in calculating Mcr. The CMM parameter (see section (i) above) specified during design input will determine the values of C1.

75 For welded sections: λLT.The values specified in the UK-NA are: For rolled sections and hot-rolled & cold formed hollow sections: λLT. “Welded I Sections” and “Any other sections”.3 (EN 1993-1-1:2005).3.2 β = 1.2 and 6.3 — Calculation of LTB Reduction factor.4 specifies the choice of LT buckling curves for “Rolled I Sections”.2. Hence for these cases the new implementation will still use the method specified in the base code as per clause 6.2 and 6.3 and 6.4 to choose the buckling curve and the imperfection factors to be used for calculating χ . Table 6.Pro uses the buckling curves based on Table 6.3. LT Cl.3 to choose the buckling curves and imperfection factors.2(2).5 however only deals with “Rolled I Sections” and “Welded I Sections”.0 = 0. Table 6.0 = 0.3.3 on the other hand uses tables 6.2.5 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005. Clauses 6. both give equations to work out the LTB reduction factor χ to be used in eqn. The UK-NA specifies different limits and buckling curves to be used in this clause as given below: This table again does not specify which buckling curve is to be used in case of welded doubly symmetric sections with h/b ≥ 3. 6.2 uses tables 6.2.5 and 6.4 β = 0.2.2.00 The current implementation of STAAD.55 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005.3.2. International Design Codes Manual — 283 . Cl 6. χ as per LT UK NA Clauses 6.3.1 and welded non-doubly symmetric sections.3.2. 6.3.

Hence for the following cross sections the program will use the Table in the UK NA for choosing a buckling curve for LTB checks (when the UK NA has been specified): l Rolled doubly symmetric I & H Sections l Rolled doubly symmetric hollow sections (SHS. 6. see 6.Pro .e. CHS) l Angle Sections l Any other rolled section l Welded doubly symmetric sections with h/b < 3. Hence in LT the implementation of EC3 (and the UK Annex) in STAAD. 6.3.3 to work out χ . I sections with plates will be treated as built-up 284 — STAAD. In any case the Elastic critical moment “Mcr” (used to work out the non dimensional slenderness) will be worked out as given in section 4. 6.3. 6.3 only in the case of Rolled or welded I & H Sections. the program will use Cl.3 of BS EN 1993-1- 1:2005 to work out χLT l Welded I & H Sections with h/b ≥ 3.2.2 to work out χ .2. the program will use Cl.2.2.2. the program will use the method given in Cl.2 states “Unless otherwise specified.2 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005.2 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005.5 in BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 should be replaced with the table given in the NA (See section 4. by default the program will consider clause Cl.2 of this document. Also. For any other type of cross section that is not dealt with by the National Annex or Cl.2.2. RHS.1.3. 6. this implementation will choose the buckling curves from the UK National Annex. 6.0 (See section 4. 6..2.2.3.2. for bending members of constant cross section the value of χ should be determined from.3. For any case that is not dealt with by the table in the UK NA. NA parameter in the design input = 0). the program will use Cl.3. this implementation will only consider end restraint conditions corresponding to the CMN parameter=1.3 in the UK National Annex states that Table 6. 6. LT Cl.3. Since the UK National Annex uses the NCCIs mentioned in the sections above.3. Note: If a National Annex has not been specified (i.3.1 For the following cross sections. the program will consider Cl. Hence for all cases dealt with by the table in the UK NA.3.2.Pro. For any case that is not LT dealt with by Cl.2 to work out χLT . 6. this implementation will use the method specified in Annex F of DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992. For all other cases of the CMN parameter values.”.6. For all other cases.3.3.3.2..2 above). 6.3 of this document).Cl. the program will use Cl.3.3.

The UK-NA however. specifies that the correction factor ‘kc’ is to be obtained as below: Kc = 1 / √C1.58 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 to work out the modification factor ‘f’ for the LTB reduction factor χLT. ‘f’ for LTB checks The UK NA specifies the use of eqn.e.3(2) – Modification factor. The NCCI document SN003a-EN-EU specifies the values of C1 to be used in table 3. This proposed implementation will allow for the reduction factor based on the UK-NA. International Design Codes Manual — 285 .2. To work out the modification factor BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 uses a correction factor ‘kc’ given by Table 6.3. SBLT parameter = 1.1 as shown below.sections only if the section has been explicitly specified as a built-up section (i. Clause 6.0 in design input).6 in the code.2 of this document. where C1 is to be obtained from the NCCI documents given in section 4. 6.

0).Pro . The user can also get the program to calculate the value of ‘kc’ automatically by setting the value of the ‘KC’ parameter in the design input to 0.3.59 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 as 0. the program will use the NCCI documents mentioned in section 4. The proposed implementation will hence use equations in Annex B of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 to calculate these interaction factors for doubly symmetric sections.3 checks in the case of doubly symmetric sections. H channel or box section to be used in equation 6. Note: STAAD. Hence for all other values of CMN (ie 0.3(5) – Interaction factors kyy.2 of this document.2. kyz. Clause 6.pro uses the method in Annex B. Hence this clause will be ignored for the UK National Annex.9 for other sections Note: STAAD.4. The program will use a default value of 1.5) this implementation will use the values of C1 from DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 Annex F. To work out C1. Hence this clause will be ignored for the UK National Annex.4(1) B – Slenderness for flexural buckling The UK NA specifies the value of λc0 for I. kzy and kzz The UK-NA recommends that the method in Annex A or Annex B of BS EN 1993-1- 1:2005 can be used to calculate the interaction factors for Cl.0 for hot rolled I sections = 1.These values are for an end restraint factor of k=1 (ie CMN=1.0 for welded I section with h/b ≤ 2 = 0.2. Clause 6.3. 6.Pro does not use this clause in the current implementation of EC-3.4(2)BModification factor ‘kfl’ The value of the modification factor kfl to be used in equation 6.3.7 or 0. 286 — STAAD. However the user can also input a custom value of ‘kc’ by setting the design parameter ‘KC’ to the desired value. The current implementation of EC3 BS in STAAD. Clause 6.60 of BS EN 1993- 1-1 to be as follows: = 1.3.Pro does not use this clause in the current implementation of EC-3.0 for ‘kc’. This will cause the program to work out a value of C1 corresponding to the end conditions and the Bending moment of the member and in turn calculate ‘kc’ as given in the NA.

3.4 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005. SHS.4 .pro does not allow for this clause as BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 does not provide equations to calculate the elastic critical loads Ncr. it will be treated as a class 3 section for the purposes of this clause”.2 of the UK NA). The UK NA requires additional checks to be done to check for the maximum allowable values of λ and X to be used in equations 6. Clause NA 3. The current implementation of EC3 in STAAD.F and Ncr.62 of BS EN 1993- 1-1:2005. torsional slenderness (λ ) and torsional-flexural T slenderness (λ ) as given in Clauses 6. Note: The UK National Annex or EC3 does not deal with angle sections in specific and hence this implementation will use the method used in the current EC3 implementation to deal with slenderness of angle sections.7.T.1.9 below for details. Clause 6. NA-3.However for non-doubly symmetric sections.Slenderness for torsional and torsional.3.10 of BS 5950.2 of the UK NA also requires that “Where the section is not an I Section or a hollow section and is a class1 or class 2 section.N ).T (refer 6. International Design Codes Manual — 287 . TF Hence for non-doubly symmetric sections the program will calculate the critical non-dimensional slenderness as: λy = max λ is calculated as λ = Ncr = min (N . the UK NA gives the option of using Annex B with some modifications as given in the NA. for non-doubly symmetric sections. the slenderness about the weak axis (λy in STAAD) and the corresponding reduction factor χy should be taken as the values from the highest values of slenderness (λ) among the flexural buckling slenderness (λy). This proposed implementation will still use the same method for single and double angle sections to work out the slenderness. H.14 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005).3. Hence this implementation will use the method specified in the NCCI document “SN001a-EN-EU: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes” to calculate these. T T CrT crTF The UK NA or EC3 does not however specify a method to work out NCrT or NcrTF. See section 4.53 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 are to be used to calculate the non-dimensional slenderness λ .3.3. the elastic properties will be used for the purposes of 6.3 checks. Hence for all Class 1 or Class 2 cross sections that are NOT I. RHS or CHS sections.3 and 6. to be used for torsional and torsional-flexural T buckling checks.52 and 6.1. (Cl. As per the UK NA.1.flexural buckling Equations 6.61 and 6. In the current implementation this is done as per cl 4.

1 (c) EC3 NA French National Annex Purpose Adds values from the French National Annex .1(1) Material properties l 6.titled Annexe Nationale a la NF EN 1993-1-1:2005 .Pro . 5B. Description The clauses/sections in EN 1993-1-1:2005 (hereafter referred to as EC-3) that have been dealt with in the French National Annex (hereafter referred to as FR- NA)and that are relevant to the proposed implementation are: l 3.The NCCI document “SN001a-EN-EU: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes” provides methods to calculate the Ncr.TF and NcrT factors and hence will to be included in the proposed implementation of the UK NA. The NA document makes small changes to the base document. The critical axial load for Torsional buckling is worked out as: where.1(1) General l 6.3. The critical axial load for Torsional-Flexural buckling is worked out as: For details on these equations refer to the NCCI document SN001a-EN-EU. iy and iz are the radius of gyration about the Y-Y (weak axis) and Z-Z (strong axis) respectively.2.2.2 Lateral Torsional Buckling curves – General case 288 — STAAD.for use with Eurocode 3. or EN 1993-1-1:2005.

3. This new table replaces Table 3.flexural buckling Note: Refer to the basic code (EC3) for a description of these clauses.1 in NF EN 1993-1-1:2005.2. apart from the ‘fu’ values for S 355 and S355 W grade steel.1(1) .3.1 in EC3. The French National Annex however. Table 3.1 NF is similar to table 3.Pro uses the steel grades and values from the table given in the National Annex (i. The sections below refer to the corresponding clauses in the French-NA. Clause 3. l 6. International Design Codes Manual — 289 .2. STAAD.steel grade strengths) to be used with NF EN 1993-1- 1 is given in Table 3.3.3.2.2.e.4 Slenderness for torsional and torsional. . .1 NF).3.2.1 NF) for the yield and tensile strengths of steel grades.3(1) Lateral Torsional buckling curves for rolled or equivalent welded sections l 6. Table 3.1 NF excludes steel grades from standards EN 10210-1 and EN 10219-1 that are given in EC-3.3 Method for calculation interaction factors for members in combined bending and compression l Annex A Members in bending and axial compression l 6.4(1)B Slenderness limit λc0 l 6.4(2)B Modification factor ‘kfl’ l 6.3(2) Modification factor calculations l 6.Material Properties The material strengths (i.1.1 of the code.Table 3. specifies a separate table (Table 3.e.3.

Clause 6. this implementation will use the values from Table 3.0 l Resistance of cross sections to tension .If you specify a steel grade that is not given in the Annex Table 3.1 of EN 1993-1-1:2005.1 of EN 1993-1-1:2005. The appropriate yield strength used (fy) will be shown in the design output file.1(1) – General The partial safety factors will use the following values: l Resistance of cross-sections .0 l Resistance of members to instability .ΓM2 = 1.Pro .ΓM0 = 1.ΓM1 = 1.1 (NF) but is present in Table 3.25 290 — STAAD.

e Tee sections) this implementation will use the method from the NCCI document SN030a-EN-EU as given in the section below. Hence any legacy STAAD files that have the GB1 Parameter defined will need to be revised to take out this parameter as it is no longer valid as per the latest EN1993. This implementation will make use of this method to work out Mcr.3 and 6. For any other type of section that is not dealt with by the Annex. Annex MCR International Design Codes Manual — 291 . Warning: The GB1 parameter (which. requires the calculation of the “Elastic Critical Buckling Moment”. You may override these default values and set custom values to these parameters.3. Mcr. 1.25 Note: When NA 4 has been specified.0 GM2 = 1.2 –Elastic critical moment and imperfection factors for LTB checks The French NA recommends the use of Table 6. this implementation will use the method and tables given in Annex F of DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992. in fact was common to the base EC-3 and was a reminiscent of the previous DD ENV implementation of EC-3) has been removed.Pro will ignore the specified value and use the default values as given above.2.0 GM1 = 1.STAAD.Pro sets the default values of the GM0. The calculation of the LTB reduction factor χLT. Annex MCR however deals with the calculation of Mcr for doubly symmetric sections.4 of NF EN 1993-1-1:2005 to calculate the imperfection factors for Lateral Torsional Buckling (LTB) checks. Hence this implementation will use this method only for doubly symmetric sections. Note: If any of these parameters have been specified by the user as ‘0’. Clause 6. STAAD. The French NA gives a method to work out Mcr in its “Annex MCR”. For mono symmetric sections that are symmetric about the minor axis (i. GM1 and GM2 parameters in the design module to the values as: GM0 = 1.

292 — STAAD. The first two cases and its variants can be defined using with the existing CMM parameter values in STAAD.2 of the National Annex however gives a formula to work out C1 as : This formula however does not match the values given in Table 1 of the NA. CMM 7:Member with varying end moments and uniform loading. Table 1 deals with the condition of a simply supported member with end moments and the value of C1 is determined by the end moment ratio (Refer to the NA for details). Clause 3. The equation to work out Mcr is given as : C1 and C2 are factors that depend on the end conditions and the loading conditions. Hence only doubly symmetric sections will be considered for this method in this implementation. However the third condition cannot be currently specified in the design input. For all other cases this implementation will calculate the value of C1 from equation (6) in the Annex. The value of C2 will be determined from Table 2 of the Annex based on the loading and end conditions (i. Hence this implementation will introduce two new values for CMM viz.Pro. This document provides a method to calculate ‘Mcr’ specifically for doubly symmetric sections only. The user will also have the option to specify specific values for C1 & C2 using the new ‘C1’ and ‘C2’ parameters in the design input mode.e the CMM parameter in STAAD). Hence this implementation will use the values of C1 from Table 1 if the end moment ration (ψ) is exactly equal to the values of ψ in the table.Pro . CMM 8: Member with varying end moments and central point load. The NCCI provides values for C1 and C2 for the different cases as given in Table1 and Table 2 of the Annex. The French NA considers three separate loading conditions: l Members with end moments l Members with transverse loading l Members with end moments and transverse loading.

This implementation will also introduce a new parameter ‘MU’ to be specified when using CMM = 7 or 8. STAAD. SN030a-EN-EU – Mono-symmetrical uniform members under bending and axial compression: This document provides a method to evaluate the elastic critical moment (Mcr) for uniform mono symmetric sections that are symmetric about the weak axis. C2 and C3 are dependent on the end conditions and loading criteria. Note: The new parameter MU will currently be applicable only in the context of the French NA.5 of Annex MCR (See Annex MCR in the NA for details). Hence for this implementation the elastic critical moment for ‘Tee- Sections’ will be worked out using the method in this NCCI. This implementation will require that for the French National Annex if CMM = 7 or 8 has been specified. the user should also either specify a value for ‘MU’ or input the values for C1 and C2 using the ‘C1’ and/or ‘C2’ parameters directly. C2 and C3 as given in the tables below: International Design Codes Manual — 293 . The load to moment ratio (μ) will then be used in the calculations will then be used to calculate C1 and C2 as given in section 3.Pro currently does not have a means to specify/identify a mono-symmetric built-up section. The equation to work out Mcr for mono symmetric sections is given as : The factors C1. Note: Though this method could also be applicable to mono-symmetric built-up sections. Hence this implementation will use this method only for Tee-Sections. The load to moment ratio (μ) to be used in the calculations is to be input using the new ‘MU’ parameter. 2. This implementation will consider C1.

C2 and C3. which considers the member as a pin ended member with UDL along its span. C2 and C3 to be used in calculating Mcr. 294 — STAAD. This NCCI does not however consider the “end moments and transverse loading” condition. The user however can use the new ‘C1’.The CMM parameter specified during design input will determine the values of C1.Pro . The default value of CMM is 0. ‘C2’ and ‘C3’ parameters to input the required values for C1.

this implementation will fall back on to the method and coefficients in DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992. Also.Pro obtains these values from Annex F of DD ENV version of 1993-1-1:1992. Specifying a value of ZG = 0 in the design input would indicate that the load acts exactly at the shear centre of the section so that the term ‘zg’ in the equation will have a value of zero.0).2. The value of ‘zg’ is considered positive. For members with partial or end fixities (ie.3.3. the program will ignore MU and use the user input values of C1. C2 and C3. will wait for more information before implementing this.2. CMN parameter =1. LT0 For welded doubly symmetric sections use: International Design Codes Manual — 295 .7). C2 and C3 have been specified. Again this document does not give any specific formulae to work out the coefficients. There is a separate method specified in the NCCI document “SN006a-EN-EU” to calculate Mcr for cantilever beams. By default. Note: If ‘MU’ as well as C1. Clause 6.4. CMN = 0. The term ‘zg’ in the equation to calculate Mcr refers to the distance between the point of application of load on the cross section in relation to the shear centre of the cross section.i.3 For rolled doubly symmetric sections use: Since EN 1993-1-1:2005 limits the value of λLT0 to 0.4 for λ .e. The use will be allowed to modify this value by using the new ‘ZG’ parameter. this implementation will only allow a maximum value of 0. The current implementation of EC3 in STAAD. the NCCI document and Annex MCR of the FR-NA assume that the member under consideration is free to rotate on plan and that there are no warping restraints for the member( k = kw=1 .3(1) – LTB for rolled sections or equivalent welded section The FR-NA provides equations to work out the λ and α factors given in clause LT0 LT 6. the program will assume that the load acts towards the shear centre at a distance equal to (Depth of section/2) from the shear centre. if the load acts towards the shear centre and is negative if it acts away from the shear centre. Hence. Hence the above methods will be used only for members which are free to rotate on plan and which have no warping restraints. For all cases that are not dealt with by the National Annex (or the NCCI documents) this implementation will use the method as per the DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 code.5 or CMN = 0.

LT Clauses 6. LT For any other type of cross section that is not dealt with by the National Annex or Cl.3 to work out χ .3 in the French National Annex gives equations to work out the imperfection factors to be used for various section types.”.2.3..3 — Calculation of LTB Reduction factor. Table 6. LT Cl. for bending members of constant cross section the value of χLT should be determined from.3 and 6. In any case the Elastic critical moment “Mcr” (used to work out the non dimensional slenderness) will be worked out as given in section 4.2.3.55 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005.2.3.3. Hence for all cases dealt with by the equations in the French NA.Pro .3. “Welded I Sections” and “Any other sections”.2 and 6.2. Hence in the implementation of EC3 (and the French Annex) in STAAD.2.3. 6.3.2 above) will be considered.2 to work out χLT .3.3 to choose the buckling curves and imperfection factors.3.5 however only deals with “Rolled I Sections” and “Welded I Sections”.3.3.3.3 on the other hand uses tables 6.3 to work out χ .3 (EN 1993-1-1:2005).2. For all other cases of the CMN parameter values. (See section 4.2 to work out χ .0 These equations and factors are then applied to equation 6.0 (See section 4. 6.2.2.2 states “Unless otherwise specified.5 and 6. the program will use Cl. Since this implementation uses the NCCIs mentioned in the sections above.2.4 to choose the buckling curve and the imperfection factors to be used for calculating χ . 6. Cl. this implementation will use Cl 6.2.2.3 of this document). 6.3.2 uses tables 6. Table 6. by default the program will consider clause Cl. 6.3. see 6. 6.57 of NF EN 1993-1-1 to work out the Lateral Torsional Buckling reduction factor χ . only end restraint conditions corresponding to the CMN parameter=1.2 of this document.3. the program will consider Cl. this implementation will use the method specified in Annex F of DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992.2.. 296 — STAAD.2.2. 6.3.4 specifies the choice of LT buckling curves for “Rolled I Sections”. both give equations to work out the LTB reduction factor χ to be used in eqn.3. 6.Pro.6. Cl 6. LT Cl.For other sections And for all sections use β = 1. For any case that is not LT dealt with by Cl.2 and 6.3.2. χ as per LT UK NA Clauses 6.

SBLT parameter = 1. The user can also get the program to calculate the value of ‘kc’ automatically by setting the value of the ‘KC’ parameter in the design input to 0.2. this implementation will ignore ‘f’ and hence will use χ = χ . Clause 6. NA parameter in the design input = 0). Note: If a National Annex has not been specified (i. This will correspond to the end conditions and the bending moment of the member (i.0 for ‘kc’. For all other cases.2.3 only in the case of Rolled or welded I & H Sections.e. 6. Clause 6.e.3. However the user can also input a custom value of ‘kc’ by setting the design parameter ‘KC’ to the desired value.mod LT Clause 6. Hence this implementation will use the existing functionality to work out the correction factor ‘kc’ to be used in the modification factor f.3. the program will use Cl. I sections with plates will be treated as built-up sections only if the section has been explicitly specified as a built-up section (i.91 based on the end moment ratio. ‘f’ for LTB checks The French NA specifies that the modification factor is to be obtained as per the default method given in EC-3.82 based on the end moment ratio. LT.3. An additional check will also be performed as given below: The French Annex specifies that the modification factor is applicable only to members that are free to rotate on plan (i. 6.e. Hence for all other values of CMN. Hence this clause will be ignored for the French National Annex. For CMM = 8 the program will choose the value of ‘kc’ to be either 0.3.2.2 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005. This will cause the program to work out ‘kc’ from table 6. International Design Codes Manual — 297 .2.77 or 0.2.3.4(2) BModification factor ‘kfl’ Note: STAAD does not use this clause in the current implementation of EC-3.6 of NF EN 1993-1-1:2005. Also.4(1) B – Slenderness for flexural buckling Note: STAAD does not use this clause in the current implementation of EC-3. For CMM = 7 the program will choose the value of ‘kc’ to be either 0.90 or 0. CMN =1.3(2) – Modification factor.0 in design input). the program will use Cl.0). The program uses a default value of 1.e the value of CMM parameter specified).

T (refer 6. Hence the method in Annex A will be added into this implementation.2 of Annex A: Clause 6. Hence this clause will be ignored for the French National Annex. kyz.14 of NF EN 1993-1-1:2005). Clause 6. this case will not be considered for this implementation. The NA also recommends a lower limit as given below for the term Cmi. to be used for torsional and torsional-flexural buckling checks. However since STAAD does not have a provision to specify such sections.0 in table A. The NA also mentions that torsional flexural buckling needs to be taken into account in case of mono symmetric sections.3.3(5) – Interaction factors kyy.T.TF and NcrT factors and hence will to be included in this implementation of the French NA. See section below for details. kzy and kzz The French NA recommends the use of equations in Annex A of NF EN 1993-1- 1:2005 to calculate these interaction factors.pro does not allow for this clause as NF EN 1993-1-1:2005 does not provide equations to calculate the elastic critical loads Ncr.53 of NF EN 1993-1-1:2005 are to be used to calculate the non-dimensional slenderness λT. The NCCI document “SN001a-EN-EU: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes” provides methods to calculate the Ncr.Slenderness for torsional and torsional. The NA mentions that this method can be extended to singly symmetric I-Sections (symmetric about the minor axis) if the elastic properties are used instead of the plastic properties.52 and 6.3.1. The current implementation of EC3 BS in STAAD.F and Ncr.Pro . Torsional flexural buckling will need to be taken into account based on the method given in the NCCI document “SN001a-EN-EU: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes”.3.pro uses the method in Annex B. The critical axial load for Torsional buckling is worked out as: 298 — STAAD. The current implementation of EC3 in STAAD.flexural buckling Equations 6.4 .

The critical axial load for Torsional-Flexural buckling is worked out as: For details on these equations refer to the NCCI document SN001a-EN-EU. 5C.Timber Design Per EC 5: Part 1-1 5C. The feature of member selection is thus not applicable to this code. The application is limited to the PRISMATIC rectangular shapes only.1 General Comments The Timber Design facility as per EC5 in STAAD is based on the European Standard Eurocode 5: Design of Timber Structures .Part 1-1 . Appropriate load and resistance factors are used so that a uniform reliability is achieved for all timber structures under various loading conditions and at the same time the chances of limits being surpassed are acceptably remote. Two major categories of limit-state are recognized . iy and iz are the radius of gyration about the Y-Y (weak axis) and Z-Z (strong axis) respectively. where. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state design are strength and stability.General . The design philosophy of this specification is based on the concept of limit state design. International Design Codes Manual — 299 . Principles of Limit States Design of Timber Structures are adopted as specified in the code. There is no Eurocode-specific timber section database / library consisting of pre-defined shapes for analysis or for design. Structures are designed and proportioned taking into consideration the limit states at which they would become unfit for their intended use.ultimate and serviceability. European Codes . while that in serviceability is deflection.Common rules and rules for buildings.

the most economic section is selected on the basis of the least weight criteria as augmented by the designer in specification of allowable member depths.1 of EC-5-2004. the value of m (= 1.3) is incorporated in the program. A detailed description of the design process along with its underlying concepts and assumptions is available in the specification document. Both of these axes definitions follow the orthogonal right hand rule. The following sections describe the salient features of the STAAD implementation of EC 5. however.In the STAAD implementation. the values are incorporated in the program. EC5. (B) m – Partial factor for Material Property values. Accordingly.SCL). The longitudinal axis of the member is defined as x and joins the start joint of the member to the end with the same positive direction. Reference Table 2. For “Solid Timber”. Reference Table 3. defines the principal cross-section axes in reverse to that of STAAD.3 of EC-5- 2004. See figure 1 below: Figure 1 Axes convention in STAAD and EC5 Determination of Factors (A) Kmod – Modification factor taking into account of Load-duration (LDC) and Moisture-content (Service Class . members are proportioned to resist the design loads without exceeding the limit states of strength. Axes convention in STAAD and EC5 STAAD defines the major axis of the cross-section as zz and the minor axis as yy. stability and serviceability.Pro . desired section type. but the longitudinal axis is defined in the same way. or other such parameters. The code checking portion of the program checks whether code requirements for each selected section are met and identifies the governing criteria. For “Solid Timber”. 300 — STAAD.

As per clause 3. (D) KC90 – Factor taking into account the load configuration. For members. For rectangular section the value of Km is 0. For members. For members.2004. design torsional stress should be less than equal design shear strength multiplied by the factor Kshape. the characteristic strength in bending (fmk) is to be increased by the factor Kh.4 for the value of Kh for Glued laminated timber and Laminated veener lumber respectively. whose depth is less than reference depth in bending. this factor is taken into account for stress checking. possibility of splitting and degree of compressive deformation.1. subjected to tension. This factor is determined by STAAD. subjected to bending. (E) Km – Factor considering re-distribution of bending stress in cross section.(C) Kh – Size Factor. Please refer clause 6.1. subjected to bending.6 of EC-5-2004 in this regard. and this value is incorporated in STAAD.3 and 3. Default value of 1 is used in STAAD.8 of EC-5- 2004. for rectangular solid timber with a characteristic timber density kg/m3 the reference depth in bending or the reference width (maximum cross-sectional dimension) is 150 mm.1. subjected to torsional force.2(3) of EC 5. Please refer clause numbers 3. perpendicular to the direction of grain alignment.5 of EC-5-2004 in this regard. User may override the value.Pro. International Design Codes Manual — 301 . whose maximum c/s dimension is less than the reference width in tension the characteristic strength in tension (ft0k) is to be increased by the factor Kh.Pro internally using the guidelines of clause 6.7. The value of Kh = Minimum of {(150/h) 0. (F) Kshape – Factor depending on shape of cross section. For members.3) for such solid timber is incorporated in the software.2 and 1. this factor should be taken into account. Please refer clause 6. User may override the value. subjected to compression. For members.Pro.

 The default value is 1.2 Analysis Methodology Symbol Description S Design tensile stress parallel (at zero degree) to grain alignment. y rel. c0d F Design compressive strength . l .05 I Second moment of area about the strong z-axis.5C. t0d F Design tensile strength . c0d S Design compressive stress perpendicular to grain alignment.l Slenderness ratios corresponding to bending about yy axis. c90d S Design bending stress about zz axis. S Design compressive stress parallel to grain alignment.about yy-axis. h Width and depth of beam. myd F Design shear strength about yy axis.parallel to the grain alignment. 302 — STAAD. vd RATIO Permissible ratio of stresses as provided by the user. mzd F Design bending strength . mzd S Design bending stress about yy axis. y I Torsional moment of inertia. z I Second moment of area about the weak y-axis.y E Fifth percentile value of modulus of elasticity parallel to grain. tor_d F Design tensile strength .l Slenderness ratios corresponding to bending about zz axis. vd S Design torsional stress. c90d F Design bending strength .05 G Fifth percentile value of shear modulus parallel to grain. t90d F Design compressive strength .Pro . myd S Design shear stress. mk b. 0.perpendicular to the grain alignment. z rel.about zz-axis.parallel to the grain alignment. t0d S Design tensile stress perpendicular (at 90 degrees) to grain t90d alignment. 0.z l . tor f Characteristic bending strength.perpendicular to the grain alignment.

Equations for Characteristic Values of Timber Species as per Annex-A of EN
338:2003
The following equations were used to determine the characteristic values:
Basic Inputs: For a particular Timber Strength Class (TSC), the following
characteristic strength values are required to compute the other related
characteristic values.

1. Bending Strength – f
m,k
2. Mean Modulus of Elasticity in bending – E
0, mean
3. Density - r
k
Wood Type
SI
Property Symbol Softwood Hardwood
No.
(C) (D)
1. Tensile Strength parallel to f 0.6 * f
t,0,k m,k
grain
2. Tensile Strength f Minimum of {0.6 and
t,90,k
perpendicular to grain (0.0015*r )}
k
3. Compressive Strength f 5 * (f ) 0.45
c,0,k m,k
parallel to grain
4. Compressive Strength f 0.007*r 0.0015*r
c,90,k k k
perpendicular to grain
5. Shear Strength f Minimum of {3.8 and
v,k
(0.2*f 0.8)}
m,k
6. Modulus of Elasticity E 0.67* 0.84*
0,05
parallel to grain E E
0,mean 0,mean
7. Mean Modulus of Elasticity E E E /15
90,mean 0,mean 0,mean
perpendicular to grain /30
8. Mean Shear Modulus G E /16
mean 0,mean
9. Shear Modulus G E /16
0,05 0,05

The values of the characteristic strengths computed using the above equations,
may differ with the tabulated values in Table-1 of EN 338:2003. However, in all
such cases, the values obtained from the provided equations are treated as actual
and is used by the program, as the values of Table-1 are based on these equations.
Finding the Design values of Characteristic Strength
As per clause 2.4.1, Design values of a strength property shall be calculated as:

International Design Codes Manual — 303

Where X is design value of strength property, X characteristic value of strength
d k
property and g is partial factor for material properties.
m
The member resistance in timber structure is calculated in STAAD according to the
procedures outlined in EC5. This depends on several factors such as cross
sectional properties, different load and material factors, timber strength class, load
duration class, service class and so on. The methodology adopted in STAAD for
calculating the member resistance is explained here.
Check for Tension stresses
If the direction of applied axial tension is parallel to the direction of timber grain
alignment, the following formula should be checked:

If the direction of applied axial tension is perpendicular to the direction of timber
grain alignment, the following formula should be checked:

Check for Compression stresses
If the direction of applied axial compression is parallel to the direction of timber
grain alignment, the following formula should be checked:

If the direction of applied axial compression is perpendicular to the direction of
timber grain alignment, the following formula should be checked:

Check for Bending stresses
If members are under bending stresses, the following conditions should be
satisfied. Please note that in STAAD z-z axis is the strong axis:

304 — STAAD.Pro

Check for Shear stresses
Horizontal stresses are calculated and checked against allowable values:

Check for Torsional stresses
Members subjected to torsional stress should satisfy the following equation:

Check for combined Bending and Axial tension
Members subjected to combined action of bending and axial tension stress should
satisfy the following conditions. Please note that in STAAD z-z axis is the strong
axis:

Check for combined Bending and axial Compression
If members are subjected to bending and axial compression stress, following
equations should be satisfied. Please note that in STAAD z-z axis is the strong axis:

International Design Codes Manual — 305

Stability check

A. Column Stability check
The relative slenderness ratios should be calculated as follows. Please note
that in STAAD z-z axis is the strong axis:

If both l and l are less than or equal to 0.3 the following conditions
rel,z rel,y
should be satisfied:

In other cases, the following conditions should be satisfied. Please note that in
STAAD z-z axis is the strong axis:

306 — STAAD.Pro

Where the symbols Kcz and Kcy are defined as follows.

Please note that in STAAD z-z axis is the strong axis:

The value of b incorporated in the software is the one for solid timber ,i.e. 0.2.
c

B. Beam Stability check
If members are subjected to only a moment about the strong axis z, the stresses
should satisfy the following equation:

Where a combination of moment about the strong z-axis and compressive force
exists, the stresses should satisfy the following equation:

International Design Codes Manual — 307

308 — STAAD.Pro

5C.3 Design Parameters
Design parameters communicate specific design decisions to the program. They are
set to default values to begin with and may be altered to suite the particular
structure.
Depending on the model being designed, the user may have to change some or all
of the parameter default values. Some parameters are unit dependent and when
altered, the new setting must be compatible with the active “unit” specification.

Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number till
it is specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.

Table 5C.1 - Timber Design EC 5: Part 1-1 Parameters
Parameter Default
Description
Name Value
SCL 3 Service Class (Ref. Cl.2.3.1.3)
¨ 1 = Class 1, Moisture content <=
12%
¨ 2 = Class 2, Moisture content <=
20%
¨ 3 = Class 3, Moisture content >
20%
LDC 1 Load Duration Class (Ref.
Cl.2.3.1.2), required to get the K-
MOD value from Table – 3.1.
¨ 1 - Permanent action
¨ 2 - Long term action
¨ 3 - Medium term action
¨ 4 - Short term action
¨ 5 - Instantaneous action

International Design Codes Manual — 309

Parameter Default
Description
Name Value
TSC 6 (C24) Timber Strength Class (Ref.
Reference EN338 – 2003)
Softwood: 1 = C14, 2 = C16, 3 =
C18, 4 = C20, 5 = C22, 6 = C24, 7
= C27, 8 = C30, 9 = C35, 10 = C40,
11 = C45, 12 = C50.
Hardwood: 13 = D30, 14 = D35,
15 = D40, 16 = D50, 17 = D60, 18
= D70.
This TSC definition will calculate
the corresponding characteristic
strength values using the
equations as given in BS-EN-338,
Annex - A.
ALPHA 0.0 Angle of inclination of load to the
grain alignment. (Ref. Cl.6.1.1,
Cl.6.1.2, Cl.6.1.3, Cl.6.1.4)
0.0 = Load parallel to grain,
90.0 = Load Perpendicular to grain
KC90 1.0 Factor taking into account the load
configuration, possibility of splitting
and degree of compressive
deformation. (Ref. Cl.6.1.5-(2))
¨ Range: 1.0 £ KC90 £ 4.0
¨ Other than the default value, user
may specify any value within the
range, depending on load-position,
load-dispersion, contact length at
support locations etc.

310 — STAAD.Pro

Parameter Default
Description
Name Value
MTYP 0 Member Type: Beam/Column. (Ref.
Cl.6.3.2, Cl.6.3.3)
¨ 0 – Not defined by the user –
checks both clauses (Default).
¨ 1 – Beam Member
¨ 2 – Column Member
This information is required to find
which stability check will be
performed as per the Cl 6.3
according to the Member Type.
KLEF 1.0 Effective Length Factor to check
(Member Lateral Torsional Buckling. (Ref.
Length) Table 6.1)
Span of the beam depending on the
support conditions and load
configurations. The user will put the
appropriate value from the Table 6.1.
Required only for MTYP has a value
of 1 (Beam).
KLY 1.0 Effective Length Factor for Local-y-
(Member axis. (Ref. Cl.6.3.2), for the
Length) computation of the relative
slenderness ratios.
KLZ 1.0 Effective Length Factor for Local-z-
(Member axis. (Ref. Cl.6.3.2), for the
Length) computation of the relative
slenderness ratios.

International Design Codes Manual — 311

Parameter Default
Description
Name Value
TRACK 0 Degree/Level of Details of design
output results.
Available options: 0 / 1 / 2
RATIO 1.0 Permissible ratio of actual to
allowable value.
SERV No Default Defines the load case numbers –
Value those are to be considered for
serviceability (deflection) check.
¨ The list of this parameter must
contain only the valid load-case
numbers.
¨ Deflection checks will be performed
only on those load-case results.
¨ If this parameter is not provided,
then in-spite of the presence of the
parameter DFF – the deflection check
will NOT be performed.
DFF No Default  “Deflection Length” / Max. Allowable
Value Net Final Local Deflection.
In this case, deflection check will be
performed, if both the parameters
SERV and DFF are present with
specific values. For appropriate range
of values, please refer Cl.7.2 (Table
7.2)
DJ1 Start node number for a physical
member under consideration for
Deflection Check.

312 — STAAD.Pro

Parameter Default
Description
Name Value
DJ2 End node number for a physical
member under consideration for
Deflection Check.

5C.4 Verification Problems
In the next few pages are included 2 verification examples for reference purposes.
Verification problem No. 1
Verification problem No. 2

Verification Problem No. 1

A Timber Column of length 1.0 meter, having c/s dimension of 73 mm X 198 mm, is
subjected to an axial compressive force of 50.0 kN.
Design of the member - ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE
Material properties:
Timber class: C24
Service classes: Class 2, moisture content <= 20%
Load duration classes: Medium-term
Cross section properties:
Length of the member is 1 m.
Rectangular cross section, b = 73 mm, h = 198 mm,
Effective cross sectional area A = 14454 mm²,
Radius of gyration of cross section about y-axis r = 21 mm,
y
Radius of gyration of cross section about z-axis r = 57 mm,
z
Section modulus of cross section about z-axis: W = 4.770x105 mm³
z
Section modulus of cross section about y-axis: W = 1.759x105 mm³
y
Characteristic material properties for timber:
Modification factor Kmod = 0.80 …from table 3.1
Material factors g = 1.30 … from table 2.3
m
f = 21.00 N/mm²,
c0k

International Design Codes Manual — 313

F = (Kmod.f )/g = (0.80x21.00)/1.30 = 12.92 N/mm²[Cl 2.4.1(1)P]
c0d c0k m
Cross section loads:
F = 50.000 kN
x
Compression parallel to the grain:
S = (1000xF )/A = (1000x50.000)/14454
c0d x
= 3.46N/mm² < 12.92N/mm² (F )
c0d
The ratio of actual compressive stress to allowable compressive strength:
= 3.46 / 12.92 = 0.268 < 1.0 [Cl. 6.1.4.(1)P]
Check for Slenderness:
Slenderness ratios: l = (1000/57) = 17.54 and l = (1000/21) = 47.62
z y
E 1.1031 kN/m2
0,mean =
As timber grade is C24, i.e., Soft Wood, E = 0.67 * E
0,05 0,mean
… [Annex A,EN 338:2003]

Since, l is greater than 0.3, following conditions should be satisfied:
rel,y

314 — STAAD.Pro

For Rectangular cross section Km = 0.70. The member is subjected to Compression
only, so actual bending stress is zero.

Hence the critical ratio is 0.326 < 1.0 and the section is safe.
The Input File:
STAAD SPACE
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 1.0 0 0;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 2;
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC WOOD

International Design Codes Manual — 315

E 1.10316e+007
POISSON 0.15
DENSITY 0.00231749
ALPHA 5.5e-006
END DEFINE MATERIAL
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL WOOD MEMB 1
MEMBER PROPERTY
1 PRIS YD 0.198 ZD 0.073
SUPPORTS
1 FIXED
LOAD 1 LOADTYPE NONE TITLE LOAD CASE 1
JOINT LOAD
2 FX -50

PERFORM ANALYSIS
PARAMETER
CODE TIMBER EC5
ALPHA 0 ALL
LDC 3 ALL
SCL 2 ALL
TSC 6 ALL
TRACK 2 ALL
CHECK CODE ALL
FINISH
The member checking part of the output file:

316 — STAAD.Pro

Verification Problem No. 2

A Timber Column of length 1.0 meter, having c/s dimension of 73 mm X 198 mm, is
subjected to an axial compressive force of 5.0 kN and moments of 2.0 kN.m and
1.0 kN.m about its major and minor axes respectively.
Design of the member - ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE
Material properties:

Timber Strength Class: C24
Service classes: Class 2, moisture content <=20%
Load duration: Medium-term

Cross section properties:
Length of the member is 1 m.
Rectangular cross section, b = 73 mm, h = 198 mm,
Effective cross sectional area A = 14454 mm²,
Radius of gyration of cross section about y-axis r = 21 mm,
y
Radius of gyration of cross section about z-axis r = 57 mm,
z
Section modulus of cross section about z-axis: W = 4.770x105 mm³
z
Section modulus of cross section about y-axis: W = 1.759x105 mm³
y
Characteristic material properties for timber:

International Design Codes Manual — 317

Modification factor, Kmod = 0.80
Material factor g = 1.30
m
f = 21.00 N/mm², E = 7370 N/mm2,
c0k 0,05
F = Kmod.f /g = (0.80x21.00)/1.30 = 12.92N/mm²
c0d c0k m
f = 24.00 N/mm²,
myk
F = Kmod.f /g = (0.80x24.00)/1.30 = 14.77N/mm²
myd myk m
f = 24.00 N/mm²,
mzk
F = Kmod.f /g = (0.80x24.00)/1.30 = 14.77N/mm²
mzd mzk m
Cross section loads:
F = 5.000 kN, M = 2.000 kN.m, M = 1.000 kN.m
x z y
Check for Slenderness:
Slenderness ratios: l = (1000/57) = 17.54 and l = (1000/21) = 47.62
z y

Since, l is greater than 0.3, following conditions should be satisfied:
rel,y

318 — STAAD.Pro

For Rectangular cross section Km = 0.35 N/mm² c0d x S = (10 xM )/W = (106x2.000)/(1.19 N/mm² 6 mzd z z S = (10 xM )/W = (106x1.70 S = (1000F /A) = (1000x5. 2 0 1 0. The Input File: STAAD SPACE START JOB INFORMATION ENGINEER DATE 08-Jun-05 END JOB INFORMATION INPUT WIDTH 79 UNIT METER KN JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0. DEFINE MATERIAL START International Design Codes Manual — 319 .69 N/mm² 6 myd y y Hence the critical ratio is 0.000)/(4.000)/14454 = 0. MEMBER INCIDENCES 1 1 2.0 and the section is safe.616 < 1.770x105) = 4.759x105) = 5.

10316e+007 POISSON 0.198 ZD 0.15 DENSITY 0.5e-006 END DEFINE MATERIAL CONSTANTS MATERIAL WOOD MEMB 1 MEMBER PROPERTY 1 PRIS YD 0.00231749 ALPHA 5.0 MZ 2.Pro .0 MX 1. ISOTROPIC WOOD E 1.0 PERFORM ANALYSIS PARAMETER CODE TIMBER EC5 ALPHA 0 ALL LDC 3 ALL SCL 2 ALL TSC 6 ALL TRACK 2 ALL CHECK CODE ALL FINISH The member checking part of the output file: 320 — STAAD.073 SUPPORTS 1 FIXED LOAD 1 LOADTYPE NONE TITLE LOAD CASE 1 JOINT LOAD 2 FY -5.

International Design Codes Manual — 321 .

322 — STAAD.Pro .

The following example shows the required input: UNIT MM MEMBER PROPERTY International Design Codes Manual — 323 .ECCS203 6A. Section 6 Egyptian Codes 6A. columns and slabs according to ECCS 203. Given the width and depth of a section.Concrete Design Per Egyptian Code . The 2004 revision of the code is currently implemented. Egyptian Codes .1 Design Operations STAAD has the capability of performing design of concrete beams. STAAD will calculate the required reinforcement to resist the forces and moments.2 Member Dimensions Concrete members which will be designed by the program must have certain section properties input under the MEMBER PROPERTY command. 6A.

This is the way STAAD works for all codes. 1 3 TO 7 9 PRISM YD 450. ZD 250.3 Design Parameters The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform the design. the code recognizes that additional moments induced by deflection are present and states that these 'secondary' moments are accounted for by the design 324 — STAAD. In this section. These values may be changed to suit the particular design being performed. 6A.4 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Considerations STAAD provides the user with two methods of accounting for the slenderness effects in the analysis and design of concrete members. The first method is equivalent to the procedure presented in ECCS203-2004 equation 4-11. Default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for conventional design requirements. 11 13 PR YD 350. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again. Note: Once a parameter is specified.Pro . 6A. The following Beam Design Brief contains a complete list of the available parameters and their default values.

6-37 etc.25. Efforts have been made to meet the guideline for the curtailment of reinforcements as per ECCS203-2004... Currently.1.. shear and torsion. If the section dimensions are inadequate as a singly reinforced section. After the preliminary design. design of singly reinforced sections only is permitted.. such a message will be permitted in the output.6. 6A. Flexural design of beams is performed in two passes. For all these forces. reinforcing bars are chosen from the internal database in single or multiple layers. 0.5. Each of these sections is designed to resist both of these critical sagging and hogging moments... Design for Flexure Maximum sagging (creating tensile stress at the bottom face of the beam) and hogging (creating tensile stress at the top face) moments are calculated for all active load cases at each of the above mentioned sections.75.. In the first pass..8. In a PDELTA analysis..7.2. user has the choice of printing reinforcements provided by STAAD at 13 equally spaced sections from which the final detailed drawing can be prepared.formula in equation 6-38.4.. the additional moments induced in the structure are calculated. The total number of sections considered is 13( e. Final provisions of flexural reinforcements are made then. The entire flexure design is performed again in a second pass taking into account the changed effective depths of sections calculated on the basis of reinforcement provided after the preliminary design. which allows the effects of these second order moments to be considered in the analysis rather than the design. All of these sections are scanned to determine the design force envelopes. after solving the joint displacements of the structure.9 and 1). Although exact curtailment lengths are not mentioned explicitly in the design output (finally which will be more or less guided by the detailer taking into account of other practical consideration).3. This is the method used in the design for concrete in STAAD.. effective depths of the sections are determined with the assumption of single layer of assumed reinforcement and reinforcement requirements are calculated. Alternatively STAAD houses a PDELTA ANALYSIS facility. These can be compared to those calculated using the formulation of ECCS203-2004. International Design Codes Manual — 325 .g..5 Beam Design Beams are designed for flexure. all active beam loadings are pre scanned to identify the critical load cases at different sections of the beams.

The requirements of ECCS203-2004 equation 6-37.to 1. The loading which produces maximum reinforcement is called the critical load and is displayed. Two-legged stirrups are provided to take care of the balance shear forces acting on these sections. All active loadings are tested to calculate reinforcement. Shear capacity calculation at different sections without the shear reinforcement is based on the actual tensile reinforcement provided by STAAD program.6 Column Design Columns are designed for axial force and biaxial bending at the ends. Shear design is performed at 13 equally spaced sections (0.6-41 etc are followed.) for the maximum shear forces amongst the active load cases and the associated torsional moments. The following represents a sample Beam Design Output: 6A.Design for Shear Shear reinforcement is calculated to resist both shear forces and torsional moments.6-38.Pro . with the user having control on the effective length parameters. Bracing conditions are 326 — STAAD.

The following represents a sample Column Design output: International Design Codes Manual — 327 .controlled by using the BRACE parameter. The program will then decide whether or not the column is short or slender and whether it requires additional moment calculations.

The following represents a sampleShear Design Output: 328 — STAAD.Pro .

Members are proportioned to resist the design loads without exceeding the allowable stresses and the most economic section is selected on the basis of least weight criteria. The design philosophy and procedural logistics for member selection and code checking are based upon the principles of allowable stress design. 205(Min Dec #279/2001) design in STAAD. Two major failure modes are recognized: failure by overstressing. The code checking part of the program checks stability and strength requirements and reports the critical loading condition and the governing code criteria. The flowing sections describe the salient features of the allowable stresses being calculated and the stability criteria being used.6B.Steel Design Per Egyptian Code # 205 6B. and failure by stability considerations. Egyptian Codes .1 General Comments This section presents some general statements regarding the implementation of Egyptian code of practice for structural steel construction and bridges Code No. It is generally assumed that the user will take care of the detailing requirements like provision of stiffeners and check the local effects such as flange buckling and web crippling. International Design Codes Manual — 329 .

s in MPa on the net effective area of the at sections shall not exceed: Clause: 2.6. f = minimum yield stress of steel in Mpa y Compressive Stress Allowable compressive stress on the gross section of axially loaded compression members shall not exceed the permissible stress calculated based on the following formula: (Clause: 2. The permissible stress in axial tension. will discuss the salient features of the allowable stresses specified by Egyptian Code: 205 and implemented in STAAD. and design limitations for the appropriate material under service conditions.6. allowable stresses. This section. Appropriate sections of Egyptian Code: 205 will be referenced during the discussion of various types of allowable stresses. multiplied by the appropriate factor of safety shall not exceed minimum guaranteed yield stress of the material.2. however.58 f t y where. as calculated in STAAD as per Egyptian Code: 205 is described below.6B.4) For all grade of steel: For l = kl/r ³ 100 330 — STAAD.2 Allowable Stresses The member design and code checking in STAAD are based upon the allowable stress design method as per Egyptian Code No.1 Axial Stress Tensile Stress The allowable tensile stress. The estimated stress on the net effective sectional area in various members. It is a method for proportioning structural members using design loads and forces. 205.2 F = 0. 6B. It would not be possible to describe every aspect of Egyptian Code: 205 in this manual.Pro .

ratio of the effective length to appropriate radius of gyration 6B.2 Bending Stress The allowable bending stress in a member subjected to bending is calculated based on the following formula: (Clause: 2.2. Compression flange is braced laterally at intervals exceeding L .5. F = Permissible stress in axial compression. in Mpa c f = Yield stress of steel. F = 7500/l2 c where.6.5 Compression F bc I. the allowable u bending stress in compression F will be taken as follows.6.5) The laterally unsupported length (Lu) of the compression flange is limited by F or F = 0.6.5 Tension F bt F = 0. in Mpa y l=l/r = Slenderness ratio of the member.64 f bt bc y Clause 2. for shallow thick flanged sections. bc i. where approximately the lateral tensional buckling stress is governed by the torsion strength given by: ii. where approximately the lateral torsional buckling stress governed by the buckling strength given by: International Design Codes Manual — 331 .5.58 F bt y Clause 2. For Deep flanged sections.

where. Compression on extreme fibers of channels bent about their major axis where. L = Effective laterally unsupported length of compression flange. u k = Effective length factor r = radius of gyration about minor axis of a section compressing the T compression web area (in cms) b  = Compression flange width f d = Total depth C = Coefficient depending on the type of load and support conditions as b given in table 2. 332 — STAAD.2 II.Pro .

in MPa y 6B.4 c f .3 Shear Stress Allowable shear stress calculations are based on Section 2. clause 2. q = 0. q = Allowable shear stress all 6B.f = Actual Bending stress about x and y-axes respectively.6. the gross section taken into consideration consists of the product of the total depth and the web thickness.35F all y where.3 of Egyptian code 205.2.F = Allowable compressive bending stress.6.5 bcx bcy International Design Codes Manual — 333 .F = Bending stress in tension bt F = Bending stress in compression bc f = Yield stress of steel.1 f = Actual compression stress ca F = Allowable compressive stress. clause 2.6. For shear on the web.7. bcx bcy F .4 Combined Stress Members subjected to both axial and bending stresses are proportioned accordingly to following Axial Compression and Bending All the members subjected to bending and axial compression are required to satisfy the equation of section 2.2.6.

In addition. that is. the program can select the most economical section. Channel etc. the lightest section. Table 5. governing load case.4 Code Checking The purpose of code checking is to verify whether the specified section is capable of satisfying applicable design code requirements. the critical condition.Pro . The code checking is based on the Egyptian code #205 requirements.7. If no sections are specified. Forces and moments at specified sections of the members are utilized for the code checking calculations.2 6B. In STAAD implementation of Egyptian code #205. location (distance from the start) and magnitudes of the governing forces and moments are also printed out. appropriate maximum slenderness ratio can be provided for each member.5 Member Selection STAAD is capable of performing design operations on specified members.) as originally specified by the user. Member selection may be performed with all types of steel 334 — STAAD. compression members will be checked against a maximum value of 180 and tension members will be checked against a maximum value of 300 6B. F . the code checking is based on forces and moments at the member ends. Once an analysis has been performed. Sections may be specified using the BEAM parameter or the SECTION command. which satisfies the applicable code requirements.F = Euler stress in t/cm2 Ex Ey C = Moment modification factor m Axial Tension and Bending All the members subject to bending and axial tension are required to satisfy the equation of section 2. The code checking output labels the members as PASSed or FAILed.6. 6B.1 of Egyptian code #205: summarizes the maximum slenderness ratios for different types of members. The section selected will be of the same type (I-Section. If no maximum slenderness ratio is provided.3 Stability Requirements Slenderness ratios are calculated for all members and checked against the appropriate maximum values.

The process of MEMBER SELECTION may be controlled using the parameters listed in Table 13B. the search for the lightest section is restricted to that profile.6 Tabulated Results of Steel Design For code checking or member selection. the program produces the result in a tabulated fashion as well as step by step procedure. whose properties are originally provided from user specified table. Design of Member No. Selection of members. 6B. If PROFILE parameter is provided. Up to three (3) profiles may be provided for any member with a section being selected from each one. 1 As Per Egyptian Steel Code 205 International Design Codes Manual — 335 . It may be noted that the parameters DMAX and DMIN may be used to specify member depth constraints for selection.1.sections and user provided tables. will be limited to sections in the user provided table. Member selection can not be performed on members whose cross sectional properties are specified as PRISMATIC.

1. allowable local d (Mandatory for deflection check) 336 — STAAD. SSY 0. DMIN 0.Pro .Egyptian Steel Design Code #205 Parameters Parameter Name Default Value Description FYLD 250 MPA Yield strength of steel.0 = No sidesway SSZ 0.1 . Search for the lightest section for the profile m DFF None "Deflection Length" / Maxm.0 Net section factor for tension members.85 for sidesway and Cm value in local y & z axes CMZ calculated for no sidesway MAIN 180 (Comp.0 0. Table 6B. PROFILE .25 KSI) NSF 1.0 = Sidesway in local y-axis. Minimum allowable depth.0 = design only for end moments and thos SECTION command.0 = calculate section forces at twelfth point each intermediate location and report the crit maximum. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again.0 0.0 Permissible ratio of the actual to allowable str BEAM 3. 1. Maximum allowable depth.) Allowable Kl/r for slenderness calculations for TMAIN 300 (Tension Memb) Allowable Kl/r for slenderness calculations for DMAX 100. CMY 0. (36. Note: Once a parameter is specified. RATIO 1.0 cm.0 Same as above except in local z-axis. This is the way STAAD works for all codes. Memb.0 cm.

1 Design Operations STAAD has the capabilities for performing design of concrete beams.L. International Design Codes Manual — 337 . have been used for simplicity. Table 7A. Default values.L 7A.1991.A.Concrete Design Per B. Given the width and depth (or diameter for circular columns) of a section. . STAAD will calculate the required reinforcing to resist the various input loads. French Codes .E.A.1 contains a complete list of available parameters and their default values.L. Design per B. These parameters not only act as a method to input required data for code calculations but give the engineer control over the actual design process. of commonly used numbers in conventional design practice. Section 7 French Codes 7A.L.E. 7A. is invoked by using the CODE BAEL command.A.E.A.E.2 Design Parameters The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform design per B. columns and slabs according to B.

Parameters Parameter Default Description Name Value FYMAIN * 300 Yield Stress for main reinforcing steel.0 will mean a print out.60mm).Pro . (Only considers shear . its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again. N/mm2 FYSEC * 300 Yield Stress for secondary reinforcing steel.0 Face of Support Location at end of beam. Note: Once a parameter is specified. A value of 1. (8mm . MINSEC 8 mm Minimum secondary reinforcement bar size.E. SFACE *0.60mm).L.use MEMBER OFFSET for bending).1 .0 Face of support location at start of beam.0 A factor by which the design moments will be magnified. MINMAIN 8 mm Minimum main reinforcement bar size. Value is mm automatically set to 20 mm for C35 and higher.0 Critical Moment will not be printed out with beam design report. (Note: Both SFACE and EFACE are input as positive numbers. This is the way STAAD works for all codes. MAXMAIN 50 mm Maximum main reinforcement bar size.French Concrete Design B. TRACK 0. Table 7A.60mm). MMAG 1. (8mm .).A. (8mm . EFACE *0. mm2 CLEAR * 20 Clearance of reinforcing bar. 338 — STAAD. N/mm2 FC * 30 N/ Concrete Yield Stress.

The first method is a procedure which takes into account second order effects. * These values must be provided in the units the user is currently using for input.3 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Consideration STAAD provides the user two methods of accounting for the slenderness effect in the analysis and design of concrete members. due to axial loads and deflections. DEPTH YD Depth of concrete member. The following example demonstrates the required input: UNIT MM MEMBER PROPERTIES 1 3 to 7 9 PRISM YD 450 ZD 300. by using PDELTA ANALYSIS. member forces are calculated which will require no user modification before beginning member design. This value defaults to ZD as provided under MEMBER PROPERTIES. The second method by which STAAD allows the user to account for the slenderness effect is through user supplied moment magnification factors. calculates the additional moments induced in the structure. STAAD. WIDTH ZD Width of the concrete member. Here the user approximates the additional moment by supplying a factor by which moments will be multiplied before beginning member design. after solving for the joint displacements of the structure. This value defaults to YD as provided under MEMBER PROPERTIES. 7A. 7A.4 Member Dimensions Concrete members that are to be designed by STAAD must have certain section properties input under the MEMBER PROPERTIES command. when the PDELTA ANALYSIS command is used. Here. International Design Codes Manual — 339 . Parameter Default Description Name Value NSECTION 10 Number of equally-spaced sections to be considered in finding critical moments for beam design. STAAD accounts for the secondary moments. Therefore.

with only depth and no width provided. The stirrups are assumed to be U-shaped for beams with no torsion.5 Beam Design Beam design includes both flexure and shear. Also note that moments of inertia may be provided. all active beam loadings are scanned to create moment and shear envelopes. will be assumed to be circular with a 300 mm diameter. In the above input. Example of Input Data for Beam Design: UNIT NEWTON MMS START CONCRETE DESIGN CODE BAEL FYMAIN 415 ALL FYSEC 415 ALL FC 35 ALL CLEAR 25 MEM 2 TO 6 MAXMAIN 40 MEMB 2 TO 6 SFACE 100 MEMB 7 TO 9 EFACE 100 MEMB 7 TO 9 TRACK 1. For both types of beam action.0 MEMB 7 TO 9 340 — STAAD. unless that number is redefined with the NSECTION parameter. Shear design includes critical shear values plus torsional moments. Note that area (AX) is not provided for these members. and closed hoops for beams subject to torsion. the user may provide them along with YD and ZD. with cut-off lengths calculated to include required development length. 11 13 PR YD 300. From these values.0 MEMB 2 TO 6 TRACK 2.Pro . the required positive and negative bar pattern is developed. and locate critical sections. From the critical moment values. the first set of members are rectangular (450 mm depth and 300 mm width) and the second set of members. 7A. stirrup sizes are calculated with proper spacing. but if not provided. If shear areas (AY & AZ) are to be considered in analysis. the program will calculate values from YD and ZD. The total number of sections considered is twelve.

All active loadings are tested to calculate reinforcement.40. The reinforcement required to resist Mx moment is denoted as longitudinal reinforcement and the reinforcement required to resist My moment is denoted as transverse reinforcement. The command specifications are in accordance with Chapter II. rectangular and circular sections. it must be modeled using finite elements.6 Column Design Columns are designed for axial force and biaxial moments at the ends. Column design is done for square. Example of Input Data for Column Design: UNIT NEWTON MMS START CONCRETE DESIGN CODE BAEL FYMAIN 415 ALL FC 35 ALL CLEAR 25 MEMB 2 TO 6 MMAG 1. the reinforcement is always assumed to be equally distributed on each side. To design a slab or wall.7 Slab/Wall Design Slab and walls are designed per BAEL 1983 specifications. The parameters FYMAIN.5 MEMB 4 5 MAXMAIN 40 MEMB 2 TO 6 DESIGN COLUMN 2 TO 6 END CONCRETE DESIGN 7A. DESIGN BEAM 2 TO 9 END CONCRETE DESIGN 7A. For rectangular and square sections. Elements are designed for the moments Mx and My. That means the total number of bars will always be a multiple of four (4). FC. This may cause slightly conservative results in some cases. and CLEAR listed in Table International Design Codes Manual — 341 . section 6. These moments are obtained from the element force output (see Chapter 2 of the Technical Reference Manual). The loading which produces maximum reinforcement is called the critical load.

Two major categories of limit-states are recognized: ultimate and serviceability. Example of Input Data for Slab/Wall Design: UNIT NEWTON MMS START CONCRETE DESIGN CODE BAEL FYMAIN 415 ALL FC 25 ALL CLEAR 40 ALL DESIGN ELEMENT 15 TO 20 END CONCRETE DESIGN 7B. French Codes .Steel Design Per the French Code 7B.1 are relevant to slab design.Pro . Appropriate load and resistance factors are used so that 342 — STAAD. Structures are designed and proportioned according to the limit states of which they would become unfit for their intended use. Other parameters mentioned in Table 5A.1 are not applicable to slab design. that in serviceability is deflection. 5A." The design philosophy embodied in this specification is based on the concept of limit state design. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state design are strength and stability.1 General Comments STAAD implementation of French Steel Design is based on Centre Technique Industriel de la Construction Metallique publication entitled "Design Rules for Structural Steelwork.

shear and bending in calculating section capacities.5 and 4. procedures of section 4. members are proportioned to resist the design loads without exceeding the limit states of strength. Moment capacities about both axes are calculated using the procedures of sections 4. The code checking portion of the program verifies that code requirements for each selected section are met and also identifies the governing criteria.2 Basis of Methodology The "Design Rules for Structural Steelwork (Revision 80)" permits the usage of elastic analysis.3 are used. stability and serviceability. linear elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments in the members. the most economic section is selected on the basis of the least weight criteria. in STAAD. Accordingly. The parameter UNL (see Table 6B. The next few sections describe the salient features of STAAD implementation of "Design Rules for Structural Steelwork. strength and stability considerations are based on the principles of plastic behavior.uniform reliability is achieved for all steel structures under various loading conditions and at the same time the chances of limits being surpassed are acceptably remote.3 Member Capacities The member strengths are calculated in STAAD according to the procedures outlined in section 4 of this specification. Lateral torsional buckling is considered in calculating ultimate twisting moment per section 5. For axial compression capacity. Note that the program automatically considers co-existence of axial force. as augmented by the designer in specification of allowable member depths. However. Note that this length is also referred to as twisting length. or other related parameters. formulas of section 5." A detailed description of the design process. desired section type. is available in the specification document.6. International Design Codes Manual — 343 . 7B.1) must be used to specify the unsupported length of the compression flange for a laterally unsupported member.22 of the specification. In the STAAD implementation. along with its underlying concepts and assumptions. Slenderness calculations are made and overall geometric stability is checked for all members.2 are followed. Thus. For axial tension capacity. Axial compression buckling and lateral torsional buckling are taken into consideration for calculation of axial compression resistance and flexural resistance of members. 7B.

some or all of these parameter values may be changed to exactly model the physical structure. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.55 and 5. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again.1 French Steel Design Parameters Parameter Default Description Name Value KY 1. KZ 1. 7B. LY Member Length to calculate slenderness ratio Length about Y-axis for axial compression.0 Net section factor for tension members.32 are implemented for interaction of axial forces and bending. These parameters communicate design decisions from the engineer to the program. NSF 1. Usually.Pro . Note: Once a parameter is specified.7B. 344 — STAAD. Depending on the particular design requirements.0 K value for axial compression buckling about local Y-axis. this is the minor axis.4 Combined Axial Force and Bending The procedures of sections 4. FYLD 250.0 MPa Yield strength of steel. Table 7B. LZ Member Length to calculate slenderness ratio Length about Z-axis for axial compression. this is the major axis.1 may be used to control the design procedure. The default parameter values have been selected as frequently used numbers for conventional design. thus allowing the engineer to control the design process to suit an application's specific needs. UNL Member Unsupported length of compression Length flange for calculating moment resistance.0 K value for axial compression buckling about local Z-axis. Appropriate interaction equations are used and the governing criterion is determined. Usually.5 Design Parameters The design parameters outlined in Table 6B.

RATIO 1. denoting starting point for of member calculation of "Deflection Length" (See Note 1) DJ2 End Joint of Joint No. DMIN 0.0 = Print all design strengths. denoting end point for cal- member culation of "Deflection Length" (See Note 1) International Design Codes Manual — 345 . TRACK 0. DFF None "Deflection Length" divided by the (Mandatory Maximum allowable local deflection for deflection check) DJ1 Start Joint Joint No. BEAM 0. and use maximum Mz for design.0 cm.0 = calculate moments at tenth points long the beam. 1.0 Same as above provided as a fraction of member length. Maximum allowable depth (used in member selection).0 0. 1.0 0.0 cm.0 Permissible ratio of actual load effect and design strength. Parameter Default Description Name Value UNF 1. DMAX 100. Minimum allowable depth (used in member selection).0 = design only for end moments and those at locations specified by SECTION command.0 = Suppress printing of all design strengths.

Parameter Default Description Name Value SAME* 0.7 Tabulated Results of Steel Design Results of code checking and member selection are presented in the output file in a tabular format. table 5. table 5. then the selected section will be an equal angle and vice versa for unequal angles.2 and 5. the critical twist- ing moment and as shown in CM 66 Addendum 80. For general information on these options. For information on specification of these commands.6 Code Checking and Member Selection Both code checking and member selection options are available in the STAAD.47.Pro . if the original section is an equal angle.47.3.71 to 4. 7B.5 and 2.0 to 1. usual range from 0.21 in the calculation of M(D). C1 1. 346 — STAAD.0 = Try only those sections with a similar name as original.6.0 = Try every section of the same type as original 1. refer to the Technical Reference sections 2.56 *For angles. e.g. usual range from 0.0 Parameter used in clause 5.Pro implementation of CM 66 (Revn. 0.21 in the calculation of M(D). if the original is an HEA 100. the critical twist- ing moment and as shown in CM 66 Addendum 80.10 C2 1. even if there are HEM’s in the same table. 7B. then only HEA sections will be selected. 80).0 Parameter used in clause 5. refer to the Technical reference manual sections 5.0 Controls the sections to try during a SELECT process.

l Specify design parameter values. 80) specification which governed the design.0 ALL International Design Codes Manual — 347 .2 MEMBER 3 4 RATIO 0. The operations to perform a design are: l Specify the members and the load cases to be considered in the design.Please note the following: COND CRITIQUE refers to the section of the CM 66 (Revn. angle. composite beams and code checking of prismatic properties.0 MEMBER 7 KY 1. S. M. The following is a detailed description of printed items: PC = Member Compression Capacity TR = Member Tension Capacity MUZ = Member Moment Capacity (about z-axis) MUY = Member Moment Capacity (about y-axis) VPZ = Member Shear Capacity (z-axis) VPY = Member Shear Capacity (y-axis) STAAD contains a broad set of facilities for designing structural members as individual components of an analyzed structure. if different from the default values.9 ALL TRACK 1. channel. Currently STAAD supports steel design of wide flange.0. Sample Input data for Steel Design: UNIT METER PARAMETER CODE FRENCH NSF 0. The member design facilities provide the user with the ability to carry out a number of different design operations. If the TRACK parameter is set to 1. These facilities may be used selectively in accordance with the requirements of the design problem. HP shapes.85 ALL UNL 10. double angle. l Specify whether to perform code checking or member selection. double channel. These operations may be repeated by the user any number of times depending upon the design requirements. calculated member capacities will be printed. beams with cover plate.

An example of the member property specification in an input file is provided at the end of this section.Pro . If called for. Following are the descriptions of different types of sections.8 Built-in French Steel Section Library The following information is provided for use when the built-in steel tables are to be referenced for member property specification. 3 5 TA ST HEA120A 7 10 TA ST HEM140 13 14 TA ST HEB100 IPN Shapes The designation for the IPN shapes is similar to that for the IPE shapes. IPE Shapes These shapes are designated in the following way. A complete listing of the sections available in the built-in steel section library may be obtained by using the tools of the graphical user interface. the properties are also used for member design. CHECK CODE ALL 7B. shear deformation is always considered for these members. 10 15 TA ST IPE140 20 TO 30 TA ST IPEA120 33 36 TO 46 BY 2 TA ST IPER180 HE shapes HE shapes are specified as follows. These properties are stored in a database file. 25 TO 35 TA ST IPN200 23 56 TA ST IPN380 348 — STAAD. Since the shear areas are built into these tables.

5 In the above set of commands. For example.T Shapes Tee sections are not input by their actual designations. International Design Codes Manual — 349 . type specification "RA" (reverse angle) should be used instead of ST. This specification may be used when the local Z axis corresponds to the z-z axis specified in Chapter 2. If the local Y axis corresponds to the z-z axis.5 length units between the channels. The letter D in front of the section name will specify a double channel. are available.7 The above section signifies an angle with legs of length 30mm and a leg thickness of 2. with or without a spacing between them.7mm. 11 TA D UAP150 17 TA D UAP250A SP 0. Member 17 is a double channel UAP250A with a spacing of 0. The standard angle section is specified as follows: 16 20 TA ST L30X30X2. 1 TO 5 TA ST UAP100 6 TO 10 TA ST UPN220 11 TO 15 TA ST UPN240A 16 TO 20 TA ST UAP250A Double U Channels Back to back double channels. but instead by referring to the I beam shapes from which they are cut. 1 5 TA T IPE140 2 8 TA T HEM120 U Channels Shown below is the syntax for assigning 4 different names of channel sections. Angles Two types of specification may be used to describe an angle. member 11 is a back to back double channel UAP150 with no spacing in between.

75 Tubes (Rectangular or Square Hollow Sections) Section names of tubes. width and wall thickness as shown below.6 37 39 TA LD L80X40X6 43 TO 47 TA LD L80X80X6. 64 78 TA ST TUB50252. width of 100mm and a wall thickness of 8. 33 35 TA SD L30X20X4 SP 0.0. width of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2. width of 6 length units.0" in the thickness is part of the section name. Members 66 and 73 are tubes with a depth of 200mm. will be performed for TUBE sections specified in this way.Pro .5 is a tube that has a depth of 8 length units. For example. either SD or LD will serve the purpose. and a wall thickness of 0.5 SP 0. just like angles. Only code checking.0 TH 0. In case of an equal angle. no member selection. Unlike angles.7 66 73 TA ST TUB2001008. 17 21 TA RA L25X25X4 22 24 TA RA L100X100X6.5 length units.0 WT 6. 6 TA ST TUBE DT 8.0 Members 64 and 78 are tubes with a depth of 50mm.5 Note that if the leg thickness is a round number such as 4. in front of the angle size. only the number 4 appears in the section name.7mm. 350 — STAAD. Tubes can also be input by their dimensions instead of by their table designations. the ". consist of the depth. the decimal part is not part of the section name. Double Angles Short leg back to back or long leg back to back double angles can be specified by means of input of the words SD or LD.0mm. respectively.

1 TO 9 TA ST PIPE OD 25. use PIP followed by numerical value of the diameter and thickness of the section in mm omitting the decimal portion of the value provided for the diameter. SAMPLE FILE CONTAINING FRENCH SHAPES STAAD SPACE UNIT METER KN JOINT COORD 1 0 0 0 15 140 0 0 MEMB INCI 1 1 2 14 UNIT CM MEMBER PROPERTIES FRENCH * IPE SHAPES 1 TA ST IPEA120 * IPN SHAPES 2 TA ST IPN380 *HE SHAPES 3 TA ST HEA200 * T SHAPES International Design Codes Manual — 351 . For example.0 specifies a pipe with outside dia. Only code checking.6 3 64 78 TA ST PIP21912. Circular hollow sections may also be provided by specifying the outside and inside diameters of the section. having a wall thickness of 12.5mm. Members 3. of 25 length units and inside dia.5 Members 8 to 28 are pipes 42.0 ID 20. having a wall thickness of 2.1mm in dia. 64 and 78 are pipes 219.6mm. no member selection will be performed if this type of specification is used.Pipes (Circular Hollow Sections) To designate circular hollow sections. of 20 length units. 8 TO 28 TA ST PIP422. The following example illustrates the designation.4mm in dia.

SHORT LEGS BACK * TO BACK 9 TA SD L30X20X4 SP 0.6 * PIPES (CIRCULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS) 14 TA ST PIPE OD 25.5 * ANGLES 7 TA ST L30X30X2.Pro .0 TH 0.75 * TUBES (RECTANGULAR OR SQUARE * HOLLOW SECTIONS) 11 TA ST TUB50252.7 * REVERSE ANGLES 8 TA RA L25X25X4 * DOUBLE ANGLES .25 * DOUBLE ANGLES .0 ID 20.5 * PIPES (CIRCULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS) 13 TA ST PIP422.7 * TUBES (RECTANGULAR OR SQUARE * HOLLOW SECTIONS) 12 TA ST TUBE DT 8.LONG LEGS BACK * TO BACK 10 TA LD L80X40X6 SP 0.0 WT 6. 4 TA T HEM120 * U CHANNELS 5 TA ST UAP100 * DOUBLE U CHANNELS 6 TA D UAP150 SP 0.0 PRINT MEMB PROP FINI 352 — STAAD.

the details regarding placement of the reinforcement on the cross section are also reported in the output. German Codes . Design for a member involves calculation of the amount of reinforcement required for the member. Square and Circular) International Design Codes Manual — 353 . Slab design is also available but this follows the requirements of Baumann.Prismatic (Rectangular & Square) For Columns . For Beams . In addition. which is the basis for Eurocode 2.Concrete Design Per DIN 1045 8A. Section 8 German Codes 8A.2 Section Types for Concrete Design The following types of cross sections for concrete members can be designed.1 Design Operations STAAD has the capabilities of performing concrete design based on the DIN 1045 - November 1989.Prismatic (Rectangular. Calculations are based on the user specified properties and the member forces obtained from the analysis. 8A. Munich.

4 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Considerations Slenderness effects are extremely important in designing compression members. The first method is equivalent to the procedure presented in DIN 1045 17. Secondary moments are caused by the interaction of the axial loads and the relative end displacements of a member. Also.4. This method has been adopted in the column design in STAAD per the DIN code. ZD 250. 11 13 PR YD 350. There are two options by which the slenderness effect can be accommodated. The axial loads and joint displacements are first determined from an elastic stiffness analysis and the secondary moments are then evaluated. all the combinations of loading must be provided as primary load cases and not as load combinations. the first set of members are rectangular (450 mm depth and 250mm width) and the second set of members. This is due to the fact that load combinations are just algebraic combinations of forces and moments.Pro .4 which is used as the basis for commonly used design charts considering e/d and sk/d for conditions where the slenderness moment exceeds 70.3 Member Dimensions Concrete members which will be designed by the program must have certain section properties input under the MEMBER PROPERTY command. The column is designed for the total moment which is the sum of 354 — STAAD. with only depth and no width provided. The second option is to compute the secondary moments through an analysis.5 for dead load etc.4. 8A. note that the proper factored loads (like 1. To perform this type of analysis. use the command PDELTA ANALYSIS instead of PERFORM ANALYSIS in the input file.) should be provided by the user. The following example shows the required input: UNIT MM MEMBER PROPERTY 1 3 TO 7 9 PRISM YD 450. STAAD does not factor the loads automatically.3/17. will be assumed to be circular with 350mm diameter. It is absolutely imperative that the user not provide the cross section area (AX) as an input.8A. whereas a primary load case is revised during the P-delta analysis based on the deflections. The user must note that to take advantage of this analysis. In the above input.

8. effective depths of the sections are determined with the assumption of single layer of assumed reinforcement and reinforcement requirements are calculated. is carried by reinforcement. After the preliminary design. The total number of sections considered is 13 (e. All of these sections are scanned to determine the design force envelopes. Currently. . the user has the choice of printing reinforcements provided by STAAD at 13 equally spaced sections from which the final detailed drawing can be prepared.. The capacity of the concrete in shear and torsion is determined at the location of design and the balance.4. 8A. . For all these forces. shear and torsion. In the first pass. Flexural design of beams is performed in two passes.3. . . reinforcing bars are chosen from the internal database in single or multiple layers. The secondary moments can be compared to those calculated using the charts of DIN 1045.5. If the section dimensions are inadequate as a singly reinforced section. Design for Flexure Maximum sagging (creating tensile stress at the bottom face of the beam) and hogging (creating tensile stress at the top face) moments are calculated for all active load cases at each of the above mentioned sections. .5 Beam Design Beams are designed for flexure.the primary and secondary forces. The maximum shear forces from amongst the active load cases and the associated torsional moments are used in the design. such a message will be printed in the output.9 and 1). The entire flexural design is performed again in a second pass taking into account the changed effective depths of sections calculated on the basis of reinforcement provided after the preliminary design.7.6. Each of these sections is designed to resist these critical sagging and hogging moments.25.g. 0.75. Final provisions of flexural reinforcements are made then. Although exact curtailment lengths are not mentioned explicitly in the design output (finally which will be more or less guided by the detailer taking into account of other practical considerations). .1. design of singly reinforced sections only is permitted. all active beam loadings are prescanned to identify the critical load cases at different sections of the beams. .2. Shear and torsional design is performed at the start and end sections of the member at a distance "d" away from the node of the member where "d" is the effective depth calculated from flexural design. . . Design for Shear and Torsion Shear design in STAAD conforms to the specifications of section 17. Efforts have been made to meet the guideline for the curtailment of reinforcements as per the DIN code.5 of DIN 1045. It is assumed International Design Codes Manual — 355 . . . if any. Shear reinforcement is calculated to resist both shear forces and torsional moments.

Pro . This means that the slenderness will be evaluated along with e/d to meet the requirements of DIN 1045 section 17. The requirements of DIN 1045- figure 13. Stirrups are assumed to be U-shaped for beams with no torsion. Two-legged stirrups are provided to take care of the balance shear forces acting on these sections.1.3 and 17. Example of Input Data for Beam Design UNIT NEWTON MMS START CONCRETE DESIGN CODE GERMAN FYMAIN 415 ALL FYSEC 415 ALL FC 35 ALL CLEAR 25 MEM 2 TO 6 MAXMAIN 40 MEMB 2 TO 6 TRACK 1. and closed hoops for beams subject to torsion.that no bent-up bars are available from the flexural reinforcement to carry and "balance" shear.4. That means the total number of bars will always be a multiple of four (4).6 Column Design Columns are designed for axial forces and biaxial moments at the ends. is implemented in the design.4. rectangular and circular sections. Column design is done for square. for calculating the equilibrium equations for rectangular and circular sections from first principles. The user has control of the effective length (sk) in each direction by using the ELZ and ELY parameters as described on Table 8A.4. The loading which yields maximum reinforcement is called the critical load.0 MEMB 2 TO 9 DESIGN BEAM 2 TO 9 END CONCRETE DESIGN 8A. All active load cases are tested to calculate reinforcement. Square and rectangular columns are designed with reinforcement distributed on all four sides equally. This may cause slightly conservative results in some cases. 356 — STAAD. The TRACK parameter may be used to obtain the design details in various levels of descriptivity.

The other parameters shown in Table 7A. SRA  Parameter which denotes the angle of direction of the required transverse reinforcement relative to the direction of the longitudinal reinforcement for the calculation of BAUMANN design forces. Elements are designed for the moments Mx and My. 4. Example of Input Data for Column Design UNIT NEWTON MMS START CONCRETE DESIGN CODE GERMAN FYMAIN 415 ALL FC 35 ALL CLEAR 25 MEMB 2 TO 6 MAXMAIN 40 MEMB 2 TO 6 DESIGN COLUMN 2 TO 6 END CONCRETE DESIGN 8A. This is considered the same on both top and bottom surfaces of the element. BAUMANN equations International Design Codes Manual — 357 . The command specifications are in accordance with Chapter 2 and Chapter 6 of the Technical Reference Manual. it must first be modeled using finite elements and analysed. Slabs are designed to specifications as described by BAUMANN of MUNICH which is the basis for Eurocode 2. FC  Concrete grade 3.1 are not applicable to slab design. FYMAIN  Yield stress for all reinforcing steel 2. The following parameters are those applicable to slab design: 1. The reinforcement required to resist the Mx moment is denoted as longitudinal reinforcement and the reinforcement required to resist the My moment is denoted as transverse reinforcement. CLEAR  Distance from the outer surface of the element to the edge of the bar.7 Slab Design To design a slab. These moments are obtained from the element force output (see Chapter 2 of the Technical Reference Manual).

Default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for conventional design requirements. Table 8A. The resulting Mx* and My* moments are calculated and shown in the design format. Table 8A. This is the way STAAD works for all codes. resolved as an axial force. Applicable to shear and torsion reinforcement in beams FC 25N/mm2 Concrete Yield Stress / cube strength MINMAIN 16mm Minimum main reinforcement bar size Acceptable bar sizes: 6 8 10 12 14 16 20 25 32 40 50 358 — STAAD. Orthogonal or skew reinforcement may be considered. It is necessary to declare length and force units as Millimeter and Newton before performing the concrete design. the design will be based on Mx and My forces which are obtained from the STAAD analysis. 8A.If the default value of zero is used. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again.1 of this manual contains a complete list of the available parameters and their default values. These values may be changed to suit the particular design being performed. If SRA is set to -500. The longitudinal bar is the layer closest to the slab exterior face. Note: Once a parameter is specified.1 . If however a skew is to be considered.Pro .German Concrete Design Parameters Parameter Default Description Name Value FYMAIN 420 N/mm2 Yield Stress for main reinforcement (For slabs.8 Design Parameters The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform the design. it is 500N/mm2 for both directions) FYSEC 420N/mm2 Yield Stress for secondary reinforcement a. The design of the slab considers a fixed bar size of 10mm in the longitudinal direction and 8mm in the transverse. These new design moments allow the Mxy moment to be considered when designing the section. The SRA parameter (Set Reinforcement Angle) can be manipulated to introduce resolved BAUMANN forces into the design replacing the pure Mx and My moments. an orthogonal layout will be assumed. an angle is given in degrees measured from the local element X axis anticlockwise (positive).

MAXMAIN 50mm Maximum required reinforcement bar size. (NOTE: Both SFACE & EFACE must be positive numbers.) TRACK 0.0 = For beams gives area of steel required at intermediate sections. DEPTH YD Depth of concrete member.0 0. (Only applicable for shear .0 Factor by which column design moments are magnified for column design NSECTION 10 Number of equally-spaced sections to be considered in finding critical moment for beam design. Thedefault International Design Codes Manual — 359 .0 Face of support location at end of beam. CLEAR 25mm Clear cover for reinforcement measured from concrete surface to closest bar perimeter. measured from the end joint. Applicable to shear and torsion reinforcement in beams. For columns gives a detailed table of output with additional moments calculated. (see NSECT) MMAG 1. measured from the start joint. WIDTH ZD Width of concrete member. The upper limit is 20.0 = For beam gives min/max steel % and spacing.Parameter Default Description Name Value MINSEC 8mm Minimum secondary reinforcement bar size. This value default is as provided as ZD in MEMBER PROPERTIES. 2. 1. SFACE 0.use MEMBER OFFSET for bending) EFACE 0. Acceptable bars are per MINMAIN above.0 = Critical Moment will not be printed with beam design report.0 Face of support location at start of beam.

Users are recommended to adopt the following steps in performing the steel design: 1) Specify the geometry and loads and perform the analysis.Pro .Steel Design Per the DIN Code 8B. The design philosophy and procedural logistics are based on the principles of elastic analysis and allowable stress design. The code checking part of the program also checks the slenderness requirements and the stability criteria. 2) Specify the design parameter values if different from the default values. A is the angle in degrees. The following sections describe the salient features of the design approach. ELZ 1.0 Member length factor about local Z direction for column design. SRA 0. German Codes .0 = Orthogonal reinforcement layout without considering torsional moment Mxy -slabs only -500 = Orthogonal reinforcement layout considering Mxy A = Skew angle considered in BAUMANN equations.0 0. 8B. 360 — STAAD. Parameter Default Description Name Value value is provided as YD in MEMBER PROPERTIES. Two major failure modes are recognized: failure by overstressing and failure by stability considerations.0 Member length factor about local Y direction for column design. ELY 1.1 General This section presents some general statements regarding the implementation of the DIN code of practice for structural steel design (DIN 18800 and DIN 4114) in STAAD. Facilities are available for member selection as well as code checking. Members are proportioned to resist the design loads without exceedance of the allowable stresses or capacities and the most economical section is selected on the basis of the least weight criteria.Steel Design Per the DIN Code German Codes .

3) Specify whether to perform code checking or member selection. Member properties may also be specified using the User Table facility. German Codes . the steel section library available in STAAD may be used. For more information on these facilities. IPE Shapes These shapes are designated in the following way: 20 TO 30 TA ST IPEA120 33 36 TO 46 BY 2 TA ST IPER140 International Design Codes Manual — 361 . These properties are stored in a database file. If called for. Depending upon the analysis requirements. Analysis is done for the primary and combination loading conditions provided by the user. Following are the descriptions of different types of sections.Steel Design Per the DIN Code 8B. The user is allowed complete flexibility in providing loading specifications and in using appropriate load factors to create necessary loading situations. shear deformation is always considered for these members during the analysis.4 Built-in German Steel Section Library The following information is provided for use when the built-in steel tables are to be referenced for member property specification. The next section describes the syntax of commands used to assign properties from the built-in steel table. these properties are also used for member design.Steel Design Per the DIN Code 8B.3 Member Property Specifications For specification of member properties of standard German steel sections. An example of member property specification in an input file is provided at the end of this section. Dynamic analysis may also be performed and the results combined with static analysis results. refer to the STAAD Program User's manual. regular stiffness analysis or P-Delta analysis may be specified.2 Analysis Methodology Elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design. German Codes . A complete listing of the sections available in the built-in steel section library may be obtained using the tools of the graphical user interface. Since the shear areas are built into these tables. German Codes .Steel Design Per the DIN Code 8B.

1 5 TA T HEA220 2 8 TA T IPE120 U Channels The example below provides the command for identifying two channel sections. The former (U70X40) has a depth of 70mm and a flange width of 40mm. For example. 25 TO 35 TA ST HEB300 23 56 TA ST HEA160 I Shapes I shapes are identified by the depth of the section. 14 15 TA ST I200 (indicates an I-section with 200mm depth) T Shapes Tee sections are not input by their actual designations. are available.5 length units) Angles 362 — STAAD. The letter “D” in front of the section name will specify a double channel.Pro . The latter (U260) has a depth of 260mm.5 (Indicates 2 channels back to back spaced at 0. but instead by referring to the I beam shapes from which they are cut. with or without spacing between them. 11 TA D U70X40 27 TA D U260 Double Channels Back to back double channels.g. e. The spacing between the double channels is provided following the expression “SP”.HE Shapes The designation for HE shapes is similar to that for IPE shapes. 11 TA D U180 27 TA D U280 SP 0. D U180. The following example illustrates the designation.

17 21 TA RA L40X20X5 Double Angles Short leg back to back or long leg back to back double angles can be specified by using the word SD or LD.5 (406. 14 TO 20 TA SD L40X20X4 SP 0.9mm wall thickness) 3 64 67 TA ST PIP40612. In case of an equal angle. The following example will illustrate the designation. 12. of 25 and inside dia.0 specifies a pipe with outside dia. Tubes (Rectangular or Square Hollow Sections) Tube names are input by their dimensions.5mm. type specification "RA" (reverse angle) may be used.Two types of specifications may be used to describe an angle. of 20 in current length units. in front of the angle size. International Design Codes Manual — 363 . respectively. The above specification may be used when the local z-axis corresponds to the Z-Z axis specified in Chapter 2. 8 TO 28 TA ST PIP602. For example.5 Pipes (Circular Hollow Sections) To designate circular hollow sections.5 21 TO 27 TA LD L40X20X4 SP 0.0 ID 20. Only code checking and no member selection will be performed if this type of specification is used. The standard angle section is specified as follows: 16 20 TA ST L20X20X2. either SD or LD will serve the purpose. For example.3mm dia.5 The above section signifies an angle with legs of length 20mm and a leg thickness of 2. 2.5mm wall thickness) Circular hollow sections may also be provided by specifying the outside and inside diameters of the section.4mm dia. use PIP followed by numerical value of the diameter and thickness of the section in mm omitting the decimal section of the value provided for diameter. 1 TO 9 TA ST PIPE OD 25. If the local y-axis corresponds to the Z-Z axis. Spacing between the angles is provided by using the word SP and the spacing value following the section name.9 (60.

6mm. SAMPLE INPUT FILE CONTAINING GERMAN SHAPES STAAD SPACE UNIT METER KN JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0 15 140 0 0 MEMBER INCIDENCES 1 1 2 14 UNIT CM MEMBER PROPERTIES GERMAN * IPE SHAPES 1 TA ST IPEA120 * HE SHAPES 2 TA ST HEB300 * I SHAPES 3 TA ST I200 * T SHAPES 4 TA T HEA220 * U CHANNELS 364 — STAAD. a width of 6. like pipes can also be input by their dimensions (Height. 6 TA ST TUBE DT 8.Pro . Tubes. 15 TO 25 TA ST TUB100603.5 is a tube that has a height of 8.5 in current length units. and a wall thickness of 0. Width and Thickness) instead of by their table designations.0 WT 6. Only code checking and no member selection will be performed for TUBE sections specified this way.0 TH 0.6 is the specification for a tube having sides of 100mmX60mm and the wall thickness of 3.

0 ID 20.5 TA ST U70X40 * DOUBLE U CHANNELS 6 TA D U260 * ANGLES 7 TA ST L20X20X2.5 * DOUBLE ANGLES . The procedures of DIN 4114 are used for stability analysis.5 * REVERSE ANGLES 8 TA RA L40X20X5 * DOUBLE ANGLES .Steel Design Per the DIN Code 8B.LONG LEGS BACK TO BACK 9 TA LD L40X20X4 SP 0.9 * PIPES 12 TA ST PIPE OD 25.0 WT 0.5 Member Capacities The allowable stresses used in the implementation are based on DIN 18800 (Part 1) .5 * PIPES 11 TA ST PIP602.Section 7.SHORT LEGS BACK TO BACK 10 TA SD L40X20X4 SP 0.6 * TUBES 14 TA ST TUBE DT 8. The basic International Design Codes Manual — 365 .5 * PRINT MEMBER PROPERTIES FINISH German Codes .0 * TUBES 13 TA ST TUB100603.0 WT 6.

Section 7. for members with axial tension and bending.Steel Design Per the DIN Code 8B. Shear capacities are a function of web depth. defaults to member length) etc. the tensile load must not exceed the tension capacity of the member.1. Similarly. The tension capacity of the member is calculated on the basis of the member area. Users may use a value of 1. for members with compression and bending. unsupported length of the compression flange (UNL. In addition. Allowable stress for Axial Compression The allowable stress for members in compression is determined according to the procedure of DIN 4114 (Part 1) . web thickness etc.6 Combined Loading For members experiencing combined loading (axial force. thickness of flanges. These depend on several factors such as cross sectional properties. slenderness factors. the criteria of DIN 4114 (Part 1) . LY. Allowable stress for Axial Tension In members with axial tension. KZ and LZ.0 or 2. unsupported width to thickness ratios and so on. Explained here is the procedure adopted in STAAD for calculating such capacities. bending and shear). the criteria of DIN 4114 (Part 1) - Section 10 is used. Members subjected to axial force and bending are checked using the criteria of DIN 18800 (Part 1) .1) and proceeds with member selection or code checking. STAAD calculates the tension capacity of a given member based on a user supplied net section factor (NSF-a default value of 1. 366 — STAAD. see Table 6B. allowable compressive stress etc.0 is present but may be altered by changing the input value. Compressive resistance is a function of the slenderness of the cross-section (Kl/r ratio) and the user may control the slenderness value by modifying parameters such as KY.Section 15 is used.0 for the TRACK parameter to obtain a listing of the bending and shear capacities.6. applicable interaction formulas are checked at different locations of the member for all modeled loading situations.Pro . Allowable stress for Bending and Shear The permissible bending compressive and tensile stresses are dependent on such factors as length of outstanding legs.Section 6. German Codes .measure of member capacities are the allowable stresses on the member under various conditions of applied loading such as allowable tensile stress.

0 Net section factor for tension members. some or all of these parameter values may have to be changed to exactly model the physical structure.0 = Check ends plus location of beam 1.0 check.0 Number of sections to be checked per member: 0.mm NSF 1. LY Member Length in local y-axis to calculate Length slenderness ratio.0 K value in local y-axis. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again. this is the major axis. UNL Member Unrestrained member length in lateral Length torsional buckling checks. BEAM 0.0 = Check at location of maximum MZ along member. 2. Note: Once a parameter is specified.0 Same as above provided as a factor of actual member length. Depending on the particular design requirements of the situation. 1.1 .1 of this chapter. UNF 1. LZ Member Length in local z-axis to calculate Length slenderness ratio.8B.7 Design Parameters The user is allowed complete control over the design process through the use of parameters mentioned in Table 8B. PY 240 Strength of steel. Usually. This is the way STAAD works for all codes. International Design Codes Manual — 367 .0 = Design only for end sections.0 K value in local z-axis. These parameters communicate design decisions from the engineer to the program. The default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for conventional design. KZ 1. this is the minor axis. Usually. N/sq.German Steel Design Parameters Parameter Default Description Name Value KY 1. Table 8B.

0 Permissible ratio of actual to allowable stresses SGR 0.0 m Maximum allowable depth during member selection DMIN 0.0 for welded sections.0 = StE 355 SBLT 0 Specify section as either rolled or built-up: 0 = Rolled 1 = Built-up Cb 0 Beam coefficient n.35 4. Zeta calculated from end moments.0 = St 52-3 2.5 for rolled sections and 2. TRACK 0. Zeta.0 = Output summary of results 1. Zeta = 1. defined in Table 9: If Cb = 0. DMAX 1.0 = pin ended member with UDL. defined in Table 10: 1.0 = fixed ended member with constant moment.0 2. Zeta = 1.Pro . program will use n = 2. Cmm 1.0 Grade of steel: 0.0 = Output detailed results RATIO 1.0 Level of detail in output file: 0.0 = Check at every 1/13th of the member length and report the maximum. Parameter Default Description Name Value 3.0 = pin ended member with central point load.0 = Output summary of results plus member capacities 2. Zeta = 1.0 Moment factor.0 Control of sections to try during a SELECT process: 368 — STAAD.0 = St 37-2 1.0 m Minimum required depth during member selection SAME 0.12 3.0 = fixed ended member.

PIPES or members listed as PRISMATIC. The adequacy is checked per the DIN requirements.8 Code Checking The purpose of code checking is to check whether the provided section properties of the members are adequate to carry the forces transmitted to it by the loads on the structure. Sample Input data for Steel Design UNIT METER PARAMETER CODE GERMAN International Design Codes Manual — 369 . governing load case. Parameter Default Description Name Value 0. German Codes . Selection of members whose properties are originally provided from a user table will be limited to sections in the user table. When no sections are specified and the BEAM parameter is set to zero (default). location (distance from start joint) and magnitudes of the governing forces and moments are also printed. moments are calculated at every twelfth point along the beam.9 Member Selection The member selection process basically involves determination of the least weight member that PASSes the code checking procedure based on the forces and moments of the most recent analysis. In addition.0 = Try every section of the same type as the original. a member specified initially as a channel will have a channel selected for it. If the BEAM parameter for a member is set to 1.Steel Design Per the DIN Code 8B.Steel Design Per the DIN Code 8B. design will be based on member start and end forces. the critical condition. and the maximum moment about the major axis is used. The code checking output labels the members as PASSed or FAILed. Member selection cannot be performed on TUBES. The section selected will be of the same type as that specified initially. 1. German Codes . Code checking is done using forces and moments at specified sections of the members. For example.0 = Try only those with a similar name.

Pro .2 MEMBER 3 4 RATIO 0.85 ALL UNL 10.NSF 0.9 ALL TRACK 1.0 MEMBER 7 KY 1.0 ALL CHECK CODE ALL 370 — STAAD.

For Beams Prismatic (Rectangular & Square). T-Beams and L-shapes For Columns Prismatic (Rectangular.1 Design Operations STAAD has the capabilities of performing concrete design based on limit state method of IS: 456 (2000). The following example shows the required input: International Design Codes Manual — 371 . Section 9 Indian Codes 9A.2 Section Types for Concrete Design The following types of cross sections for concrete members can be designed. Square and Circular) 9A. 9A.3 Member Dimensions Concrete members which will be designed by the program must have certain section properties input under the MEMBER PROPERTY command.Concrete Design per IS456 9A. Indian Codes .

YB 300.Pro . 200 width.Indian Concrete Design IS456 Parameters Parameter Default Description Name Value FYMAIN 415 N/mm2 Yield Stress for main reinforcing steel. 400 mm overall depth and 100 mm flange depth (See section 6. will be done accordingly. In the above input.UNIT MM MEMBER PROPERTY 1 3 TO 7 9 PRISM YD 450. CLEAR 25 mm For beam members. flanged or circular and the beam or column design.2). 372 — STAAD. These values may be changed to suit the particular design being performed.4 Design Parameters The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform design as per IS:456(2000). the first set of members are rectangular (450 mm depth and 250mm width) and the second set of members.1 of this manual contains a complete list of the available parameters and their default values. ZD 250. Table 9A.20. MAXMAIN 60 mm Maximum main reinforcement bar size. ZD 750. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again. Default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for conventional design requirements. Note: Once a parameter is specified.1 . will be assumed to be circular with 350 mm diameter. 14 TO 16 PRIS YD 400. FC 2 30 N/mm Concrete Yield Stress. FYSEC 415 N/mm2 Yield Stress for secondary reinforcing steel. It is necessary to declare length and force units as Millimeter and Newton before performing the concrete design. This is the way STAAD works for all codes. 11 13 PR YD 350. 9A. The third set numbers in the above example represents a T-shape with 750 mm flange width. 40 mm For column members MINMAIN 10 mm Minimum main reinforcement bar size. The program will determine whether the section is rectangular. ZB 200. Table 8A. with only depth and no width provided.

This value defaults to ZD as provided under MEMBER PROPERTIES. COLUMN DESIGN correspond to the terms "Braced" and "Unbraced" described in Notes 1.0 means the column is unbraced about minor axis.7.0 means the column is unbraced about both axis. A value of 3.0 means the column is unbraced about major axis. A value of 2. WIDTH ZD Width to be used for design. and 3 of Clause 39. BRACING 0. This value defaults to YD as provided under MEMBER PROPERTIES. A value of 1. A value of 2. DEPTH YD Total depth to be used for design. A value of 3.1 of IS456:2000.0 Maximum percentage of longitudinal reinforcement in columns.0 A value of 4.0 BEAM DESIGN A value of 1. 2.0 invokes 2 faced distribution about minor axis. Parameter Default Description Name Value MINSEC 8 mm Minimum secondary reinforcement bar size. RATIO 4. MAXSEC 12 mm Maximum secondary reinforcement bar size.0 invokes 2 faced distribution about major axis. International Design Codes Manual — 373 . RFACE 4.0 means longitudinal reinforcement in column is arranged equally along 4 faces.0 means the effect of axial force will be taken into account for beam design.

reinforcement details are printed. REINF 0. With TRACK = 9.0 output.0 output. required steel for intermediate sections defined by NSECTION are printed in addition to TRACK 1.Pro .0 will mean spiral reinforcement. COLUMN DESIGN: With TRACK = 0. With TRACK = 2. column interaction analysis results are printed in addition to TRACK 0. ELY 1.0. With TRACK = 1. See Note 3 below. ELZ 1.0 Ratio of effective length to actual length of column about major axis.0. Parameter Default Description Name Value TRACK 0. A value of 1. For TRACK = 1. the details of section capacity calculations are printed. a schematic interaction diagram and intermediate interaction values are printed in addition to TRACK 1.0 BEAM DESIGN: For TRACK = 0.0.0.0. For TRACK = 2.0.0 output. output consists of reinforcement details at START. See Note 2 below.0 Tied column. critical moments are printed in addition to TRACK 0. See Note 2 below.0.0 output.0 Ratio of effective length to actual length of column about minor axis.0 Ratio of unsupported length to actual length of column about minor axis. ULY 1. MIDDLE and END. 374 — STAAD.

0 Ratio of unsupported length to actual length of column about major axis. (Note: Both SFACE and EFACE are input as positive numbers). SPSMAIN 25 mm Minimum clear distance between main reinforcing bars in beam and column. For column centre to centre distance between main bars cannot exceed 300mm. A value of 1.0 means torsion to be neglected in beam design. SFACE 0. EFACE 0. International Design Codes Manual — 375 .0 means torsion to be considered in beam design.0 Face of support location at start of beam. Parameter Default Description Name Value ULZ 1. See Note 3 below. TORSION 0.0 A value of 0. The parameter can also be used to check against shear at any point from the start of the member.0 Face of support location at end of beam. It is used to check against shear at the face of the support in beam design. The parameter can also be used to check against shear at any point from the end of the member.

2.Pro . shear strength will be enhanced up to a distance x from the start of the member. (Refer note) Notes 1.(Refer note) If default value (0. shear strength will be enhanced at sections (<2d) close to support otherwise ordinary shear check will be performed.0 Distance of the start or end point of the member from its nearest support.0 Perform shear check against enhanced shear strength as per Cl.5. If this ratio is greater than 2. Parameter Default Description Name Value ENSH 0.5 of IS456:2000. shear strength will be enhanced up to a distance y from the end of the member. ELY and ELZ parameters are used to calculate effective length of column to 376 — STAAD. This is used only when a span of a beam is subdivided into two or more parts. Please refer section 9A.0 means ordinary shear check to be performed ( no enhancement of shear strength at sections close to support) For ENSH = a positive value(say x ).8 for details. 40. Bar combination has been introduced for detailing. RENSH 0. (Refer note ) For ENSH = a negative value(say –y).0) is used the program will calculate Length to Overall Depth ratio. This is used only when a span of a beam is subdivided into two or more parts. This parameter is used only when a span of a beam is subdivided into two or more parts. ENSH = 1.

When this condition is aroused RENSH parameter is also to be used. find whether it is a short or long column. The input should be the following: Steps: i.0) is used only when the span of a beam is subdivided into two or more parts. This term is calculated as ULZ multiplied by the member length for the Z axis ULY multiplied by the member length for the Y axis 4. STAAD calculates a. each of length L meter.1. l as ELZ multiplied by the member length (distance between the 2 ex nodes of the member) b. Value of ENSH parameter (other than 0. Please refer CL 25. ENSH L MEMB 1 => Shear strength will be enhanced throughout the length of the member 1.2 of IS456:2000.2 of IS456:2000. For the term "b" in CL 25. positive sign indicates length measured from start of the member International Design Codes Manual — 377 .1. Please refer CL 25.1. STAAD uses the ZD dimension of the column. In CL 25. ULY and ULZ parameters are used to calculate unsupported length of column to find minimum eccentricity. The span of the beam is subdivided four parts. STAAD uses the YD dimension of the column.2 of IS456:2000. you will find two terms called lex and ley.4 of IS456:2000.0 and 1. l as ELY multiplied by the member length (distance between the 2 ey nodes of the member) For the term "D" in CL 25.1.4 of IS456:2000. In CL 25. The shear strength will be enhanced up to X meter from both supports. you will find an expression "unsupported length of column".2 of IS456:2000. 3.

Hence enhanced shear strength is limited to a maximum value of tc. use the command PDELTA ANALYSIS instead of PERFORM ANALYSIS. max. ENSH (X-L) MEMB 2 => Shear strength will be enhanced up to a length (X-L) of the member 2. RENSH L MEMB 2 3 => Nearest support lies at a distance L from both the members 2 and 3. To perform this type of analysis. av becomes zero.7). Thus enhanced shear strength will become infinity. length measured from the start of the member iii. The IS:456 code specifies two options by which the slenderness effect can be accommodated (Clause 39.order analysis described by IS:456. One option is to perform an exact analysis which will take into account the influence of axial loads and variable moment of inertia on member stiffness and fixed end moments. ENSH –L MEMB 4 => Shear strength will be enhanced throughout the length of the member 4.5 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Consideration Slenderness effects are extremely important in designing compression members. length measured from the end of the member v.Pro . negative sign indicates length measured from end of the member iv. At section = y1 from start of member 1 av = y1 At section = y2 from the start of member 2 av = y2+L At section = y3 from the end of member 3 av = y3+L At section = y4 from end of member 4 av = y4 where tc. Another option is to approximately magnify design moments. enhanced = 2dtc/av At section 0. STAAD has been written to allow the use of the first options. max. vi. The PDELTA ANALYSIS will accommodate all requirements of the second. However for any section shear stress cannot exceed tc. DESIGN BEAM 1 TO 4=> This will enhance the shear strength up to length X from both ends of the beam consisting of members 1 to 4 and gives spacing accordingly. It 378 — STAAD. except for the effects of the duration of the loads. ENSH –(X-L) MEMB 3 => Shear strength will be enhanced up to a length (X-L) of the member 3.0. 9A. the effect of deflections on moment and forces and the effect of the duration of loads. ii.

7.. all active beam loadings are prescanned to identify the critical load cases at different sections of the beams. However. They will be check if the ELY and ELZ parameters are specified.2... International Design Codes Manual — 379 .6.1. All of these sections are scanned to determine the design force envelopes.7.. shear and torsion.75. whereas a primary load case is revised during the P-delta analysis based on the deflections.4.. Considering all these information. In the first pass..IS: 456 .9 and 1). as performed by STAAD may be used for the design of concrete members. 0. to take advantage of this analysis. It may also be noted all flanged sections are automatically designed as rectangular section under hogging moment as the flange of the beam is ineffective under hogging moment. 9A.is felt that this effect may be safely ignored because experts believe that the effects of the duration of loads are negligible in a normal structural configuration..5. all the combinations of loading must be provided as primary load cases and not as load combinations. In this method. However the user must note. If required the effect the axial force may be taken into consideration..25.g. Where ever the rectangular section is inadequate as singly reinforced section.5 for dead load etc. presently the flanged section is designed only as singly reinforced section under sagging moment. The total number of sections considered is 13( e. STAAD does not factor the loads automatically.. For all these forces. it must be realized that the approximate evaluation of slenderness effects is also an approximate method. The rules of Clause 39. Also note that the proper factored loads (like 1. doubly reinforced section is tried.1 and 39.Pro.6 Beam Design Beams are designed for flexure.1. reinforcing bars are chosen from the internal database in single or multiple layers. additional moments are calculated based on empirical formula and assumptions on sidesway (Clause 39. Design for Flexure Maximum sagging (creating tensile stress at the bottom face of the beam) and hogging (creating tensile stress at the top face) moments are calculated for all active load cases at each of the above mentioned sections.. a PDELTA ANALYSIS.7.. Flexural design of beams is performed in two passes.1.) should be provided by user. After the preliminary design. This is due to the fact that load combinations are just algebraic combinations of forces and moments.8. Each of these sections is designed to resist both of these critical sagging and hogging moments.2000). Although ignoring load duration effects is somewhat of an approximation.1 have been implemented in STAAD.7. effective depths of the sections are determined with the assumption of single layer of assumed reinforcement and reinforcement requirements are calculated.3..

5 of IS:456-2000 shear strength of sections (< 2d where d is the effective depth) close to support has been enhanced.0 mm X 350.2. Efforts have been made to meet the guideline for the curtailment of reinforcements as per IS:456-2000 (Clause 26.0 mm DESIGN LOAD SUMMARY (KN MET) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 380 — STAAD. User has option to get a more detail output.to 1. subjected to a maximum value of t ..0) is presented below: ================================================- ============================ B E A M N O.75 and 1. Design for Shear Shear reinforcement is calculated to resist both shear forces and torsional moments..25.The entire flexure design is performed again in a second pass taking into account of the changed effective depths of sections calculated on the basis of reinforcement provide after the preliminary design. 12 D E S I G N R E S U L T S M20 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec. All beam design outputs are given in IS units. cmax Beam Design Output The default design output of the beam contains flexural and shear reinforcement provided at 5 equally spaced (0. Shear design are performed at 11 equally spaced sections (0.) LENGTH: 4000.0 mm SIZE: 250.5.3)..) sections along the length of the beam. Final provisions of flexural reinforcements are made then. An example of rectangular beam design output with the default output option (TRACK 0. Shear capacity calculation at different sections without the shear reinforcement is based on the actual tensile reinforcement provided by STAAD program.) for the maximum shear forces amongst the active load cases and the associated torsional moments.Pro . user has the choice of printing reinforcements provided by STAAD at 11 equally spaced sections from which the final detail drawing can be prepared. As per Clause 40. Two-legged stirrups are provided to take care of the balance shear forces acting on these sections. Although exact curtailment lengths are not mentioned explicitly in the design output (finally which will be more or less guided by the detailer taking into account of other practical consideration).0 mm COVER: 30.

23 4 | 0.97 1.00 176.00 0.00 4 | 25.23 4 | 15.00 -17.43 1.0 | 0.23 4 | -16.55 1.00 13.68 1.0 mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 259.97 0.23 4 | 2.00 0.08 1.00 12.23 4 | 0.00 4 | 2400.93 1.00 9.49 5 | 21.00 0.11 1.00 11.00 4 | 4000.23 4 | 400.0 | 0.00 4 | 2800.36 1.00 0.00 -16.77 1.23 4 | 1200.77 1.95 1.17 1.04 1.00 4 | -25.00 0.0 | 0.00 0.00 -7.73 1.23 4 | 800.23 4 | 0.00 0.00 4.05 1.00 0.00 4 | 29.0 | 0.00 0.0 | 0.00 -25.12 1.23 4 | -11.0 | 0.04 161.00 4 | 3600.23 4 | 0.00 0.0 mm 2000.23 4 | 0.64 1.23 4 | 0.00 -0.23 4 | 9.0 | 0.23 4 | 0.0 | 0.23 4 | 0.0 | 0.23 4 | 0.45 1.48 1. AREA (Sq.00 0.00 0.00 6.31 International Design Codes Manual — 381 .00 0.23 4 | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OF REINF.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.00 0.00 0.32 6 | 1600.SECTION |FLEXTURE (Maxm.0 mm 3000.00 4 | 2000.0 mm 1000.00 4 | 3200.00 0.00 4 | 27.14 1. Sagging/Hogging moments)| SHEAR (in mm) | P MZ MX Load Case | VY MX Load Case ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 0.0 | 0.29 0.59 1.23 4 | 0.00 0.0 | 0.00 0.23 4 | 0.0 mm 4000.06 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.23 4 | -5.00 0.

section dimensions and effective length coefficients specified by the user STAAD automatically determine the criterion (short or long) of the column design. All major criteria for selecting longitudinal and transverse reinforcement as stipulated by IS:456 have been taken care of in the column 382 — STAAD. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 2-12Ø 2-12Ø 2-12Ø 2-12Ø 2-12Ø REINF. mm) (Sq.1). Depending upon the member lengths. By default.78 0.0 mm 1000. square and rectangular columns and designed with reinforcement distributed on each side equally for the sections under biaxial moments and with reinforcement distributed equally in two faces for sections under uniaxial moment. User may change the default arrangement of the reinforcement with the help of the parameter RFACE (see Table 8A.00 160. All active load cases are tested to calculate reinforcement. @ 100 mm c/c @ 100 mm c/c @ 100 mm c/c @ 100 mm c/c @ 100 mm c/c ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- ======================================================== 9A. mm) BOTTOM 0. Column design is done for square. (Sq.0 mm 4000. rectangular and circular sections. mm) (Sq.Pro . mm) (Sq.0 mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 4-10Ø 3-10Ø 2-10Ø 2-10Ø 3-10Ø REINF. mm) (Sq.00 REINF.78 160. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OF PROVIDED REINF. mm) (Sq.0 mm 3000. mm) (Sq. REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 8Ø 2 legged 8Ø 2 legged 8Ø 2 legged 8Ø 2 legged 8Ø REINF.7 Column Design Columns are designed for axial forces and biaxial moments at the ends.0 mm 2000. The loading which yield maximum reinforcement is called the critical load.78 160. (Sq.

0) is given below.0 mm ** GUIDING LOAD CASE: 5 BRACED LONG COLUMN DESIGN FORCES (KNS-MET) ----------------------- DESIGN AXIAL FORCE (Pu) : 62. Design Aids For Reinforced Concrete to IS:456-1978) output (with option TRACK 1. the output contains intermediate results such as the design forces. 1 DESIGN RESULTS M20 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.mm.21 32. STEEL AREA : 1822. (3.0 is introduced to obtain the details of section capacity calculations.40 REQD.32 33.Example9 of SP:16.12 MOMENT REDUCTION FACTORS : 1. additional moments etc.24 SLENDERNESS RATIOS : 12.71 Sq.24 1.0) contains the reinforcement provided by STAAD and the capacity of the section.mm.) (Equally distributed) TIE REINFORCEMENT : Provide 8 mm dia. Default clear spacing between main reinforcing bars is taken to be 25 mm while arrangement of longitudinal bars. COVER: 40. An example of a long column design (Ref.00 12.65 Sq. =================================================- =========================== C O L U M N N O. With the option TRACK 1.29 MOMENTS DUE TO MINIMUM ECC.12 dia.0 mm dia.12 1. MAIN REINFORCEMENT : Provide 17 . effective length coefficients. rectangular ties @ 190 mm c/c SECTION CAPACITY (KNS-MET) International Design Codes Manual — 383 .0 mm CROSS SECTION: 250.00 1. Column Design Output Default column design output (TRACK 0.92%.12 1.00 MOMENTS DUE TO SLENDERNESS EFFECT : 1. All design output is given in SI units.12 TOTAL DESIGN MOMENTS : 3.00 ADDITION MOMENTS (Maz and May) : 1.0.) LENGTH: 3000. A special output TRACK 9.design of STAAD. 1922.0 About Z About Y INITIAL MOMENTS : 2. : 1.

Pro . The typical output for bar combination is shown below: OUTPUT FOR BAR COMBINATION -------------------------------------------------------------- | MAIN REINFORCEMENT | -------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION | 0.7 | 2166.2 | 940. -------------------------- Puz : 992.2 | --------------------------------------------------------------  BOTTOM | 4-20í | 2-20í | 2-20í | |in 1 layer(s) | in 1 layer(s) | in 1 layer(s) | 384 — STAAD.2 | 940.87 INTERACTION RATIO: 1.70 Muz1 : 36.64 | 628.0. START BAR COMBINATION MD1 <bar diameter> MEMB <member list> MD2 <bar diameter> MEMB <member list> END BAR COMBINATION MD2 bar diameter should be greater than MD1 bar diameter.79 | 1119.22 | 1029. Now.8 Bar Combination Initially the program selects only one bar to calculate the number of bars required and area of steel provided at each section along the length of the beam. IS456) ======================================================== 9A. 38.8666.0 | 6500.90 | 582.87 Muy1 : 36.00 (as per Cl.7 | | mm | mm | mm | --------------------------------------------------------------  TOP | 6-20í + 1-25í| 2-20í + 1-25í | 2-20í | | in 2 layer(s)| in 1 layer(s) | in 1 layer(s) |  Ast Reqd| 2330.6500.0.7.57 |  Ld (mm) | 940.55 | Prov| 2376.6. The syntax for bar combination is given below.2166. two bar diameters can be specified to calculate a combination of each bar to be provided at each section.

Ld gives the development length to be provided at the two ends of each section.2 | 940. 9A. General format: START SHEARWALL DESIGN CODE INDIAN FYMAIN f1 FC f2 HMIN f3 HMAX f4 VMIN f5 VMAX f6 EMIN f7 EMAX f8 LMIN f9 LMAX f10 International Design Codes Manual — 385 . The results are presented in the context of the entire wall rather than individual finite elements thereby allowing users to quickly locate required information. The wall has to be modeled using STAAD’s Surface elements. two at its ends and one at span.14 | 628.57 | 628. in-plane and out-of-plane bending and out- of-plane shear.55 | 582. Ast Reqd| 1165. The use of the Surface element enables the designer to treat the entire wall as one entity. Design is performed for in-plane shear. The program reports shear wall design results for each load case/combination for user specified number of sections given by SURFACE DIVISION (default value is 10) command.55 | Prov| 1257.57 |  Ld (mm) | 940.11 | 582. the concentrated (in-plane bending) edge reinforcing and the link required for out-of- plane shear.2 | 940. The shear wall is designed at these horizontal sections. It greatly simplifies the modeling of the wall and adds clarity to the analysis and design output.2 |  ------------------------------------------------------------- The beam length is divided into three parts. The output includes the required horizontal and vertical distributed reinforcing.Pro.9 Wall Design in accordance with IS 456-2000 Design of walls in accordance with IS 456-2000 is available in STAAD.

CLEAR f11
TWOLAYERED f12
KSLENDER f13
DESIGN SHEARWALL LIST shearwall-list
END
The following table explains the parameters used in the shear wall design.

Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number
till it is specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.

Table 9A.9-1 Shear Wall Design Parameters
Parameter Default
Description
Name Value
FYMAIN 415 Mpa Yield strength of steel, in current units.
FC 30 Mpa Compressive strength of concrete, in current units.
HMIN 8 Minimum size of horizontal reinforcing bars (range
6 mm – 36 mm). If input is 6 (integer number) the
program will assume 6 mm diameter bar.
HMAX 36 Maximum size of horizontal reinforcing bars (range
6 mm – 36 mm). If input is 6 (integer number) the
program will assume 6 mm diameter bar.
VMIN 8 Minimum size of vertical reinforcing bars (range
6mm – 36mm). If input is 6 (integer number) the
program will assume 6 mm diameter bar.
VMAX 36 Maximum size of vertical reinforcing bars (range
6mm – 36mm). If input is 6 (integer number) the
program will assume 6 mm diameter bar.
EMIN 8 Minimum size of vertical reinforcing bars located in
edge zones (range 6mm – 36mm). If input is 6
(integer number) the program will assume 6 mm
diameter bar.

386 — STAAD.Pro

Parameter Default
Description
Name Value
EMAX 36 Maximum size of vertical reinforcing bars located in
edge zones (range 6mm – 36mm). If input is 6
(integer number) the program will assume 6 mm
diameter bar.
LMIN 6 Minimum size of links (range 6mm – 16mm). If
input is 6 (integer number) the program will
assume 6 mm diameter bar.
LMAX 16 Maximum size of links (range 6mm – 16mm). If
input is 6 (integer number) the program will
assume 6 mm diameter bar.
CLEAR 25 mm Clear concrete cover, in current units.
TWOLAYERED 0 Reinforcement placement mode:
0 - single layer, each direction
1 - two layers, each direction
KSLENDER 1.0 Slenderness factor for finding effective height.

The following example illustrates the input for the definition of shear wall and
design of the wall.
Example

.
.
SET DIVISION 12
SURFACE INCIDENCES
2 5 37 34 SUR 1
19 16 65 68 SUR 2
11 15 186 165 SUR 3
10 6 138 159 SUR 4
.
.
.
SURFACE PROPERTY

International Design Codes Manual — 387

1 TO 4 THI 18
SUPPORTS
1 7 14 20 PINNED
2 to 5 gen pin
6 to 10 gen pin

11 to 15 gen pin
19 to 16 gen pin
.
.
.
SURFACE CONSTANTS
E 2.17185e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
.
.
START SHEARWALL DES
CODE INDIAN
UNIT NEW MMS
FC 25
FYMAIN 415
TWO 1
VMIN 12
HMIN 12
EMIN 12
DESIGN SHEA LIST 1 TO 4
END

Notes:

1. Command SET DIVISION 12 indicates that the surface boundary node-to-
node segments will be subdivided into 12 fragments prior to finite element

388 — STAAD.Pro

mesh generation.
2. Four surfaces are defined by the SURFACE INCIDENCES command.
3. The SUPPORTS command includes the new support generation routine. For
instance, the line 2 TO 5 GEN PIN assigns pinned supports to all nodes
between nodes 2 and 5. As the node-to-node distances were previously
subdivided by the SET DIVISION 12 command, there will be an additional
11 nodes between nodes 2 and 5. As a result, all 13 nodes will be assigned
pinned supports. Please note that the additional 11 nodes are not individually
accessible to the user. They are created by the program to enable the finite
element mesh generation and to allow application of boundary constraints.
4. Surface thickness and material constants are specified by the SURFACE
PROPERTY and SURFACE CONSTANTS, respectively.
5. The shear wall design commands are listed between lines START
SHEARWALL DES and END. The CODE command selects the design code
that will be the basis for the design. For Indian code the parameter is
INDIAN. The DESIGN SHEARWALL LIST command is followed by a list
of previously defined Surface elements intended as shear walls and/or shear
wall components.

Technical Overview

The program implements provisions of section 32 of IS 456-2000 and relevant
provisions as referenced therein, for all active load cases. The following steps are
performed for each of the horizontal sections of the wall.
Checking of slenderness limit
The slenderness checking is done as per clause no. 32.2.3. The default effective
height is the height of the wall. User can change the effective height. The limit for
slenderness is taken as 30.
Design for in-plane bending and vertical load (denoted by Mz & Fy in the shear wall
force output)
Walls when subjected to combined in-plane horizontal and vertical forces produce
in-plane bending in conjunction with vertical load. According to clause no. 32.3.1,
in-plane bending may be neglected in case a horizontal cross section of the wall is
always under compression due combined effect of horizontal and vertical loads.
Otherwise, the section is checked for combined vertical load and in-plane moment
as column with axial load and uni-axial bending. For this purpose, the depth is

International Design Codes Manual — 389

taken as 0.8 x horizontal length of wall and breadth is the thickness of the wall.
The reinforcement is concentrated at both ends (edges) of the wall. The edge
reinforcement is assumed to be distributed over a length of 0.2 times horizontal
length on each side. Minimum reinforcements are according to clause no. 32.5.(a).
Maximum 4% reinforcement is allowed.
Design for in-plane shear (denoted by Fxy in the shear wall force output)
By default, the program does not design only at the critical section but at all the
horizontal sections. By suitable use of the surface division command, design at
critical section as per clause no. 32.4.1 can be performed.
The design for in-plane shear is done as per clause no. 32.4. The nominal shear
stress is calculated as per clause no. 32.4.2 and it is checked with the maximum
allowable shear stress as per clause no. 32.4.2.1. The design shear strength of
concrete is calculated as per clause no. 32.4.3. Design of shear reinforcement is
done as per clause no. 32.4.4. Minimum reinforcements are as per clause no.
32.5.
Design for vertical load and out-of-plane vertical bending (denoted by Fy and My
respectively in the shear wall force output)
Apart from the in-plane bending and horizontal shear force, the wall is also
subjected to out-of-plane bending in the vertical and horizontal directions. The
part of the wall which is not having edge reinforcements (i.e. a zone of depth 0.6 x
Length of the wall), is designed again as column under axial load (i.e. vertical
load) and out-of-plane vertical bending. The minimum reinforcements and
maximum allowable spacings of reinforcements are as per clause no. 32.5
Design for out-of-plane horizontal bending (denoted by Mx in the shear wall force
output)
The horizontal reinforcement which is already provided for in-plane shear is
checked against out-of-plane horizontal bending. The wall is assumed as a slab for
this purpose.
Design for out-of-plane shears (denoted by Qx and Qy in the shear wall force
output)
The out-of-plane shear arises from out-of-plane loading. The nominal shear
stresses are calculated as per clause no. 40.1. Maximum allowable shear stresses
are as per table 20. For shear force in the vertical direction, shear strength of
concrete section is calculated as per section 4.1 of SP 16 : 1980 considering
vertical reinforcement as tension reinforcement. Similarly, for shear force in the
horizontal direction, shear strength of concrete section is calculated considering

390 — STAAD.Pro

horizontal reinforcement as tension reinforcement. Shear reinforcements in the
form of links are computed as per the provisions of clause no. 40.4.
Shear Wall Design With Opening
The Surface element has been enhanced to allow design of shear walls with
rectangular openings. The automatic meshing algorithm has been improved to
allow variable divisions along wall and opening(s) edges. Design and output are
available for user selected locations.

Description

Shear walls modeled in STAAD.Pro may include an unlimited number of openings.
Due to the presence of openings, the wall may comprise up with different wall
panels.

1. Shear wall set-up
Definition of a shear wall starts with a specification of the surface element
perimeter nodes, meshing divisions along node-to-node segments,
opening(s) corner coordinates, and meshing divisions of four edges of the
opening(s).

SURFACE INCIDENCE n1, ..., ni SURFACE s DIVISION sd1,
..., sdj -
RECOPENING x1 y1 z1 x2 y2 z2 x3 y3 z3 x4 y4 z4 DIVISION
od1, ..., odk

where,
n1, ..., ni - node numbers on the perimeter of the shear wall,
s - surface ordinal number,
sd1, ..., sdj - number of divisions for each of the node-to-node distance on
the surface perimeter,
x1 y1 z1 (...) - coordinates of the corners of the opening,
od1, ..., odk - divisions along edges of the opening.
Note:
If the sd1, ..., sdj or the od1, ..., odk list does not include all node-to-node
segments, or if any of the numbers listed equals zero, then the corresponding
division number is set to the default value (=10, or as previously input by the
SET DIVISION command).

International Design Codes Manual — 391

Default locations for stress/force output, design, and design output are set
as follows:

SURFACE DIVISION X xd
SURFACE DIVISION Y yd

where,
xd  - number of divisions along X axis,
yd - number of divisions along Y axis.
Note:
xd and yd represent default numbers of divisions for each edge of the
surface where output is requested. The output is provided for sections
located between division segments. For example, if the number of divisions
= 2, then the output will be produced for only one section (at the center of
the edge).

2. Stress/force output printing
Values of internal forces may be printed out for any user-defined section of
the wall. The general format of the command is as follows:

PRINT SURFACE FORCE (ALONG x) (AT a) (BETWEEN d1,
d2) LIST s1, ...,si

where,
x - local axis of the surface element (X or Y),
a - distance along the x   axis from start of the member to the
full cross-section of the wall,
d1, d2 - coordinates in the direction orthogonal to x ,
delineating a fragment of the full cross-section for which the output is
desired. **
s1, ...,si - list of surfaces for output generation
** The range currently is taken in terms of local axis. If the local axis is
directed away from the surface, the negative range is to be entered.

392 — STAAD.Pro

Note: If command ALONG is omitted, direction Y (default) is assumed. If
command AT is omitted, output is provided for all sections along the
specified (or default) edge. Number of sections will be determined from
the SURFACE DIVISION X or SURFACE DIVISION Y input values. If
the BETWEEN command is omitted, the output is generated based on full
cross-section width.

3. Definition of wall panels
Input syntax for panel definition is as follows:

START PANEL DEFINITION
SURFACE i PANEL j ptype x1 y1 z1 x2 y2 z2 x3 y3 z3 x4 y4 z4
END PANEL DEFINITION

where,
i - ordinal surface number,
j - ordinal panel number,
ptype - panel type, one of: WALL, COLUMN, BEAM
x1 y1 z1 (...) - coordinates of the corners of the panel,

4. Shear wall design
The program implements different provisions of design of walls as per code BS
8110. General syntax of the design command is as follows:

START SHEARWALL DESIGN
(...)
DESIGN SHEARWALL (AT c) LIST s
END SHEARWALL DESIGN

Note: If the command AT is omitted, the design proceeds for all cross sections
of the wall or panels, as applicable, defined by the SURFACE DIVISION X or
SURFACE DIVISION Y input values.

a.  No panel definition.
Design is performed for the specified horizontal full cross-section, located at a
distance c from the origin of the local coordinates system. If opening is found then

International Design Codes Manual — 393

reinforcement is provided along sides of openings. The area of horizontal and
vertical bars provided along edges of openings is equal to that of the respective
interrupted bars.
b.  Panels have been defined.
Only wall panel design is supported in Indian code.

9A1. Indian Codes - Concrete Design per IS13920
Indian Codes - Concrete Design per IS13920
9A1.1 Design Operations
Earthquake motion often induces force large enough to cause inelastic
deformations in the structure. If the structure is brittle, sudden failure could occur.
But if the structure is made to behave ductile, it will be able to sustain the
earthquake effects better with some deflection larger than the yield deflection by
absorption of energy. Therefore ductility is also required as an essential element
for safety from sudden collapse during severe shocks.
STAAD has the capabilities of performing concrete design as per IS 13920. While
designing it satisfies all provisions of IS 456 – 2000 and IS 13920 for beams and
columns.

9A1.2 Section Types for Concrete Design
The following types of cross sections for concrete members can be designed.
For Beams Prismatic (Rectangular & Square) & T-shape
For Columns Prismatic (Rectangular, Square and Circular)

9A1.3 Design Parameters
The program contains a number of parameters that are needed to perform design
as per IS 13920. It accepts all parameters that are needed to perform design as
per IS:456. Over and above it has some other parameters that are required only
when designed is performed as per IS:13920. Default parameter values have
been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for conventional design
requirements. These values may be changed to suit the particular design being
performed. Table 8A1.1 of this manual contains a complete list of the available
parameters and their default values. It is necessary to declare length and force
units as Millimeter and Newton before performing the concrete design.

394 — STAAD.Pro

Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number till
it is specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.

Table 9A1.1 - Indian Concrete Design IS13920 Parameters
Parameter Default
Description
Name Value
FYMAIN 415 N/mm2 Yield Stress for main reinforcing steel.
FYSEC 415 N/mm2 Yield Stress for secondary reinforcing
steel.
FC 30 N/mm2 Concrete Yield Stress.
CLEAR 25 mm For beam members.
40 mm For column members
MINMAIN 10 mm Minimum main reinforcement bar
size.
MAXMAIN 60 mm Maximum main reinforcement bar
size.
MINSEC 8 mm Minimum secondary reinforcement
bar size.
MAXSEC 12 mm Maximum secondary reinforcement
bar size.
BRACING 0.0 BEAM DESIGN
A value of 1.0 means the effect of
axial force will be taken into account
for beam design.
COLUMN DESIGN
correspond to the terms "Braced" and
"Unbraced" described in Notes 1, 2,
and 3 of Clause 39.7.1 of
IS456:2000.
A value of 1.0 means the column is
unbraced about major axis.
A value of 2.0 means the column is
unbraced about minor axis.
A value of 3.0 means the column is
unbraced about both axis.
RATIO 4.0 Maximum percentage of longitudinal
reinforcement in columns.

International Design Codes Manual — 395

Parameter Default
Description
Name Value
RFACE 4.0 A value of 4.0 means longitudinal
reinforcement in column is arranged
equally along 4 faces.
A value of 2.0 invokes 2 faced
distribution about major axis.
A value of 3.0 invokes 2 faced
distribution about minor axis.
WIDTH ZD Width to be used for design. This
value defaults to ZD as provided
under MEMBER PROPERTIES.
DEPTH YD Total depth to be used for design.
This value defaults to YD as provided
under MEMBER PROPERTIES.
ULY 1.0 Ratio of unsupported length to actual
length of column about minor axis.
ULZ 1.0 Ratio of unsupported length to actual
length of column about major axis.
ELZ 1.0 Ratio of effective length to actual
length of column about major axis.
ELY 1.0 Ratio of effective length to actual
length of column about minor axis.
REINF 0.0 Tied column. A value of 1.0 will mean
spiral reinforcement.
TORISION 0.0 A value of 0.0 means torsion to be
considered in beam design.
A value of 1.0 means torsion to be
neglected in beam design.
TRACK 0.0 BEAM DESIGN:
For TRACK = 0.0, output consists of
reinforcement details at START,
MIDDLE and END.
For TRACK = 1.0, critical moments
are printed in addition to TRACK 0.0
output.
For TRACK = 2.0, required steel for

396 — STAAD.Pro

Parameter Default
Description
Name Value
intermediate sections defined by
NSECTION are printed in addition to
TRACK 1.0 output.
COLUMN DESIGN:
With TRACK = 0.0, reinforcement
details are printed.
With TRACK = 1.0, column
interaction analysis results are printed
in addition to TRACK 0.0 output.
With TRACK = 2.0, a schematic
interaction diagram and intermediate
interaction values are printed in
addition to TRACK 1.0 output.
SPSMAIN 25 mm Minimum clear distance between main
reinforcing bars in beam and column.
For column centre to centre distance
between main bars cannot exceed
300mm.
SFACE 0.0 Face of support location at start of
beam. It is used to check against
shear at the face of the support in
beam design. The parameter can also
be used to check against shear at any
point from the start of the member.*
EFACE 0.0 Face of support location at end of
beam. The parameter can also be
used to check against shear at any
point from the end of the member.
(Note: Both SFACE and EFACE are
input as positive numbers).*
ENSH 0.0 Perform shear check against
enhanced shear strength as per Cl.
40.5 of IS456:2000.
ENSH = 1.0 means ordinary shear
check to be performed ( no
enhancement of shear strength at

International Design Codes Manual — 397

Parameter Default
Description
Name Value
sections close to support)
For ENSH = a positive value(say x ),
shear strength will be enhanced up to
a distance x from the start of the
member. This is used only when a
span of a beam is subdivided into two
or more parts. (Refer note after Table
8A.1 )
For ENSH = a negative value(say –y),
shear strength will be enhanced up to
a distance y from the end of the
member. This is used only when a
span of a beam is subdivided into two
or more parts.(Refer note after Table
8A.1)
If default value (0.0) is used the
program will calculate Length to
Overall Depth ratio. If this ratio is
greater than 2.5, shear strength will
be enhanced at sections (<2d) close
to support otherwise ordinary shear
check will be performed.
RENSH 0.0 Distance of the start or end point of
the member from its nearest support.
This parameter is used only when a
span of a beam is subdivided into two
or more parts. (Refer note after Table
8A.1)
EUDL None Equivalent u.d.l on span of the beam.
This load value must be the
unfactored load on span. During
design the load value is multiplied by
a factor 1.2. If no u.d.l is defined
factored shear force due to gravity
load on span will be taken as zero. No
elastic or plastic moment will be
calculated. Shear design will be

398 — STAAD.Pro

Parameter Default
Description
Name Value
performed based on analysis
result.(Refer note)
GLD None Gravity load number to be considered
for calculating equivalent u.d.l on
span of the beam, in case no EUDL is
mentioned in the input. This loadcase
can be any static loadcase containing
MEMBER LOAD on the beam which
includes UNI, CON, LIN and TRAP
member loading. CMOM member
loading is considered only when it is
specified in local direction. FLOOR
LOAD is also considered.
The load can be primary or
combination load. For combination
load only load numbers included in
load combination is considered. The
load factors are ignored. Internally
the unfactored load is multiplied by a
factor 1.2 during design.
If both EUDL and GLD parameters are
mentioned in the input mentioned
EUDL will be considered in design
Note :
No dynamic (Response spectrum,
1893, Time History) and moving load
cases are considered.
CMOM member loading in global
direction is not considered.
UMOM member loading is not
considered.
PLASTIC 0.0 Default value calculates elastic
hogging and sagging moments of
resistance of beam at its ends.
A value of 1.0 means plastic hogging
and sagging moments of resistance of

International Design Codes Manual — 399

Parameter Default
Description
Name Value
beam to be calculated at its ends.

IPLM 0.0 Default value calculates elastic/plastic
hogging and sagging moments of
resistance of beam at its ends.
A value of 1.0 means calculation of
elastic/plastic hogging and sagging
moments of resistance of beam to be
ignored at start node of beam. This
implies no support exists at start
node.
A value of -1.0 means calculation of
elastic/plastic hogging and sagging
moments of resistance of beam to be
considered at start node of beam. .
This implies support exists at start
node.
A value of 2.0 means calculation of
elastic/plastic hogging and sagging
moments of resistance of beam to be
ignored at end node of beam. This
implies no support exists at end node.
A value of -2.0 means calculation of
elastic/plastic hogging and sagging
moments of resistance of beam to be
considered at end node of beam. .
This implies support exists at end
node. **
IMB 0.0 Default value calculates elastic/plastic
hogging and sagging moments of
resistance of beam at its ends.
A value of 1.0 means calculation of
elastic/plastic hogging and sagging
moments of resistance of beam to be
ignored at both ends of beam. This

400 — STAAD.Pro

Parameter Default
Description
Name Value
implies no support exist at either end
of the member.
A value of -1.0 means calculation of
elastic/plastic hogging and sagging
moments of resistance of beam to be
considered at both ends of beam.
This implies support exist at both
ends of the member.**
COMBINE 0.0 Default value means there will be no
member combination.
A value of 1.0 means there will be no
printout of sectional force and critical
load for combined member in the
output.
A value of 2.0 means there will be
printout of sectional force for
combined member in the output.
A value of 3.0 means there will be
printout of both sectional force and
critical load for combined member in
the output. ***

HLINK Spacing of Longer dimension of the rectangular
longitudinal confining hoop measured to its outer
bars face. It shall not exceed 300 mm as
measured to per Cl. 7.4.8. If hlink value as
the outer face provided in the input file does not
satisfy the clause the value will be
internally assumed as the default one.
This parameter is valid for rectangular
column.
Bar combination has been introduced for detailing. Please refer section 9A1.6 for
details.
* EFACE and SFACE command is not valid for member combination.
** IPLM and IMB commands are not valid for member combination. These
commands are ignored for members forming physical member.

International Design Codes Manual — 401

It will calculate sectional forces at 13 sections along the length of the combined member. When two or more members are combined during design plastic or elastic moments will be calculated at the column supports. Members to be combined should have same constants (E. 402 — STAAD. Members to be combined should be continuous. Note: Please note that the program only recognizes column at right angle to the beam. 4. Poi ratio. Beams will be combined only when DESIGN BEAM command is issued. Inclined column support is ignored.*** The purpose of COMBINE command is the following: 1. The following lines should be satisfied during combination of members: 1. 2. Note: Sectional forces and critical load for combined member output will only be available when all the members combined are successfully designed in both flexure and shear. It will calculate critical loads (similar to that of Design Load Summary) for all active load cases during design. It can also be used to combine members to form one continuous beam spanning over more than two supports. At all the intermediate nodes (if any) this calculation will be ignored. 2.e. density and beta angle) 3. columns) cannot be combined.Pro . 7. Vertical members (i. 4. Members to be combined should have same sectional properties if any single span between two column supports of a continuous beam is subdivided into several members. The maximum number of members that can be combined into one member is 299. Members to be combined should lie in one straight line. alpha. 6. If a beam spanning between two supports is subdivided into many sub- beams this parameter will combine them into one member. 3. 5. Same member cannot be used more than once to form two different combined members.

5 4 1. UNI GY -3 LOAD COMB 5 1. SUPPORTS ……………………. CONSTANTS ……………………. MEMBER INCIDENCES ………………………………….5 International Design Codes Manual — 403 . The following lines show a standard example for design to be performed in IS 13920.05 I 1 K 1 B 1 SELFWEIGHT JOINT WEIGHT ………………………..ENSH and RENSH parameters will have to be provided (as and when necessary) even if physical member has been formed.5(DL+LL) 3 1. LOAD 1 SEISMIC LOAD IN X DIR 1893 LOAD X 1 LOAD 2 SEISMIC LOAD IN Z DIR 1893 LOAD Z 1 LOAD 3 DL MEMBER LOAD …… UNI GY -5 LOAD 4 LL MEMBER LOAD ……. DEFINE 1893 LOAD ZONE 0. STAAD SPACE UNIT METER MTON JOINT COORDINATES ………………………………….. MEMBER PROPERTY INDIAN …………………………………..

0 ALL *** Unfactored gravity load on members 110 to 112 is 8 t/m (DL+LL) i.2 4 -1.2(DL+LL-SLX) 1 1.2 3 1.2 4 1.0 MEMB 110 TO 112 *** Plastic moment considered PLASTIC 1.e.0 MEMB 110 TO 112 DESIGN BEAM 110 TO 112 DESIGN COLUMN ……… END CONCRETE DESIGN FINISH 9A1.2 3 1. For all these forces. shear and torsion.2 LOAD COMB 7 1.Pro .2 4 -1. LOAD COMB 6 1. If required the effect of the axial force may be taken into consideration.2 LOAD COMB 8 1.2 3 1.2 LOAD COMB 9 1.46 MEMB 110 TO 112 ** Members to be combined into one physical member COMBINE 3. 78.4 Beam Design Beams are designed for flexure.2(DL+LL+SLX) 1 1.2 PDELTA ANALYSIS LOAD LIST 5 TO 9 START CONCRETE DESIGN CODE IS13920 UNIT MMS NEWTON FYMAIN 415 ALL FC 20 ALL MINMAIN 12 ALL MAXMAIN 25 ALL TRACK 2.2(DL+LL+SLZ) 2 1.46 New/mm EUDL 78.2 3 1. all active beam 404 — STAAD.2(DL+LL-SLZ) 2 1.2 4 1.

Elastic sagging and hogging moments of resistance of the beam section at ends are considered while calculating shear force.4) Design for Shear The shear force to be resisted by vertical hoops is guided by the Clause 6. (Clause 6. Design for Flexure Design procedure is same as that for IS 456. shall at least be equal to one-fourth of the maximum negative moment steel provided at the face of either joint. (Clause 6.2) max 4.5 of IS-13920: International Design Codes Manual — 405 . Steel reinforcements of grade Fe415 or less only shall be used.2.3) 5. However while designing following criteria are satisfied as per IS-13920: 1.2) 2.3) 3. If it exceeds allowable axial stress no design will be performed.3). at any section. at any section.1b) min The maximum steel ratio on any face.2). The minimum grade of concrete shall preferably be M20. For design to be performed as per IS:13920 the width of the member shall not be less than 200mm(Clause 6.2.24Öfck/fy (Clause 6.1) Shear reinforcement is calculated to resist both shear forces and torsional moments.025 (Clause 6. 6. The steel provided at each of the top and bottom face. All of these sections are scanned to determine the design force envelopes. Also the member shall preferably have a width-to depth ratio of more than 0.3. The total number of sections considered is 13.1.3. (Clause 5.2.1.3 (Clause 6. The factored axial stress on the member should not exceed 0. Plastic sagging and hogging moments of resistance can also be considered for shear design if PLASTIC parameter is mentioned in the input file.loadings are prescanned to identify the critical load cases at different sections of the beams.1.2.3 of IS 13920:1993 revision. Procedure is same as that of IS 456.1) for all active load cases. (Clause 5. The minimum tension steel ratio on any face.1fck (Clause 6. (Refer Table 8A1. at any section. The positive steel ratio at a joint face must be at least equal to half the negative steel at that face. is given by r = 0. The following criteria are satisfied while performing design for shear as per Cl. is given by r = 0.

00 5 | 291.00 0.00 5 | 10.00 7.15 0.41 0.0 | 0.00 4 | 1166.74 0.00 0.69 0.00 1.0) is presented below: ================================================- ============================ B E A M N O.0 mm X 350.00 5 | 13.0 | 0. 8 times the diameter of the longitudinal bars In no case this spacing is less than 100 mm. Sagging/Hogging moments)| SHEAR (in mm) | P MZ MX Load Case | VY MX Load Case ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 0.44 0.00 0.00 0.00 9. if less than that calculated from IS 456 consideration is provided.00 4 | 0.) LENGTH: 3500.7 | 0.78 0.00 5 | 16. The spacing calculated from above.26 0.00 0.0 mm SIZE: 250.Pro . All beam design outputs are given in IS units.0 mm COVER: 30.00 4 | 875. 11 D E S I G N R E S U L T S M20 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.00 5 | 6.3 | 0.67 0.7 | 0. An example of rectangular beam design output with the default output option (TRACK 1.00 4 | 583.00 4 | 0.00 4 406 — STAAD. d/4 b. User has option to get a more detail output. Beam Design Output The default design output of the beam contains flexural and shear reinforcement provided at 5 equally spaced sections along the length of the beam.00 4.00 0.00 0.0 mm DESIGN LOAD SUMMARY (KN MET) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION |FLEXTURE (Maxm.The spacing of vertical hoops over a length of 2d at either end of the beam shall not exceed a.97 0.61 0.00 4 | 0.00 0.00 4 | 0.00 -2.00 4 | 17.

mm) (Sq.0 | 0.33 0.00 4 | 2333.00 0.00 4 | 1458.02 0.00 4 | 0.00 0.00 4 | -22.3 OF IS-13920 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OF REINF.00 5 | 0.97 0.00 5 | 1.00 0.7 | 0.14 0.00 0.00 10.00 4 | -25.00 4 | 2625.00 0. .| 0.00 0.00 REINF.3 OF IS-13920 *** DESIGN SHEAR FORCE AT SECTION 3500.0 | 0.0 mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 226.0 mm 2625.00 0.24 KN.3.0 | 0.00 9.08 0.00 0.00 4 | 0. mm) (Sq.23 0.60 0.00 0.00 4 | 2041.79 0.00 0.21 0.00 0.3 | 0. mm) (Sq.00 226.00 4 | 0.00 0.00 5 | *** DESIGN SHEAR FORCE AT SECTION 0.00 -9.3 | 0.00 0.57 0.00 0.00 4 | -24.00 0.00 4 | 0.0 mm 3500.60 KN.00 -3.0 mm 875.00 5. mm) (Sq.00 0.00 4 | 2916.34 0. AREA (Sq.02 203.00 5 | 3500.10 0. mm) (Sq.00 0.00 0.00 5 | 0. mm) BOTTOM 0. (Sq.00 -15.00 4 | 0.98 0.30 REINF.00 5 | -10.00 5 | 3208.CLAUSE 6.00 0.0 IS 75.02 203. (Sq.27 0. .00 0.00 8.0 mm 1750.CLAUSE 6.00 203.30 0.00 5 | -15.00 1.0 IS 68.3. mm) (Sq.02 0.7 | 0.00 5 | -19. mm) (Sq. mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- International Design Codes Manual — 407 .00 4 | 1750.35 0.00 5 | -3.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.3 | 0.00 4 | 0. mm) (Sq.00 0.

3. and on either side of any section.2) 4.0 mm 875. The ratio of the shortest cross-sectional dimension to the perpendicular dimension shall preferably be not less than 0. Special confining reinforcement shall be provided over a length l from each o joint face.1. @ 100 mm c/c @ 150 mm c/c @ 150 mm c/c @ 150 mm c/c @ 100 mm c/c ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- ================================================- ============================== 9A1.1. The spacing of hoops shall not exceed half the least lateral dimension of the column.3.0 mm 3500. The minimum dimension of column member shall not be less than 200 mm. SUMMARY OF PROVIDED REINF.0 mm 1750. All major criteria for selecting longitudinal and transverse reinforcement as stipulated by IS:456 have been taken care of in the column design of STAAD. However following clauses have been satisfied to incorporate provisions of IS 13920: 1.4. For columns having unsupported length exceeding 4m. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.3) 6.3) 5. (Clause 7. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í REINF. (Clause 5.Pro . except where special confining reinforcement is provided. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 2-12í 2-12í 2-12í 2-12í 2-12í REINF.2) 2.0 mm 2625. Columns are also designed for shear forces as per Clause 7. where 408 — STAAD. towards mid span. (Clause 5. the shortest dimension of column shall not be less than 300 mm.5 Column Design Columns are designed for axial forces and biaxial moments per IS 456:2000. (Clause 7.0 mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 3-10í 2-10í 2-10í 2-10í 3-10í REINF. (Clause 7.3) 3.4. The minimum grade of concrete shall preferably be M20. Steel reinforcements of grade Fe415 or less only shall be used.

- MOMENTS DUE TO SLENDERNESS EFFECT : . With the option TRACK 1. circular or spiral hoops.0) is given below. All design output is given in SI units.0) contains the reinforcement provided by STAAD and the capacity of the section. (Clause 7. the output contains intermediate results such as the design forces. - ADDITION MOMENTS (Maz and May) : .4.64 146.53 SLENDERNESS RATIOS : .4.1) 7. (Clause 7. The area of cross-section of hoops provided are checked against the provisions for minimum area of cross-section of the bar forming rectangular. additional moments etc. and c) 450 mm.53 4. : 4.) LENGTH: 3000.4.28 MOMENTS DUE TO MINIMUM ECC. The length l shall not be less than a) larger o lateral dimension of the member at the section where yielding occurs. 3 DESIGN RESULTS M20 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.0 is introduced to obtain the details of section capacity calculations. - International Design Codes Manual — 409 . b) 1/6 of clear span of the member. flexural yielding may occur.7 and 7. (Clause 7. to be used as special confining reinforcement. The spacing of hoops used as special confining reinforcement shall not exceed ¼ of minimum member dimension but need not be less than 75 mm nor more than 100 mm.0 mm CROSS SECTION: 350. =================================================- =========================== C O L U M N N O. A special output TRACK 9.6) 8.0.4.8) Column Design Output Default column design output (TRACK 0. - MOMENT REDUCTION FACTORS : .0 mm COVER: 40. effective length coefficients.0 mm ** GUIDING LOAD CASE: 5 END JOINT: 2 SHORT COLUMN DESIGN FORCES (KNS-MET) ----------------------- DESIGN AXIAL FORCE (Pu) : 226. An example of a column design output (with option TRACK 1.7 About Z About Y INITIAL MOMENTS : 0.0 mm X 400.

TOTAL DESIGN MOMENTS : 4. IS456:2000) ================================================- ============================ ********************END OF COLUMN DESIGN RESULTS******************** 9A1. STEEL AREA : 3313.00 (as per Cl.4. (2. MAIN REINFORCEMENT : Provide 12 . 39.mm. 3769.52 Muz1 : 178. rectangular ties @ 175 mm c/c SECTION CAPACITY (KNS-MET) -------------------------- Puz : 2261.71 Muy1 : 150.6. rectangular ties @ 85 mm c/c over a length 500.Pro . The syntax for bar combination is given below.69%.28 ** GUIDING LOAD CASE: 5 Along Z Along Y DESIGN SHEAR FORCES : 43. The typical output for bar combination is shown below: OUTPUT FOR BAR COMBINATION 410 — STAAD.mm.56 Sq.6 of IS-13920. TIE REINFORCEMENT : Provide 10 mm dia.0 mm from each joint face towards midspan as per Cl. Now two bar diameters can be specified to calculate a combination of each bar to be provided at each section.53 146.) (Equally distributed) CONFINING REINFORCEMENT : Provide 10 mm dia. START BAR COMBINATION MD1 <bar diameter> MEMB <member list> MD2 <bar diameter> MEMB <member list> ENDBAR COMBINATION MD2 bar diameter should be greater than MD1 bar diameter.31 76.75 INTERACTION RATIO: 1.20 dia.6 Bar Combination Initially the program selects only one bar to calculate the number of bars required and area of steel provided at each section along the length of the beam.91 Sq.08 REQD. 7.

2 | 940.79 | 1119.7 | 2166.8666. Sample example showing calculation of design shear force as per Clause 6.14 | 628.6500. mm International Design Codes Manual — 411 .55 | Prov| 1257. Ld gives the development length to be provided at the two ends of each section.57 | Ld (mm) | 940.7.90 | 582.0.64 | 628.2 | 940.2 | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- The beam length is divided into three parts.55 | Prov| 2376.22 | 1029.2 | 940. two at its ends and one at span. 1 and 2 Section Width b 250 mm Depth D 500 mm Characteristic Strength of Steel fy 415 N/sq.2 | 940.55 | 582.3 For Beam No.57 | Ld (mm) | 940.2 | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- BOTTOM | 4-20í | 2-20í | 2-20í | | in 1 layer(s) | in 1 layer(s) | in 1 layer(s) | Ast Reqd| 1165.2166.11 | 582.57 | 628.3.0.0 | 6500.7 | | mm | mm | mm | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP | 6-20í + 1-25í | 2-20í + 1-25í | 2-20í | | in 2 layer(s) | in 1 layer(s) | in 1 layer(s) | Ast Reqd| 2330. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- | MAIN REINFORCEMENT | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION | 0.

mm Steps Calculation of Simple Shear Simple shear from Va = Vb = 1.87 * fy * Ast_Top_A * d * = 54003057.2 * w * L / 2 = 15600N gravity load on span = Calculation of Moment Of Resistances Based On Area Of Steel Provided Sagging Moment Of 0. Characteristic Strength of Concrete fck 20 N/sq.87 * fy * Ast_Bot_B * d * = 54003057. mm Clear Cover 25 mm Bar Diameter 12 mm Effective Depth d 469 mm Eudl w 6. bs = Hogging Moment Of 0.87 * fy * Ast_Top_B * d * ( 1 .Ast_Top_A * fy / b * d * fck) N Micah = Sagging Moment Of 0.45 Resistance of End A ( 1 . mm Length L 4000 mm Ast_Top_A 339.05 Resistance of End A ( 1 . as = Hogging Moment Of 0.Ast_Bot_B * fy / b * d * fck) N Mu. mm Ast_Top_B 226.29 sq. mm Ast_Bot_B 339.19 sq.29 sq.87 * fy * Ast_Bot_A * d * = 36768130.5 N/sq.05 Resistance of End A Top_B* fy / b * d * fck) N Mob = Calculation of Shear Force Due To Formation Of Plastic Hinge At Both Ends Of The Beam Plus The Factored Gravity Load On Span 412 — STAAD.Ast_Bot_A * fy / b * d * fck) N Mu.Pro .Ast_ = 36768130. mm Ast_Bot_A 226.19 sq.45 Resistance of End A ( 1 .

as + Mu. Vu.14022 = N Shear Force From Analysis At End B .ah + Mu.bs ) / L ] 53402.a) 53402. Vul.14022 N = Design Shear Force Shear Force From Analysis At End A .a = Va + 1.4 [ ( Mu.a = Max ( Va.as + Mu.b = Max ( Vb.b) 41337.14022 N = Vul. 3 Section Width b 300 mm Depth D 450 mm Characteristic Strength of Steel fy 415 N/sq.44 N Design Shear Force At End B. Vur.anl = -6.4 [ ( Mu.FIG1: SWAY TO RIGHT Vur.56 N Design Shear Force At End A.bh ) / L ] = -10137. Vul.b = Va + 1.ah + Mu.anl.69104 N Vur. Vu. mm Characteristic Strength of Concrete fck 20 N/sq.22202.1.b = Va .b.anl.anl = 11. mm Clear Cover 25 mm International Design Codes Manual — 413 . Vur.a.1. Vb.4 [ ( Mu.a = Va . Va.69104 = N For Beam No.bs ) / L ] .69104 N FIG2: SWAY TO LEFT Vul.4 [ ( Mu.bh ) / L ] = 41337.

5 Mu.39 sq.19 sq.as = Hogging Moment Of 0.3 Mu.5 Mu.87 * fy * Ast_Bot_B * d * = Resistance of End A ( 1 .87 * fy * Ast_Bot_A * d * = 48452983 Resistance of End A ( 1 .ah = N Sagging Moment Of 0.87 * fy * Ast_Top_B * d * ( 1 . mm Ast_Bot_A 339. mm Ast_Top_B 452.87 * fy * Ast_Top_A * d * = Resistance of End A ( 1 .19 sq.bh = N Calculation of Shear Force Due To Formation Of Plastic Hinge At Both Ends Of The Beam Plus The Factored Gravity Load On Span FIG1: SWAY TO RIGHT 414 — STAAD.29 sq. mm Calculation of Simple Shear Simple shear from Va = Vb = 1.Pro . mm Ast_Bot_B 226. Bar Diameter 12 mm Effective Depth d 419 mm Eudl w 6.2 * w * L / 2 = 11700N gravity load on span = Calculation of Moment Of Resistances Based On Area Of Steel Provided Sagging Moment Of 0.Ast_Top_A * fy / b * d * fck) 32940364. mm Length L 3000 mm Ast_Top_A 226.Ast_Bot_B * fy / b * d * fck) 32940364.5 N/sq.bs = N Hogging Moment Of 0.Ast_Top_ = Resistance of End A B* fy / b * d * fck) 63326721.Ast_Bot_A * fy / b * d * fck) N Mu.

b.bh ) / L ] = 63863.13 describes the specification of steel sections. Vur.bh ) / L ] = -40463. International Design Codes Manual — 415 . Vul.a = Max ( 42444. Section 9B.as + Mu. Vur.1.anl = -23.862 N Vb.862 N Vur.a) = Shear Force From Analysis At End B . The operations to perform a design are: l Specify the members and the load cases to be considered in the design. Vb. Vul. Vu.a.anl.anl = -10.b) = 9B. These facilities may be used selectively in accordance with the requirements of the design problem.1.34 N Design Shear Force Shear Force From Analysis At End A . Va.4 [ ( Mu. Indian Codes .ah + Mu.b = Max ( 63863.4 [ ( Mu. These operations may be repeated by the user any number of times depending upon the design requirements. l Specify whether to perform code checking or member selection.4 [ ( Mu. The entire ISI steel section table is supported.4 [ ( Mu. l Specify whether to perform member selection by optimization.3402 N Vul.31 N Design Shear Force At End A.81 N Design Shear Force At End B.anl.bs ) / L ] = -15144.b = Va + 1.862 N Vul.b = Va . The member design facilities provide the user with the ability to carry out a number of different design operations.as + Mu.ah + Mu.a = Va + 1. Vur. if different from the default values.bs ) / L ] = 42444.Steel Design per IS800:1984 9B.3402 N Va. l Specify design parameter values. Vu.a = Va .1 Design Operations STAAD contains a broad set of facilities for designing structural members as individual components of an analyzed structure.

Pro . 9B.3. s in MPa on the net effective area of the at sections shall not exceed s = 0. will discuss the salient features of the allowable stresses specified by IS:800 and implemented in STAAD. The permissible stress in axial tension. It is generally assumed that the user will take care of the detailing requirements like provision of stiffeners and check the local effects such as flange buckling and web crippling.6 f at y 416 — STAAD. Members are proportioned to resist the design loads without exceeding the allowable stresses and the most economic section is selected on the basis of least weight criteria. and failure by stability considerations. Appropriate sections of IS:800 will be referenced during the discussion of various types of allowable stresses. The flowing sections describe the salient features of the allowable stresses being calculated and the stability criteria being used. Two major failure modes are recognized: failure by overstressing. The design philosophy and procedural logistics for member selection and code checking are based upon the principles of allowable stress design. It would not be possible to describe every aspect of IS:800 in this manual.3 Allowable Stresses The member design and code checking in STAAD are based upon the allowable stress design method as per IS:800 (1984).1 Axial Stress Tensile Stress The allowable tensile stress. This section.9B. The code checking part of the program checks stability and strength requirements and reports the critical loading condition and the governing code criteria. however.2 General Comments This section presents some general statements regarding the implementation of Indian Standard code of practice (IS:800-1984) for structural steel design in STAAD. It is a method for proportioning structural members using design loads and forces. and design limitations for the appropriate material under service conditions. allowable stresses. l Axial Stress l Bending Stress l Shear Stress l Combined Stress 9B. as calculated in STAAD as per IS:800 is described below.

where. s = Permissible stress in axial compression. the maximum bending compressive stress on the extreme fibre calculated on the effective section shall not exceed the values of maximum permissible bending compressive stress.1) where. s = Bending stress in tension bt s = Bending stress in compression bc f = Yield stress of steel.2.3. The maximum permissible bending compressive stress shall be obtained by the following formula: (Clause: 6. 2 X 105 Mpa l=l/r = Slenderness ratio of the member.2) International Design Codes Manual — 417 .6f nor the permissible stress y sac calculated based on the following formula: (Clause: 5.4.66 f bt bc y where. in Mpa ac f = Yield stress of steel. ratio of the effective length to appropriate radius of gyration n = A factor assumed as 1. in Mpa y f = Elastic critical stress in compression = p2 E/l2 cc E = Modulus of elasticity of steel. in MPa y For an I-beam or channel with equal flanges bent about the axis of maximum strength (z-z axis).1. f = minimum yield stress of steel in Mpa y Compressive Stress Allowable compressive stress on the gross section of axially loaded compression members shall not exceed 0.2 Bending Stress The allowable bending stress in a member subjected to bending is calculated based on the following formula: (Clause: 6.1) s or s = 0. 9B.2.

at the point of maximum bending moment. in Mpa y n = A factor assumed as 1.4. 1 =  effective length of compression flange r = radius of gyration of the section about its axis of minimum y strength (y-y axis) T = mean thickness of the compression flange. f = Yield stress of steel. and depends on w. f = Elastic critical stress in bending. the 2 ratio of the moment of inertia of the compression flange alone to that of the sum of the moment of the flanges each calculated about its own axis parallel to the y- yaxis of the girder.where. calculated by the following formula: cb k = a coefficient to allow for reduction in thickness or breadth of flanges 1 between points of effective lateral restraint and depends on y.Pro . is equal to the area of horizontal portion of flange divided by width. 418 — STAAD. D = overall depth of beam c . the ratio of the total area of both flanges at the point of least bending moment to the corresponding area at the point of greatest bending moment between such points of restraint. k = a coefficient to allow for the inequality of flanges.c =  respectively the lesser and greater distances from the section neutral 1 2 axis to the extreme fibres.

Users should note that when the TRACK parameter is set to 1.1. and allowable shear stress (FV) will be printed out in Member Selection and Code Check output in Mpa. For shear on the web. 9B.1 . detailed design output will be provided.3.1. is required to be satisfied. Note: Once a parameter is specified. the gross section taken into consideration consist of the product of the total depth and the web thickness. sidesway will be assumed. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again.(a) for intermediate points.3. For shear parallel to the flanges. information regarding occurrence of sidesway can be provided through the use of parameters SSY and SSZ. allowable bending stresses in compression (FCY & FCZ). this is minor axis. Available design parameters to be used in conjunction with IS:800 are listed in Table 7B. Usually.Indian Steel Design IS 800:1984 Parameters Parameter Default Description Name Value KY 1.1. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.1 of this section along with their default values and applicable restrictions. the user is allowed complete control of the design process through the use of design parameters.4 of IS:800. When TRACK is set to 2. International Design Codes Manual — 419 .1.0 K value in local y-axis.1. All members subject to bending and axial compression are required to satisfy the equation of Section 7.3.(b) for support points. 9B.0 and use in conjunction with this code.4 Combined Stress Members subjected to both axial and bending stresses are proportioned accordingly to section 7 of IS:800.4 Design Parameters In STAAD implementation of IS:800. tension (FTY & FTZ).0. Cm coefficients are calculated according to the specifications of Section 7.3 Shear Stress Allowable shear stress calculations are based on Section 6.9B. For combined axial tension and bending the equation of Section 7.1. In the absence of any user provided information.2. Table 9B. the gross section is taken as 2/3 times the total flange area. and equation of Section 7.

0 Same as above except in local z-axis. this is major axis.0 K value in local z-axis. CMY 0. 1.0 = Sidesway in local y-axis. Parameter Default Description Name Value KZ 1. TMAIN 400 (Tension Allowable Kl/r for slenderness Memb) calculations for tension members. FYLD 250 MPA Yield strength of steel. (36.0 Same as above provided as a fraction of actual member length. UNL Member Unsupported length for calculating Length allowable bending stress. Usually.25 KSI) NSF 1. 420 — STAAD.0 0. UNF 1. LY Member Length in local y-axis to calculate Length slenderness ratio. LZ Member Same as above except in local z-axis Length (major).0 Net section factor for tension members.Pro .) calculations for compression members.85 for Cm value in local y & z axes CMZ sidesway and calculated for no sidesway MAIN 180 (Comp. SSY 0. Allowable Kl/r for slenderness Memb.0 = No sidesway SSZ 0.

0 cm. (see fig. Maximum allowable depth. 1. Minimum allowable depth. Search for the lightest section for the profile mentioned. PROFILE .0 0. DMIN 0.0 Permissible ratio of the actual to allowable stresses. If there is deflection check it will also print the governing load case number for deflection check whenever critical condition for design is not DEFLECTION.0 = Print expanded output.0 = design only for end moments and those at locations specified by the SECTION command.1) DMAX 100.0 0.0 = Suppress critical member stresses 1. denoting starting point for of member calculation of "Deflection Length" (See Note 1) DJ2 End Joint of Joint No. DFF None "Deflection Length" / Maxm.8B. Parameter Default Description Name Value TRACK 0.0 = calculate section forces at twelfth points along the beam.0 cm. design at each intermediate location and report the critical location where ratio is maximum. BEAM 3. denoting end point for member calculation of "Deflection Length" (See Note 1) NOTES: International Design Codes Manual — 421 . allowable (Mandatory local deflection for deflection check) DJ1 Start Joint Joint No.0 = Print all critical member stresses 2. RATIO 1.

a truss member is capable of carrying only axial forces. appropriate maximum slenderness ratio can be provided for each member. "Deflection Length" will default to the member length and local deflections will be measured from original member line. Thus. Also the straight line joining DJ1 and DJ2 is used as the reference line from which local deflections are measured. In STAAD implementation of IS:800. it is wise to declare it as a truss member rather than as a regular frame member with both ends pinned.5 Stability Requirements Slenderness ratios are calculated for all members and checked against the appropriate maximum values. It may be noted that for most cases the "Deflection Length" will be equal to the length of the member. For example. If no maximum slenderness ratio is provided.Pro . 1.). If DJ1 and DJ2 are not used. However. if there is any truss member in an analysis (like bracing or strut. 9B. the "Deflection Length" may be different. 3. thus reducing design time considerably. compression members will be checked against a maximum value of 180 and tension members will be checked against a maximum value of 400. So in design no time is wasted in calculating bending or shear stresses. 9B. 422 — STAAD. refer to the figure below where a beam has been modeled using four joints and three members. for all three members here. Note that the "Deflection Length" for all three members will be equal to the total length of the beam in this case.7 of IS:800 summarizes the maximum slenderness ratios for different types of members. "Deflection Length" is defined as the length that is used for calculation of local deflections within a member. 2. The above parameters may be used in conjunction with other available parameters for steel design.6 Truss Members As mentioned earlier. The parameters DJ1 and DJ2 should be used to model this situation. etc. Therefore. Section 3. DJ1 should be "1" and DJ2 should be "4". in some situations.

If no sections are specified. International Design Codes Manual — 423 . that is.7 Deflection Check This facility allows the user to consider deflection as a criteria in the CODE CHECK and MEMBER SELECTION processes.13 and user provided tables. Note that deflection is used in addition to other strength and stability related criteria. The deflection check may be controlled using three parameters which are described in Table 7B.9B. the search for the lightest section is restricted to that profile. If PROFILE parameter is provided. The local deflection calculation is based on the latest analysis results. It may be noted that the parameters DMAX and DMIN may be used to specify member depth constraints for selection. Sections may be specified using the BEAM parameter or the SECTION command. Up to three (3) profiles may be provided for any member with a section being selected from each one. the critical condition (applicable IS:800 clause no.) as originally specified by the user. 9B. In addition.9 Member Selection STAAD is capable of performing design operations on specified members. Selection of members. governing load case. Once an analysis has been performed. the program can select the most economical section. Forces and moments at specified sections of the members are utilized for the code checking calculations. The code checking output labels the members as PASSed or FAILed. Member selection may be performed with all types of steel sections listed in Section 7B.1. 9B. location (distance from the start) and magnitudes of the governing forces and moments are also printed out. whose properties are originally provided from user specified table.1. the code checking is based on forces and moments at the member ends.8 Code Checking The purpose of code checking is to verify whether the specified section is capable of satisfying applicable design code requirements. Member selection can not be performed on members whose cross sectional properties are specified as PRISMATIC. The process of MEMBER SELECTION may be controlled using the parameters listed in Table 8B. The code checking is based on the IS:800 (1984) requirements. will be limited to sections in the user provided table. which satisfies the applicable code requirements. the lightest section. The section selected will be of the same type (I-Section.). Channel etc.

the program produces the result in a tabulated fashion. However. i) If the parameter TRACK is set to 1. An optimum member size is determined through successive analysis/design iterations.10 Member Selection By Optimization Steel section selection of the entire structure may be optimized. c) RESULT prints whether the member has PASSED or FAILed. moment in local y-axis and moment in local z-axis respectively.MY and MZ are printed since they are the ones which are of interest. When the parameter TRACK is set to 2. g) FX.Pro CODE CHECKING . STAAD. 9B. MY and MZ provide the axial force. The items in the output table are explained as follows: a) MEMBER refers to the member number for which the design is performed b) TABLE refers to the INDIAN steel section name which has been checked against the steel code or has been selected. COLUMN. d) CRITICAL COND refers to the section of the IS:800 code which governs the design.11 Tabulated Results of Steel Design For code checking or member selection. This method requires substantial computer time and hence should be used with caution. If the RESULT is FAIL.(ISA ) 424 — STAAD. Although STAAD does consider all the member forces and moments (except torsion) to perform design. allowable axial stress in compression (FA).Pro . ANGLE etc. there will be an asterisk (*) mark in front of the member number. f) LOADING provides the load case number which governs the design. the program will block out part of the table and will print allowable bending stresses in compression (FCY & FCZ) and tension (FTY & FTZ). CHANNEL. The user may start without a specifically designated section. The optimization is based on member stiffness contributions and corresponding force distributions.0 or less will mean the member has passed. h) LOCATION specifies the actual distance from the start of the member to the section where design forces govern.0 for all members parameter code values are as shown in Fig 8B. only FX.9B.) must be specified using the ASSIGN command (see Chapter 6).0.1. e) RATIO prints the ratio of the actual stresses to allowable stresses for the critical condition. the section profile type (BEAM. The optimization method utilizes a state-of-the -art numerical technique which requires automatic multiple analysis. in most cases. and allowable shear stress (FV). Normally a value of 1.

) | International Design Codes Manual — 425 .9 +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| fby = 0.00 --->| RY = 3.0 | | FYLD = 249.9 | L3 fbz = 108.6( KN-METR) | |PARAMETER |L1 STRESSES | |IN NEWT MM | IN NEWT MM| |--------------.8 | | KL/R-Z= 18.0 ABSOLUTE MZ ENVELOPE | | (WITH LOAD NO.3 | | | | 104.85 + FTY = 165.0 | | CMZ = 0.4 + fa = 1. *********************** |---------------------------------------------------------------------------| | Y PROPERTIES | |************* | IN CM UNIT | | * |=============================| ===|=== ---- -------.3 | | * |<---LENGTH (ME= 3.4 | | * | ST ISLB400 | | --Z AY = 32.0 | | dff = 4383.6 | |C = 400.0 | |DESIGN CODE * | | | AZ = 27.0 | FCZ = 116.4 | | NSF = 0.7 FV = 100.85 | FCY = 165.0 | | DFF = 325.4 | FA = 84.8 | | * SZ = 965.0 + FTZ = 165.6 | | UNL = 3000.+ -------------| | KL/R-Y= 95.1 | |************* RZ = 16.0 | | CMY = 0.0 92.| |MEMBER 7 * | | | AX = 72.5 | | IS-800 * =============================== ===|=== SY = 86.

6 0.62 T 0.2 0.0 0.0 104.7 61.67 | |* *| |******************************************************************* 426 — STAAD. *| |* *| |* RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/ *| | FX MY MZ LOCATION | | ====================================================== | | PASS IS-7.0 | | LOADING 3 1 0 0 1 | | | |************************************************************************** |* *| |* DESIGN SUMMARY ( KN-METR) *| |* -------------.3 0.0 -104. | | | | AXIAL SHEAR-Y SHEAR-Z MOMENT-Y MOMENT-Z | | | | VALUE -23.1.| | | MAX FORCE/ MOMENT SUMMARY ( KN-METR) | | ------------------------.0 0.00 | | | | DEFLECTION * PASS | | RATIO: 0.Pro .0 0.6 | | LOCATION 0.0 0.667 1 | | 9.074 LOADING: 3 LOCATION: 0.0 0.

e. 10 TO 20 BY 2 TA ST ISMC125 12 TA ST ISLC300 Double Channels Back to back double channels.12 Indian Steel Table This is an important feature of the program since the program will read section properties of a steel member directly from the latest ISI steel tables (as published in ISI-800). with or without spacing between them. etc. D ISJC125..g. D ISMC75 etc. e. 20 TO 30 TA ST ISLB325 NOTE: In case of two identical beams. the properties are also used for member design. If called for. are available. Following are the descriptions of all the types of sections available: Rolled Steel Beams (ISJB. the heavier beam is designated with an ‘A” on the end. These properties are stored in memory corresponding to the section designation (e. All rolled steel beam sections are available the way they are designated in the ISI handbook. ISMB250. Almost all ISI steel tables are available for input. The letter D in front of the section name will specify a double channel.g. etc. ISMB and ISHB). 21 22 24 TA D ISLC225 International Design Codes Manual — 427 . etc. ISHB400 A. ISWB400.9B. ISJB225. shear deformation is always considered for these members. ISLC and ISMC) All these shapes are available as listed in ISI section handbook. e.. A complete listing of the sections available in the built-in steel section library may be obtained using the tools of the graphical user interface. 1 TO 5 TA ST ISHB400A Rolled Steel Channels (ISJC. Since the shear areas are built in to these tables.g. ISLB. Designation of the channels are per the scheme used by ISI.g.).

ISLT and ISJT) All the rolled tee sections are available for input as they are specified in the ISI handbook.e. Following example illustrates the designated method.5 23 27 TA SD ISA75X50X6 Rolled Tees (ISHT. The standard angle is specified as: 51 52 53 TA ST ISA60X60X6 This specification has the local z-axis ( i. in front of the angle size. the minor axis corresponding to the V- V axis specified in the steel tables. The standard section has local axis system as illustrated in Fig.2. For example. 14 TO 20 TA LD ISA50X30X5 SP 1. respectively.4 of this manual. STAAD provides for this convention by accepting the command: 54 55 56 TA RA ISA50X30X6 (RA denotes reverse angle) Double Angles Short leg back to back or long leg back to back double angles can be specified by inputting the word SD or LD.Rolled Steel Angles Both rolled steel equal angles and unequal angles are available for use in the STAAD implementation of ISI steel tables. 1 2 5 8 TA ST ISNT100 67 68 TA ST ISST250 428 — STAAD. ISST. The following example with explanations will be helpful in understanding the input procedure: At present there is no standard way to define the local y and z axes for an angle section. Many engineers are familiar with a convention used by some other programs in which the local y-axis is the minor axis.Pro . In case of an equal angle either LD or SD will serve the purpose..

5 is a tube that has a height of 8. can also be input by their dimensions (Height.5. 10 15 TA ST PIP 213.0 WT 6. Example: 15 TO 25 TA ST TUB 160808 Tubes. pipe with 3. and a wall thickness of 0. Width and Thickness) and not by any table designations.2 (Specifies a 213 mm dia. 1 TO 9 TA ST PIPE OD 25. a width of 6.2 mm wall thickness) Circular pipe sections can also be specified by providing the outside and inside diameters of the section. 6 TA ST TUBE DT 8. Following example will illustrate the designation.Pipes (Circular Hollow Sections) To designate circular hollow sections from ISI tables. use PIP followed by the numerical value of diameter and thickness of the section in mm omitting the decimal section of the value provided for diameter. of 20 in current length units) Only code checking and no member selection will be performed if this type of specification is used. of 25 and inside dia. like pipes. Plate And Angle Girders (With Flange Plates) International Design Codes Manual — 429 .0 (specifies a pipe with outside dia. Tubes (Rectangular or Square Hollow Sections) Designation of tubes from the ISI steel table is illustrated below.0 TH 0. Note that only code checking and no member selection is performed for TUBE sections specified this way.0ID 20. For example.

C Web plate thickness in mm.All plate and angle grinders (with flange plates) are available as listed in ISI section handbook. A Joist Designation: IW450=ISWB450 430 — STAAD. F Flange plate thickness in mm. A Plate and angle girder symbol. The following example with explanations will be helpful in understanding the input procedure. The following example with explanations will be helpful in understanding the input procedure. SYMBOL ANGLE(A X B X t)(all in mm) A 150X150X18 B 200X100X15 C 200X150X18 E 200X200X18 SINGLE JOIST WITH CHANNELS AND PLATES ON THE FLANGES TO BE USED AS GIRDERS All single joist with channel and plates on the flanges to be used as girders are available as listed in ISI section handbook.Pro . B Web plate width in mm. D Flange angle (Flange angle key below): E Flange plate width in mm.

These parameters will have to be provided in unit NEW MMS along with parameters defined in Table 9B. Lacing and b. NOTE: D is 0 for no plate. 9B. E Bottom flange plate thickness in mm. Note: Once a parameter is specified.13 Column With Lacings And Battens For columns with large loads it is desirable to build rolled sections at a distance and inter-connect them. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again.B Top flange channel designation: 350=ISMC350 C Constant (always X). since the lighter ISWB600 is more efficient. Batten Double channel sections (back-to-back and face-to-face) can be joined either by lacing or by batten plates having riveted or welded connection. This is the way STAAD works for all codes. D Top flange plate thickness in mm.1.2 gives the parameters that are required for Lacing or batten design. Table 9B. NOTE: The heavier ISWB600 has been omitted. This parameter is used when member properties are defined through user provided table using GENERAL option. International Design Codes Manual — 431 .2 Indian Concrete Design Parameter Default Description Name Value SPA 0.0 mm Spacing between double channels. The joining of element sections is done by two ways: a. Table 9B.

Indian Codes .Steel Design per IS802 432 — STAAD.Steel Design per IS802 Indian Codes .0 0. SPA 0. This parameter is used when member properties are defined through user provided table using GENERAL option. DBL 20 mm Nominal diameter of rivet FVB 2 100 N/mm Allowable shear stress in rivet FYB 300 N/mm2 Allowable bearing stress in rivet WMIN 6 mm Minimum thickness of weld WSTR 108 N/mm2 Allowable welding stress EDIST 32 mm Edge Distance (Rivetted Connection) 25 mm (Welded Connection) DCFR 0.Pro . Parameter Default Description Name Value THETA 50 degree Angle of inclination of lacing bars. 1.0 implies double channel back-to- back. This parameter is used when member properties are defined through user provided table using GENERAL option. This parameter is used when member properties are defined through user provided table using GENERAL option. 9C. COG 0.0 mm Spacing between double channels.0 Implies double channel face-to- face. It should lie between 40 degree and 70 degree.0 mm Centre of gravity of the channel.

Two major failure modes are recognized: failure by overstressing. The estimated tensile stresses on the net effective sectional area in various members. Members are proportioned to resist the design loads without exceeding the allowable stresses and the most economic section is selected on the basis of least weight criteria. allowable stresses. The flowing sections describe the salient features of the allowable stresses being calculated and the stability criteria being used. s in MPa on the net effective area of at the sections shall not exceed s =f at y where. as calculated in STAAD as per IS:802 is described below. 9C. Thus. and failure by stability considerations. The design philosophy and procedural logistics for member selection and code checking are based upon the principles of allowable stress design. the permissible stress in axial tension.1 General Comments This section presents some general statements regarding the implementation of Indian Standard code of practice (IS:802-1995 – Part 1) for structural steel design for overhead transmission line towers in STAAD.9C. f = minimum yield stress of steel in Mpa y Compressive Stress International Design Codes Manual — 433 . The code checking part of the program checks stability and strength requirements and reports the critical loading condition and the governing code criteria. and design limitations for the appropriate material under service conditions. It is a method for proportioning structural members using design loads and forces. This section discusses the salient features of the allowable stresses specified by IS:802 and implemented in STAAD. Axial Stress 9C.1 Axial Stress Tensile Stress The allowable tensile stress. multiplied by the appropriate factor of safety shall not exceed minimum guaranteed yield stress of the material.2 Allowable Stresses The member design and code checking in STAAD are based upon the allowable stress design method as per IS:802 (1995).2.

434 — STAAD.Pro .The estimated compressive stresses in various members multiplied by the appropriate factor of safety shall not exceed the value given by the formulae described below.

Mpa y K = restraint factor. 9C. and R = appropriate radius of gyration in cm. Mpa a F = minimum guaranteed yield stress of the material. and t = thickness of flange in mm. L = unbraced length of the compression member in cm. Note : The maximum permissible value of b/t for any type of steel shall not exceed 25. b = distance from edge of the fillet to the extreme fibre in mm. F = allowable unit stress in compression.where. E = modulus of elasticity of steel in N/mm2  = largest effective slenderness ratio of any unbraced segment of the member. Following are the default values used in STAAD: Compression Members: Redundant members and those carrying nominal 250 stresses International Design Codes Manual — 435 .3 Stability Requirements Slenderness ratios are calculated for all members and checked against the appropriate maximum values.

Leg Members.762L/r rotation at one end of the unsupported panel for values of L/r over 120 and up to and including 225 7 Members partially restrained against 46. Tension Members: 436 — STAAD.75L/r end and normal eccentricities at the other end of the unsupported panel for value of L/r up to and including 120 4 Members with normal framing 60 + 0.615L/r rotation at both ends of the unsupported panel for values of L/r over 120 and up to and including 250 If ELA number given in the input for any particular member is such that condition for L/r ratio to fall within the specified range is not satisfied.2 + 0. Type of members Value of KL/r 1 Leg sections or joint members bolted at L/r connections in both faces 2 Members with concentric loading at both L/r ends of the unsupported panel with values of L/r up to and including 120 3 Member with concentric loading at one 30 + 0.5L/r eccentricities at both ends of the unsupported panel for values of L/r up to and including 120 5 Member unrestrained against rotation at L/r both ends of the unsupported panel for value of L/r from 120 to 200 6 Members partially restrained against 28. STAAD goes on by the usual way of finding slenderness ratio using K*L/r formula.Pro .6 + 0. ground wire peak member and 120 lower members of cross arms in compression Other members carrying computed stress 200 Redundant members and those carrying nominal 250 stresses Slenderness ratios of compression members are determined as follows: ELA NO.

Axial forces at two ends of the members are utilized for the code checking calculations. shall not exceed 400.1 of IS: 802-1995 minimum thickness of different tower members shall be as follows: Members Minimum Thickness. governing load case. 9C. The code checking output labels the members as PASSed or FAILed. The code checking is based on the IS:802 (1995) requirements. In addition.5.4 Minimum Thickness Requirement As per Clause7. 9C. International Design Codes Manual — 437 . depending upon whether the member is painted or galvanised. location (distance from the start) and magnitudes of the governing forces are also printed out. Using TRACK 9 option calculation steps are also printed. Step 1 Thickness of the member (maximum of web and flange thicknesses) is checked against minimum allowable thickness. mm Galvanized Painted Leg Members. Step 2 If the minimum thickness criterion is fulfilled.Slenderness ratio KL/r of a member carrying axial tension only.1 Design Steps The following are the steps followed in member design.5 Code Checking The purpose of code checking is to verify whether the specified section is capable of satisfying applicable design code requirements. the program determines whether the member is under compression or tension for the loadcase under consideration. the critical condition. ground wire 5 6 peak member and lower members of cross arms in compression Other members 4 5 9C.

10). 9C. An optimum member size is determined through successive analysis/design iterations. the search for the lightest section is restricted to that profile. This calculated ratio is checked against allowable slenderness ratio. will be limited to sections in the user provided table. If the member is under tension and there is no user defined net section factor (NSF).Depending upon whether the member is under tension or compression the slenderness ratio of the member is calculated. It may be noted that the parameters DMAX and DMIN may be used to specify member depth constraints for selection.7 Member Selection by Optimization Steel section selection of the entire structure may be optimized. Once an analysis has been performed. Up to three (3) profiles may be provided for any member with a section being selected from each one. the net section factor is calculated by the program itself (Refer Section 8C. the program can select the most economical section. If PROFILE parameter is provided.0 or user defined value. Step 3 If the slenderness criterion is fulfilled check against allowable stress is performed. 438 — STAAD.Pro .1.6 Member Selection STAAD is capable of performing design operations on specified members. The optimization method utilizes a state-of-the -art numerical technique which requires automatic multiple analysis. whose properties are originally provided from user specified table. the member has passed the check. that is. This method requires substantial computer time and hence should be used with caution. the lightest section. The section selected will be of the same type (either angle or channel) as originally specified by the user. if less than 1. Step 4 Number of bolts required for the critical loadcase is calculated. Selection of members. Actual axial stress in the member is calculated. which satisfies the applicable code requirements. Allowable axial and tensile stresses are calculated. The optimization is based on member stiffness contributions and corresponding force distributions. The process of MEMBER SELECTION may be controlled using the parameters listed in Table 9B. Member selection may be performed with all angle or channel sections and user provided tables. 9C. The ratio for actual stress to allowable stress.

0 MM RESULT : PASS CHECK FOR SLENDERNESS RATIO --------------------------- VALUE OF L/r : 90.8 Tabulated Results of Steel Design DETAILS OF CALCULATION ---------------------- CHECK FOR MINIMUM THICKNESS --------------------------- TYPE : GALVANISED MIN.0 MM ACTUAL THICKNESS : 10.9C.16 EQN.5*L/r ACTUAL VALUE OF KL/r : 105.08 International Design Codes Manual — 439 . ALLOWABLE THICKNESS : 5. USED TO FIND KL/r : 60.0 + 0.

OF BOLTS REQD.72 MPA CHECK AGAINST PERMISSIBLE STRESS -------------------------------- DESIGN AXIAL FORCE : 250000.11.5 mm. STRESS : 250000.0 : 97.28 (b/t)cal : 12.141592*3.0 mm Deduction for holes.00 / 2552.Pro line across the member is different from the default value.40 KN BOLT CAP : 20.11 KN NO.22 b : LENGTH OF LEG .0 .9 Parameter Table for IS 802 Note: Once a parameter is specified.0 .1 Indian Steel Design IS 802 Parameters NHL 0. this parameter is to be defined. Default value is one bolt width plus 1.90 (b/t)cal <= (b/t)lim AND KL/r <= Cc ALLOWABLE AXIAL COMP.10. .0 : 129.00 N ACTUAL AXIAL COMP. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again. : 13 9C. If the area of holes cut by any straight. STRESS : (1-0.WEB THICKNESS . ALLOWABLE KL/r : 120.5*(KL/r/Cc)*(KL/r/Cc))*fy : 164. diagonal or zigzag 440 — STAAD.0 MM (b/t)lim : 210/sqrt(fy) : 13.11 KN BEARING CAP : 38. Table 9C.141592*E/fy) : 127. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.00 RESULT : PASS CALCULATION OF ALLOWABLE STRESS -------------------------------- CRITICAL CONDITION : COMPRESSION Cc : sqrt(2*3.96 MPA RESULT : PASS BOLTING ------- BOLT DIA : 16 MM SHEARING CAP : 20.ROOT RADIUS : 150.

LZ Member Unbraced length in local z-axis to calculate Length slenderness ratio.0 = Redundant members and members carrying nominal stresses (KL/r = 250) 4.0 = Print design calculations along with expanded output. FYLD 250 Yield Strength of steel MPA MAIN 1. this is minor axis.0 indicates user defined allowable KL/r ratio. Usually.0 = Tension members (KL/r = 400) 10. LEG 1. 0.0 = indicates the angle is connected by shorter leg 1. 9.0 0. DMAX 100. this is major axis.0 = Do not perform KL/r check Any value greater than 10. Refer Section 8C. NSF 1.0 K value in local z-axis.0 This parameter is meant for plain angles.0 = Suppress critical member stresses 1.0 Type of member to find allowable Kl/r for slenderness calculations for members. Minimum allowable depth.3. Ground wire peak and lower members of cross arms in compression (KL/r = 120) 2. cm.0 = Leg.0 = indicates the angle is connected by longer leg ELA 1.0 K value in local y-axis. TRACK 0.0 = Print all critical member stresses 2. LY Member Unbraced length in local z-axis to calculate Length slenderness ratio.KY 1.0 Maximum allowable depth.0 cm. DMIN 0. KZ 1.0 This parameter indicates what type of end conditions is to be used. For this case KY and KZ values are must to find actual KL/r ratio of the member. 1.0 = Members carrying computed stress  (KL/r = 200) 3. Usually.0 = Print expanded output.0 Net section factor for tension members International Design Codes Manual — 441 .

A = net cross-sectional area of the connected leg 1 A = gross cross-sectional area of the unconnected leg 2 442 — STAAD.5 mm. Default value is one bolt width plus 1.0 = Double angle placed back to back and connected to each side of a gusset plate 1.Pro . Minimum of the thicknesses of the gusset plate and the leg is used for calculation of the capacity of bolt in bearing NHL 0.0 mm Deduction for holes. This is required to find whether the angle is in single or double shear and the net section factor. this parameter is to be defined.0 = User has defined NSF 1. FVB 218 Allowable shear stress in bolt MPA FYB 436 Allowable bearing stress in bolt MPA GUSSET 5 mm Thickness of gusset plate. 9C.0 This parameter indicates how the pair of angles are connected to each other. If the area of holes cut by any straight. CNSF 0.0 This parameter indicates whether user has defined NSF or the program will calculate it. Single angle connected by only one leg A =A +A xK net 1 2 1 Where. 0.0 = Pair of angle placed back-to-back connected by only one leg of each angle to the same side of a gusset plate DBL 12 mm Diameter of bolt for calculation of number of bolts and net section factor. 0.10 Calculation of Net Section Factor The procedure for calculating net section factor for angle section is described below. diagonal or zigzag line across the member is different from the default value.0 = Program has to calculate it DANGLE 0.

5x thickness of leg) Double angles placed back to back and connected to each side of a gusset plate A = gross area – deduction for holes net Net Section Factor For angle section it is the ratio of the net effective area.5x thickness of leg) Pair of angles placed back-to-back connected by only one leg of each angle to the same side of a gusset plate A =A +A xK net 1 2 1 Where A = net cross-sectional area of the connected leg 1 A = gross cross-sectional area of the unconnected leg 2  And The area of a leg of an angle = Thickness of angle x (length of leg – 0. International Design Codes Manual — 443 . Design some members as per IS-802 and show detailed calculation steps for the critical loading condition. net For channel section net section factor is taken to be 1. A to the gross area. Given: End Condition = Members with normal framing eccentricities at both ends of the unsupported panel for values of L/r up to and including 120 Diameter of the bolt = 16 mm Thickness of the gusset plate = 8 mm Net Section Factor is to be calculated. 28 A transmission line tower is subjected to different loading conditions. 9C. And The area of a leg of an angle = Thickness of angle x (length of leg – 0.11 Example Problem No.0.

41 19 8.2 30 -1.2. 31 3 14. 70 5 26. 4 2.2 33 1.2 12 -2. 15 17 18.4 9 2. 74 7 28.2 12 -2. 2 1.6 21 1. 444 — STAAD.4. 50 4. 49 7. 66 3 24.4 9 2.6. 18 -1. 61 9 29. 59 1. 11 -3 0 3.2. 80 10 22. 34 15 6.6. 16 18 19. MEMBER INCIDENCES 1 1 3.2. 6 2.4. 9 1. 54 -4. 5 6 7.6 21 -1. 17 -2 15 2. 52 -7.2. 22 16 6.2 27 -1. 28 11 3.4 9 -2. 51 27 28.6 6 2. 44 -1. 51 -4. 32 14 5. 8 1. 13 15 16.2.8 3 2. 33 15 4. 60 -1. 61 0 35 0. 44 20 2. 56 4 24.Pro . 48 24 25. 16 -2.2 33 1. 71 6 25.8 18 -1. 12 14 15. 54 30 22.2. 37 -2 15 -2. 56 -4. 75 8 27. 27 2 15 -2. 21 3 0 -3. 11 13 14. 20 14 4. 8 9 10. 36 16 7. 81 2 30. 55 3 23.2. 30 13 4. 7 2 15 2. 46 7. 32 -1. 59 7 27.2.6 21 -1. 3 4 5.2. 64 1 23. 6 7 8. 9 10 2. 39 -1.8 3 2. 58 -1.2 27 1. 76 8 29. 42 19 10. 43 20 9. 15 -2.6. 47 23 24. 77 9 28.6 6 -2.4 24 -1. 62 10 30. 10 11 13. 79 10 29. 35 16 5.2 30 -1.4. 20 -1.2 30 -1. 37 17 6.2 30 1.2 27 -1. 31 -3 0 -3.2.2.4. 12 -1. 24 2. 43 1.4. 57 1.8. 30 1. 29 1 13.2. 73 7 26.8 3 -2.4.6. 45 4. 7 8 9. 4 5 6.2 27 -1.8.4 24 1.2 27 1. 5 2. 78 9 30.6 6 2.2 12 2. 45 12 10. 60 8 28. 23 2. 40 -1.8 18 1. 23 17 7. 14 -2. 48 4. 19 13 3. 82 31 33.2.8. 25 2. 14 16 17.8. 67 23 4.2. 21 15 5.2 33 -1. 2 3 4.2. 18 20 12. 53 -4.6.2. 53 29 30. 22 1. 68 4 25. 46 21 23.2 30 -1. 25 19 9.2. 57 5 25. 69 5 24.6 21 1. 26 20 10.2 12 2. 26 2.4 24 1.8 18 1. 42 -1.6. 49 25 26.2 27 -1.8.8. 19 -1. 38 -1. 40 18 9.8. 10 1. 47 4. 34 -2.2 27 -1.4 24 -1.2 30 1. 27 12 2.2 27 1.2. 72 6 27.2 27 1.2.2. 41 1.8 3 -2.6.STAAD TRUSS INPUT WIDTH 79 UNIT METER KN JOINT COORDINATES 1 3 0 3. 33 -2. 3 2. 39 18 7.2.6.2. 24 18 8.2 27 1. 58 6 26.4.2 30 1. 50 26 27.2 27 -1. 29 1. 55 -7. 28 1. 63 2 22.8.4 9 -2.6 6 -2. 17 19 20. 35 -2. 52 28 29.2 33 -1.8 18 -1.2. 36 -2.2.2.2.2 27 1.4.2.2. 65 21 3.2 30 1. 13 -2. 38 17 8.

83 33 34. 124 39 19. 211 53 54. 168 50 48. 130 13 34. 194 44 56. 187 48 46. 199 44 54. 147 2 41. 150 41 43. 114 29 40. 104 24 35. 232 59 58. 180 22 50. 228 43 60. 142 40 19. 170 50 49. 106 25 36. 254 43 42. 91 23 33. 121 36 16. 241 36 6. 132 35 14. 127 31 13. 258 59 61. 231 60 57. 100 21 33. 144 32 20. 230 41 59. 185 50 45. 118 33 13. 143 40 12. 85 35 36. 137 37 18. 134 36 15. 120 35 15. 116 30 32. 248 19 29. 111 28 37. 240 15 25. 107 26 35. 172 43 48. 243 37 7. 92 24 34. 245 38 8. 224 42 60. 102 23 34. 119 34 14. 162 47 45. 165 46 45. 255 60 61. 177 50 46. 159 12 44. 198 55 54. 174 46 49. 252 22 12. 235 33 3. 84 34 35. 171 49 48. 220 59 57. 204 56 52. 175 45 48. 122 37 17. 95 27 37. MEMBER PROPERTY INDIAN 1 TO 18 46 TO 54 82 TO 90 145 TO 148 215 TO 218 TA LD ISA200X150X18 SP 0. 94 26 36. 155 22 41. 109 27 36. 164 47 46. 90 40 32. 218 43 59.01 International Design Codes Manual — 445 . 201 52 55. 191 53 52. 87 37 38. 103 33 24. 133 35 16. 146 12 42. 222 58 60. 161 41 47. 226 41 58. 184 47 48. 246 18 28. 202 51 54. 123 38 18. 189 53 51. 151 43 44. 141 39 20. 239 35 5. 149 42 41. 195 56 54. 257 57 61. 188 42 53. 179 47 49. 158 44 22. 169 48 22. 200 53 56. 203 42 56. 138 38 17. 256 58 61. 227 44 59. 236 13 23. 221 57 58. 216 42 58. 136 37 16. 176 41 50. 212 56 51. 113 29 38. 97 29 39. 225 42 57. 153 12 41. 247 39 9. 115 30 39. 99 22 32. 167 43 50. 244 17 27. 145 32 44. 181 2 47. 206 53 55. 182 22 45. 129 33 14. 166 41 45. 249 40 10. 96 28 38. 215 44 60. 183 2 48. 229 43 57. 205 44 53. 219 60 59. 131 34 15. 108 26 37. 250 20 30. 207 32 56. 193 42 51. 209 32 51. 196 54 32. 192 52 51. 242 16 26. 126 32 12. 214 54 52. 148 22 43. 210 12 54. 173 47 50. 93 25 35. 98 30 40. 89 39 40. 223 44 58. 190 51 12. 208 12 53. 154 42 2. 86 36 37. 237 34 4. 139 38 19. 105 25 34. 156 43 2. 110 27 38. 140 39 18. 251 32 2. 135 36 17. 213 51 55. 152 44 42. 88 38 39. 128 11 33. 253 44 41. 112 28 39. 160 32 42. 197 56 55. 157 43 32. 186 45 49. 238 14 24. 101 31 23. 178 43 47. 163 45 2. 125 40 20. 117 22 40. 217 41 57.

05e+008 ALL POISSON 0.5e-006 ALL SUPPORTS 1 11 21 31 FIXED UNIT METER KG LOAD 1 VERT SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 61 FX 732 46 49 52 55 FX 153 61 FX 1280 FY -1016 FZ 160 46 49 52 55 FX 9006 FY -7844 FZ 1968 2 12 22 32 FX 4503 FY -3937 FZ 1968 LOAD 2 GWBC SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 61 FX 549 46 49 52 55 FX 1148 446 — STAAD.Pro .3 ALL DENSITY 76.8195 ALL ALPHA 6. 19 TO 26 28 TO 45 55 TO 62 64 TO 81 91 TO 98 100 TO 125 127 TO 144 155 156 - 159 160 223 224 229 230 235 TO 250 TA ST ISA150X150X10 27 63 99 126 149 TO 154 157 158 161 TO 214 219 TO 222 225 TO 228 231 232 251 - 252 TO 258 TA ST ISA80X50X6 CONSTANTS E 2.

61 FX 515 FY -762 FZ 2342 46 49 52 55 FX 6755 FY -5906 2 12 22 32 FX 3378 FY -2953 LOAD 3 LEFT PCBC SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 61 FX 549 46 49 52 55 FX 1148 61 FX 960 FY -762 46 49 FX 6755 FY -5906 52 55 FX 4211 FY -4551 FZ 13293 2 12 22 32 FX 3378 FY -2953 LOAD 4 RIGHT PCBC SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 61 FX 549 46 49 52 55 FX 1148 61 FX 960 FY -762 52 55 FX 6755 FY -5906 46 49 FX 4211 FY -4551 FZ 13293 2 12 22 32 FX 3378 FY -2953 PERFORM ANALYSIS UNIT NEW MMS PARAMETER CODE IS802 LY 2800 MEMB 28 LZ 2800 MEMB 28 MAIN 1.0 MEMB 1 International Design Codes Manual — 447 .

Pro .ELA 4 MEMB 1 CNSF 1.0 MEMB 28 DBL 16 ALL GUSSET 8 ALL TRACK 9 ALL CHECK CODE MEMB 1 28 FINISH Output of design result DETAILS OF CALCULATION ---------------------- CHECK FOR MINIMUM THICKNESS 448 — STAAD.

0.5 MM (b/t)lim : 210/sqrt(fy) : 13.0 : 145.0 MM RESULT : PASS CHECK FOR SLENDERNESS RATIO --------------------------- VALUE OF L/r : 48.5*(KL/r/Cc)*(KL/r/Cc))*fy : 195. --------------------------- TYPE : PAINTED MIN. STRESS : (1.49 EQN.WEB THICKNESS .0 .5 : 168.15 MPA CHECK AGAINST PERMISSIBLE STRESS -------------------------------- LOAD NO.28 (b/t)cal : 9.141592*3.38 N ACTUAL AXIAL COMP. ALLOWABLE THICKNESS : 6.36 (b/t)cal <= (b/t)lim AND KL/r <= Cc ALLOWABLE AXIAL COMP.18. USED TO FIND KL/r : 60.141592*E/fy) : 127.0 .ROOT RADIUS : 200.38 / 11952.0 + 0.5*L/r ACTUAL VALUE OF KL/r : 84.25 ALLOWABLE KL/r : 120. STRESS :1742002.0 MM ACTUAL THICKNESS : 18. : 1 DESIGN AXIAL FORCE : 1742002.00 RESULT : PASS CALCULATION OF ALLOWABLE STRESS --------------------------------- CRITICAL CONDITION : COMPRESSION Cc : sqrt (2*3.75 MPA RESULT : PASS BOLTING ------- International Design Codes Manual — 449 .24 b : LENGTH OF LEG .13.

OF BOLTS REQD.66 KN BEARING CAP : 55.0 MM RESULT : PASS CHECK FOR SLENDERNESS RATIO --------------------------- 450 — STAAD.81 KN NO. : 32 DETAILS OF CALCULATION ---------------------- CHECK FOR MINIMUM THICKNESS --------------------------- TYPE : PAINTED MIN. BOLT DIA : 16 MM SHEARING CAP : 87.81 KN BOLT CAP : 55.Pro .0 MM ACTUAL THICKNESS : 10. ALLOWABLE THICKNESS : 6.

94 MPA CHECK AGAINST PERMISSIBLE STRESS -------------------------------- LOAD NO. The program allows design of single (non-composite) members in tension.56 ALLOWABLE KL/r : 400.83 KN BEARING CAP : 55. shear. : 3 DESIGN AXIAL FORCE : 112909.83 KN NO. Indian Codes . compression. have been implemented. 1988. including revisions dated May. : 3 ********** END OF TABULATED RESULT OF DESIGN *********** 9D. as well as their combinations.0*0. VALUE OF L/r : 95.27 / ( 2903. OF BOLTS REQD.53 MPA RESULT : PASS BOLTING ------- BOLT DIA : 16 MM SHEARING CAP : 43.1 General Provisions of IS:801-1975.801 ) : 48.Design per Indian Cold Formed Steel Code 9D. USED TO FIND KL/r : K*L/r ACTUAL VALUE OF KL/r : 95.81 KN BOLT CAP : 43.00 RESULT : PASS CALCULATION OF ALLOWABLE STRESS --------------------------------- CRITICAL CONDITION : TENSION ALLOWABLE AXIAL TENSILE STRESS : 249.27 N ACTUAL AXIAL TENSILE STRESS : 112909. Cold work of forming strengthening effects has been included as an option.56 EQN. International Design Codes Manual — 451 . bending.

9D. Both unreduced and effective section properties are used in the design stage. The user may choose the degree of detail in the output data by setting the TRACK parameter. The results are presented in a form of a PASS/FAIL identifier and a RATIO of load effect to resistance for each member checked. In addition.) and.3 Design Procedure The following two design modes are available: 1. The program will then evaluate all database sections of the type initially specified (i. a minimum and/or maximum acceptable depth of the member may be specified.. The properties listed in the tables are gross section properties. Member Selection The user may request that the program search the cold formed steel shapes database (IS standard sections) for alternative members that pass the code check and meet the least weight criterion. Code checking is carried out for locations specified by the user via the SECTION command or the BEAM parameter. in accordance with IS:801-1975. 9D. angle. Code Checking The program compares the resistance of members with the applied load effects. 2.e. if 452 — STAAD. as applicable. The Tables are currently available for the following shapes: l Channel with Lips l Channel without Lips l Angle without Lips l Z with Lips l Hat Shape selection may be done using the member property pages of the graphical user interface (GUI) or by specifying the section designation symbol in the input file. STAAD.Pro .2 Cross-Sectional Properties The user specifies the geometry of the cross-section by selecting one of the section shape designations from the Gross Section Property Tables from IS:811-1987 (Specification for cold formed light gauge structural steel sections). channel.Pro uses unreduced section properties in the structure analysis stage. etc.

6.1.2.4.a suitable replacement is found.1.0 which may be subject to torsional-flexural buckling.2 Bending stress in webs c) 6.1.3.4.6.1 Shear stress in webs.3 Combined Bending and Shear in Webs. b) 6. Maximum Effective Slenderness Ratio for members in Compression l Clause 5.2 Compression on flat unstiffened element.2. If no section satisfying the depth restrictions or lighter than the initial one can be found. Members in compression and bending Resistance calculations are based on Clauses: a) All clauses for members in compression International Design Codes Manual — 453 . Members in compression Resistance calculations are based on Clauses: a) 6.1 Shapes not subject to torsional-flexural buckling. b) 6.4.6.8 Cylindrical Tubular Sections.1.1 Members in bending and shear Resistance calculations are based on Clauses: a) 6.3 Singly-symmetric sections and nonsymmetrical shapes or intermittently fastened singly-symmetrical components of built-up shapes having Q < 1. the program leaves the member unchanged. Maximum Flat Width Ratios for Elements in Compression l Clause 5.2.6. presents design results for that section.3. regardless of whether it passes the code check or not. c) 6. The program calculates effective section properties in accordance with Clause 5. The program will check member strength in accordance with Clause 6 of the Standard as follows: Members in tension Resistance is calculated in accordance with Clauses 6. Cross-sectional properties and overall slenderness of members are checked for compliance with l Clause 6.4.2 Singly-symmetric sections and nonsymmetrical shapes of open cross section or intermittently fastened singly-symmetrical components of built-up shapes having Q = 1. Maximum Section Depths. e) 6.0 which may be subject to torsional-flexural buckling.1. d) 6.

Note: Once a parameter is specified. Singly-symmetric shapes or Intermittently fastened singly-symmetric components of built-up shapes having Q<1.Pro .2.0 which may be subjected to torsional-flexural buckling. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.3 Laterally Unsupported Members.7.7. Input for the coefficients of uniform bending must be provided by the user.1 Doubly-symmetric shapes or Shapes not subjected to torsional or torsional-flexural buckling d) 6.0 which may be subjected to torsional-flexural buckling e) 6. The following table contains the input parameters for specifying values of design variables and selection of design options.& b) 6. c) 6.7.0 When this of the mem equally sp If the BEA conducted locations s STAAD ma and end lo CMZ 1. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again. Singly-symmetric shapes or Intermittently fastened singly-symmetric components of built-up shapes having Q=1.85 Coefficien IS:801-19 bending d CWY 0.3.0 Coefficien IS:801-19 bending d CMY 0.85 Specifies w effect sho IS:801-19 Values: 0 1– 454 — STAAD. COLD FORMED STEEL DESIGN PARAMETERS Parameter Default Descripti Name Value BEAM 1.

0 Effective le fraction an a column c user speci ratio for tw compressi KY 1.04 Yield stren MPa (3600. Values: 0 – Section 1 – Sectio FU 450 MPa Ultimate te (4588.FLX 1 Specifies w provided o 1975.01 buckling) compute t axial comp LX Member Unbraced length units of len member co to any use the KL/R r axial comp International Design Codes Manual — 455 .0 kg/cm2) KX 1.6.01 buckling) compute t axial comp KZ 1. It i from 0.72 kg/cm2) FYLD 353. It is a from 0.0 Effective le axis.0 Effective le Y-axis. 6.

Pro . RATIO 1.01 buckling) compute t axial comp LZ Member Effective l length is input in from 0. of length.Prints that printe TSA 1 Specifies wh to satisfy the Values: 0 – Do no 1 – Comp 456 — STAAD.01 buckling) compute t axial comp MAIN 0 0 – Check sle 0 – Do no NSF 1.Prints by TRACK 2 .Prints and PASS 1 . LY Member Effective l length is input in from 0.0 Permissib TRACK 0 This parame output is rep 0 .0 Net sectio DMAX 2540.0 Maximum cm.

Shear 6. 2) which signifies the numerical order of parameter command block (if multiple blocks are specified). International Design Codes Manual — 457 . 9E. Slenderness 2. The IS 800: 2007 Code is used as the basis of this design.2 Design Process The design process follows the following design checks. and the slenderness ratio (L/r) of tension members shall not exceed 400.1 General Comments For steel design.1. The following commands should be used to initiate design per this code: PARAMETER n CODE IS800 LSD Where: n = optional integer (i. the output file reports the maximum utilization ratio from all the above mentioned checks. STAAD compares the actual design forces with the capacities as defined by the Indian Standard Code. Indian Codes . . Bending 7. Compression 5.e.8 Table 3. Section Classification 3.2. When a design is performed. A brief description of some of the major capacities is described herein.9E.Steel Design per IS 800:2007 9E. 1.1 Slenderness As per Section 3. the slenderness ratio (KL/r) of compression members shall not exceed 180. 9E. Tension 4. Combined Interaction Check All of the design check criteria are described in the following sections.

7 and Table B2.3 of the code. The design procedures are different depending on the section class. STAAD is capable of determining the section classification for the standard shapes and design the section for the critical load case accordingly. If the value of DBS is specified as 1. Compact. involving rupture at the section with the net effective area. Thus local buckling becomes an important criterion. AVN. involving block shear at an end connection. and the corresponding check is done as per section 6. additional design parameters AVG. for Outstanding and Internal Elements of a section. The Design strength. This classification is a function of the geometric properties of the section as well as nature of the load the member is withstanding. This criteria is made optional by the parameter DBS. The Net Section Area may be specified by the user through the use of the parameter NSF. as defined in the Design Parameter list.3  Tension The criteria governing the capacity of Tension members are based on: l Design Strength due to Yielding in Gross Section l Design Strength due to Rupture of Critical Section l Design Strength due to Block Shear The limit state of yielding in the gross section is intended to prevent excessive elongation of the member. The Section Classification is done as per section 3. The Design strength. is evaluated as per section 6.4 of the code. ATG and ATN must be supplied to the program for that member. 9E. Here.2 of the code. 458 — STAAD. Steel sections are classified as Plastic. number of bolts in the connection may be specified by the user through the use of the design parameter ALPHA.Pro . 9E.2 Section Classification The IS 800: 2007 specification allows inelastic deformation of section elements. STAAD calculates the tension capacity of a given member based on these three limit states. is evaluated as per section 6.2.2. Semi-Compact or Slender element sections depending upon their local buckling characteristics.The user can also edit the default values through MAIN and TMAIN parameters.

the strength of the members subjected to axial compression is defined by buckling class a.1.2.2. User can control the lateral support condition of the member by the use of LAT parameter. To account for all these factors. 8. Imperfection factor.4 Compression The design capacity of the section against Compressive Force. Among shear buckling design methods. then the design strength is calculated as per the provisions of the section 8. initial bow and accidental eccentricities of load.4 of the code. The buckling strength of the member is affected by residual stress. c or d as per section 7.4. based on the following factors: l Whether section with webs susceptible to shear buckling before yielding l Shear Force to Design Shear Strength Ratio l Section Classification International Design Codes Manual — 459 .2. 9E. b. and Euler’s Buckling Stress ultimately govern compressive force capacity of the section as per section 7.1.1.2(a).2 and Table 7 of the code. If the member is laterally supported. obtained from buckling class. Nominal plastic shear resistance is calculated as per sec.1.6 Bending The design bending moment capacity of a section is primarily dependent on whether the member is laterally supported or unsupported.5 Shear The design capacities of the section against Shear Force in major.2. the guiding phenomenon is the flexural buckling. taking care of the following phenomena: l Nominal Plastic Shear Resistance l Resistance to Shear Buckling Shear area of the sections are calculated as per sec.4.1.2. 8.1 of the code.4. 8.9E. 9E.and minor-axis directions are evaluated as per section 8.2. Simple post-critical method is adopted as per sec.2.

Tee.3. These parameter names.Pro .2.1 . HSS Pipe. 9E. Usually.1 of the code. Overall Member Strength interaction ratio is calculated as per sec. 9E. based on the following factors: l Lateral Torsional Buckling l Section Classification 9E. with their default values. 460 — STAAD. Double Channel section.2 of the code. Channel.3 Member Property Specification For specification of member properties.0 K value in local Y-axis. Angle. Double Angle. shear. KY 1.are checked against combined interaction check. taking care of the design parameters PSI. HSS Tube.Indian Steel Design IS 800:2007 Parameters Parameter Default Value Description Name FYLD 250 MPA Yield Strength of Steel in current units. refer to the STAAD Technical Reference Manual. FU 420 MPA Ultimate Tensile Strength of Steel in current units. Table 9E.7  Combined Interaction Check Members subjected to various forces – axial. are listed in the following table. the Minor Axis. 9. CMX. torsion .If the member is laterally unsupported. moment. the specified steel section available in Steel Section Library of STAAD may be used namely – I-shaped section. 9.3. For more information on these facilities. This interaction check is done taking care of two aspects - l Section Strength l Overall Member Strength Section Strength interaction ratio is calculated as per sec. then the design strength is calculated as per the provisions of the section 8.4 Design Parameters The program contains a large number of parameter names which are required to perform design and code checks. Member properties may also be specified using the User Table facility except for the General and Prismatic member. CMY and CMZ.2.2.

1. controlling the Ru Strength of the Net Section 0.0 K value in local Z-axis. perpendicular to the line of the force. AVG None Minimum Gross Area in shear along bolt line parallel to externa (Mandatory for force.8 = For four or more bolts (as per Section 6. If DBS = 1. This Block Shear check) parameter is applicable only when DBS = 1. the Major Axis. MAIN 180 Allowable Slenderness Limit for Compression Member (as per Section 3. This parameter is applicable only when DBS = 1.3) DBS 0.Parameter Default Value Description Name KZ 1. AVN None Minimum Net Area in shear along bolt line parallel to external f (Mandatory for This parameter is applicable only when DBS = 1.8 A Factor. Usually.6 = For one or two bolts 0.1). based on the end-connection type.4. ATG None Minimum Gross Area in Tension from the bolt hole to the toe o (Mandatory for angle. ATG an ATN must be supplied to calculate Block Shear Strength Tdb.0.0 (as per Sect Block Shear check) 6.0 = Design against Block Shear will NOT be performed. Non-Zero Positive values of AVG.0 (as pe Block Shear check) Section 6.0 (as per Section 6 International Design Codes Manual — 461 . end bolt line. LY Member Length Length to calculate Slenderness Ratio for buckling about local Y LZ Member Length Same as above except in Z-axis (Major).0 Net Section Factor for Tension Member.1).7 = For three bolts 0.4.3. ALPHA 0.0 = Design against Block Shear will be performed.8) TMAIN 400 Allowable Slenderness Limit for Tension Member (as per Sectio NSF 1.0 Check for Design against Block Shear – 0. AVN.

3.2.2.2) PSI 1.0 = Beam is laterally supported  (as per Section 8. end bolt line.0 0.2 respectively) TRACK 0 Controls the levels of detail to which results are reported.0 = non-cantilever beams for bending check and deflection c 1. (as per Section 9.Parameter Default Value Description Name ATN None Minimum Net Area in Tension from the bolt hole to the toe of t (Mandatory for angle.2. section 9.3.1) CMY 0.0 (as per Section 6 KX 1.2) LAT 0.2.9 Cm value in local Y & Z axes CMZ (as per Section 9.0 Beam Type - 0.1.2. 0 = Minimum detail 1 = Intermediate detail level 2 = Maximum detail 462 — STAAD.0 = Beam is laterally unsupported 1.1) CAN 0.9 Equivalent uniform moment factor for Lateral Torsional Bucklin per Table 18.2) CMX 0.Pro .8 : where Factored Applied Moment and Tension can var independently = 1.1) LX Member Length Effective Length for Lateral Torsional Buckling (as per Table-15 Section 8.0 = cantilever beam (as per section 8. perpendicular to the line of the force.0 Effective Length Factor for Lateral Torsional Buckling (as per T 15. Section 8.3.3.2.0 Ratio of the Moments at the ends of the laterally unsupported l of the beam = 0.0 : For any other case.1 and 8. This Block Shear check) parameter is applicable only when DBS = 1.3.

0 in. BEAM 1. DMIN 0.0 = design at ends and at every 1/12th point along member (default). DFF None "Deflection Length" / Maximum allowable local deflection.Parameter Default Value Description Name DMAX 1000 in. Example 1 Commands for code checking UNIT NEWTON METER PARAMETER 1 CODE IS800 LSD ALPHA 0. denoting end point for calculation of "Deflection Leng 9E. 1.7 ALL DBS 1 ALL CAN 1 MEMB 2 International Design Codes Manual — 463 . Maximum allowable depth. For information on specification of these commands. RATIO 1. (Mandatory for deflection check) DJ1 Start Joint of Joint No.47. Minimum allowable depth.0 = design at ends and those locations specified by the SECT  command. denoting starting point for calculation of "Deflection member Length". “Code Checking” and “Member Selection” options are available with the IS 800: 2007 code.1 of the Technical erence Manual for details. DJ2 End Joint of member Joint No. See section 5. refer to section 5.0 Permissible ratio of the actual to allowable stresses.5 Code Checking and Member Selection Both. PROFILE None Used in member selection.0 0.

PSI 0.8 MEMB 2 TMAIN 350 MEMB 2 TRACK 2 MEMB 2 CHECK CODE MEMB 2 Example 2 Commands for member selection UNIT NEWTON METER PARAMETER 1 CODE IS800 LSD MAIN 160 MEMB 7 KY 0.8 MEMB 7 KZ 0.9 MEMB 7 FYLD 350 ALL SELECT ALL 464 — STAAD.Pro .

the details regarding placement of the reinforcement on the cross section are also reported in the output. In addition.1 Design Operations STAAD has the capabilities of performing concrete design based on the AIJ standard for structural calculation of Reinforced Concrete Structures (1991 edition).2 Section Types for Concrete Design The following types of cross sections for concrete members can be designed: International Design Codes Manual — 465 . Section 10 Japanese Codes 10A. 10A. Calculations are based on the user specified properties and the member forces obtained from the analysis. Japanese Codes .Concrete Design Per 1991 AIJ 10A. Design for a member involves calculation of the amount of reinforcement required for the member.

The first option is to compute the secondary moments through an exact analysis. ZD 250. 466 — STAAD. 10A.3 Member Dimensions Concrete members which will be designed by the program must have certain section properties input under the MEMBER PROPERTY command.Prismatic (Rectangular. 11 13 PR YD 350.Prismatic (Rectangular and Square) l For Columns . Slenderness effects result in additional forces being exerted on the column over and above those obtained from the elastic analysis. In the above input.Pro . The axial loads and joint displacements are first determined from an elastic stiffness analysis and the secondary moments are then evaluated. with only depth and no width provided. There are two options by which the slenderness effects can be accommodated. Secondary moments are caused by the interaction of the axial loads and the relative end displacements of a member. l For Beams .4 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Considerations Slenderness effects are extremely important in designing compression members. These are the D (YD) and b (ZD) dimensions for rectangular or square cross sections and the D (YD) for circular cross sections. The following is an example the required input: UNIT MM MEMBER PROPERTY 1 3 TO 7 9 PRISM YD 450. Warning: It is absolutely imperative that the user not provide the cross section area (AX) as an input. Square and Circular) 10A. will be assumed to be circular with a 350 mm diameter. The second option is to approximately magnify the moments from the elastic analysis and design the column for the magnified moment. It is assumed that the magnified moment is equivalent to the total moment comprised of the sum of primary and secondary moments. the first set of members are rectangular (450 mm depth and 250 mm width) and the second set of members.

0 and then pt value is increased keeping g = 1.5 Beam Design Beams are designed for flexure. It arranges the bar in layers as per the requirements and recalculate the effective depth and redesign the sections for this effective depth. Notes: l Beams are designed for MZ only. This is due to the fact that load combinations are just algebraic combinations of forces and moments. This procedure continues until pt reaches to its maximum value( 2 % ).0. The second method mentioned above is utilized by providing the magnification factor as a concrete design parameter (See the parameter MMAG in Table 10A. If allowable moment is lower than the actual moment program increases g value for same pt and checks the satisfactory conditions. the command PDELTA ANALYSIS must be used instead of PERFORM ANALYSIS in the input file.1 Design for Flexure Reinforcement for positive and negative moments are calculated on the basis of section properties provided by the user. 10A. shear and torsion. Also. The moment MY is not considered in flexure design International Design Codes Manual — 467 . 10A. The program considers 12 equally spaced divisions of the beam member.STAAD provides facilities to design according to both of the above methods.5. The user must note that to take advantage of this analysis. whereas a primary load case is revised during the P-delta analysis based on the deflections. STAAD does not factor the loads automatically.0 is lower than the actual moment the program gives message that the section fails.1). Program first try to design the section for g=0 and pt = balanced reinforcement ratio. all the combinations of loading must be provided as primary load cases and not as load combinations. This program automatically calculates the Bar size and no. All these sections are designed for flexure. If conditions are not satisfied this procedure continues until g reaches to 1. note that the proper factored loads (like 1.5 for dead load etc. To utilize the first method.) should be provided by the user. The results include design results for most critical load case. However this number can be redefined by NSECTION parameter. of bars needed to design the section. But if the allowable moment for pt = maximum value and g = 1. shear and torsion for all load cases. The column is designed for the axial load and total of primary and secondary biaxial moments if the first method is used and for the axial load and magnified biaxial moments if the second method is used.

is evaluated for the beam. cm 10A. fs. and spacing of stirrups.2 Design for Shear The Design Shear value. The program then calculates the required bar size.Pro . l MMAG parameter can be used to increase design moment l 1. is calculated for design Bar size and stirrup pitch and all the necessary checking is done.5 MEM 2 TO 6 TRACK 1. k (SMAG parameter) without changing the Design Moment.5. aw.0 MEMB 2 TO 9 DESIGN BEAM 2 TO 9 END CONCRETE DESIGN 468 — STAAD.3 kg/sq.5. QD. pw. The update effective depth is used to then calculate the allowable shear stress.5 times the actual value and this can be done utilizing the Design Shear Modification factor. is automatically calculated from design load type (permanent or temporary) and given density of concrete.4 cm. Notes: l Stirrups are always assumed to be 2-legged l Governing density to determine Light weight or Normal Weight Concrete is 2. l STAAD beam design procedure is based on the local practice and considering the fact that Japan is a high seismic zone area. The allowable shear stress of concrete. is added to the clear cover to take stirrup size into consideration for flexure design. 10A. For seismic loading it is needed to increase shear force ≥1. The reinforcement ratio for the strirrup.3 Example of Input Data for Beam Design UNIT KG CM START CONCRETE DESIGN CODE JAPAN FYMAIN SRR295 ALL FYSEC SRR295 ALL FC 350 ALL CLEAR 2.

Column design is done for Rectangular. maximum axial force. If TORSION parameter value is 1. design results will be printed for critical load only. If the column is in "zone B" or in "zone C". Square and Circular sections.0. Pt needed for minimum axial force. Depending on the axial force zone is determined for Pt = 0. 3. program will design the column for biaxial moments. If MMAG parameter is used.0. while for circular sections Pg value is calculated for MZ and MY separately. If the column is in tension. Program first checks whether extra reinforcement is needed for torsion or not. if allowable moment is less than the actual moment.4 Design for Torsion Torsion design for beam is optional. MZ moment.6 Column Design Columns are designed for axial force. design is done by considering allowable tensile stress of steel only. For rectangular and square sections Pt value is calculated separately for MZ and MY.5. design is performed by increasing Pt and checking allowable load for that known Pt and known actual eccentricity of the column.10A. 5. MY moment and shear force. If Track 0 or Track 1 is used. program design that beam for torsion. 2. If biaxial design is requested program solve the following interaction International Design Codes Manual — 469 . xn is calculated for given P and Pt and checking is done for allowable moment. Steps involved: 1. Both the ends of the members are designed for all the load cases and the loading which produces largest amount of reinforcement is called as critical load. If SMAG parameter is used. But if Track 2 is used user can get details design results of that member. this additional pt is added to flexure pt and additional Pw is added to shear design Pw. maximum MY among all the load cases for both the ends will be printed. 4. If the column is in "zone A". Column design for biaxial moments is optional. If BIAXIAL parameter value 1. If additional reinforcement is needed. the column moments will be multiplied by that value. column shear force will be multiplied by that value.0 . 10A. maximum MZ. program increases Pt and this procedure continues until the column design conditions are satisfied or the column fails as the required Pt is higher than Pt maximum value. Otherwise column design is always uniaxial type.

66666666 ´ (ratio-0. Elements are designed for the moments Mx and My. The longitudinal bar is the layer closest to the exterior face of the slab or wall.5 MEMB 2 TO 6 DESIGN COLUMN 2 TO 6 END CONCRETE DESIGN 10A. a = 1. If biaxial design is not requested program assumes that interaction equation is satisfied (if uniaxial design is performed successfully). Mycap. 8. is satisfied or the column fails as Pt exceeds its maximum limit. Mzcap & Pcap represents section capacity 7. If the interaction equation is not satisfied program increases Pt and calculates Pcap.0.2). Mycap and Mzcap and solve the interaction equation again and this process continues until the eqn. where. The reinforcement required to resist the Mx moment is denoted as longitudinal reinforcement and the reinforcement required to resist the My moment is denoted as transverse reinforcement.0+1. The following parameters are those applicable to slab and wall design: 470 — STAAD.Pro . These moments are obtained from the element force output (see Chapter 2 of the Technical Reference Manual). If the interaction equation is satisfied program determines bar size and calculates no. 9. Example UNIT KGS CMS START CONCRETE DESIGN CODE JAPAN FYMAIN SRR295 ALL FC 210 ALL CLEAR 2. of bars and details output is written. ratio = P/Pcap & 1. equation 6. The command specifications are in accordance with Chapter 2 and Chapter 6 of the Technical Reference Manual.7 Slab/Wall Design To design a slab or a wall.0 £ a £ 2. it must first be modeled using finite elements and analyzed.

1.  FYMAIN — Yield stress for reinforcing steel - transverse and longitudinal.
2.  FC— Concrete grade
3.  CLEAR— Distance from the outer surface of the element to the edge of the
bar. This is considered the same on both top and bottom surfaces of the
element.
4.  MINMAIN — Minimum required size of longitudinal/transverse reinforcing
bar
The other parameters shown in Table 10A.1 are not applicable to slab or wall
design.

10A.8 Design Parameters
The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform the
design. Default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently
used numbers for conventional design requirements. These values may be changed
to suit the particular design being performed. Table 9A.1 contains a complete list of
the available parameters and their default values. It is necessary to declare length
and force units as centimeters and Kilograms before performing the concrete
design.

Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number till
it is specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.

Table 10A.1 - Japanese Concrete Design Parameters
Parameter Default
Description
Name Value
CODE JAPAN Design Code to follow. See section
5.48.1 of the Technical Reference
Manual.
FYMAIN SR235 Steel grade. Acceptable values for
steel grade and their associated
yield stress values are shown in the
following table. Program
automatically calculates yield stress
value depending on design load
type (permanent or temporary).
FYSEC SR235 Same as FYMAIN except this is for
secondary steel.
FC 210 Kg/cm2 Compressive Strength of Concrete.

International Design Codes Manual — 471

Parameter Default
Description
Name Value
CLEAR 3.0 cm Clear cover for Beam or clear side
(beam) cover for column.
4.0 cm
(Column)
MINMAIN 10 mm Minimum main reinforcement bar
size.
MINSEC 10 mm Minimum secondary reinforcement
bar size.
MAXMAIN 41.0 cm Maximum main reinforcement bar
size
MAXSEC 41.0 cm Maximum secondary reinforcement
bar size.
SFACE 0.0 Face of support location at start of
beam.
EFACE 0.0 Face of support location at end of
beam. (Note: Both SFACE & EFACE
are input as positive numbers).
REINF 0.0 Tied Column. A value of 1.0 will
mean spiral.
MMAG 1.0 Design moment magnification factor
SMAG 1.0 Design shear magnification factor
LONG 0.0 Value to define design load type
0 = Permanent Loading
1 = Temporary Loading
BIAXIAL 0.0 Value to define biaxial or uniaxial
design type for Column
0 = uniaxial design only
1 = design for biaxial moments
TORSION 0.0 Value to request for torsion design
for beam
0 = torsion design not needed
1 = torsion design needed
WIDTH ZD Width of concrete member. This
value defaults to ZD as provided
under MEMBER PROPERTIES.

472 — STAAD.Pro

Parameter Default
Description
Name Value
DEPTH YD Depth of concrete member. This
value defaults to YD as provided
under MEMBER PROPERTIES.
NSECTION 12 Number of equally-spaced sections
to be considered in finding critical
moments for beam design.
TRACK 0.0 BEAM DESIGN:
0.0 = Critical section design
results.
1.0 = Five section design results &
design forces.
2.0 = 12 section design results &
design forces.
COLUMN DESIGN:
1.0 = Detail design results for
critical load case only.
2.0 = Design results for minimum
P, maximum P, maximum MZ and
maximum MY among all load cases
for both ends.
Table 10A.2 - Table of permissible Steel Grades and associated Yield Stresses
for FYMAIN and FYSEC parameters
Long Term Loading Short Term Loading
Steel
Tension & Shear Rein- Tension & Shear Rein-
Grade
 Compression forcement  Compression forcement
SR235 1600 1600 2400 2400
SRR235
SDR235
SR295 1600 2000 3000 3000
SRR295
SD295A 2000 2000 3000 3000
SD295B
SDR295
SDR345 2200 (2000) 2000 3500 3500
SD345

International Design Codes Manual — 473

Long Term Loading Short Term Loading
Steel
Tension & Shear Rein- Tension & Shear Rein-
Grade
 Compression forcement  Compression forcement
SD390 2200 (2000) 2000 4000 4000

10C. Japanese Codes - Steel Design Per 2005 AIJ
10B.(A) Japanese Codes - Steel Design Per 2002 AIJ

10B.1(A) General

This section presents some general statements regarding the implementation of
the “Architectural Institute of Japan” (AIJ) specifications for structural steel design
(1986 and 2002 editions) in STAAD. The design philosophy and procedural
logistics are based on the principles of elastic analysis and allowable stress design.
Facilities are available for member selection as well as code checking. Two major
failure modes are recognized: failure by overstressing and failure by stability
considerations. The following sections describe the salient features of the design
approach.
Members are proportioned to resist the design loads without exceedance of the
allowable stresses or capacities and the most economical section is selected on the
basis of the least weight criteria. The code checking part of the program also
checks the slenderness requirements and the stability criteria. Users are
recommended to adopt the following steps in performing the steel design:

l Specify the geometry and loads and perform the analysis.
l Specify the design parameter values if different from the default values.
l Specify whether to perform code checking or member selection.

10B.2(A) Analysis Methodology

Elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design.
Analysis is done for the primary and combination loading conditions provided by
the user. The user is allowed complete flexibility in providing loading
specifications and in using appropriate load factors to create necessary loading
situations. Depending upon the analysis requirements, regular stiffness analysis or
P-Delta analysis may be specified. Dynamic analysis may also be performed and
the results combined with static analysis results.

474 — STAAD.Pro

10B.3(A) Member Property Specifications

For specification of member properties of standard Japanese steel shapes, the steel
section library available in STAAD may be used. The next section describes the
syntax of commands used to assign properties from the built-in steel table.
Members properties may also be specified using the User Table facility. For more
information on these facilities, refer to the STAAD Technical Reference Manual.

10B.4(A) Built-in Japanese Steel Section Library

The following information is provided for use when the built-in steel tables are to
be referenced for member property specification. These properties are stored in a
database file. If called for, these properties are also used for member design. Since
the shear areas are built into these tables, shear deformation is always considered
for these members during the analysis. An example of member property
specification in an input file is provided at the end of this section.
A complete listing of the sections available in the built-in steel section library may
be obtained using the tools of the graphical user interface.
Following are the descriptions of different types of sections.

I shapes
I shapes are specified in the following way:

Note: While specifying the web thickness, the portion after the decimal point
should be excluded.

1 TO 9 TA ST I300X150X11
12 TO 15 TA ST I350X150X9

H shapes
H shapes are specified as follows:

International Design Codes Manual — 475

Note: While specifying the web thickness, the portion after the decimal point
should be excluded.

1 TO 8 TA ST H200X100X4
13 TO 17 TA ST H350X350X12

T shapes
T shapes are specified as follows:

Note: While specifying the web thickness, the portion after the decimal point
should be excluded.

20 TO 25 TA ST T250X19

Channels
Channel sections are specified as follows.

25 TO 34 TA ST C125X65X6
46 TO 49 TA ST C200X90X8

476 — STAAD.Pro

Double Channels
Back to back double channels, with or without a spacing in between them, are
available. The letter D in front of the section name is used to specify a double
channel.

17 TO 27 TA D C300X90X10
45 TO 76 TA D C250X90X11 SP 2.0

In the above commands, members 17 to 27 are a back to back double channel
C300X90X10 with no spacing in between. Members 45 to 76 are a double channel
C250X90X11 with a spacing of 2 length units.

Angles
Two types of specification may be used to describe an angle. The standard angle
specification is as follows.

The letter L (signifying that the section is an angle) is followed by the length of the
legs and then the thickness of the leg, all in millimetres. The word ST signifies that
the section is a STandard angle meaning that the major principal axis coincides with
the local YY axis specified in Chapter 1 of Section 1.5.2 of the User's Manual.

1 4 TA ST L150X90X9

If the minor principal axis coincides with the local YY axis specified in Chapter 2 of
the User's Manual, the word RA (Reverse Angle) should be used instead of ST as
shown below.

7 TO 23 TA RA L90X75X9

Double angles
Short leg back to back and long leg back to back double angles may be specified by
using the words SD or LD in front of the angle size. In the case of an equal angle,
either SD or LD will serve the purpose. The spacing between the angles may be

International Design Codes Manual — 477

specified by using the word SP after the angle size followed by the value of the
spacing.

8 TO 25 TA SD L100X65X7 SP 2.0
36 TO 45 TA LD L300X90X11 SP 3.0

The first example indicates a short legs back to back double angle comprised of
100X65X7 angles separated by 2 length units. The latter is a long legs back to back
double angle comprised of 300X90X11 angles separated by 3 length units.

Tubes
Tube names are input by their dimensions. For example,

6 TA ST TUBE DT 8.0 WT 6.0 TH 0.5

is a tube that has a height of 8 length units, width of 6 length units and a wall
thickness of 0.5 length units. Only code checking, no member selection can be
performed on TUBE sections.

Pipes (Circular Hollow sections)
Circular hollow sections may be provided by specifying the word PIPE followed by
the outside and inside diameters of the section. For example,

1 TO 9 TA ST PIPE OD 25.0 ID 20.0

specifies a pipe with outside diameter of 25 length units and an inside diameter of
20 length units. Only code checking, no member selection, can be performed on
PIPE sections.
Sample Input file containing Japanese shapes

STAAD SPACE
UNIT KIP FEET
JOINT COORD
1 0 0 0 12 11 0 0
MEMB INCIDENCE
1 1 2 11
UNIT INCH
MEMBER PROPERTY JAPANESE
* H-SHAPE

478 — STAAD.Pro

1 TA ST H200X100X4
* I SHAPE
2 TA ST I250X125X10
* T SHAPE
3 TA ST T200X19
* CHANNEL
4 TA ST C125X65X6
* DOUBLE CHANNEL
5 TA D C200X90X8
* REGULAR ANGLE
6 TA ST L100X75X7
* REVERSE ANGLE
7 TA RA L90X75X9
* DOUBLE ANGLE - LONG LEG BACK TO BACK
8 TA LD L125X75X7 SP 2.0
* DOUBLE ANGLE - SHORT LEG BACK TO BACK
9 TA SD L300X90X11 SP 1.5
* TUBE
10 TA ST TUBE DT 3.0 WT 2.5 TH 0.25
* PIPE
11 TA ST PIPE OD 3.0 ID 2.5
PRINT MEMBER PROPERTIES
FINISH

10B.5(A) Member Capacities

Member design and code checking per AIJ 2002 are based upon the allowable
stress design method. It is a method for proportioning structural members using
design loads and forces, allowable stresses, and design limitations for the
appropriate material under service conditions. The basic measure of member
capacities are the allowable stresses on the member under various conditions of
applied loading such as allowable tensile stress, allowable compressive stress etc.
These depend on several factors such as cross sectional properties, slenderness
factors, unsupported width to thickness ratios and so on. Explained here is the
procedure adopted in STAAD for calculating such capacities.

International Design Codes Manual — 479

Design Capabilities

All types of available shapes like H-Shape, I-Shape, L-Shapes, CHANNEL, PIPE,
TUBE, Prismatic section etc. can be used as member property and STAAD will
automatically adopt the design procedure for that particular shape if Steel Design
is requested. STEEL TABLE available within STAAD or UPTABLE facility can be
used for member property.

Methodology

For steel design, STAAD compares the actual stresses with the allowable stresses
as required by AIJ specifications. The design procedure consist of following three
steps.

1. Calculation of sectional properties
Program extract sectional properties like sectional area ( A ), Moment of
Inertia about Y axis and Z axis ( Iyy, Izz) from in-built Japanese Steel Table
and calculates Zz, Zy, iy, iz using appropriate formula. For calculation of i (
radius of gyration needed for bending ), program calculates moment of
inertia ( Ii )and sectional area ( Ai ) for 1/6th section and then uses following
formula:

Note: The above mentioned procedure for calculation of i is applicable
for I shape, H shape and Channel sections.

2. Calculation of actual and allowable stresses
Allowable stresses for structural steel under permanent loading shall be
determined on the basis of the values of F given in the following table.

480 — STAAD.Pro

Table: Values of F (N/mm2)
Steel for Con-
struction Struc- Steel for General Structures Steel for Welded St
tures
SS400
SN400 SN490 SN490 STK400
SM400
Thickness SNR400 SNR490 SNR490 STKR400 SS490 SS540 SM5
SMA400
STKN400 STKN490 STKN490
SSC400
t≤ 40 235 325 235 275 375 235 325 35
40< t ≤ 215 295 215 255 - 215 295 33
100

Note: In checking members for temporary loading be the combination of
stresses described in Chap.3, allowable stresses specified in this chapter
may be increases by 50%

Program calculates actual and allowable stresses by following methods:
i. Axial Stress:
Actual tensile stresses ( FT ) = Force / ( A x NSF ),
NSF = Net Section Factor for tension
Actual compressive stress ( FC ) = Force / A
Allowable tensile stress ( ft )

= F / 1.5 (For Permanent Case)
= F ( For Temporary Case )

Allowable compressive stress
(fc) = {1 - .4x(λ/Δ2)} x F/v when λ ≤ Δ
= 2.77 x F/ (
= fc x 1.5 (for Temporary case)
where:
Δ = √(π2E/(.6 x F))
Δ=F
v = 3/2 + 2/3x(λ/Δ2)

International Design Codes Manual — 481

ii. Bending Stress:
Actual bending stress for My for compression
( Fbcy) = My / Zcy
Actual bending stress for Mz for compression
( Fbcz) = Mz / Zcz
Actual bending stress for My for tension
( Fbty ) = My / Zty
Actual bending stress for Mz for tension
( Fbtz ) = Mz / Ztz
where, Zcy , Zcz are section modulus for compression and
Zty, Ztz are section modulus for tension
Allowable bending stress for My
(fbcy) = ft
Allowable bending stress for Mz
(fbcz) = { 1 - .4 x (lb / i)2 / (C λ2)} ft max
= 900/ (lb x h / Af )
For Temporary case, fbcz = 1.5 x (fbcz for Permanent case)
Where:
C = 1.75 - 1.05 (M2 / M1) + 0.3 (M2 / M1)2
Allowable bending stress for My, fbty = ft
Allowable bending stress for Mz, fbtz = fbcz

Note: The parameter CB can be used to specify a value for C
directly.

iii. Shear Stress
Actual shear stresses are calculated by the following formula:
qy = Qy / Aww
Where:
Aww = web shear area = product of depth and web thickness
qz = Qz / Aff
Where:

482 — STAAD.Pro

Aff = flange shear area = 2/3 times total flange area
Allowable shear stress, fs = Fs / 1.5, Fs = F / √(3)
3. Checking design requirements:
User provided RATIO value (default 1.0) is used for checking design
requirements
The following conditions are checked to meet the AIJ specifications. For all
the conditions calculated value should not be more than the value of RATIO.
If for any condition value exceeds RATIO , program gives the message that
the section fails.
Conditions:
i. Axial tensile stress ratio = FT / ft
ii. Axial compressive stress ratio = FC / fc
iii. Combined compression & bending ratio = FC/fc+Fbcz/fbcz+Fbcy/fbcy
iv. Combined compression & bending ratio = (Fbtz+Fbty-FC) / ft
v. Combined tension & bending ratio = (FT+Fbtz+Fbty) / ft
vi. Combined tension & bending ratio = Fbcz/fbcz+Fbcy/fbcy-FT/ft
vii. Shear stress ratio for qy = qy / fs
viii. Shear stress ratio for qz = qz / fs

New Output Format ( TRACK -- 3 )
One new output format has been introduced which provides details step by step
information of Steel Design for guiding load case only. If Section command is used
before Parameter command this output will provide details information for all the
sections specified by Section Command.

Note: This output format is available only when Beam parameter value is 0 and
Track parameter value is 3. If section command is not used design information
will be printed for two ends only. If Member Truss option is used no Shear
Design information will be printed.

Example:

SECTION 0.0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1.0 ALL
PARAMETER
CODE JAPANESE 2002
BEAM 0.0 ALL
TMP 0.0 MEMB 1 to 4

International Design Codes Manual — 483

TMP 1.0 MEMB 5 to 8
TRACK 3 ALL
CHECK CODE ALL
FINISH

Allowable stress for Axial Tension

Allowable axial stress in tension is calculated per section 5.1 (1) of the AIJ code. In
members with axial tension, the tensile load must not exceed the tension capacity
of the member. The tension capacity of the member is calculated on the basis of
the member area. STAAD calculates the tension capacity of a given member based
on a user supplied net section factor (NSF-a default value of 1.0 is present but may
be altered by changing the input value, see Table 8B.1) and proceeds with
member selection or code checking.

Allowable stress for Axial Compression

The allowable stress for members in compression is determined according to the
procedure of section 5.1 (3). Compressive resistance is a function of the
slenderness of the cross-section (Kl/r ratio) and the user may control the
slenderness value by modifying parameters such as KY, LY, KZ and LZ. In the
absence of user provided values for effective length, the actual member length will
be used. The slenderness ratios are checked against the permissible values
specified in Chapter 11 of the AIJ code.

Allowable stress for Bending

The permissible bending compressive and tensile stresses are dependent on such
factors as length of outstanding legs, thickness of flanges, unsupported length of
the compression flange (UNL, defaults to member length) etc. The allowable
stresses in bending (compressive and tensile) are calculated as per the criteria of
Clause 5.1 (4) of the code.

Allowable stress for Shear

Shear capacities are a function of web depth, web thickness etc. The allowable
stresses in shear are computed according to Clause 5.1 (2) of the code.

484 — STAAD.Pro

10B.6(A) Combined Loading

For members experiencing combined loading (axial force, bending and shear),
applicable interaction formulas are checked at different locations of the member for
all modeled loading situations. Members subjected to axial tension and bending are
checked using the criteria of clause 6.2. For members with axial compression and
bending, the criteria of clause 6.1 is used.

10B.7(A) Design Parameters

The user is allowed complete control over the design process through the use of
parameters mentioned in Table 9B.1 of this chapter. These parameters
communicate design decisions from the engineer to the program. The default
parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers
for conventional design. Depending on the particular design requirements of the
situation, some or all of these parameter values may have to be changed to exactly
model the physical structure.

Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number till
it is specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.

Table 10B.1 - Japanese Steel Design Parameters
Parameter Default
Description
Name Value
CODE - Use JAPANESE 2002 to invoke the
AIJ 2002.
Design Code to follow. See section
5.48.1 of the Technical Reference
Manual.
KY 1.0 K value in local y-axis. Usually, this is
the minor axis.
KZ 1.0 K value in local z-axis. Usually, this is
the major axis.
LY Member Length in local y-axis to calculate
Length slenderness ratio.
LZ Member Same as above except in z-axis
Length
FYLD 235 MPA Yield strength of steel in Megapascal.
NSF 1.0 Net section factor for tension
members.

International Design Codes Manual — 485

Parameter Default
Description
Name Value
UNL Member Unsupported length for calculating
Length allowable bending stress.
UNF 1.0 Same as above provided as a fraction
of actual member length.
SSY 0.0 0.0 = Sidesway in local y-axis.
1.0 = No sidesway
SSZ 0.0 Same as above except in local z-axis.
MAIN 0.0 0.0 = check for slenderness
1.0 = suppress slenderness check
TRACK 0.0 0.0 = Suppress critical member
stresses
1.0 = Print all critical member stresses
2.0 = Print expanded output
DMAX 100 cm Maximum allowable depth for
member.
DMIN 0.0 cm Minimum allowable depth for member.
TMP 0 0 = Permanent Loading
1 = Temporary Loading
RATIO 1.0 Permissible ratio of the actual to
allowable stresses.
BEAM 0.0 0.0 = design only for end moments or
those at locations specified by the
SECTION command.
1.0 = calculate moments at twelfth
points along the beam, and use the
maximum Mz location for design.
DFF None "Deflection Length" / Maxm. allowable
(Mandatory local deflection
for
deflection
check)
DJ1 Start Joint Joint No. denoting starting point for
of member calculation of "Deflection Length" (See
Note 1)

486 — STAAD.Pro

in some situations. If DJ1 and DJ2 are not used. The parameters DJ1 and DJ2 should be used to model this situation. refer to the figure below where a beam has been modeled using four joints and three members. DJ1 should be "1" and DJ2 should be "4". Note that the "Deflection Length" for all three members will be equal to the total length of the beam in this case. Also the straight line joining DJ1 and DJ2 is used as the reference line from which local deflections are measured. denoting end point for member calculation of "Deflection Length" (See Note 1) TMAIN 400 Allowable Slenderness Limit for Tension Member 1. "Deflection Length" will default to the member length and local deflections will be measured from original member line. Any other value be used in lieu of the program calculated value. Thus. International Design Codes Manual — 487 . For example. 2.0 = suppress slenderness check . "Deflection Length" is defined as the length that is used for calculation of local deflections within a member. the "Deflection Length" may be different. CB 0 C value from the AIJ code. It may be noted that for most cases the "Deflection Length" will be equal to the length of the member. for all three members here. However. NOTES: 1. Use 0.0 to direct the program to calculated Cb. Any value greater than 1 = Allowable KL/r in tension. Parameter Default Description Name Value DJ2 End Joint of Joint No.5(A) Member Capacities" on page 479 Bending Stress for how C is calculated and applied. See "10B.

For example. moments are calculated at every twelfth point along the beam. Code checking is done using forces and moments at specified sections of the members. 10B.9 ALL TRACK 1.9 Member sSelection The member selection process basically involves determination of the least weight member that PASSes the code checking procedure based on the forces and moments obtained from the most recent analysis.0 ALL CHECK CODE ALL 488 — STAAD. The adequacy is checked per the AIJ requirements.85 ALL UNL 10. and the maximum moment about the major axis is used. PIPES or members listed as PRISMATIC. If the BEAM parameter for a member is set to 1. design will be based on the forces at the start and end joints of the member. The above parameters may be used in conjunction with other available parameters for steel design. governing load case.0 MEMBER 7 KY 1. location (distance from start joint) and magnitudes of the governing forces and moments are also printed. When no sections are specified and the BEAM parameter is set to zero (default). the critical condition. Selection of members whose properties are originally provided from a user table will be limited to sections in the user table. Sample Input data for Steel Design UNIT METER PARAMETER CODE JAPANESE 2002 NSF 0. a member specified initially as a channel will have a channel selected for it. The code checking output labels the members as PASSed or FAILed.2 MEMBER 3 4 RATIO 0.8 Code Checking The purpose of code checking is to check whether the provided section properties of the members are adequate to carry the forces transmitted to it by the loads on the structure. Member selection cannot be performed on TUBES. The section selected will be of the same type as that specified initially. 3. 10B.Pro . In addition.

Japanese Codes . The basic measure of member capacities are the allowable stresses on the member under various conditions of applied loading such as allowable tensile stress. The method for calculating allowable bending stress was updated for the AIJ 2005 from the AIJ 2002 code. The following sections describe the salient features of the design approach. slenderness factors. and design limitations for the appropriate material under service conditions. The design philosophy and procedural logistics are based on the principles of elastic analysis and allowable stress design. etc. Explained here is the procedure adopted in STAAD for calculating such capacities.2(B) Member Capacities Member design and code checking per AIJ 2005 are based upon the allowable stress design method. allowable compressive stress etc. l Specify whether to perform code checking or member selection. These depend on several factors such as cross sectional properties. It is a method for proportioning structural members using design loads and forces. allowable stresses.Steel Design Per 2005 AIJ 10B. Two major failure modes are recognized: failure by overstressing and failure by stability considerations. International Design Codes Manual — 489 . remain unchanged. The code checking part of the program also checks the slenderness requirements and the stability criteria.. Refer to the AIJ 2002 documentation for additional details. 10B. SELECT ALL 10C. unsupported width to thickness ratios and so on. Members are proportioned to resist the design loads without exceedance of the allowable stresses or capacities and the most economical section is selected on the basis of the least weight criteria. Users are recommended to adopt the following steps in performing the steel design: l Specify the geometry and loads and perform the analysis. Facilities are available for member selection as well as code checking.1(B) General This section presents some general statements regarding the implementation of the “Architectural Institute of Japan” (AIJ) specifications for structural steel design (2005 edition) in STAAD. All other allowable limit states. l Specify the design parameter values if different from the default values. analysis and design methods.

For calculation of i ( radius of gyration needed for bending ).5 (For Permanent Case) 490 — STAAD.Design Capabilities All types of available shapes like H-Shape. Izz) from in-built Japanese Steel Table and calculates Zz. The design procedure consist of following three steps. program calculates moment of inertia ( Ii )and sectional area ( Ai ) for 1/6th section and then uses following formula: Note: The above mentioned procedure for calculation of i is applicable for I shape. Moment of Inertia about Y axis and Z axis ( Iyy. Zy. I-Shape. Calculation of actual and allowable stresses Program calculates actual and allowable stresses by following methods: i. Methodology For steel design. 1. PIPE. Axial Stress: Actual tensile stresses ( FT ) = Force / ( A x NSF ). Prismatic section etc. STEEL TABLE available within STAAD or UPTABLE facility can be used for member property. iz using appropriate formula. Calculation of sectional properties Program extract sectional properties like sectional area ( A ). NSF = Net Section Factor for tension Actual compressive stress ( FC ) = Force / A Allowable tensile stress ( ft ) = F / 1.Pro . iy. can be used as member property and STAAD will automatically adopt the design procedure for that particular shape if Steel Design is requested. TUBE. H shape and Channel sections. STAAD compares the actual stresses with the allowable stresses as required by AIJ specifications. 2. L-Shapes. CHANNEL.

Ztz are section modulus for tension Allowable bending stress for My (fbcy) = ft Allowable bending stress for Mz International Design Codes Manual — 491 .6 x F)) Δ=F v = 3/2 + 2/3x(λ/Δ2) ii. Zcz are section modulus for compression and Zty. = F ( For Temporary Case ) Allowable compressive stress (fc) = {1 .5 (for Temporary case) where: Δ = √(π2E/(. Bending Stress: Actual bending stress for My for compression ( Fbcy) = My / Zcy Actual bending stress for Mz for compression ( Fbcz) = Mz / Zcz Actual bending stress for My for tension ( Fbty ) = My / Zty Actual bending stress for Mz for tension ( Fbtz ) = Mz / Ztz where.77 x F/ ( = fc x 1. Zcy .4x(λ/Δ2)} x F/v when λ ≤ Δ = 2..

75 .05 (M2 / M1) + 0. fbtz = fbcz Note: The parameter CB can be used to specify a value for C directly. fbty = ft Allowable bending stress for Mz. Shear Stress Actual shear stresses are calculated by the following formula: 492 — STAAD.Pro . fbcz = 1.5 x (fbcz for Permanent case) Where: C = 1. iii. For Temporary case.1.3 (M2 / M1)2 Allowable bending stress for My.

For all the conditions calculated value should not be more than the value of RATIO. Depending on the particular design requirements of the situation. Checking design requirements: User provided RATIO value (default 1. Combined compression & bending ratio = FC/fc+Fbcz/fbcz+Fbcy/fbcy iv. program gives the message that the section fails. and shear) are calculated as for AIJ 2002. Axial tensile stress ratio = FT / ft ii. Combined tension & bending ratio = (FT+Fbtz+Fbty) / ft vi. fs = Fs / 1. Combined compression & bending ratio = (Fbtz+Fbty-FC) / ft v. International Design Codes Manual — 493 .0) is used for checking design requirements The following conditions are checked to meet the AIJ specifications. Fs = F / √(3) 3. The default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for conventional design. some or all of these parameter values may have to be changed to exactly model the physical structure. See "10B.5(A) Member Capacities" on page 479 10B. Shear stress ratio for qy = qy / fs viii. If for any condition value exceeds RATIO . These parameters communicate design decisions from the engineer to the program.1 of this chapter. axial compression. Shear stress ratio for qz = qz / fs Note: All other member capacities (axial tension. Axial compressive stress ratio = FC / fc iii. qy = Qy / Aww Where: Aww = web shear area = product of depth and web thickness qz = Qz / Aff Where: Aff = flange shear area = 2/3 times total flange area Allowable shear stress. Conditions: i.3(B) Design Parameters The user is allowed complete control over the design process through the use of parameters mentioned in Table 9B. Combined tension & bending ratio = Fbcz/fbcz+Fbcy/fbcy-FT/ft vii.5.

0 = suppress slenderness check 494 — STAAD. MAIN 0.48. Design Code to follow.0 = No sidesway SSZ 0. this is the major axis. NSF 1. Usually.1 . LZ Member Same as above except in z-axis Length FYLD 235 MPA Yield strength of steel in Megapascal.0 K value in local z-axis. This is the way STAAD works for all codes. UNF 1.Japanese Steel Design Parameters Parameter Default Description Name Value CODE JAPAN Use JAPANESE 2005 to invoke the AIJ 2005.0 Net section factor for tension members.0 = check for slenderness 1.1 of the Technical Reference Manual. this is the minor axis.0 Same as above provided as a fraction of actual member length.0 K value in local y-axis. LY Member Length in local y-axis to calculate Length slenderness ratio. KY 1. 1. See section 5. Usually.0 Same as above except in local z-axis. Note: Once a parameter is specified.Pro .0 0. UNL Member Unsupported length for calculating Length allowable bending stress. SSY 0. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again. KZ 1.0 = Sidesway in local y-axis. Table 10B2.0 0.

0 = Suppress critical member stresses 1. and use the maximum Mz location for design.0 cm Minimum allowable depth for member. DFF None "Deflection Length" / Maxm. denoting end point for member calculation of "Deflection Length" (See Note 1) International Design Codes Manual — 495 .0 = calculate moments at twelfth points along the beam. allowable (Mandatory local deflection for deflection check) DJ1 Start Joint Joint No. 1. TMP 0 0 = Permanent Loading 1 = Temporary Loading RATIO 1.0 = Print maximum details. DMIN 0.Parameter Default Description Name Value TRACK 0.0 = Print all critical member stresses 2.0 = design only for end moments or those at locations specified by the SECTION command.0 = Print expanded output 3. BEAM 0.0 0. DMAX 100 cm Maximum allowable depth for member.0 Permissible ratio of the actual to allowable stresses.0 0. denoting starting point for of member calculation of "Deflection Length" (See Note 1) DJ2 End Joint of Joint No.

Parameter Default Description Name Value TMAIN 400 Allowable Slenderness Limit for Tension Member 1. If DJ1 and DJ2 are not used. Also the straight line joining DJ1 and DJ2 is used as the reference line from which local deflections are measured. Note that the "Deflection Length" for all three members will be equal to the total length of the beam in this case. refer to the figure below where a beam has been modeled using four joints and three members. 2. CB 0 C value from the AIJ code. Use 0. The above parameters may be used in conjunction with other available parameters for steel design. Thus. "Deflection Length" is defined as the length that is used for calculation of local deflections within a member. 496 — STAAD. The parameters DJ1 and DJ2 should be used to model this situation.Pro . 3. for all three members here. Any other value be used in lieu of the program calculated value. in some situations. For example.0 to direct the program to calculated Cb. It may be noted that for most cases the "Deflection Length" will be equal to the length of the member. See "10B.0 = suppress slenderness check .5(A) Member Capacities" on page 479 Bending Stress for how C is calculated and applied. DJ1 should be "1" and DJ2 should be "4". However. "Deflection Length" will default to the member length and local deflections will be measured from original member line. the "Deflection Length" may be different. Any value greater than 1 = Allowable KL/r in tension. NOTES: 1.

11A. All the concrete design calculations are based on the current: Complementary Technical Standards for the Design and Construction of Concrete Structures – Nov. Square and Circular) For Beams Prismatic (Rectangular & Square). 1987. It will calculate the reinforcement needed for the specified concrete section. Mexican Codes . Section 11 Mexican Codes 11A.1 Design Operations STAAD has the capabilities for performing concrete design. For Columns Prismatic (Rectangular. Trapezoidal and T-shapes International Design Codes Manual — 497 . (Normas Técnicas Complementarias para Diseño y construcción de Estructuras de Concreto) of the Mexican Construction Code for the Federal District –Aug. 1993 (Reglamento de Construcciones para el Distrito Federal).Concrete Design Per MEX NTC 1987 11A.2 Section Types for Concrete Design The following types of cross sections can be defined for concrete design.

IZ 53333 IY 13333 11 13 PR YD 20. 14 TO 16 PRIS YD 24. ZD. For concrete design. the first set of members are rectangular (40 cm depth and 20 cm width) and the second set of members. 498 — STAAD. ZB 12. trapezoidal or T-shaped and the BEAM design will be done accordingly. ZD 48. Depending on the properties (YD. This is a conventional practice which takes into consideration revised section parameters due to cracking of section. If shear areas and moments of inertias are not provided.Pro .) provided. ZD 18. YB 18. ZB 12. 17 TO 19 PR YD 24. ZB. The following example shows the required input: UNIT CM MEMBER PROPERTY 13 TO 79 PRISM YD 40. Note that no area (AX) is provided for these members. In the above input.3 Member Dimensions Concrete members which will be designed by the program must have certain section properties input under the MEMBER PROPERTY command. YB. ZD 20. etc. For Slabs Finite element with a specified thickness 11A. with only depth and no width provided. this property must not be provided. the program calculates these values from YD and ZD. Notice that in the above example the IZ and IY values provided are actually 50% of the values calculated using YD and ZD. the program will determine whether the section is rectangular. Note that the third and the fourth set of members in the above example represent a T-shape and a TRAPEZOIDAL shape respectively. will be assumed to be circular with 20 cm diameter.

5 bar Minimum main reinforcement bar size (Number 2 -18) MINSEC** No 2. These values may be changed to suit the particular design being performed.Mexican Concrete Design Parameters Parameter Default Parameters Name Value FYMAIN 4200Kg/cm2 Yield Stress for main reinforcing steel FYSTIRR 4200Kg/cm2 Yield Stress for stirrup reinforcing steel FC 200Kg/cm2 Compressive Strength of Concrete clear_cover_ 3cm Clear cover for top reinforcement top clear_cover_ 3cm Clear cover for bottom reinforcement bottom clear_cover_ 3cm Clear cover for side reinforcement side MINMAIN** No 2. beams and columns are designed for moments directly obtained from the analyses without any magnification. Similarly.5 bar Minimum secondary reinforcement bar size (Number 2 -18) MAXMAIN** No 12 bar Maximum main reinforcement bar size (Number 2 -18) International Design Codes Manual — 499 . Table 11A. For beams. For example. This is the way STAAD works for all codes. the values of SFACE and EFACE (parameters that are used in shear design).11A.4 Design Parameters The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform design by the Mexican code. the distances of the face of supports from the end nodes of a beam. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again. are assigned values of zero by default but may be changed depending on the actual situation. Table 3. The manual describes the commands required to provide these parameters in the input file.1 is a complete list of the available parameters and their default values. the user may generate load cases which contain loads magnified by the appropriate load factors. Note: Once a parameter is specified. Default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for conventional design requirements. The factors MMAGx and MMAGy may be used for magnification of column moments.1 .

AMAGx 1 A factor by which the column design moments will be AMAGy magnified WIDTH *ZD Width of concrete member. Parameter Default Parameters Name Value SFACE 0 Face to support location of start of beam. If specified. REINF 0 Tied Column. If specified. This value defaults to ZD as provided under MEMBER PROPERTIES DEPTH *YD Depth of concrete member.Pro . Positive number. This value defaults to YD as provided under MEMBER PROPERTIES NSECTION 12 Number of equally-spaced sections to be considered in finding critical moments for beam design 500 — STAAD. for shear force at start is computed at a distance of EFACE+d from the start joint of the member. for shear force at start is computed at a distance of SFACE+d from the start joint of the member. A value of 1 will mean spiral. Positive number EFACE 0 Face to support location of end of beam.

1 = will mean a print out column interation analysis results in addition to TRACK 0 output. 2 = will print out required steel areas for all intermediate sections specified by NSECTION.2 to 60mm) 2: MEXICAN (No 2 to 18) DIM_ TRUE TRUE: Precautions are taken to assure dimensions PRECAUTION FALSE: Not precautions taken . 2 = will print out a schematic interaction diagram and intermediate interaction values in addition to all of the above.1d) to define Modulus of Elasticity LIGHT_CONC FALSE Light Concrete to define development multipliers according to table 3.Parameter Default Parameters Name Value TRACK 0 Beam Design 0 = Critical Moment will not be printed out with beam design report. BARTYPE 2 0: IMPERIAL (No 3 to 18) 1: METRIC (4. Column Design 0 = will print out detailed design results.Section reduction to section 1. 1 = will mean a print out.1 NTC International Design Codes Manual — 501 .4.5 NTC Concrete EXPOSED_ FALSE Exposition to soil or weather to define cover and min SOIL_ Steel reinforcement WEATHER CONC_CLAS 1 Concrete class according to 1.1 NTC COLD_ FALSE Cold formed Bar to define development multipliers FORM_BAR according to table 3.

1. 12 mm.0 Part of the longitudinal steel considered to reduce shear. 40 mm. Value between 1 and 0. Some SEISMIC _ design conditions are considered (not including. 16 mm.1. ** When using metric bars for design. The following metric bar sizes are available: 4. ZB 0. All of these equally spaced sections are scanned to determine moment and shear envelopes. The total number of sections considered is 12 (twelve) unless this number is redefined with an NSECTION parameter.I 2nd paragraph PHI 90 degrees Stirrups angle with the axis of the element TORSIONAL_ FALSE Beam needed for torsional equilibrium Cl. To calculate min steel required PERIM according to 2. 32 mm. all active beam loadings are prescanned to locate the possible critical sections.0 IDEM ACI YB 0.6a) 2nd paragraph EQUILIBRIUM Pfact 1.Pro .a. provide values for these parameters in actual ‘mm‘ units instead of the bar number.5 Beam Design Beams are designed for flexure. Parameter Default Parameters Name Value DUCTILE_ TRUE DUCTILE FRAMES ACCORDING TO SECTION 5. For all these forces. 50 mm and 60 mm. 11A.2mm. 20 mm. 8 mm.5. for DESIGN the time being. geometric or confinment ones) DIAM_AG *2 cm MAXIMUM DIAM AGGREGATE BEARED_ TRUE Slab beared perimeter.2. 10 mm.2 DIRECT_ TRUE Beam Loads and reactions in direct compression Cl- COMP 2.1. shear and torsion.0 IDEM ACI EIT *198000 CONCRETE MODULUS OF ELASTICITY Kg/cm2 * These values must be provided in the current unit system being used. 6 mm. 25 mm. 502 — STAAD. 0(zero) is on the safe side.

g. of main reinforcement). 3. It is important to note that beams are designed for flexural moment MZ only.1). Note that the value of the effective depth "d" used for this purpose is the update value and accounts for the actual c. the anchorage details are also provided. The relevant clauses in Sections 1. the maximum. Effective depth is chosen as Total depth . the number of bars and the distance over which they are provided are calculated. Note that the coordinates of these START and END points are obtained after taking International Design Codes Manual — 503 . ROWMX and ROWMN in the output and can be printed using the parameter TRACK 1. 2. 1. due to design conditions could be 2 or 4-legged.Design for Flexure Reinforcement for positive and negative moments are calculated on the basis of the section properties provided by the user. the size of bars.2. of the main reinforcement calculated under flexural design.5-6 and 5.1-2-5. Based on the total stirrup reinforcement required.10 and 5. SFACE and EFACE have default values of zero unless provided under parameters (see Table 10A. Design for Shear Shear reinforcement is calculated to resist both shear forces and torsional moments. the program reports that beam fails in maximum reinforcement. At any particular level. In addition. that is if the required reinforcement is greater than the maximum allowable for the cross section. These values are reported as ROW. and a trial value is obtained by adopting proper bar sizes for the stirrups and main reinforcements.6.2 of NTC Concrete are utilized to obtain the actual amount of steel required as well as the maximum allowable and minimum required steel. Stirrups due to geometric conditions are assumed to be 2-legged. the spacing.1.5. the START and END coordinates of the layout of the main reinforcement is described along with the information whether anchorage in the form of a hook or continuation is required or not at these START and END points. Clauses 2.0 (see Table 11A.1. If the section dimensions are inadequate to carry the applied load.1). Rectangular sections are also designed with compression reinforcement. The moment MY is not considered in the flexural design.2. Design for Anchorage In the output for flexural design. Shear forces are calculated at a distance (d+SFACE) and (d+EFACE) away from the end nodes of the beam. minimum and actual bar spacing are also printed.4 of NTC Concrete are used to calculate the reinforcement for shear forces and torsional moments.(Clear cover + diameter of stirrup + half the dia.

30. 1 DESIGN RESULTS .FLEXURE PER CODE NTC FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES.-NUM. Output ACTUAL OUTPUT FROM DESIGN ==========================================- =========================== BEAM NO. 3 . 1 .-NUM. 5 0.250.-NUM. 4 0.4200. 39. SIZE . YES NO 1 4. In case the program selects 2 different diameters for the main or compression reinforcement. 5 0.DDF LEN .Pro . 8 .525.1 of NTC concrete.00 X 80. only the anchorage for the largest diameter is analyzed. 2 8.into account the anchorage requirements. 39.00(cm) FY . Anchorage length is calculated on the basis of the Clauses described in Section 3. YES NO 504 — STAAD. FC . 39.00(cm) LEVEL HEIGHT BAR INFO FROM TO ANCHOR (cm) (cm) (cm) STA END ____________________________________________________ _________________ 1 4.

14/ 3.-NUM. 4 0.54/ 2.08(cm) | |----------------------------------------------------------------| Cracked Moment of Inertia Iz at above location = 1015658.81(cm) | |----------------------------------------------------------------| Cracked Moment of Inertia Iz at above location = 1008728. STEEL SUMMARY : ------------------------------- SECTION REINF STEEL(+VE/-VE) MOMENTS(+VE/-VE) LOAD(+VE/- VE) ( CM ) (SQ.0109 ROWMX=0. 45.00 (cm2) | | MAX/MIN/ACTUAL BAR SPACING= 24. DEVELOPMENT LENGTH = 40.00 (cm2) | | MAX/MIN/ACTUAL BAR SPACING= 24.0190 ROWMN=0. YES NO |----------------------------------------------------------------| | CRITICAL MOMENT=5978000. YES NO  4 73. 4 0. 9 .-NUM.0190 ROWMN=0.0026 | | REQD COMP STEEL= 0.50 Kg cm AT 0.00/ 44.45 (cm) | | COMP MAX/MIN/ACTUAL BAR SPACING= 0.72 (cm) | | COMP MAX/MIN/ACTUAL BAR SPACING= 0.0026 | | REQD COMP STEEL= 0.00/ 0.41 (cm2)ROW=0.50 Kg cm AT 0. |----------------------------------------------------------------| | CRITICAL MOMENT=5978000. 10 .46/ 2.00 (cm)LOAD 1| | REQD STEEL= 24. 45.7 cm^4 REQUIRED REINF.00 (cm) | | BASIC/REQD.00/ 0. CM ) (KG -CM ) International Design Codes Manual — 505 .4 cm^4  3 77.00 (cm) | | BASIC/REQD.00/ 0.07/ 39.18/ 3.00/ 0.0107 ROWMX=0.00 (cm)LOAD 1| | REQD STEEL= 24.17 (cm2)ROW=0. DEVELOPMENT LENGTH = 32.

67/ 24.50 0/ 0 525.00 Kg Vc= 6074.00 Kg Vc= 6074.67 5978000. Column design is done for square. 1 D E S I G N R E S U L T S – SHEAR AT START SUPPORT .Vu=37450. For rectangular and circular sections. If the MMAGx & -MMAGy parameters are specified.00 Kg cm LOAD 0 NO STIRRUPS ARE REQUIRED FOR TORSION.50 0/ 0 B E A M N O. PROVIDE NUM.00 Kg cm Tc= 0.00 Kg cm Ts= 0. REINFORCEMENT IS REQUIRED FOR SHEAR. PROVIDE NUM. FOR TORSIONAL RESISTANCE = 0.00 24.6 Column Design Columns design in STAAD per the Mexican code is performed for axial force and uniaxial as well as biaxial moments./ 5978000. All active loadings are checked to compute reinforcement. This means that the total number of bars for these sections will always be a multiple of four (4). reinforcement is always assumed to be equally distributed on all faces. 0.39 Kg Tu= 0.00 24. rectangular and circular sections.Pro ./ 5978000.00 Kg cm Tc= 0.00 (cm2) 11A. the column moments are multiplied by the corresponding MMAG value to arrive at the ultimate moments on the column.67 5978000. The loading which produces the largest amount of reinforcement is called the critical load.Vu=41850.67/ 24. Minimum eccentricity conditions to be satisfied according to section 2.49 Kg Vs=44719.(cm) C/C FOR 176.00 (cm2) AT END SUPPORT .00 Kg cm Ts= 0. Method used: Bresler Load Contour Method 506 — STAAD. 2.00 Kg cm LOAD 0 NO STIRRUPS ARE REQUIRED FOR TORSION.5 2-LEGGED STIRRUPS AT 8. 2.(cm) ADDITIONAL LONGITUDINAL STEEL REQD.1.49 Kg Vs=39219.(cm) ADDITIONAL LONGITUDINAL STEEL REQD. FOR TORSIONAL RESISTANCE = 0.39 Kg Tu= 0.(cm) C/C FOR 176.5 2-LEGGED STIRRUPS AT 7.3.a are checked. REINFORCEMENT IS REQUIRED FOR SHEAR.

Fc. If PNMAX is less than the axial force Pu/FR. If the reinforcement exceeds 6% (or 4% for ductile design). the column cannot be designed with its current dimensions.003 Steps involved: 1. 2. 4. the assumed reinforcement is increased (ensuring that it is under 6% or 4% respectively)  and steps 2 to 6 are repeated. By the moment to check shear and torsion for columns the sections have to be checked as beams and the most strict of both shear and torsion reinforcement adopted. find the uniaxial capacities and solve the interaction equation again. 7. Solve the Interaction Bresler equation: Where α = 1. Assume some reinforcement. bar arrangement and axial load. (FR is the strength reduction factor) increase the reinforcement and repeat steps 2 and 3. 5.Known Values: Pu.2 ) is a good amount to start with. Minimum reinforcement (1% for ductile design or according to section 4. where Po is the maximum axial load capacity of the section. If the column is subjected to uniaxial moment: α = 1 6. Find an approximate arrangement of bars for the assumed reinforcement. B. For the assumed reinforcement. These values are referred to as MYCAP and MZCAP respectively. If the Interaction equation is satisfied. the reinforcement details are written to the output file. Clear cover. Calculate PNMAX = Po. independently. 3. Muz. Ensure that the actual nominal load on the column does not exceed PNMAX.2.24. find an arrangement with available bar sizes. find the uniaxial moment capacities of the column for the Y and the Z axes. If the interaction equation is not satisfied. D. International Design Codes Manual — 507 . If the equation is satisfied now. Fy Ultimate Strain for concrete : 0. Muy.

Mnx = Mux*MMAGx/FR where FR is the Strength Reduction Factor and Mu is the bending moment for the appropriate axis for the critical load case.Pro .0 output are: l P0 = Maximum allowable pure axial load on the column (moment zero). l Des. l P_bal = Axial load capacity of balanced strain condition.0 for the column member. l Pnmax = Maximum allowable axial load on the column.Mmagx)²+ (Muy.0 or TRACK 2.NUMBER 6 1. In the case of circular columns.1 Kg/cm2 CIRC SIZE 100.AXIAL + BENDING FY -4200.7 Column Interaction The column interaction values may be obtained by using the design parameter TRACK 1.11A. Pn = Pu/FR where FR is the Strength Reduction Factor and Pu is the axial load for the critical load case. the values are for any of the radial axes.0(cm)DIAMETER AREA OF STEEL REQUIRED = 128. each representing a different point on the Pn-Mn curve are printed. l Mu = Ö (Mux. 1 DESIGN PER . If a value of 2. l M_bal = Uniaxial moment capacity of balanced strain condition. l Des. The output is generated without any TRACK specification: ================================================== COLUMN NO. l M0 = Moment capacity at zero axial load. l E_bal = M_bal / P_bal = Eccentricity of balanced strain condition. The values printed for the TRACK 1.506 BAR CONFIGURATION REINF PCT.700 508 — STAAD.0 is used for the TRACK parameter.0 FC .Mmagy)² l e/h = (Mn/Pn)/h where h is the length of the column 11A. Each of these points represents one of the several Pn-Mn combinations that this column is capable of carrying about the given axis.294. for the actual reinforcement that the column has been designed for. l P_tens = Maximum permissible tensile load on the column.8 Column Design Output The next table illustrates different levels of the column design output.669 1 END 0. LOAD LOCATION PHI ---------------------------------------------------------- 46 . 12 different Pn-Mn pairs.

62 23117562.Pn 'Des.00 161168.50 16296947.(cm) 2095196.00 P0 |* 1772858.00 40.00 805844.95 24433192.50 11408365.Mn e/h 20606994.00 0. M-bal.2 M0 P-tens.00 NaN -------------------------------------------------------- TRACK=2 generates the following output in addition to all the above: Pn Mn Pn Mn | 1934027.00 Pn. (EQUALLY SPACED) TRACK=1 generates the following additional output: COLUMN INTERACTION: MOMENT ABOUT Z/Y -AXIS (Kg-cm ) -------------------------------------------------------- P0 Pn max P-bal.00 Pn | * 1128182.00 |* 1611689. | * BENDING P-tens|* MOMENT International Design Codes Manual — 509 .00 -550620.38 727411.00 644675.91 27205616.38 5373253.12 29235398.00 NOMINAL| * AXIAL| *  COMPRESSION| * Pb|-------*Mb | *  ___________|____*_______ | * M0 Mn. e-bal.00 322337.81 29473708.00 | * 1289351.38 2095196.75 28658428.69 27278232.62 25462606.62 20083028.84 28901764. Des.00 20000000.50 967013.00 483506.max|__* 1450520.

252 983.Only minimum steel required. The reinforcement required to resist Mx moment is denoted as longitudinal reinforcement and the reinforcement required to resist My moment is denoted as transverse reinforcement.758 983. FY.00 / 0 3.00 / 1 1. Element design will be performed only for the moments MX and MY at the center of the element. REINF MOM-Y /LOAD (SQ. FC.00 / 1 BOTT: 3.CM/M ) (T -M /M ) (SQ. REINF MOM-X /LOAD TRANS. ELEMENT DESIGN SUMMARY ---------------------- ELEMENT LONG. FXY.1 are relevant to slab design. it must be modeled using finite elements.Pro . Other parameters mentioned are not used in slab design. 1 TOP : 2. A typical example of element design output is shown below. 1 BOTT: Transverse direction . The parameters FYMAIN.684 0. MXY.239 0. and EXPOSED_SOIL_WEATHER listed in Table 3.11A.9 Slab Design Slab are designed per Mexican NTC specifications. Also. Design will not be performed for FX. design is not performed at any other point on the surface of the element. Shear is checked with Q.CM/M ) (T -M /M ) 1 TOP : Longitudinal direction . DIM_PRECAUTION. To design a slab.00 / 0 510 — STAAD.Only minimum steel required. CLEAR.

2 Limit States Design Fundamentals The primary objective of the Limit States Design Specification is to provide a uniform reliability for all steel structures under various loading conditions. desired section type. 1987. The following sections describe the salient features of the Mexican specifications as implemented in STAAD steel design.1 General The program is based in: Complementary Technical Standards for the Design and Construction of Steel Structures – Dec. while that in serviceability is deflection. Accordingly.73 Kg ***PASS*** 11B. It allows to check deformation to verify serviceability. members are proportioned to resist the design loads without exceeding the limit states of strength. Two major categories of limit-state are recognized--ultimate and serviceability. 1993 (Reglamento de Construcciones para el Distrito Federal). 1 SHEAR CAPACITY 3794. 11B. In the STAAD implementation of the Mexican Standards for steel structures. The design philosophy considered is that of the Load Cases and Resistance Method or Limit States Design usually known as Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). A brief description of the fundamental concepts is presented here. The code checking portion of the program checks that main code requirements for each selected section are met and identifies the governing criteria. and stability. Structures are designed and proportioned taking into consideration the limit states at which they would become unfit for their intended use. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state design are strength and stability.Steel Design Per Mexican Code 11B. or other such parameters. Mexican Codes . (Normas Técnicas Complementarias para Diseño y construcción de Estructuras Metálicas) of the Mexican Construction Code for the Federal District –Aug. the most economic section is selected on the basis of the least weight criteria as augmented by the designer in specification of allowable member depths. International Design Codes Manual — 511 . Appropriate load and resistance factors are used so that a uniform reliability is achieved for all steel structures under various loading conditions and at the same time the chances of limits being surpassed are acceptably remote.

the following figures show the member end actions with their directions.3 Member End Forces and Moments Member end forces and moments in the member result from loads applied to the structure. In calculation of resistances of various elements (beams. on the right side. Because the different factors reflect the degree of uncertainty of different loads and combinations of loads and of the accuracy of predicted strength. These forces are in the local member coordinate system. yi. The design strength. multiplied by a resistance factor. resistance (nominal strength) and applicable resistance factor will be automatically considered. the required strength is the summation of the various load effects.). Mexican Codes . Qi.The Limit States Design Method uses separate factors for each load and resistance. is the nominal strength or resistance. The method may be summarized by the inequality Yi Qi < Rn FR On the left side of the inequality.Steel Design Per Mexican Code 11B. Rn. a more uniform reliability is possible. FR. In the STAAD implementation of the Mexican Standards. columns etc. 512 — STAAD. The design portion of the program will take into consideration the load effects (forces and moments) obtained from analysis. multiplied by their respective load factors. it is assumed that the user will use appropriate load factors and create the load combinations necessary for analysis.Pro .

International Design Codes Manual — 513 .

Pro .514 — STAAD.

3. The limit state of yielding in the gross section is intended to prevent excessive elongation of the member. noncompact (type 3).). The second limit state involves fracture at the section with the minimum effective net area.2 of the Commentaries. Steel sections are classified as compact (type 2). STAAD is capable of determining the section classification for the standard shapes and design accordingly. This classification is a function of the geometric properties of the section. International Design Codes Manual — 515 . 11B.5 Member in Axial Tension The criteria governing the capacity of tension members is based on two limit states. the procedure described in Section 2. Both equations include the effects of residual stresses and initial out-of-straightness. one for inelastic buckling and the other for elastic or Euler buckling. In addition to the tension resistance criterion. Thus local buckling becomes an important criterion. bracing member. ayudas de diseño y ejemplos de las Normas Técnicas Complementarias para el Diseño y Construcción de Estructuras Metálicas. sections depending upon their local buckling characteristics.NTC is also used.4 Section Classification The Limit States Design specification allows inelastic deformation of section elements. STAAD immediately does a slenderness check on appropriate members before continuing with other procedures for determining the adequacy of a given member. The procedures of Section 3. The net section area may be specified by the user through the use of the parameter NSF (see Table 11B. design helps and examples of the Complementary Technical Standards for the Design and Construction of Steel Structures (de los Comentarios.2 of the NTC.11B. STAAD calculates the tension capacity of a given member based on these two limit states and proceeds with member selection or code check accordingly. Two equations governing column strength are available.1). For slender elements. In both the member selection and code checking process. The design procedures are different depending on the section class. that always refers to the gross section. 11B. Compression strength for a particular member is calculated by STAAD according to the procedure outlined in Section 3. besides sections type 1 are able for plastic design. the user defines if tension members are required to satisfy slenderness limitations which are a function of the nature of use of the member (main load resisting component.6. etc.6 Axial Compression The column strength equations take into account inelastic deformation and other recent research in column behavior. or slender element(type 4).

Inelastic bending is allowed and the basic measure of flexural capacity is the plastic moment capacity of the section.0 will be used.8 of the NTC For the sections where the web and flange are slender the LRDF USA specification was used.2 of the NTC. the flexural design strength of a member is determined mainly by the limit state of lateral torsional buckling. actual laterally unbraced length. The limiting laterally unbraced length Lu and flexural resistance Mr are functions of the section geometry and are calculated as per the procedure of Section 3. To specify laterally unsupported length. The flexural resistance is a function of plastic moment capacity.).1) or may be calculated by the program (according to LRDF USA specification) if CB is specified as 0. KZ and/or LY.7 Flexural Design Strength In the Limit States Design Method. etc.Pro . STAAD immediately does a slenderness check on appropriate members before continuing with other procedures for determining the adequacy of a given member.1) can be used.3. In the absence of the parameter CB.5. compression members are required to satisfy slenderness limitations which are a function of the nature of use of the member (main load resisting component. a default value of 1. This coefficient can be specified by the user through the use of parameter CB or CBy (see Table 11B. LZ. the entire member length will be taken into consideration. limiting laterally unbraced length.Julio 1993) were implemented for the determination of design strength for these limit states. 11B. buckling moment and the bending coefficient. The purpose of bending coefficient Cb is to account for the influence of the moment gradient on lateral-torsional buckling. Stress areas due to bending about y axis (MY) 516 — STAAD. If not provided. bracing member.DDF (Comentarios . It is taken into account the reduction of flexural resistance due to slender web according to section 4. In addition to the compression resistance criterion. In both the member selection and code checking process.0. either of the parameters UNL and UNF (see Table 10B. Effective length for calculation of compression resistance may be provided through the use of the parameters KY.

4 of the NTC. They are also valid for uniaxial bending and axial force.6/7 of the NTC. Note: The local X axis goes into the page.. 11B. International Design Codes Manual — 517 . Stress areas due to bending about Z axis (MZ) 11B. the Global Y axis is vertical upwards.9 Combined Compression Axial Force and Bending The interaction of flexure and axial forces in singly and doubly symmetric shapes is governed by formulas of the Section 3. Besides combined bending and shear is checked according to section 3.3 of the NTC is used in STAAD to design for shear forces in members. Shear in wide flanges and channel sections is resisted by the area of the web/s. the area not shaded indicates area under tension.3. the shaded area indicates area under compression.3.8 Design for Shear The procedure of Sect. These interaction formulas cover the general case of biaxial bending combined with axial force.5. 3.4 of the NTC. considering also the limits for stiffeners of the web according to sections 4.

Table 11B. 11B. These parameters communicate design decisions from the engineer to the program and thus allow the engineer to control the design process to suit an application's specific needs. some or all of these parameter values may be changed to exactly model the physical structure. 11B. Depending on the particular design requirements. The program has included formulas to include structures with lateral displacements in the future considering for B2 the columns individually and not the complete floor analysis.0  K value for flexural-torsional buckling KY 1.Steel Parameter Default Value Description Name KX 1.0  K value in local Z axis.Usually minor axis KZ 1.11 Design Parameters Design per Mexican Standards is requested by using the CODE.1 below.Usually major axis LX Member length Length for flexural-torsional buckling LY Member length Length to calculate slenderness ratio for buckling about local axis.0  K value in local Y axis. The parameters DMAX and DMIN may only be used for member selection only. Design Parameters According to Mexican Standards .5 4 of the NTC.1.Pro . Once a parameter is specified. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.10 Combined Tension Axial Force and Bending Based on Section 3. Other applicable parameters are summarized in Table 11B. FYLD 2530 kg/cm2 Minimum Yield strength of steel FU 4230 Kg/cm2 Ultimate tensile strength of steel NSF 1 Net section factor for tension members UNT Member length Unsupported length (L) of the top* flange for calculating flexu 518 — STAAD. LZ Member length Length to calculate slenderness ratio for buckling about local axis. It is taken into account if the elements have transverse loads and if the ends are angularly restrained. The default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for conventional design.It is considered that the frames are part of structures that have shear walls or rigid elements so that the lateral displacements of a floor could be disregarded.

wind trusses or bracing rigid elements ) that restrict late displacements and allow to disregard slenderness effects. If Cb is set to 0. I_NO_OXIG 0 Defined for I shapes or tubes Curve Definition according to NTC.3. 1: Design at ends and at every y cada 1/12th point along me length  Rigid_to_H_ TRUE Defines if the structure has elements to bear the wind load ( s Loads walls. STIFF Member length Spacing of stiffeners for beams for shear design Cb y Cby 1 Coefficient C defined per section 3.2. IRREG=1 for columns being part of irregular structures.4 of the NTC. tubes or built up with 3 or 4 welded plates n is defined by the program IMAIN_MEM 0 IMAIN_MEM=0 MAIN MEMBER International Design Codes Manual — 519 .2. Parameter Default Value Description Name strength . I_NO_OXIG.0 Permissible ratio of actual load effect and design strength BEAM 0 0: Design at ends and those locations specified by SECTION command. TRACK 0 0 = Suppress all design strengths 1 = Print all design strengths 2 = Print expanded design output DMAX 114 cm Maximum allowable depth DMIN 0.4 laminated I shapes.2. Any other value will be directly used in th design. tubes or built up with 3 or 4 welded plate obtained from wider plates cuts with oxygen.0 it be calculated by the program according to LRFD USA (CbMex=1/CbUSA).= 0 implies n=1. Will be used only if compression is in the bottom flange.1a) I_NO_OXIG.0 cm Minimum allowable depth RATIO 1. Will be used only if compression is in the top flang UNB Member length Unsupported length (L) of the bottom* flange for calculating flexural strength .= 1 implies n=1 I shapes.3. IRREG 0 Variable defined for the whole structure indicating if it is regu irregular according to section 3.2.

0  K value for flexural-torsional buckling KY 1. TRACK 0 0 = Supress all design strengths 1 = Print all design strengths 2 = Print expanded design output DMAX 114 cm Maximum allowable depth DMIN 0. DESIGN geometric ones) KX 1. STIFF Member length Spacing of stiffeners for beams for shear design Cb y Cby 1 Coefficient C defined per section 3.2. FYLD 2530 kg/cm2 Minimum Yield strength of steel FU 4230 Kg/cm2 Ultimate tensile strength of steel NSF 1 Net section factor for tension members UNT Member length Unsupported length (L) of the top* flange for calculating flexu strength .3.ii NTC Ccomb=1 If members ends are restricted angularly.Usually minor axis KZ 1.0 cm Minimum allowable depth RATIO 1. Will be used only if compression is in the bottom flange. DUCTILE_ TRUE DUCTILE FRAMES ACCORDING TO SECTION 11.0 Permissible ratio of actual load effect and design strength 520 — STAAD. Ccomb=0. If Cb is set to 0.Usually major axis LX Member length Length for flexural-torsional buckling LY Member length Length to calculate slenderness ratio for buckling about local axis. Main design SEISMIC _ conditions are considered (not including.3.0  K value in local Z axis.85 If members ends are not restricted angularly.0 it be calculated by the program according to LRFD USA (CbMex=1/CbUSA). LZ Member length Length to calculate slenderness ratio for buckling about local axis.2. at the moment.3. Any other value will be directly used in th design.4. Section 3.Pro . Will be used only if compression is in the top flang UNB Member length Unsupported length (L) of the bottom* flange for calculating flexural strength .0  K value in local Y axis. Parameter Default Value Description Name IMAIN_MEM=1 Secondary and wind trusses Ccomb 1 Cfactor for combined forces when there are transverse loads members.

2.1a) I_NO_OXIG.1 may be used. Parameter Default Value Description Name BEAM 0 0: Design at ends and those locations specified by SECTION command.ii NTC Ccomb=1 If members ends are restricted angularly. DJ1 and DJ2 from Table 2.= 1 implies n=1 I shapes. International Design Codes Manual — 521 .4 of the NTC. DESIGN geometric ones) * Top and Bottom represent the positive and negative side of the local Y axis (local Z axis if SET Z UP is used. tubes or built up with 3 or 4 welded plate obtained from wider plates cuts with oxygen. DUCTILE_ TRUE DUCTILE FRAMES ACCORDING TO SECTION 11. 1: Design at ends and at every y cada 1/12th point along me length  Rigid_to_H_ TRUE Defines if the structure has elements to bear the wind load ( s Loads walls. For deflection check. All requirements remain the same. IRREG=1 for columns being part of irregular structures.2.4 laminated I shapes. I_NO_OXIG. parameters DFF.= 0 implies n=1. tubes or built up with 3 or 4 welded plates n is defined by the program IMAIN_MEM 0 IMAIN_MEM=0 MAIN MEMBER IMAIN_MEM=1 Secondary and wind trusses Ccomb 1 Cfactor for combined forces when there are transverse loads i members.3. Section 3. at the moment. I_NO_OXIG 0 Defined for I shapes or tubes Curve Definition according to NTC.3. IRREG 0 Variable defined for the whole structure indicating if it is regu irregular according to section 3. wind trusses or bracing rigid elements ) that restrict late displacements and allow to disregard slenderness effects. Ccomb=0.4.3.85 If members ends are not restricted angularly. Main design SEISMIC _ conditions are considered (not including.

13 Tabulated Results of Steel Design Results of code checking and member selection are presented in a tabular format. member design strengths will be printed out.12 Code Checking and Member Selection Both code checking and member selection options are available in STAAD Mexican Standards implementation.Pro .0. 11B. If the TRACK is set to 1.11B. 522 — STAAD. CRITICAL COND refers to the section of the Mexican NTC which governed the design.

Russian Codes . Analysis according to the first group of limit states is performed to avoid the following phenomena: l brittle. Code SNiP 2.03.01–84* defines two groups of limit states. International Design Codes Manual — 523 . l failure due to the action of load actions and unfavorable environmental effects. l fatigue failure.Concrete Design Per Russian Code (SNiP 2.03. plastic or other type of failure.1 General Russian Code SNiP 2. Section 12 Russian Codes 12A.01–84* “Plain concrete and concrete structures” is based on the method of limit states.03.01-84*) 12A. l loss by structure of stable form or position.

It is possible using program STAAD/Pro to calculate reinforcement for beams of rectangular or T section and for columns of rectangular or circular section (Fig.-85 shall be n considered in determination of loads and their combinations. Program STAAD/Pro makes it possible to calculate reinforcement for concrete members according to codes of many countries round the World and Russian Code SNiP 2. 12A.03.01-84)” have been used in creation of these algorithms. Reliability coefficient g for destination according to SNiP 2. if BETA=180°.Notation of dimensions for rectangular. Algorithms for calculation of reinforcement of concrete linear (beams.03. or at the bottom zone of the section.-85 “Loads and actions”. Figure 12A. walls. Analysis of structures for the second group of limit states is made in accordance with the operational (normative) loads and actions.Analysis according to the second group of limit states is performed to avoid the following phenomena: l excessive and long-term opening of cracks if they are allowed according to service conditions. Not only Code SNiP 2.Pro . shells) members are incorporated in program STAAD/Pro.03.1 . l excessive displacements. Analysis of structures for the first group of limit states is performed with the use of the maximum (design) loads and actions.01-84* inclusive. columns) and 2D (two dimensional) (slabs.1).01.01- 84* but also the “Guide for design of plain concrete and reinforced concrete structures from normal weight and lightweight concrete (to SNiP 2.07.2 Input Data 524 — STAAD.01.07. Ratio between design and normative loads is called reliability coefficient for loads which is determined according to SNiP 2. circular and T sections Flange of T-shape beams may be situated at the top zone of the section if the angle BETA=0°.

MEMB 23 TO 40 Commands for calculation of reinforcement are located in the input data file after the command of analysis and as a rule. .* Output command to print results of calculation (according to user’s judgment) . * Beams of T cross-section 23 TO 40 PRI YD 450. and thicknesses of 2D members are entered by ELEMENT PROPERTY command.Entry of data of cross-sections of beams and columns is made by the use of MEMBER PROPERTIES command. Example: * Command of analysis PERFORM ANALYSIS . * Command of loading and their combinations considered in design LOAD LIST 1 5 TO 9 * Command to start reinforcement calculation procedure International Design Codes Manual — 525 . YB 230.14 101 TO 252 THICKNESS 0. ZD 350. Example: UNIT MM MEMBER PROPERTIES * Columns of rectangular cross-section 1 TO 16 PRI YD 350. ZD 550. UNIT METER ELEMENT PROPERTY 41 TO 100 THICKNESS 0.16 * Flange of T beams is located at the bottom zone of cross- section BETA 180. ZB 200. * Columns of circular cross-section 17 TO 22 PRI YD 350. after output commands to print results of calculation.

shells) DESIGN ELEMENT 41 TO 252 * Command of interruption reinforcement calculation END CONCRETE DESIGN In tables 1.01-84* for beams. . Table 12A.04 MEMB 1 TO 40 DD2 10. 2 and 3 information about parameters used for calculation of reinforcement for beams.036 MEMB 41 TO 252 . . Values of parameters do not depend on UNIT command. columns and 2D (two dimensional) members is presented. * Command of beam reinforcement calculation DESIGN BEAM 23 TO 40 * Command of column reinforcement calculation DESIGN COLUMN 1 TO 22 * Command of calculation 2D elements (slabs. MEMB 23 TO 40 CRA 0. START CONCRETE DESIGN CODE RUSSIAN .Names of parameters for Concrete design accord- ing to Russian Code -СНиП 2.03. BCL 20. its value stays at that specified number till it is specified again.2-1 . Parameter Default No. In the file of input data only such parameters have to be taken. . walls.Pro . MEMB 17 TO 22 CL1 0. Description name Value 1 NLT 1 Number of long-term loading case 2 RCL 3 Class of longitudinal reinforcement: 526 — STAAD. Note: Once a parameter is specified. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.* List of parameters being used in reinforcement calculation . the values of which differ from determined in the program.

37 = C30/37 International Design Codes Manual — 527 . European Grade:- l 11 = S240. l 60 = B60. l 5 = B500. l 13 = S500. l 25 = B25. Parameter Default No. l 50 = B50. Diameter of longitudinal reinforcement bars in beam tension zone 6 DD2 16.20 = C16/20 l 25. Description name Value Russian Grade:- l 1 = A240. l 15 = B15 l 20 = B20. l 3 = A400.9 Specific service conditions coefficient for concrete (g ) b2 5 DD1 16. l 30 = B30.15 = C12/15. l 16. 3 USM 1. l 45 = B45. Compression Class of concrete. l 12 = S400. l 10 = B10.30 = C25/30 l 30. l 4 = A500. l 40 = B40. l 8. Diameter of shear reinforcement bars for beam. Total product of service conditions coefficients for longitudinal reinforcement (g ) s 4 UB2 0. l 35 = B35. l 6 = A500SP.10 = C8/10 l 12. l 55 = B55. 7 BCL 15. l 2 = A300.

for steam hardening conditions 10 CL1 0. for natural hardening conditions.85 = C70/85 l 80.60 = C50/60 l 60. l TEM=1. if calculation of reinforcement amount must be carried out according to the requirements of load carrying capacity (the first limit state). 11 CL2 0. except UB2 (g ) b 9 TEM 0.50 = C50/50 l 45.Pro .4 Ultimate width of short-term crack 13 WLT 0.45 = C35/45 l 40. Description name Value l 35. if calculation of reinforcement amount must be carried out according to the cracking requirements (the second limit state) 528 — STAAD.75 = C60/75 l 70.55 = C45/55 l 50. Parameter Default No.105 = C90/105 8 UBM 1.05 Distance from top/bottom fiber of beam cross section to the center of longitudinal reinforcement bar. l SSE=1.95 = C80/95 l 90.3 Ultimate width of long-term crack 14 SSE 0 Limit state parameter for beam design l SSE=0.05 Distance from left/right side of beam cross section to the center of longitudinal reinforcement bar 12 WST 0. Parameter of concrete hardening conditions: l TEM=0. Product of service conditions coefficients for concrete.

l 5 = B500. Use for beam design only. Table 12A. l 3 = A400.Names of parameters for Concrete design accord- ing to Russian Code СНиП 2. Face of support location at the end of the beam. 16 FWT ZD Design width of beam top flange. l 2 = A300. Use for beam design only with default value provided as ZB in member properties. Parameter Default No. l 4 = A500. 18 DEP YD Design depth of beam section. Use for beam design only with default value provided as YD in member properties. Use for beam design only. 19 SFA 0.03. l 12 = S400. l 13 = S500.01-84* for columns Parameter Default No. Description name Value 15 RSH 1 Class of shear reinforcement: Russian Grade:- l 1 = A240. Upper limit is equal to 20. 21 NSE 13 Number of equally-spaced sections for beam design. l 6 = A500SP. 20 EFA 0. Use for beam design only with default value provided as ZD in member properties. 17 FWB ZB Design width of beam bottom flange.2-2 . European grade:- l 11 = S240. Description Name Value 1 NLT 1 Number of long-term loading case 2 RCL 3 Class of longitudinal reinforcement: Russian Grade:- International Design Codes Manual — 529 . Use for beam design only. Face of support location at the start of the beam.

3 USM 1. l 30 = B30.15 = C12/15. l 12 = S400. l 45 = B45.9 Specific service conditions coefficient for concrete (g ) b2 5 DD1 16. l 3 = A400. l 55 = B55. l 60 = B60. l 4 = A500.50 = C50/50 530 — STAAD.45 = C35/45 l 40. Maximum diameter of longitudinal reinforcement bars for column 7 BCL 15. l 15 = B15 l 20 = B20.30 = C25/30 l 30. l 40 = B40.10 = C8/10 l 12.Pro . European Grade:- l 11 = S240. l 6 = A500SP. l 13 = S500. Description Name Value l 1 = A240.37 = C30/37 l 35. l 2 = A300. Total product of service conditions coefficients for longitudinal reinforcement (g ) s 4 UB2 0. l 35 = B35. l 8. l 16. Parameter Default No.20 = C16/20 l 25. Minimum diameter of longitudinal reinforcement bars for column 6 DD2 16. l 25 = B25. l 5 = B500. l 50 = B50. Compression class of concrete: l 10 = B10.

for natural hardening conditions. Column's length coefficient to evaluate slenderness effect in local Y axis 12 ELZ 1.05 Distance from edge of column cross