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# MEC 554 THERMODYNAMIC LAB: HVAC LABORATORY

2015

## UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL

## Program : Bachelor Of Engineering ( Hons ) Mechanical

Kursus : Thermalfluids lab
Kod Kursus : MEC 554
Pensyarah : Cik Siti Mariana binti Hosnie

Laboratory Report

Title

HVAC

## 1. ‘Usmar Aiman Bin Azhar 2013490144

2. Ahmad Naquiyuddin Bin Rasid 2013802598
3. Ahmad Almizan Bin Che Omar 2013254614
4. Aimi bin Ezani 2013212512

5. 2013274648
Nawi

## Sessi Amali : Pengesahan Staf :

(Tarikh) (T. Tangan)

## Penyerahan Laporan : Pengesahan Staf :

(Tarikh) (T. Tangan)

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Contents
1.0 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 3
1.1 OBJECTIVE ......................................................................................................................... 3
1.2 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND ...................................................................................... 3
2.0 PROCEDURE ........................................................................................................................... 6
2.1 APPARATUS ....................................................................................................................... 6
2.1 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE ....................................................................................... 8
3.0 DATA ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................... 9
3.1 SAMPLE CALCULATION ............................................................................................... 10
3.1.1 No process:................................................................................................................... 10
3.1.2 Sensible Heating: ......................................................................................................... 10
3.1.3 Steam humidification: .................................................................................................. 11
3.1.4 Cooling and dehumidification: .................................................................................... 11
4.0 DISCUSSION ......................................................................................................................... 13
4.1 Find the schematic of a modern air-conditioning system with advanced air treatment
processes and explain the function of the main devices. .......................................................... 13
4.2 Explain with the suitable diagrams the operation and arrangements in an automotive air-
conditioning unit. ...................................................................................................................... 17
5.0 REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................... 19

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

Air-conditioning is a process of treating air for the comfort requirements of the occupants
in the conditioned space. The properties of air can be modified by undergoing certain
thermodynamic processes. The most basic of processes involved in an air-conditioning system
are simple heating, sensible Heating (preheater and reheater), steam humidification, simple
humidification, simple cooling and dehumidification.

## Air-conditioning is useful to maintain the surrounding environment of temperature and ambient

to satisfy the the temperature of human comfort, which is between 20°C to 25°C. Conventional
air-condition is use to cool and to heat the surrounding environment, but in some country, air-
condition may use both heating and cooling, with or without humidifing air. Also the industrial
usage of air-condition is to reduce temperature of themal produce machine.

1.1 OBJECTIVE

To observe and understand the changes in air properties as it is treated in a basic air-
conditioning unit.

## Basically, the simple theory of operation on how air conditioning works in

functional order are through Compressor, Condenser, Expansion Valve System, Orifice Tube
System, Evaporator and Accumulator which in other words are compress, heat, cool, condense,
dry, expand and cool and finally evaporate. The detailed operations are as explained below.

Starting with the compressor, its primary function is to compress and pressurize gaseous
refrigerant. It takes in cool gas into suction port and pressurizes it at a discharge port. The
compressor is powered by a drive belt from the engine. The compressor has an electrically
operated engagement clutch to either turn the refrigeration operation off or on. Output is high
pressure (hot) gas.

Next is the condenser. The condenser is located in front of the radiator and kind of looks
like a radiator too. Through the use of cool air flow provided by the engine fan, the condenser
cools the hot gas and converts it to liquid. The liquid is still under considerable pressure and is
warm, but not as hot or as high pressure as when it exited the compressor. Output is high
pressure (warm) liquid.

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Expansion Valve System is where the exiting liquid is sent via a small tube (liquid line) to
a receiver/drier (applies only to an expansion valve system). The drier is a can with a desiccant
bag inside. It looks about the size of a soda can, and is usually located very near to the
condenser outlet pipe. There is no pressure or temperature change at the receiver/drier. Output
is the same as condenser, but moisture is removed by desiccant.

As the high pressure and warm liquid exits the drier, it passes through an expansion
device. It can either be an expansion valve (which modulates refrigerant flow in an expansion
valve/drier system), or a fixed expansion orifice tube in a cycling clutch/orifice tube system
(which expands at the same rate all the time). The two systems have slight have slight functional
differences, mainly in how the low temperature is maintained. Well any way, for illustration, the
pressurized liquid passes through the expansion device, the pressure is reduced considerably;
hence the temperature drops also. Output is cold liquid. The following paragraph describes the
expansion valve.

Cycling Clutch/Orifice Tube System is the exiting liquid is sent via a small liquid
line directly to an expansion orifice tube. The orifice tube is fixed, therefore the proportional
pressure drop across it will constant. This type of expansion device must work in conjunction
with a clutch cycling switch. Because the pressure drop across the orifice tube is constant, the
switch is used to maintain the system low pressure side in a certain operating range. The cycling
clutch switch, through various pressure changes in the system, turns the compressor off and on
during normal operation. A typical operation would have the switch turn the compressor on at
about 45 psi and off at 25 degrees. This would maintain the evaporator refrigerant at
temperatures around 35-45 degrees F.

The next step is evaporator operation. As the cold liquid exits the expansion device, it is
fed to a heat exchanger type device under the dash that blows warm air from the car interior
across it. The cold liquid refrigerant is what cools the air you feel coming out of the ducts. As
the air is cooled in the heat exchanger, the liquid refrigerant is heated in the other side of the heat
exchanger and then it evaporates.

Accumulator is only used in orifice tube system. It contains a desiccant bag also. The
accumulator provides a similar function as the drier in the expansion valve system, but is located
in the evaporator outlet instead. This positioning allows the accumulator to collect any un-
evaporated refrigerant that may still be in the liquid state, hence protecting the compressor from
liquid lock damage.

Finally, the evaporated gas then returns via the large tube to the compressor "suction"
port to repeat this whole process.

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## Air conditioning processes can be modeled as steady flow processes:

Mass conservation:
Dry air :  ma,i = mw,e
Water :  mw,i =  mw,e or  mai i =  ma,ee

Energy conservation:
Disregard kinetic and potential energy changes
Ei = Eo
Qi + Wi + mihi = Qe + We + mehe

a)Sensble heating
Conservation of mass:
ma,1 = mw,2 and (1 = 2)
Conservation of energy:
Q = ma (h2 - h1)
q = h2 - h1

b)Steam humidification

## Water mass balance: ma11 = ma22 , (1 = 2) (heating section)

ma22 + mw = ma33 ( humidifying section)
mw = ma(3 - 2)

## Energy Balance: Qin + mah1 = ma h2 ( heating section)

Qin = ma (h2 - h1)

c)Cooling dehumidification
Dry air mass balance: ma1 = ma2 = ma
ma22 + mw = ma3
mw = ma(1 - 2)

## Energy Balance:  mhin = Qout +  mhout

Qout = m (h2 - h1) - mwhw
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2.0 PROCEDURE

2.1 APPARATUS

## Computer Linked Air Conditioning Laboratory Unit (P.A. Hilton)

-The main equipment used during experiment.

System
Controller

Fan

Container

Stopwatch

Computer

Printer

## Figure 2.2 : Computer and Printer

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Compressor
Container

## Figure 1.4 : Compressor and Container

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## 2.1 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

The unit is started by having the suction fan running and the screen displayed the master Menu.
Programme 1 showed the process data displayed on a schematic layout of the system.
Meanwhile, programme 2 displayed the properties of the treated air on the psychrometric chart.
From the master Menu display we must press button ‘1’ or ‘2’ and then press button ‘enter’ from
the keypad of the main computer;

1. No Process – the data and psychrometric chart have been printed to read the initial
properties of the air as it enters the air-conditioning unit.
2. Sensible heating – 1 kW pre-heater has been switched on and the data is printed. Then,
0.5 kW re-heater has been switched on and both data and chart are printed as well. For
this process the temperature rised of the air at the exit has been calculated.
3. Steam Humidification – All water heaters are switched on to boil the water. The fan’s
speed was reduced to 25. When steam is produced, only 3 kW of heat is switched to
maintain the steam and the fan’s speed was increased to 35. When the conditions are
stabled, the data and chart have printed. Then, the amount of steam introduced, the
change in relative humidity and the corresponding rise of temperature have been
calculated.
4. Cooling and Dehumidification – The compressor of the refrigeration system is switched
on. The air is cooled until 18oC to 20oC (stable temperature), and then after 5 min the
data and the chart is printed. The heat rate and amount of moisture removed from the air
have been calculated. During this experiment, the rate of condensation from the
beginning of the cooling process until the end is measured and has been compared with
analysis.

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## 3.0 DATA ANALYSIS

Experiment STEAM
NO SENSIBLE COOLING
HUMIDIFICAT
ION
26.0 26.9
(oC) 26.3 26.5 28.6 28.9
T2 (TAw)
22.3 22.7 22.6 23.2 23.7 23.9
(oC)
T3 (TBd)
26.3 41.0 45.5 38.6 28.8 28.9
(oC)
T4 (TBw)
23.1 29.4 30.7 39.1 24.6 24.5
(oC)
T5 (TCd)
25.8 36.4 44.1 38.0 12.1 11.1
(oC)
T6 (TCw)
22.0 26.4 28.2 38.0 11.9 11.2
(oC)
T7 (TDd)
25.7 34.1 48.8 37.8 12.9 11.9
(oC)
T8 (TDw)
22.3 25.7 29.4 38.2 13.0 12.1
(oC)
T9 (T1)
- - - - 4.8 5.9
(oC)
T10 (T2)
- - - - 62.8 75.2
(oC)
T11 (T3)
- - - - 41.5 42.5
(oC)
T12 (T4)
- - - - 1.4 1.7
(oC)
Qp
- 1013.1 1000.4 - - -
(W)
Qr
- 0.0 532.0 - - -
(W)
Qb
- - - 2722.0 - -
(W)
Pevap (P1)
- - - - 157.1 158.8
(kN/m2)
Pcond (P3)
- - - - 1014.1 1038.9
(kN/m2)
ma
212.2 209.0 66.2 47.6 217.2 217.6
(g/s)
mr
- - - - 10.2 10.1
(g/s)
TIME
- - - - 300 1083.6
(s)
DRAIN
- - - - - 100
WATER(ml)

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## 3.1 SAMPLE CALCULATION

3.1.1 No process:
ma= 212.2 g/s = 0.2122 kg/s

## TAdry = 26.0 °C TBdry = 26.3 °C

TAwet = 22.3 °C TBwet = 23.1 °C
Ø1 = 72.5 % Ø2 = 73.5 %
ω1 = 0.0155 ω2 = 0.016

## 3.1.2 Sensible Heating:

a) 1kW pre-heater
ma= 209.0 g/s = 0.2090 kg/s

## TAdry = 26.3 °C TBdry = 41.0 °C

TAwet = 22.7 °C TBwet = 29.4 °C
Ø1 = 77.7 % Ø2 = 37.5 %
ω1 = 0.016 ω2 = 0.024

## ∆Tdry = 41.0 °C – 26.3 °C = 14.7 °C

∆Twet = 29.4 °C – 22.7 °C = 6.7 °C

b) 0.5kW re-heater
ma= 66.2 g/s = 0.0662 kg/s

## TCdry = 44.1 °C TDdry = 48.8 °C

TCwet = 28.2 °C TDwet = 29.4 °C
Ø1 = 22 % Ø2 = 13 %
ω1 = ω2 = 0.017

## ∆Tdry = 48.8 °C – 44.1 °C = 4.7 °C

∆Twet = 29.4 °C – 28.2 °C = 1.2 °C

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## 3.1.3 Steam humidification:

ma = 47.6 g/s = 0.0476 kg/s

## TAdry = 26.9 °C TCdry = 38.6 °C

TAwet = 23.2 °C TCwet = 39.1 °C

## From the psychrometric chart:

Ø1 = 78 % Ø2 = 88 %
ω1 = 0.017 ω2 = 0.05

## Dry air mass balance: ma1= ma2 = ma

Water vapor balance: ma1 ωa1+ mw = ma2 ωa2
Amount of steam, mw = ma (ω2– ω1)
= 0.0476 kg/s x (0.05 – 0.017)
= 0.0015708 kg/s
The relative humidity changes, ∆Ø = Ø2 - Ø1
= 88 % - 78%
= 10% @ 0.10

## Temperature rises at exit

∆Tdry = 38.6 °C – 26.9 °C = 11.7 °C
∆Twet = 39.1 °C – 23.2 °C = 15.9 °C

## TBdry = 28.8 °C TCdry = 12.1 °C

TBwet = 24.6 °C TCwet = 11.9 °C

## From the psychrometric chart:

Ø1 = 70 % Ø2 = 99 %
ω1= 0.016 ω2 = 0.008

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## Dry air mass balance: ma1= ma2= ma

Water mass balance: ma1 ωa1 = ma2 ωa2+ mw
mw = ma (ω2– ω1)

## Energy balance: ∑mihi = Qout + ∑mehe

Qout = ma (h1 – h2) – mwhw
State 1:
ω1= 0.016, Ø1 = 70 %, T1 =28.8 °C, ma = 217.2 g/s = 0.2172 kg/s
ha1 = CpT1 = 1.005 x 28.8 °C = 28.944 kJ/kg
hg1 = 2501.3 + 1.82T
= 2501.3 + 1.82 (28.8)
= 2553.71 kJ/kg
Therefore h1 = ha1 + ω hg1
= 28.944 + (0.0160)2553.71
= 69.80 kJ/kg
State 2:
ω2= 0.008, Ø2 = 99 %, T2 = 12.1 °C, ma = 217.2 g/s = 0.2172 kg/s
ha2= Cp T2 = 1.005 x 12.1 °C = 12.1605 kJ/kg
Therefore h2 = ha2 + ωhg2 = 12.1605 + 0.008[2501.3 + 1.82 (12.1)]
= 32.35 kJ/kg
hw = hf @ T2 (from Table A-4)
12.1−10 𝑥−42.022
= 15−10 = 62.982−42.022
hf = 50.83 kJ/kg = ℎ𝑤

## Amount of moisture, mw = ma (ω1– ω2)

= 0.2172 (0.016 – 0.008)
= 0.00174 kg/s

## Heat rate removed, Qout = ma (h1 – h2) – mwhw

= 0.2172 (69.80 – 32.35) – 0.0017 (50.83)
= 8.048 kJ/s

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4.0 DISCUSSION
4.1 Find the schematic of a modern air-conditioning system with advanced air
treatment processes and explain the function of the main devices.

## Components and Devices

1 Air Inlet 17 Solenoid Valve
2 Wet and Dry Temperature Stations 18 Water Inlet
3 Steam Injector 19 Sight Glass
4 Pre-Heaters 20 Vent
5 Evaporator 21 Water Heaters
6 Pre-Heaters 22 Overflow to Drain
7 Orifice 23 Condensate Measurement
8 Treated Air 24 Compressor
9 Fan 25 Air Condenser
10 Fan Speed Control 26 Liquid Receiver
11 Evaporator Pressure 27 Condenser Inlet Pressure
12 Thermostatic Expansion Valve 28 Refrigerant Flow Meter
13 Stop Valve 29 Condenser Outlet Pressure
14 Inclined Monometer 30 Filter/Drier
15 Steam Generator Tank 31 Steam Generator Tank Drain Valve
16 Water Level Control

32 16 Way Selector Switch 33 Digital Temperature Indicator

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34 RS232 Serial link to PC 37 Refrigerant Pressure Transducer
35 Datalogger 38 Refrigerant Flow Transducer
36 Transducer Inputs 39 Differential Air Pressure Transducer

## Air Recirculation Duct Kit A0006

40 Duct Section 42 Volume Control
41 Exhaust

## PID Control Upgrade Kit A0000

43 PID Controller – Humidity XRH 46 Manual/PID Control Selector Switch
44 PID Controller – Temperature C 47 RS485 Serial link to PC
45 Combined XRH/Temperature Probe

## Environmental Chamber A0600

48 Environmental Chamber

In general, stated above are the devices used in a modern air conditioning system with
advanced air treatment processes. In addition, in terms of the main devices used in a modern air
conditioning are as listed and explained below:

Compressor:
Otherwise known as the heart of the system, the compressor is a piston or vane type
pump responsible for compressing refrigerant gas and transferring it through the air conditioning
system. The compressor is a belt driven pump that is fastened to the engine. It is responsible for
compressing and transferring refrigerant gas.
The A/C system is split into two sides, a high pressure side and a low pressure side;
defined as discharge and suction. Since the compressor is basically a pump, it must have an
intake side and a discharge side. The intake, or suction side, draws in refrigerant gas from the
outlet of the evaporator. In some cases it does this via the accumulator. Once the refrigerant is
drawn into the suction side, it is compressed and sent to the condenser, where it can then transfer
the heat that is absorbed from the inside of the vehicle.

Condenser:
The condenser acts as a heat exchanger radiating heat from refrigerant to the outside air.
Refrigerant enters the top of the condenser as a hot compressed gas and is cooled within. As the
refrigerant cools it condenses and changes from a high-pressure gas into a high-pressure liquid
and exits the condenser through the bottom. The condenser is on the high side of the air
conditioning system. This is the area in which heat dissipation occurs.

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As hot compressed gasses are introduced into the top of the condenser, they are cooled
off. As the gas cools, it condenses and exits the bottom of the condenser as a high pressure
liquid.

The receiver-drier is a storage reservoir component used on thermal expansion valve air
conditioning systems. Receiver-driers are located on the high or discharge side of the system
between the condenser and evaporator. Its purpose is to monitor, control and filter refrigerant as
it moves into the evaporator.
The receiver-drier is used on the high side of systems that use a thermal expansion valve.
This type of metering valve requires liquid refrigerant. To ensure that the valve gets liquid
refrigerant, a receiver is used. The primary function of the receiver-drier is to separate gas and
liquid. The secondary purpose is to remove moisture and filter out dirt. The receiver-drier usually
has a sight glass in the top. This sight glass is often used to charge the system. Under normal
operating conditions, vapor bubbles should not be visible in the sight glass. The use of the sight
glass to charge the system is not recommended in R-134a systems as cloudiness and oil that has
separated from the refrigerant can be mistaken for bubbles. This type of mistake can lead to a
dangerous overcharged condition. There are variations of receiver-driers and several different
desiccant materials are in use. Some of the moisture removing desiccants found within is not
compatible with R-134a. The desiccant type is usually identified on a sticker that is affixed to the
and R-134a refrigerants.

Evaporator:
An air conditioning evaporator is a refrigeration coil mounted within cooling fins. The
continuous flow of warm air over the coils causes the refrigerant flowing inside to boil and
absorb large amounts of heat. The boiling refrigerant leaves the evaporator onto the condenser
where it is dissipated into the atmosphere. The evaporator also acts as a dehumidifier and air
purifier at the same time.

Accumulator:
Accumulators are used on systems that accommodate an orifice tube to meter refrigerants
into the evaporator. It is connected directly to the evaporator outlet and stores excess liquid
refrigerant. Introduction of liquid refrigerant into a compressor can do serious damage.
Compressors are designed to compress gas not liquid. The chief role of the accumulator is to
isolate the compressor from any damaging liquid refrigerant. Accumulators, like receiver-driers,
also remove debris and moisture from a system. It is a good idea to replace the accumulator each
time the system is opened up for major repair and anytime moisture and/or debris is of concern.
Moisture is enemy number one for your A/C system. Moisture in a system mixes with refrigerant
and forms a corrosive acid. When in doubt, it may be to your advantage to change the
Accumulator or receiver in your system. While this may be a temporary discomfort for your
wallet, it is of long term benefit to your air conditioning system.

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Fan:
Mainly the purpose of using fan concept in an air conditioning unit is to ensure that all
the unwanted heat is rejected from the system into the atmosphere. At the same time, it ensures
the cooling rate is maintained at its level.

Humidifiers:
Usually reduces the humidity of the air processed by the system. The relatively cold
(below the dew point) evaporator coil condenses water vapor from the processed air, (much like
an ice cold drink will condense water on the outside of a glass), sending the water to a drain and
removing water vapor from the cooled space and lowering the relative humidity. Since humans
perspire to provide natural cooling by the evaporation of perspiration from the skin, drier air (up
to a point) improves the comfort provided. The comfort air conditioner is designed to create a
40% to 60% relative humidity in the occupied space. In food retailing establishments’ large open
chiller cabinets act as highly effective air dehumidifying units.

Heater:
Realized through several physical effects, but they are classified depending on their
applications (driving energy, source and sink of heat, or a heat pump which is basically a
refrigeration machine). Refrigerators, air conditioners, and some heating systems are all common
applications of heat pumps.

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4.2 Explain with the suitable diagrams the operation and arrangements in an
automotive air-conditioning unit.

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Figure above is the diagram of an automotive air conditioning unit for a Nissan car model
ZX-300 (Model - 1988). All the devices and components are same like in the air conditioning
use in home application. The difference only the arrangements of the circuit and the add some
extra components. As such, the components are as listed; ECM system (which related in the
usage in a non-turbo and turbo system), Aspirator fan (used in order to control the air flow in the
car in both or either head or foot application), floor duct temperature sensor, vent duct temp
sensor, sun load sensor, defroster nozzle temperature sensor, in-vehicle sensor (head and foot
application) and etc. In a way or another, the basic and main components (devices) in an
automotive air conditioning are as stated below as well as the operation involves:

Operation One:
The compressor is the power unit of the A/C system. It is powered by a drive belt
connected to the engine's crankshaft. When the A/C system is turned on, the compressor pumps
out refrigerant vapor under high pressure and high heat to the condenser.

Operation Two:
The condenser is a device used to change the high-pressure refrigerant vapor to a liquid.
It is mounted ahead of the engine's radiator, and it looks very similar to a radiator with its
parallel tubing and tiny cooling fins. If you look through the grille of a car and see what you
think is a radiator, it is most likely the condenser. As the car moves, air flowing through the
condenser removes heat from the refrigerant, changing it to a liquid state.

Operation Three:
Refrigerant moves to the receiver-drier. This is the storage tank for the liquid refrigerant.
It also removes moisture from the refrigerant. Moisture in the system can freeze and then act
similarly to cholesterol in the human blood stream, causing blockage.

Operation Four:
As the compressor continues to pressurize the system, liquid refrigerant under high
pressure is circulated from the receiver-drier to the thermostatic expansion valve. The valve
removes pressure from the liquid refrigerant so that it can expand and become refrigerant vapor
in the evaporator.

Operation Five:
The evaporator is very similar to the condenser. It consists of tubes and fins and is
usually mounted inside the passenger compartment. As the cold low-pressure refrigerant is
released into the evaporator, it vaporizes and absorbs heat from the air in the passenger
compartment. As the heat is absorbed, cool air will be available for the occupants of the vehicle.
A blower fan inside the passenger compartment helps to distribute the cooler air.

Operation Six:
The heat-laden, low-pressure refrigerant vapor is then drawn into the compressor to start
another refrigeration cycle.

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5.0 REFERENCES

## 1. Cengel & Boles.(2013). MEC 551 Thermal Engineering. Thermodynamics : An

Engineering Approach, Seventh Edition in SI Units. Chapter 14: Gas-Vapor Mixtures and
Air-Conditioning.pg 719-726. McGraw-Hill Education (Asia).

## 2. Chris Bede.(2013).Automotive Air Conditioning Systems. Article retrieve from

www.carparts.com/classroom/ac1.htm on October 4, 2013.

3. Al Nimr & M. Naji.(2002). A Novel Summer Air Conditioning System. Article retrieve from
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196890401001352 on October 4, 2013

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