Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 174

Surface Modeling by Eagle Point Software

Eagle Point Software™ and the Eagle Point Software logo are trademarks of Eagle Point
Software.
AutoCAD® is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc.
IntelliCAD® is a registered trademark of Visio, Corp.
MicroStation® is a registered trademark of Bentley Systems, Inc.
The installation program used to install Windows versions of Eagle Point Software,
SETUP, is licensed software provided by InstallShield Corporation.
Windows® is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
All other product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective
holders.
Copyright © Q2, 2001, by Eagle Point Software. All rights reserved.
Information in this manual is subject to change without notice and does not represent a
commitment on the part of the vendor. The software described in this manual is furnished
under a license agreement and may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms
of the agreement.
Eagle Point Software has carefully prepared this program package, including research,
development and testing to ascertain its effectiveness and accuracy. However, no
warranty of any kind is made with respect to this program package or its related material
except as may be expressly stated in the licensing agreement or other contractual
document. In no event is Eagle Point Software to be liable for incidental or consequential
damages in connection with, or arising out of, the furnishing, performance or use of this
program package.
SURFACE
MODELING TA B L E
OF

CONTENTS
1 Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Curved Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Masking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Creating Surface Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Creating Surface Models from
Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Creating Surface Models from
Sparse Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Smoothing Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Polynomial Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Editing the Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . .17
2 Prepare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Manage Surface Models . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
New Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
New Surface Model – Surface Model Tab . . . 24
Surface Model Prototype Library . . . . . . . . . . 26
Curved Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
New Surface Model – Contours Tab . . . . . . . 29
New Surface Model – Elevation
Labels Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
New Surface Model – Rectangular
Grid Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Elevation Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
New Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Generate Elevation Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Table of Contents i
Copy Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Delete Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Surface Model Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Import ASCII Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Import ASCII Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Export ASCII Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Export ASCII Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Crossing Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Crossing Breakline Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Predefined Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
New Predefined Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Predefined Void Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
New Predefined Void Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Batch Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Batch Operations Surface Model
Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Batch Operations Contours Parameters . . . . 59
Batch Operations Rectangular Grid
Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

3 Construct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Construct Feature Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Digitize Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Join Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Join Broken Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Change Contour Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . 70
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Mask Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Change Masking Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Unmask All Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Show Masked Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Densify Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

ii Surface Modeling
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Weed Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

4 Triangulate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Triangulate Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . .82
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Build File List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
New External File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Triangulate Surface Model from
Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Triangulate Surface Model from
Sparse Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Triangulate Merged Surface
Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Multiple Final Surface Models . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Track Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
Calculate Grade & Distance . . . . . . . . . .97
5 Edit Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Delete Triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Change Point Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . .101
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Change Triangle Elevation . . . . . . . . . .103
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Add Point to Surface Model . . . . . . . . . .105
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Insert Breakline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Switch Diagonal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Raise/Lower Surface Model . . . . . . . . .110
6 Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
Preview Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

Table of Contents iii


Make Shadow Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Make Intermediate & Index
Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Make Index Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Make Intermediate Contours . . . . . . . . . 119
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Make User-Defined Contours . . . . . . . . 120
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Annotate Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Annotate Contour Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

7 Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Place Spot Elevation Labels . . . . . . . . . 128
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Place Grid Elevation Labels . . . . . . . . . 129
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Place Grid Elevation Label Settings . . . . . . . 131
Place Shadow Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Elevation Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
New Elevation Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Generate Elevation Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Place Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Place Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Place Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Place Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Place Void Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Erase Existing Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Preview Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Print Crossing Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . 149

iv Surface Modeling
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157

Table of Contents v
vi Surface Modeling
CONCEPTS
Surface Modeling runs on AutoCAD, IntelliCAD,
MicroStation and it also runs as a Stand Alone product.
CHAPTER
ï The Stand Alone products offered by Eagle Point
Software run on the Eagle Point Graphics Engine which
is included with your purchase. This manual refers to the
Stand Alone products as the Eagle Point Graphics
Engine version of the products.

1
In this chapter:
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Curved Breaklines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Masking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Creating Surface Models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Creating Surface Models from Contours. . . . . . . . . 5
Creating Surface Models from Sparse Data . . . . . . 8
Smoothing Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Polynomial Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Editing the Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Chapter 1: Concepts 1
Introduction
Surface Modeling is a program designed to generate a topographic map. This map is
generated from the physical features of the original ground survey points and their
respective elevation and plan view feature lines for a proposed design. Flow lines for
ditches, building outlines, walls and edges of roads or water are a few examples of these
features.
To create a topographic map the conventional way, a ruler and calculator are used to
interpolate between points and feature lines to distinguish where the contour lines for a
specified contour interval would lie. Once these contour points are established, contour
lines are drawn to best represent the site plan. Miscellaneous feature lines, contour
annotation and spot elevations are then placed in the CAD graphic. Depending on the size
of the project, work that would have taken days or weeks to do by hand can now be done
in minutes with Surface Modeling.
The Surface Modeling routine uses an advanced algorithm to develop a site plan. A site
plan is developed by connecting the given survey points and forming triangles to create a
surface model. Important features such as ditches, roads and walls should be designated
with lines, arcs, polylines/complex chains and line strings. By properly defining these
“breaklines” (areas where significant grade breaks occur) you can control how certain
triangles are created.
External and internal boundaries can also control how a surface model is created. A
closed polyline/shape can be used to define the extents of a surface model when used as
a boundary. By specifying a boundary around your site, you can ensure that triangles that
are formed will not cross over your boundary line. You may also specify internal
boundaries, called Void Regions, to prevent triangulation (and thus, ultimately, contours)
from occurring in areas around buildings or ponds.
The contours are created by interpolation along the triangle lines to find the given place
where the specified contour interval would lie. If a smoothing factor is specified, the
program refines its contours to be more accurate by constructing sub-triangles inside the
given triangle. Contours may also be annotated to label the elevations along the contour
lines.
One important factor to keep in mind is that the Surface Modeling program will not make
design judgments. Thus, the accuracy of the contours depends on you to supply enough
survey information to distinguish the existing ground terrain and special features. The
program, however, allows you to edit the developed surface model to correct for some
missing survey information or incorrect interpolation the surface model may have
developed.

2 Surface Modeling
Surface Modeling allows you to:

Chapter 1: Concepts
´ Create a surface model.
´ Create and annotate contours.
´ Create spot elevations and spot elevation grids.
´ Merge two or more surface models.
´ Digitize contour lines from site plans.
´ Remove vertices from the polylines/complex chains to be used in creating a surface
model.
´ Create a 3-D grid of your site.

Curved Breaklines
A curved breakline is an arc or curve that is used as a breakline when creating a surface
model. The arc or curve can be a single segment, or it can be part of a polyline/complex
chain. Instead of using only the endpoints of the arc or curve, additional points along the
arc or curve will be temporarily inserted when the surface model is created. The plan
length of the arc is determined and 3-D line segments connecting the temporary vertices
are used when the surface model is created. This is done so the arcs or curves do not
cross each other when they are close to another line or arc. The number of additional
points that are inserted is based on the parameters that are entered for the Curved
Breaklines settings for a surface model. It is possible that arcs or curves will still be
crossing another line or arc. If this is the case, adjust the curved breakline settings so
more vertices are inserted.

Masking
Masking allows you to change the ways that the data is interpreted when a surface model
is constructed. There are four masking types: Include, Exclude, Soft Break and No Break.
´ Include: The Include feature is used to return masked objects or layers/levels to their
default status. The default status uses every point in creating the surface model and
treats every line segment as a breakline. You can use the Include option to unmask
previously masked items.
´ Exclude: The Exclude feature allows you to specify which objects or layers/levels you
want the Triangulate Surface Model command to ignore. When Nodes are placed in
the CAD graphic as benchmarks or symbols to represent objects in the field, you may
not want to use them when creating the surface model. These items should be

Chapter 1: Concepts 3
masked for exclude; such items would include those that were shot as benchmarks.
For example, if the surveyor shot a point on the top of a fire hydrant or a spike in the
side of a tree, you would want to mask those shots as exclude.
´ Soft Break: The Soft Break feature allows you to change the way the breaklines are
interpreted. The breaklines are considered soft, meaning that a smoothing factor is
applied over the breaklines. A soft breakline would be used if you want a ditch bottom
to be smooth instead of an abrupt change in grade.
´ No Break: The No Break feature allows you to change the way lines, arcs, polylines,
complex chains and line strings are interpreted by the Triangulate Surface Model
command. Only vertices along the lines are used when creating the surface model.
The line segments themselves are not treated as breaklines.
You may specify Nodes to be Included or Excluded by setting the masking option in the
Node (Field Code) Library. By setting the masking type on the individual Field Codes, you
can avoid having to use the Mask command within Surface Modeling. If you are
importing your surface data using Data Collection you may also preset that a line should
be masked for Include, Exclude, No-Break, Soft Break or as a Void Region.

Creating Surface Models


The triangulation routine that the program uses is based on the Delaunay triangulation
method, where a circle drawn through the vertices of any triangle contains no other points.
Breaklines (lines that no triangle may cross) allow you to control how the surface model
triangles are created. You also have the ability to specify an outer boundary triangulation
limit as well as the ability to specify interior “void regions” where triangulation is not to take
place.
Any objects that have an elevation can be used when creating a surface model. This
includes insertion points of text, lines, 3-D polylines, linestrings, complex chains, points,
blocks, cells and Eagle Point Nodes. When you create a surface model using objects in
your CAD graphic remember that the triangulation routine uses the visible objects within
your selection set. The easiest way to control what information is used in the creation of a
model is through layer/level visibility. Freeze or turnoff the layers/levels of the objects you
don’t want included in the model. Another way to limit the objects that are used to create
the model is by setting the Minimum and Maximum Valid Elevations of the model. When
you add a surface model to the Surface Model Manager, you may set the valid elevation
range on the Surface Model tab. You may at any time modify the elevations and remake
the surface model so that it adheres to the minimum and maximum allowable elevations.
The objects used to create a surface model are connected together randomly. However,
Surface Modeling does connect objects that are closest together. You can ensure model
accuracy by providing the triangulation routine some additional control. Following is a list
of some of the common commands used to “control” how a surface model is created. Most

4 Surface Modeling
of these controls are found in the Prepare or Construct menus of Surface Modeling.

Chapter 1: Concepts
Usually, after creating just a few surface models, you will become familiar with the usage
of these commands. It is important that you spend a little extra time verifying that your
surface models are correct because you may later use this data in other products, such as
Site Design and RoadCalc.
Common commands to control how a surface model is created:
´ Predefined Boundaries
´ Predefined Void Regions
´ Feature Line
´ Mask Objects
´ Densify Objects
´ Weed Objects
When you create a surface model, the data is written to files on your hard disk. If you want
to see the triangles, you may place the triangles into your CAD graphic. Placing the
triangles allows you to graphically see the triangles, and is required if you want to edit the
surface model. If you edit the surface model, all editing details are saved back to the
surface model files that are on your hard drive. These files are used when creating
contours, spot elevations, grids and even calculating volumes. You do not need to see
your surface model graphically to use these commands. In fact, your CAD graphic file will
remain smaller if you do not place the triangles in it.

Creating Surface Models from Contours


The Create Surface Model from Contours command should be used when you need to
create a surface model for a site and the only information provided to you is contours.
Since you are creating contours from objects that are at a constant elevation, it is possible
that the surface model will have flat areas. The new contours that are created may
connect together in some of these flat areas. Using the Create Surface Model from
Contours command will eliminate this situation. If the program encounters any flat
triangles that have been created, the program will correct them.
First, the contour that bounds the flat triangles is determined. If the program can switch the
diagonals of the triangle and correct them, it will do so. If not, the program will determine
all of the triangles that are flat and one triangle that has two vertices on one contour and
one vertex on another contour. From this triangle, the elevation difference and length
between contours is determined. From the elevation and length, additional points are
calculated to create additional triangles in the flat areas. The program corrects all flat
areas and then performs the check again to make sure that all flat areas have been
corrected.

Chapter 1: Concepts 5
The contours should be created using a smoothing factor and polynomial factor of 0
(zero). This will create contours that are identical to the original contours. You can use a
smoothing factor and polynomial factor, but the same contours will not be produced. There
may be areas that are not corrected. These areas usually result from the program not
finding a contour that bounds the flat triangles.

Figure 1-1 Desired Contours

6 Surface Modeling
Figure 1-1 on page 6 shows the original contours that the surface models will be

Chapter 1: Concepts
constructed from. It is desired to have your surface model produce contours that match
the original contours.

Figure 1-2 Contours Connecting

The figure above is the resulting contours from creating the surface model without using
the Create Surface Model from Contours command. Notice that some of the contours are
connected at the ends. This is where flat triangles are created.

Figure 1-3 Contours Not Connecting

Chapter 1: Concepts 7
Figure 1-3 on page 7 shows the resulting contours from creating the surface model using
the Create Surface Model from Contours command. Notice that the contours are not
connecting and match the original contours shown in Figure 1-1 on page 6.

Creating Surface Models from Sparse Data


If the site that you are modeling has very little data that is spread out on the site, you may
want to use the Create Surface Model from Sparse Data command. This command is
used to fill in the area between the data so you get better results when creating contours.
é Note that this Surface Modeling method interpolates additional points from the
points surveyed. This method is not recommended to use when a highly accurate
model is desired. If possible, supplement the original data with additional surveyed
information.
This command creates a surface model from the selected data, creates a temporary grid
and then creates a new surface model of the temporary grid. Since you specify the
spacing of the grid, you have control over how many additional points are interpolated
between the original data.
For the temporary rectangular grid that is created, you can specify the X and Y interval,
and the smoothing factor for the grid. The X and Y interval determine the size of the grid
squares that are created. When you specify a smoothing factor, the grid is created with a
more natural transition between the original data. This allows for a more natural surface to
be constructed from the grid. If the site that you are working on is a flat site, you may not
want to use the smoothing factor for the grid.

8 Surface Modeling
Below is an example of the Nodes that were used in triangulation.

Chapter 1: Concepts
Figure 1-4 Nodes Used in Triangulation

Chapter 1: Concepts 9
The figure below shows the resulting contours if a normal surface model was created.
Notice that the contours created between the lower three Nodes are jagged from lack of
data.

Figure 1-5 Normal Surface Model Contours

Figure 1-6 on page 11 shows the results if the surface model was made using the
Triangulate Surface Model from Sparse Data command. Notice that the contours appear

10 Surface Modeling
smoother and that the V is not as sharp. This is due to the additional grid data being used

Chapter 1: Concepts
in the creation of the model.

Figure 1-6 Surface Model Made from Sparse Data

Smoothing Factor
Smoothing factors do not have any effect when creating a surface model. You may create
your surface model and change your smoothing factor later. The smoothing factor does
affect contours, grids and spot elevations. Using a smoothing factor of 0 when creating
contours will produce a contour map of the model using a straight-line interpolation of
elevations along the triangle sides. This approach is similar to contouring the data by
hand. The resulting contours created using a smoothing factor of 0 are shown in Figure 1-
7 on page 12. Figure 1-8 on page 12 shows these contours along with the triangle legs.
The blue lines represent the surface model, the yellow and red lines represent the
contours.

Chapter 1: Concepts 11
ï If you have a black and white copy of the documentation, see the color code in Figure 1-8.

Figure 1-7 Contours Alone

Figure 1-8 Contours with Surface Model Triangles Imported

As you can see, your contours may become a little jagged if you have limited shots and a
smoothing factor of 0.
If you change the smoothing factor to 1, each leg of the surface model triangle is
subdivided by adding vertices to each of the three legs of the surface model triangle. The
number of vertices placed on each leg is equal to the smoothing factor. So if you use a

12 Surface Modeling
smoothing factor of 1, any one triangle leg is divided into two. After dividing up the legs,

Chapter 1: Concepts
additional legs are placed, connecting the new vertices together as shown below in green.
ï If you have a black and white copy of the documentation, see the color key in the figure
below.

Figure 1-9 Four Triangles

By specifying a smoothing factor of 1, there are now four triangles instead of one triangle.
The construction of triangles is a function of (Smoothing Factor + 1)2.
In the example above:
(Smoothing Factor + 1)2
(1 + 1)2 = 4 triangles
The contours look smoother because there are more triangle legs to cross, which leads to
more points that can be interpolated for contouring. The smoothing algorithm also goes
through a slope analysis to determine how concave or convex the newly formed interior
triangles are. Based on the degree of concavity, the interior triangles are adjusted slightly
in their elevation to produce a less jagged model which ultimately produces smoother

Chapter 1: Concepts 13
looking contours. This also means the number of contour segments increases as the
smoothing factor increases.

Figure 1-10 Sub-Triangulation That Occurs When Using a Smoothing Factor of 1

Figure 1-11 Resulting Contours With Smoothing Factor of 1

14 Surface Modeling
The example in the figure below shows a Smoothing Factor of 2.

Chapter 1: Concepts
Figure 1-12 Sub-Triangulation That Occurs When Using a Smoothing Factor of 2

Notice there are now nine smaller triangles inside the original triangle.
(Smoothing Factor + 1)2 = (2 + 1)2 = 9

Figure 1-13 Resulting Contours With a Smoothing Factor of 2

Chapter 1: Concepts 15
The contours are smoother because there are more edges to interpolate a contour
through.

Figure 1-14 End Result, Smoothing Factor of 2

The default smoothing factor is set to a value of 3. Using the formula, this would create
(3 + 1)2 = 16 triangles to analyze for every one original triangle. The range for smoothing
factor is from 0 to 99. As you can see, you should be careful not to use too high of a
smoothing factor unless you have very few points to make a surface model. Typically you
will probably use smoothing factors of 5 or less for most projects with varying terrain. In
extremely flat or level projects you would want to use a smoothing factor of 0 so as to not
introduce too much elevation adjustment. You may set your smoothing factor and either
use the Preview or Shadow contours to quickly view the results of the changed smoothing
factor. Once you have reached the desired results, make regular contours.

Polynomial Factor
The polynomial factor is an additional option to smooth your contours. This option uses a
polynomial equation to smooth the contours. The number that you specify is the amount of
additional vertices that are placed between vertices on the contours. This can create
smoother contours, but it can also create contours that overlap. Using the smoothing
factor (as described earlier) does not produce overlapping contours. By default, the
polynomial factor is set to 0 (zero). This means that it is not used to smooth the contours.
When creating contours, the smoothing factor is first applied and then the polynomial
factor is applied. If the polynomial factor is used exclusively when creating contours, any

16 Surface Modeling
spot elevation or grid elevation that is placed may not be accurate. The reason for this is

Chapter 1: Concepts
because the polynomial factor modifies the contour after it is created.

Editing the Surface Model


You may want to graphically see your surface model triangles. The Place Triangles
command accomplishes this. The triangles below represent the surface model. By looking
at the triangle you can determine if your breaklines are working correctly. You may find
that major changes need to be made. If so, it may be best to remake your surface model.
If you see small changes that would improve the model, editing the surface model may be
the answer. In order to edit your surface model, you must first place the surface model
triangles into the CAD graphic. After placing the triangles, you will be able to see the
triangles representing the surface model. The figure below is an example of a surface
model. Notice that Node 8 connects with Node 5.

Figure 1-15 Surface Model Example

Chapter 1: Concepts 17
Figure 1-16 Contours of Surface Model Before Diagonal Switch
The Switch Diagonal command for editing the surface model allows you to control how
triangulation occurs. In the figure below, the surface model triangle leg that was
connecting Node 8 to Node 5 is now connecting Node 7 to Node 4.

Figure 1-17 Nodes 7 and 4 Connected

18 Surface Modeling
Notice in the figure below how this change affects the contours.

Chapter 1: Concepts
Figure 1-18 Contour of Surface Model after Diagonal Switch

Chapter 1: Concepts 19
20 Surface Modeling
PREPARE
The Prepare menu contains the Surface Model Manager
and commands that provide a means for preparing
CHAPTER
objects for surface model construction. The commands
include: Importing and Exporting ASCII points and lines,
Searching and Repairing Crossing Breaklines,
Predefining Void Regions and Surface Model Boundaries,
and Batch Operation for shortcut surface model
construction and output.
In this chapter:
Manage Surface Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Import ASCII Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Import ASCII Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2
Export ASCII Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Export ASCII Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Crossing Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Predefined Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Predefined Void Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Batch Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Chapter 2: Prepare 21
Manage Surface Models
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð@B5@1B5ð½ð=1>175ðCEB6135ð=?45<C

KEY-IN COMMAND: c]]Q^

ICON:
The Manage Surface Models command keeps track of (and provides access to) all the
surface models that have been defined for each project. Each surface model may have its
own set of contours, spot elevations and rectangular grids. You might, for example, have
one surface model to represent the original ground and another to represent the design
surface. You can define up to 99 surface models per project.
Use the Manage Surface Models command to add a new surface model, or modify, copy,
delete, print or query an existing surface model.

Figure 2-1 Manage Surface Models Dialog Box

Manage Surface Models Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Name This box lists all the surface models created for this project.
New Surface Click on the New icon to add a surface model to the current project. Surface model
Model parameters can be entered in the New Surface Model dialog box (Figure 2-2 on page 24).
A surface model must be added before many commands, such as Triangulate Surface
Model and Make Intermediate and Index Contour, can be executed.
For more information, see New Surface Model on page 23.
Modify Surface To change any of the parameters for a surface model already in the manager, highlight
Model the model to modify and click on the Modify icon. Parameters can be adjusted in the
Modify Surface Model dialog box.
For more information, see New Surface Model on page 23.

22 Surface Modeling
Manage Surface Models Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Copy Surface To copy a surface model, highlight the model to copy and click on the Copy icon. The
Model Copy Surface Model dialog box (Figure 2-11 on page 41) displays. All files from the
highlighted surface model are copied to the new surface model.
For more information, see Copy Surface Model on page 40.
Delete Surface To delete a surface model, highlight the model to be deleted, then click on the Delete icon.
Model This will delete the files for that model.
For more information, see Delete Surface Model on page 41.
Properties for If you want information about a specific surface model, highlight the model you want to

Chapter 2: Prepare
Surface Model query and click on the Properties icon. The Surface Model Properties dialog box (Figure
2-12 on page 42) displays.
Lock/Unlock Use this option to toggle the lock status for the highlighted surface model. When a specific
Surface Model user locks a surface model, other users cannot edit it. A message will display, indicating
the modification cannot be made and which user locked the model. However, any user is
capable of unlocking the surface model by highlighting it and selecting this option.

New Surface Model


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð@B5@1B5ð½ð=1>175ðCEB6135ð=?45<Cð½ð>5GðCEB6135ð=?45<

The New Surface Model dialog box (Figure 2-2 on page 24) displays when you add a new
surface model. It maintains parameters that control the surface model’s triangulation,
contours, elevation labels and rectangular grid.
You can specify where the graphical output from Surface Modeling will be drawn. The
output from Surface Modeling can be drawn in the current file or in the CAD graphic of
your choice. If you choose to output to an external CAD graphic, you may reference it into
the current graphic. This allows you to have the triangles, contours and grid display in
another CAD graphic while helping to reduce the plan CAD graphic file size. When adding
a new surface model, the Triangulation parameters, Contours, Elevation Labels and
Rectangular Grid options can be specified by selecting the tab for these options.
The Surface Model Prototype Library allows you to establish prototype settings for
creating surface models. All of the settings (including CAD settings) established on the
Surface Model, Contours, Elevation Labels and Rectangular Grid Tab pages are saved to
a specified name in the library. With those settings written to the …\SUPPORT\SM folder,
other projects can use the prototypes established in any project. Creating prototypes for
different kinds of models can save time when adding new models.

Chapter 2: Prepare 23
New Surface Model – Surface Model Tab
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð@B5@1B5ð½ð=1>175ðCEB6135ð=?45<Cð½ð>5GðCEB6135ð=?45<ð
½ðCEB6135ð=?45<

Set the parameters that are to be used during the creation of the surface model on the
New Surface Model dialog box (below).
The Surface Model Prototype Library button next to the Surface Model Description
provides access to save and load surface model prototypes. Use the Load Format button
on the Surface Model Prototype Library to set all of the options and settings for new or
existing surface models from previously defined prototypes. If you wish to change a
prototype to match the current surface model settings, click on the Save To button to
overwrite your previous settings in a particular prototype.
For more information refer to Surface Model Prototype Library on page 26.

Figure 2-2 New Surface Model Dialog Box – Surface Model Tab

New Surface Model Dialog Box – Surface Model Tab Definitions


Option Function
Description This is the description that is used to create a new surface model. The information that is
entered in this field can be alphanumeric. Press the Tab key after a description has been
entered in this field.
Surface Model The Surface Model Prototype Library icon next to the Surface Model Description edit field
Prototype provides access to save and load surface model prototypes.
Library For more information, see Surface Model Prototype Library on page 26.

24 Surface Modeling
New Surface Model Dialog Box – Surface Model Tab Definitions
Option Function
Minimum Valid This is the minimum valid elevation for objects used to create the surface model. If the
Elevation program encounters any objects from a chosen selection set that are below this elevation,
the objects will not be included in the surface model.
Maximum Valid This is the maximum valid elevation for entities used to create the surface model. If the
Elevation program encounters any objects from the chosen selection set that are above this
elevation, the objects will not be included in the surface model.
Maximum This defines the maximum length of a triangle leg in a surface model. If a triangle leg is
Length Triangle longer than the value specified, the system will delete that triangle from the surface model
Side file.

Chapter 2: Prepare
ï If you set the maximum triangle length to something other than zero, void areas may
be generated by the surface model function.
Point Tolerance This is the tolerance allowed for filtering out points in a close proximity. If two points are
not exactly at the same X, Y-coordinate, but are within a distance less than the tolerance
specified, the program will filter out the point at the lowest elevation during the surface
model construction.
Curved This option provides a means to temporarily add vertices along a curve to improve the
Breaklines surface model quality.
For more information, see Curved Breaklines on page 27.
Construction Select the desired option to be used when you place triangles in your CAD graphic file.
Method The available options are Faces and Eagle Point TIN in AutoCAD/IntellICAD/Eagle Point
Graphics Engine, and Shapes and Surfaces in MicroStation.
Write Output Select this option to construct the surface model triangles in the plan drawing/design file
Plan Drawing/ when they are placed using the Place Triangles command in the Output menu. This option
Design File is the default.
Write Output Select this option to construct the surface model triangles in another drawing/design file.
External Enter the path and drawing/design file name in the edit field, or click on the Open Folder
Drawing/Design icon to select a drawing/design file. This will be the drawing/design file that the surface
File model triangles will be placed into if the Place Triangles command in the Output menu is
executed.
Reference Toggle this on if you want to reference the external drawing/design file to the plan
External drawing/design file.
Drawing/Design
File
CAD Settings This allows you to set the parameters for the surface model triangles, such as color, layer/
level, linetype/linestyle and width/weight.

Chapter 2: Prepare 25
Surface Model Prototype Library
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð@B5@1B5ð½ð=1>175ðCEB6135ð=?45<Cð½ð>5GðCEB6135ð=?45<ð½ðCEB6135ð
=?45<ð@B?D?DI@5ð<92B1BI

The Surface Model Prototype Library allows you to establish prototype settings for
creating surface models. All of the settings (including CAD settings) established on the
Surface Model, Contours, Elevation Labels and Rectangular Grid Tab pages are saved to
a specified name in the library. Use the Load Format button on the Surface Model
Prototype Library to set all of the options and settings for new or existing surface models
from previously defined prototypes. If you wish to change a prototype to match the current
surface model settings, select the Save To button to overwrite your previous settings in a
particular prototype.

Figure 2-3 Surface Model Prototype Library Dialog Box

Surface Model Prototype Library Dialog Box Definitions

Surface Model Prototype Library Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Prototype List This lists all of the surface model prototypes that are available to use. This is a global list
written to the …\SUPPORT\SM folder so all projects can use the prototypes established in
any one project.
New Surface Click on this icon to create a new prototype from the current settings. Enter a name up to
Model Prototype 30 characters long. Upon clicking on OK, the current settings from the Surface Model,
Contours, Elevation Labels and Rectangular Grid Tab pages are saved to the name
specified.
Modify Surface Select this command to modify the name of the currently highlighted prototype. The
Model Prototype current settings are not written to the prototype. To overwrite the settings for a prototype
with the current settings, use the Save To button.
Delete Surface This command deletes the currently highlighted prototype. You may not delete the Eagle
Model Prototype Point Default prototype.

26 Surface Modeling
Surface Model Prototype Library Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Save To Use this button to save the current settings on the Surface Model, Contours, Elevation
Labels and Rectangular Grid Tab pages to the currently highlighted prototype name. All
previous settings for this prototype are overwritten.
Load Prototype Use this button to set the settings on the Surface Model, Contours, Elevation Labels and
Rectangular Grid Tab pages using the settings from the currently highlighted prototype. If
a surface model has been triangulated, only the settings are modified and the surface
model itself remains intact.

Chapter 2: Prepare
Curved Breaklines
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7 ½ @B5@1B5 ½ý=1>175ðCEB6135ð=?45<Cð½ý>5GðCEB6135ð=?45< ½ýCEB6135ð=?45<ðD12ð
½ý3EBF54ð2B51;<9>5C

The Curved Breaklines option enables you to control how arcs and curves are treated
during the triangulation routine. Without setting any curved breakline parameters, the
triangulation routine will only use the endpoints of the arc and subtend a breakline through
the chord of the arc. For a more accurate representation of a breakline that curves, you
may enter parameters that specify to add more segments of a certain length along the arc
or curve during the triangulation process. This results in a better approximation of the
breakline in the model. However, it does not modify the original breakline itself.
The table of arc lengths and length of segments is read when the surface model process
encounters arcs and curves in the selection set. The lengths of the arcs or curves are then
calculated and internally densified according to the length of segments specified within the
table. The table is sorted in ascending order based on the arc/curve length, and
establishes the ranges of the lengths of segments by using consecutive entries.
ï Two different tables exist for English and metric unit projects.

Figure 2-4 Curved Breaklines Dialog Box

Chapter 2: Prepare 27
Curved Breaklines Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Arc/Curve Specify the length of an arc or curve that will be densified with the corresponding length of
Length segments.
Length of Lists the length of the segment that will be created for the curved breakline whose length
Segments is between the corresponding arc/curve length and the next arc/curve length in the table
New Curved Enter the Arc/Curve Length and the corresponding Length of Segments.
Breakline
Parameters
Modify Curved Modify the highlighted Arc/Curve Length and the corresponding Length of Segments.
Breakline
Parameters
Delete Curved Remove the highlighted Arc/Curve Length and the corresponding Length of Segments
Breakline from the table.
Parameters

Example
For this example, assume your Curved Breaklines table contains the following:

Arc/Curve Length Length of Segments


0.0 0.5

5.0 1.0

20.0 2.0

50.0 5.0

500.0 10.0

1000.0 20.0

When triangulating a file with arcs/curves that are between 0 and 5 feet, the resulting
breakline would be made up of 0.5 foot segments. When a 40 foot arc/curve is
encountered, this table specifies that the resulting breakline will approximate the arc/curve
with 2 foot segments. When a 800 foot arc/curve is found, 10 foot segments will
approximate it.

28 Surface Modeling
New Surface Model – Contours Tab
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð@B5@1B5ð½ð=1>175ðCEB6135ð=?45<Cð½ð>5GðCEB6135ð=?45<ð
½ð3?>D?EBCðD12

The Contours tab on the New Surface Model dialog box (Figure 2-5 on page 30) allows
you to specify the contour’s intermediate interval, index interval, smoothing factor,
polynomial factor, output location and CAD settings.
The Contour Smoothing Factor method generates smooth looking contours and

Chapter 2: Prepare
guarantees that there will be no crossing contour lines. A value of zero indicates no
smoothing. Larger values create smoother contours but increase the computing time and
the size of the CAD graphic. A large number, such as 10, yields extremely smooth
contours but produces large overhead. A small number, such as 1, yields jagged but fast
contours. Valid entries are 0-99. A smoothing factor in the upper range would only be
useful for projects modeling surfaces other than the earth (i.e., machine parts). In most
cases, a smoothing factor of 4 or higher produces the same contour lines. However, more
vertices are placed on the line thereby increasing the size of the CAD graphic
considerably.
There are very few sites where one would want to use a smoothing factor higher than 4.
Only sites with extremely small relief (such as completely flat sites) will benefit from a
smoothing factor of 5 or 6. The benefit will come from smoother, more accurate contours.
For a majority of real world sites, a smoothing factor of 3 or 4 yields as much smoothing as
the site can have.

Chapter 2: Prepare 29
For more information on smoothing contours, see Smoothing Factor on page 11 and
Polynomial Factor on page 16.

Figure 2-5 New Surface Model Dialog Box – Contours Tab

New Surface Model Dialog Box – Contours Tab Definitions


Option Function
Intermediate This allows you to specify the interval for the intermediate contours.
Interval
Index Interval This allows you to specify the interval for the index contours.
Smoothing Making contours with a smoothing factor provides more realistic contours by recognizing
Factor that the faces of the surface model triangles are not actually flat. The smoothing factor
refines the contours to be more accurate by constructing sub-triangles inside the given
triangle. The construction of triangles is a function of (Smoothing Factor + 1)2. The
smoothing factor represents the value entered in the edit field. The program uses this
factor when it places elevation labels, as well as when it makes contours.
See Smoothing Factor on page 11.
Polynomial This is the number of vertices added between every two of the original contour vertices to
Factor represent this best fit curve. Polynomial smoothing is an optional procedure by which the
vertices of each contour are applied to a curve fit. The nature of the polynomial curve
equations does not guarantee that contours will not cross. A value of zero indicates no
smoothing. Larger values create smoother contours, but increase the computing time and
size of the CAD graphic. Note that the program uses this factor only when it makes
contours.
See Polynomial Factor on page 16.
Construction Select the desired option to be used when you create contours. The available options are
Method polylines and Eagle Point objects. This option is only available in AutoCAD/IntelliCAD/
Eagle Point Graphics Engine.

30 Surface Modeling
New Surface Model Dialog Box – Contours Tab Definitions
Option Function
Write Output Select this option to construct contours in the plan drawing/design file upon Making
Plan Drawing/ Contours. This option is On by default.
Design File
Write Output Select this option to construct the contours in another drawing/design file. Enter the path
External and drawing/design file name in the edit field, or click on the Open Folder icon to select a
Drawing/Design drawing/design file that the contours will be placed into if any of the Make Contour
File commands are executed.
Reference Toggle this on if you want to reference the external drawing/design file to the plan
External drawing/design file.

Chapter 2: Prepare
Drawing/Design
File
CAD Settings This allows you to set the parameters for the surface model contours, such as color, layer/
level, linetype/linestyle and width/weight.

New Surface Model – Elevation Labels Tab


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð@B5@1B5ð½ð=1>175ðCEB6135ð=?45<Cð½ð>5GðCEB6135ð=?45<ð
½ð5<5F1D9?>ð<125<CðD12

The Elevation Labels tab on the New Surface Model dialog box (Figure 2-6 on page 32)
allows you to specify the elevation label’s X-interval, Y-interval, text rotation angle and grid
rotation angle.
The text rotation angle is the angle that the elevation labels will be placed at. An angle of 0
(zero) degrees is to the east. Positive angles are measured in a counterclockwise
direction. The X and Y-interval values are the specified unit spacing of the elevation labels
in a grid pattern. Using a smaller value for the interval will result in a denser grid. The grid
rotation angle is the angle of the grid that the elevation labels are placed within.

Chapter 2: Prepare 31
The layer/level and color of the elevation label will be determined by CAD settings.

Figure 2-6 New Surface Model Dialog Box – Elevation Labels Tab

New Surface Model Dialog Box – Elevation Labels Tab Definitions


Option Function
Text Rotation This allows you to rotate the elevation labels. The angle of 0 (zero) degrees is to the east
Angle with positive angles measured in a counterclockwise direction.
X-Interval, These values specify the size of the grid pattern from which elevation labels will be
Y-Interval constructed. Using a smaller value for the interval will result in a denser grid of elevation
labels.
Grid Rotation This option allows you to specify a rotation angle for the elevation labels grid to be
Angle constructed instead of parallel to the X-Y-axis. The angle you enter must be between, but
not including, -360 and 360 degrees.
Construction Select the desired option to be used when you place spot elevation labels. In AutoCAD/
Method IntelliCAD/Eagle Point Graphics Engine the available options are Block and Eagle Point
Objects and Custom Block. The Custom Block option allows you to specify your own block
to use as the symbol for the elevation label. In MicroStation, you have the option of Cell or
Custom Cell. Selecting the Custom option in either case allows you to specify the block/
cell you want to use as well as a scale factor, rotation angle and the delta x and delta y
displacement of the elevation text.
Symbol This option is enabled when the Construction Method option is set to Custom Block (or
Custom Cell) Specify the block/cell that is used when placing elevation labels instead of
the standard X symbol. Be sure the path typed is included in the AutoCAD/IntelliCAD/
Eagle Point Graphics Engine search path.
Scale Specify the scale factor by which you wan to size your custom symbol. By default, the
symbol is scaled by the plot scale.
Rotation Specify the rotation angle that is used to place the custom symbol.

32 Surface Modeling
New Surface Model Dialog Box – Elevation Labels Tab Definitions
Option Function
Delta X This is the displacement distance in feet (or meters) in the X direction away from the
insertion point of the block/cell.
Delta Y This is the displacement distance in feet (or meters) in the Y direction away from the
insertion point of the block/cell.
CAD Settings This allows you to set the parameters for the spot elevation labels, such as color and
layer/level.

Chapter 2: Prepare
New Surface Model – Rectangular Grid Tab
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð@B5@1B5ð½ð=1>175ðCEB6135ð=?45<Cð½ð>5GðCEB6135ð=?45<ð
½ðB53D1>7E<1Bð7B94ðD12

The Rectangular Grid tab on the New Surface Model dialog box (Figure 2-7 on page 34)
allows you to specify the rectangular grid’s X-interval, Y-interval, vertical scale factor,
longitudinal angle and other rectangular grid settings.
The X and Y-intervals specify the size of the grid squares. Using smaller values for the
rectangular grid intervals results in denser grids and longer computing times.
The Vertical Scale Factor multiplies the Z-coordinate of the surface model by this factor
and places the rectangular grid at the exaggerated elevations. This lets you exaggerate
the vertical relief of the grid for relatively flat sites.
The Change Default Smoothing Factor option can be set to override the smoothing factor
of the rectangular grid. If this option is toggled off, an infinite smoothing factor is used for
the rectangular grid. If this option is toggled on, the smoothing factor specified in the edit
field is used for the rectangular grid. For a more pronounced, rough terrain it may be more
practical to display a grid that prominently defines all grade breaks by toggling this option
on and entering a smoothing factor of 0 (zero).
The Longitudinal Angle determines the display of the grid pattern. The angle of the
longitudinal lines are based off a due east reference as 0°and positive angles measured in
the counterclockwise direction.
The Construction Method determines what type of object is placed when a rectangular
grid is created. In AutoCAD/IntelliCAD/Eagle Point Graphics Engine, the construction
method can be set to lines, faces or Eagle Point grid. In MicroStation, the construction
method can be set to shapes or surfaces. Generally, for the quickest results that take up
the least amount of drawing/design file space, use the Eagle Point grid option in AutoCAD/
IntelliCAD/Eagle Point Graphics Engine and shapes option in MicroStation.
Display Transverse Lines, Grid Skirt and Elevation Table are toggles for changing the
appearance of how the grid is displayed. These options help you visualize the high and

Chapter 2: Prepare 33
low points on a surface model, especially when the surface model is displayed in an
isometric view.
Write Output allows data to be saved to external drawing/design files. This option may be
used to prevent CAD graphics from becoming too large or unmanageable. If a grid is
saved to an external CAD graphic all of the graphical data can be accessed through the
reference external drawing/design file option.

Figure 2-7 New Surface Model Dialog Box – Rectangular Grid Tab

New Surface Model Dialog Box – Rectangular Grid Tab Definitions


Option Function
X-Interval, These values specify the size of the grid squares used to construct the rectangular grid.
Y-Interval Smaller values result in denser grids, larger computing times and larger CAD graphic files.
Vertical Scale This value is multiplied to the Z-coordinates of the surface model. The rectangular grid is
Factor then placed at the exaggerated elevations. This allows the vertical relief of the grid for
relatively flat sites to be exaggerated.
Change Default This toggle allows the grid to be constructed using a specified smoothing factor. Like the
Smoothing contours, a smoothing factor can be set for a grid to enhance the display of a surface
Factor model. The smoothing factor refines the grid to be more accurate by constructing sub-
triangles inside the given surface model triangle. The construction of triangles is a function
of (Smoothing Factor + 1)2. The smoothing factor represents the value entered in the edit
field. If this option is toggled off, an infinite smoothing factor is used for the rectangular
grid.
Longitudinal This option allows you to construct the grid lines at a specified angle rather than parallel to
Angle the X and Y-axes. Valid angle values are between, but not including, -360 and 360
degrees.

34 Surface Modeling
New Surface Model Dialog Box – Rectangular Grid Tab Definitions
Option Function
Display Toggle this option on if you want to display the transverse and longitudinal lines when the
Transverse grid is made. Turn this toggle off if you want to display only the longitudinal lines and
Lines produce a grid with rows, not grid squares. If the Longitudinal Angle field has a value of
90, the system displays only the transverse lines. The X-interval controls transverse lines
and the Y-interval controls longitudinal lines.
Grid Skirt Toggle this on to place a skirt on the rectangular grid. Use this toggle to turn the Grid Skirt
off/on. The Grid Skirt finds the lowest point on the model and then extends that elevation
to the outer boundary of the model. Once the outer boundary has been found, the skirt
then stretches vertically until it ties in with the elevation at that particular location. This

Chapter 2: Prepare
option could best be described using the analogy of a table cloth that drapes over the
sides of a table.
Grid Elevation This allows you to create elevation ranges for the rectangular grid. You can specify the
Table elevation, color and layer/level for the grid squares.
For more information about the Grid Elevation Table, see Elevation Table on page 36.
Construction Select the desired option to be used when you create a rectangular grid. The available
Method options are Lines, Faces and Eagle Point object in AutoCAD/IntelliCAD/Eagle Point
Graphics Engine, and Shapes and Surfaces in MicroStation.
Write Output Select this option to construct the grid in the plan drawing/design file upon making a grid.
Plan Drawing/ This option is on by default.
Design File
Write Output Select this option to construct the rectangular grid in another drawing/design file. Enter the
External path and drawing/design file in the edit field, or click on the Open Folder icon to select a
Drawing/Design drawing/design file that the rectangular grid will be placed into if the Place Grid command
File is executed.
Reference Toggle this on if you want to reference the external drawing/design file to the plan
External drawing/design file.
Drawing/Design
File
CAD Settings This allows you to set the parameters for the rectangular grid, such as color and layer/
level.

Chapter 2: Prepare 35
Elevation Table
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ý½ý@B5@1B5ð½ð=1>175ðCEB6135ð=?45<Cð½ð>5GðCEB6135ð=?45<ð
½ðB53D1>7E<1Bð7B94ðD12ð½ðD12<5

The Elevation Table command allows you to create elevation ranges for the rectangular
grid or for the surface model triangles. You can specify the elevation, color and layer/level
for the grid squares/triangles.

Figure 2-8 Elevation Table Dialog Box

Elevation Table Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Cut Grid Toggle this on if you want to assign multiple colors to a grid square that is in two elevation
Squares at ranges. If the toggle is off, the grid square will be assigned the color of the average
Elevation elevation of the different faces of the grid square.
Change
Elevation This indicates the elevation of the surface model that will be used when creating the
rectangular grid. If MIN or MAX displays in this field, it indicates that this is a minimum or
maximum valid elevation as specified on the Surface Model tab on the New Surface
Model dialog box (Figure 2-2 on page 24).
Layer/Level This indicates what layer/level the grid squares at this elevation range will be constructed
on in the CAD graphics.
Color This indicates what color the grid squares at this elevation range will display as in the CAD
graphic.
Display This indicates if the grid constructed at this elevation range will display in the CAD
graphic.

36 Surface Modeling
Elevation Table Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
New Elevation This allows you to add an elevation range. You can specify the elevation, color, layer/level
Range and if the range is displayed. The elevations will automatically be sorted in ascending
order (lowest to highest).
For more information, see New Elevation (below).
Modify Elevation This allows you to change the parameters for the elevation range such as the elevation,
Range color, layer/level and if it is displayed.
For more information, see New Elevation (below).
Delete Elevation This allows you to remove an elevation range from the elevation table. This will remove

Chapter 2: Prepare
Range the elevation range that is highlighted.
Generate This allows you to automatically generate an elevation table. You can generate the
Elevation Table elevation table dividing the elevation ranges equally or by incrementing the elevation
between a minimum and maximum value.
For more information, see Generate Elevation Table on page 38.

New Elevation
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ý½ý@B5@1B5ð½ð=1>175ðCEB6135ð=?45<Cð½ð>5GðCEB6135ð=?45<ð½ððð
B53D1>7E<1Bð7B94ðD12ð½ðD12<5ð½ð>5Gð5<5F1D9?>

The New Elevation command allows you to add an elevation range to be used for the
rectangular grid. You can specify the elevation, color, layer/level and if it is displayed. The
elevations will automatically be sorted in ascending order (lowest to highest).

Figure 2-9 New Elevation Dialog Box

New Elevation Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Elevation This indicates the elevation of the surface model that will be used when creating the
rectangular grid.
Layer/Level This indicates what layer/level the grid squares at this elevation range will be constructed
on in the CAD graphic.
Color This indicates what color the grid squares at this elevation range will display as in the CAD
graphic.

Chapter 2: Prepare 37
New Elevation Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Display This indicates if the grid constructed at this elevation range will display in the CAD
Elevation Range graphic.

QuickSteps
To add a new elevation range, complete the following steps:
1. Select Prepare Æ Manage Surface Models.
The Manage Surface Models dialog box (Figure 2-1 on page 22) displays.
2. Click on the New Surface Model icon.
The New Surface Model dialog box (Figure 2-2 on page 24) displays.
3. Select the Rectangular Grid tab.
The New Surface Model – Rectangular Grid Tab (Figure 2-7 on page 34) displays.
4. Toggle on the Elevation Table toggle and click on the Table button.
The Elevation Table dialog box (Figure 2-8 on page 36) displays.
5. Click on the New Elevation icon.
The New Elevation dialog box (Figure 2-9 on page 37) displays.
6. Enter the elevation into the Elevation edit field.
7. Enter the layer/level for the grid squares to be placed on in the Layer/Level edit
field.
8. Enter the color for the grid squares in the Color edit field or click on the Color
icon to select a color.
9. Toggle on the Display Elevation Range option if you want the Elevation Range
to be displayed when the rectangular grid is created.
10. Click on Apply to add the elevation range to the elevation table and keep the
New Elevation dialog box open, or click on OK to add the elevation range to the
elevation table and close the New Elevation dialog box.

Generate Elevation Table


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ý½ý@B5@1B5ð½ð=1>175ðCEB6135ð=?45<Cð½ð>5GðCEB6135ð=?45<ð½ð
B53D1>7E<1Bð7B94ðD12ð½ðD12<5ð½ð75>5B1D5ð5<5F1D9?>ðD12<5

The Generate Elevation Table command allows you to automatically generate the
elevation ranges. You can automatically generate the elevation ranges by specifying the

38 Surface Modeling
number of elevation ranges or an increment of elevation ranges between a minimum and
maximum elevation specified. Each elevation range can use the same color or the color
number can be incremented with each elevation range.

Chapter 2: Prepare
Figure 2-10 Generate Elevation Range Dialog Box

Generate Elevation Range Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Minimum This sets the lowest elevation to use when generating the elevation ranges.
Elevation
Maximum This sets the highest elevation to use when generating the elevation ranges
Elevation
Divide This creates equal spaced elevation ranges between the minimum and maximum
elevations. The difference of the minimum and maximum elevation is divided by the value
in the Number of Elevations edit field. This number is then added to the previous elevation
(starting at the minimum) until the maximum elevation is reached.
Increment This adds the Elevation specified to the previous elevation (staring at the minimum) until
Elevation the maximum elevation is reached.
Layer/Level This indicates what layer/level the grid squares at this elevation range will be constructed
on in the CAD graphic.
Color This indicates what color the grid squares at this elevation range will display as in the CAD
graphic.
Increment each Toggle this on if you want the color for each slope range to be incremented by one color
color number value. This will enable the Starting with color edit field and color selection icon. Enter the
starting color in the edit field, or select a starting color by clicking on the color icon.

QuickSteps
To automatically generate an elevation table, complete the following steps:
1. Select Prepare Æ Manage Surface Models.
The Manage Surface Models dialog box (Figure 2-1 on page 22) displays.

Chapter 2: Prepare 39
2. Click on the New Surface Model icon.
The New Surface Model dialog box (Figure 2-2 on page 24) displays.
3. Select the Rectangular Grid tab.
The New Surface Model – Rectangular Grid Tab (Figure 2-7 on page 34) displays.
4. Toggle on the Elevation Table toggle and click on the Table button.
The Elevation Table dialog box (Figure 2-8 on page 36) displays.
5. Click on the Generate Elevation Table button.
The Generate Elevation Range dialog box (Figure 2-10 on page 39) displays.
6. Enter the minimum elevation at which to start the elevation ranges.
7. Enter the maximum elevation at which to end the elevation ranges.
8. If you want the elevation ranges divided equally, toggle on the Divide option and
enter the number of elevation ranges. If you want the elevation ranges to be
incremented by even amounts, toggle on the Increment Elevations option and
enter the increment elevation.
9. Enter the layer/level for the grid squares to be placed on in the Layer/Level edit
field.
10. If you want a single color used for all elevation ranges, enter the color in the
Color edit field. If you want the color to be different for each elevation range,
toggle on the Increment each color number option and enter the starting color
for the elevation ranges.
11. Click on OK.
This generates the elevation ranges, places them in the Elevation Table dialog box
and closes the Generate Elevation Range dialog box.

Copy Surface Model


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð@B5@1B5ð½ð=1>175ðCEB6135ð=?45<Cð½ð3?@IðCEB6135ð=?45<

The Copy Surface Model command allows you to create a new surface model by
duplicating the triangle information from an existing surface model. This option can be
used for parallel subsurfaces that are at a constant depth from the overlying surface.

40 Surface Modeling
Surface models may also be copied while raising or lowering the elevation of the entire
model.

Figure 2-11 Copy Surface Model Dialog Box

Chapter 2: Prepare
Copy Surface Model Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Copy Surface Select from the drop list the existing surface model that is to be copied.
Model
To Surface Type the name of the surface model that is to be created. The text entered in this field will
Model be the description given to the new surface model as it will appear in the Manage Surface
Models dialog box (Figure 2-1 on page 22).
Displacement Turn this toggle on to copy an existing surface model to a specified displacement up or
Elevation down from its existing elevation. If a negative value is entered in this field, the surface
model will be lowered. Conversely, if the value entered is positive, the surface model will
be raised.

Delete Surface Model


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð@B5@1B5ð½ð=1>175ðCEB6135ð=?45<Cð½ð45<5D5ðCEB6135ð=?45<

The Delete Surface Model command allows you to delete a surface model and all
associated data files from the Manage Surface Models dialog box (Figure 2-1 on page
22). Deleting a surface model from the Manage Surface Models dialog box does not
delete the triangle objects that are in the CAD graphic. All of the surface model’s data that
is used for the construction of contours, elevation labels and rectangular grid will be
erased from the project when this delete option is selected.

Surface Model Properties


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð@B5@1B5ð½ð=1>175ðCEB6135ð=?45<Cð½ðCEB6135ð=?45<ð@B?@5BD95C

The Surface Model Properties command allows you to view information about a surface
model. The information that you can view is the file number, number of points, minimum,
maximum and average elevation, standard deviation, and plan and surface area. The
information that is displayed is for the surface model selected in the drop list.

Chapter 2: Prepare 41
ï Use the information in the Surface Model Properties dialog box to verify that the surface
model was created properly.

Figure 2-12 Surface Model Properties Dialog Box

Surface Model Properties Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model Select a surface model from the drop list to view the properties for.
File Number This lists the number associated with the surface model file as it appears in the Manage
Surface Models dialog box (Figure 2-1 on page 22).
Number of This lists the total number of points that were used for the surface model construction.
Points
Minimum This displays the elevation of the lowest triangle vertex within the surface model file.
Elevation
Maximum This displays the elevation of the highest triangle vertex within the surface model file.
Elevation
Average This displays the average elevation of all points used for surface model construction.
Elevation
Standard This displays the standard deviation of the data used for the surface model.
Deviation
Plan Area This displays the plan area of the surface model. This value is the calculated planar area
of the surface model. This value may be displayed in square feet or acres in an English
project and square meters or hectares in a metric project.
Surface Area This displays the surface area of the surface model. This value is the calculated surface
area of the 3-D surface model. This value may be displayed in square feet or acres in an
English project and square meters or hectares in a metric project.

42 Surface Modeling
Import ASCII Points
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð@B5@1B5ð½ð9=@?BDð1C399ð½ð@?9>DC

KEY-IN COMMAND: c]Y]`QcSYY


The Import ASCII Points command places points from an ASCII file into your CAD
graphic. These points can be used to generate a surface model. The points that are
placed into the CAD graphic are placed on the current layer/level or on a user-defined

Chapter 2: Prepare
layer/level. To import an ASCII point file, the file must have one line for each point. The
format of the ASCII file can be either of the following two formats: Point Number, Northing,
Easting, Elevation, Description or X,Y,Z, Description.
ï The file must be comma or space delimited. The description is optional for the ASCII point
file. Data files with formats other than the ones shown above can be imported using Data
Transfer.

Figure 2-13 Import ASCII Points Dialog Box

Import ASCII Points Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
File Name Type in the path and file name of the ASCII point file. You can click on the Open Folder
icon to display the standard Select File dialog box to locate a file.
Pnt#,N,E,Elev, This toggle allows you to import an ASCII file of the format Point Number, Northing,
Desc Easting, Elevation, Description.
X,Y,Z,Desc This toggle allows you to import an ASCII file of the format X,Y,Z,Description.
Format Example This field displays a sample format that the ASCII file needs to be in to be imported. A
description of each part of the format, as well as an example, is given. However, the
format can be comma or space delimited and the description is optional.
Selected File This displays the first line of the selected file to be imported. This first line should match
the Format Example. If it does not, the file will not be able to be imported.

Chapter 2: Prepare 43
Import ASCII Breaklines
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð@B5@1B5ð½ð9=@?BDð1C399ð½ð2B51;<9>5C

KEY-IN COMMAND: c]Y]`QRb[


The Import ASCII Breaklines command places 3-D breaklines from an ASCII file into your
CAD graphic. These breaklines can be used to generate a surface model. The breaklines
that are placed into the CAD graphic are placed on the current layer/level or on a user-
defined layer/level. To import an ASCII breakline file, the file must have one line of text for
each vertex on the breakline. The format of the ASCII file can be either of the following two
formats: Point Number, Northing, Easting, Elevation, Line Indicator or X,Y,Z,Line
Indicator.
ï For the Line file, the Line Indicator looks for a 1 or S to indicate the start of a line followed
by 0 (if 1 is the indicator) or any single character (if S is the indicator) to indicate points on
the line. Data files with formats other than the ones shown above can be imported using
Data Transfer.

Figure 2-14 Import ASCII Breaklines Dialog Box

Import ASCII Breaklines Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
File Name Type in the path and file name of the ASCII breakline file. You can click on the Open
Folder icon to display the standard Select File dialog box to locate a file.
Pnt#,N,E,Elev, This toggle allows you to import an ASCII file of the format Point Number, Northing,
Line Indicator Easting, Elevation, Line Indicator.
X,Y,Z,Line This toggle allows you to import an ASCII file of the format X,Y,Z,Line Indicator.
Indicator

44 Surface Modeling
Import ASCII Breaklines Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Format Example This field displays a sample format that the ASCII breakline file needs to be in to be
imported. A description of each part of the format, as well as an example, is given.
However, the format can be comma or space delimited.
Selected File This displays the first line of the selected file to be imported. This first line should match
the format example. If it does not, the file will not be able to be imported.

Chapter 2: Prepare
Export ASCII Points
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð@B5@1B5ð½ð5H@?BDð½ð1C399ð@?9>DC

KEY-IN COMMAND: c]Uh`QcSYY


The Export ASCII Points command allows you to export all of the points for a surface
model to an ASCII file. The points of the selected surface model can be exported using
one of the following ASCII formats: Point Number, Northing, Easting, Elevation,
Description or X,Y,Z,Description.

Figure 2-15 Export ASCII Points Dialog Box

Export ASCII Points Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model Select the surface model from the drop list that you want to export point information from.
File Name Type in the path and name of the ASCII file that you want to export the points to. You can
click on the Open Folder icon to display the standard Select File dialog box to locate a file.
Pnt#,N,E,Elev, This toggle allows you to export an ASCII point file in a Point Number, Northing, Easting,
Desc Elevation, Description format.
X,Y,Z,Desc This toggle allows you to export an ASCII point file in an X,Y,Z, Description format.
Format Example This field displays a sample format that the ASCII point file will be exported in. A
description of each part of the format, as well as an example, is given.

Chapter 2: Prepare 45
Export ASCII Breaklines
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð@B5@1B5ð½ð5H@?BDð1C399ð½ð2B51;<9>5C

KEY-IN COMMAND: c]Uh`QRb[


The Export ASCII Breaklines command allows you to export all of the breaklines for a
surface model to an ASCII file. The breaklines of the selected surface model can be
exported using one of the following two ASCII formats: Point Number, Northing, Easting,
Elevation, Line Indicator or X,Y,Z,Line Indicator. In either format, the line indicator will be a
1 to signify the start of a new line or a 0 to indicate a point on a line.

Figure 2-16 Export ASCII Breaklines Dialog Box

Export ASCII Breaklines Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model Select the surface model from the drop list that you want to export breakline information
from.
File Name Type in the path and name of the ASCII file that you want to export the breaklines to. You
can also click on the Open Folder icon to display the standard Select File dialog box to
locate a file.
Pnt#,N,E, This toggle allows you to export an ASCII breakline file in a Point Number, Northing,
Elev,Line Easting, Elevation or Line Indictor format.
Indicator
X,Y,Z,Line This toggle allows you to export an ASCII breakline file in a X,Y,Z,Line Indicator format.
Indicator
Format Example This field displays a sample format that the ASCII breakline file will be exported in. A
description of each part of the format, as well as an example is given.

46 Surface Modeling
Crossing Breaklines
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð@B5@1B5ð½ð3B?CC9>7ð2B51;<9>5C

KEY-IN COMMAND: Sb_ccR\

ICON:

Chapter 2: Prepare
The Crossing Breaklines command allows you to find, show, mark and repair any
breaklines that are crossing each other. Breaklines are lines that define significant
features (ridges, ditches or edge of pavements) and prevent triangle sides from crossing
the line. When breaklines cross, a conflict occurs during the surface modeling routine. To
remedy this occurrence, crossing breaklines can be repaired by using the Repair Crossing
Breaklines command. Use this option to identify and repair crossing breaklines before
making a surface model.
ï The Triangulate Surface Model routine checks for crossing breaklines. If it encounters
crossing breaklines, the system prompts you to Ignore crossing breaklines and proceed?
If you select Yes, it will mask both breaklines as no break. Point tolerance used by the
Triangulate Surface Model command will be considered when Surface Modeling checks
for crossing breaklines.

Figure 2-17 Crossing Breaklines Dialog Box

Chapter 2: Prepare 47
Crossing Breaklines Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Action This allows you to determine what to do with crossing breaklines. You may find, show,
mark or replace them.
´ Find: This option lists all occurrences where crossing breaklines exist. The list
displays the coordinates of the point of intersection in addition to the elevation
of both breaklines at the intersection.
´ Show: This option locates and displays the occurrence of a crossing breakline.
If a crossing # is highlighted from the list of crossing breaklines, the Show
Action option will zoom into the vicinity of the conflict. (The extent of the zoom
window can be controlled by clicking on the Settings button within this dialog
box.)
´ Mark: This option identifies the location of crossing breaklines by placing a
circular mark at the point of intersection. Placing a mark provides a graphical
display so conflicts can be identified in the CAD graphic. (CAD settings can be
used to control the placement of the circular marks).
´ Repair: This option allows you to repair the crossing breaklines. This will enable
the Repair Method dialog box and the Repair All toggle.
Settings This controls the settings for the Show and Mark Action options. For more information,
see Crossing Breakline Settings on page 49.
Repair Method This allows you to select how you want to repair the crossing breaklines. The available
options are Separate Breaklines, Trim Breaklines, Mask Shorter Breakline and Mask Both
Crossing Breaklines.
´ Separate Breaklines: The system breaks each breakline at the intersection of
the crossing breakline creating four individual breaklines. A single point is
added to the point of intersection which inherits the elevation of the higher
breakline.
´ Trim Breakline: The system trims the smallest segment of two crossing
breaklines at the point of intersection, and breaks the other segment at the point
of intersection creating three breaklines. A single point is added to the point of
intersection, which inherits the elevation of the higher breakline.
´ Mask Shorter Breakline: The system masks the shorter breakline as exclude,
so it is ignored while making the surface model.
´ Mask Both Crossing Breaklines: The system masks both breaklines as exclude,
so they are ignored while making the surface model.
Repair All If toggled on, this option will globally repair all crossing breaklines by the method specified
in the Repair Method drop list.
Crossing # This is the number of the crossing intersection of the two breaklines.
Northing This is the Y-coordinate of the intersection of the two crossing breaklines.
Easting This is the X-coordinate of the intersection of the two crossing breaklines.
Elevation #1 This is the Z-coordinate of one of the crossing breaklines.
Elevation #2 This is the Z-coordinate of the other crossing breakline.
Print Crossing This allows you to print the crossing breaklines that are listed. The report will be printed to
Breaklines a file or printer.

48 Surface Modeling
Crossing Breakline Settings
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ý½ý@B5@1B5ð½ð3B?CC9>7ð2B51;<9>5Cð½ðC5DD9>7C

The Crossing Breakline Settings command allows you to control the settings for the Show
and Mark actions. For the Show action, you can specify the height and width of the zoom
window. This will determine how close you zoom into crossing breaklines. For the Mark
action, you can specify the radius of the circle that will be placed and the CAD settings,
such as layer/level and color, that they will be placed with.

Chapter 2: Prepare
Figure 2-18 Crossing Breakline Settings Dialog Box

Crossing Breakline Settings Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Show Settings This allows a view window to be set to a specified unit dimension when showing a
crossing breakline. Dimensions can be set for the Height and Width of the zoom window
to graphically display the highlighted crossing breakline. The values entered in this field
will use the units of the project (feet or meters).
Mark Settings This controls the settings and size of the circles that are placed when marking crossing
breaklines. The radius used for the circle objects can be specified in the field provided.
The value entered in this field will use the units of the project (feet or meters).

Predefined Boundaries
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð@B5@1B5ð½ð@B54569>54ð2?E>41B95C

KEY-IN COMMAND: `bUTUVR_e^T


The Predefined Boundaries command allows you to specify a boundary to be used for the
selected surface model. A boundary is the outer limit of the surface model. You may want
to explicitly predefine the boundary, especially for oddly-shaped regions like roadway
projects. Without specifying a boundary, Surface Modeling finds the convex boundary
when making the triangles.

Chapter 2: Prepare 49
The complex object that defines the boundary for the site must be a shape or closed 2-D
or 3-D polyline.
If the complex object is two-dimensional, it should be placed at an elevation that is outside
the minimum and maximum valid elevations specified on the Surface Model tab of the
New Surface Model dialog box (Figure 2-2 on page 24). If the boundary line is within the
valid elevation range, Surface Modeling will use the vertices on the complex object as
valid points for constructing the surface model.
ï When constructing a 2-D complex object and snapping to an entity, the vertex you are
creating will have the same elevation as that of the entity you are first snapping to,
whereas, a 3-D complex object takes the elevation of each point it is snapped to.

ï If you have not created a surface model using the New Surface Model command, this
command will display an Eagle Point Message Box. You must have a surface model
added in the Manage Surface Models dialog box (Figure 2-1 on page 22) before you can
create a predefined boundary.

Figure 2-19 Predefined Boundaries Dialog Box

Predefined Boundaries Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
New Predefined This allows you to create a predefined boundary. All boundaries that are created will be
Boundary associated with a description that is linked to a surface model.
For more information, see New Predefined Boundary on page 51.
Modify This allows you to change the description or surface model that this boundary is defined
Predefined for.
Boundary For more information, see New Predefined Boundary on page 51.
Delete This removes the highlighted predefined boundary from the list, but it will not remove the
Predefined boundary from the CAD graphic file.
Boundary
Show Boundary When this option is selected, the highlighted predefined boundary will be displayed.

50 Surface Modeling
New Predefined Boundary
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ý@B5@1B5ð½ð@B54569>54ð2?E>41BIð½ð>5Gð@B54569>54ð2?E>41BI

The New Predefined Boundary command allows you to create an exterior boundary that
will be used when a surface model is created. The predefined boundary is defined for a
specific surface model. When creating that surface model, you can use the predefined
boundary option. This allows you to create the surface model without having to manually
select the boundary.

Chapter 2: Prepare
ï A surface model can only have one predefined boundary. If you want to create an interior
boundary for a surface model, use the Predefined Void Region command.

Figure 2-20 New Predefined Boundary Dialog Box

New Predefined Boundary Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Description This is the description that will display in the Predefined Boundaries dialog box (Figure 2-
19 on page 50). This helps you determine which surface model this boundary will be used
for.
Surface Model This is the surface model that the predefined boundary is being created for. This drop list
will display all of the surface models that are listed in the Manage Surface Models dialog
box (Figure 2-1 on page 22).

QuickSteps
To create a predefined boundary to be used when creating a surface model, complete the
following steps:
1. Select Prepare Æ Predefined Boundary.
This displays the Predefined Boundaries dialog box (Figure 2-19 on page 50).
2. Select the New Predefined Boundary icon.
You are prompted to select a boundary.
3. Graphically select a closed polyline/complex chain or shape to be used as the
boundary.
The New Predefined Boundary dialog box (above) displays.

Chapter 2: Prepare 51
4. Enter the description for the Predefined Boundary in the Description edit field.
5. Select the surface model that you want the boundary defined for from the drop
list.
6. Click on OK.
This adds the predefined boundary to the Predefined Boundary dialog box.

Predefined Void Regions


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð@B5@1B5ð½ð@B54569>54ðF?94ðB579?>C

KEY-IN COMMAND: `bUTUVf_YT


The Predefined Void Regions command allows you to predefine closed complex objects
as void regions for specific surface models. All the void areas can be selected ahead of
time so they can be used while making a surface model.
You may select the Void Regions using two methods. You can graphically select the
object(s) in CAD or you can specify a Layer/Level on which the command searches for
closed objects or shapes. When using the Layer/Level option, only objects that are closed
and residing on the specified layer/level are included as void regions.
Void regions are areas inside the surface model where no triangulation (and as a result,
no contouring) takes place, such as a building footprint. The complex shape that defines a
void region for the site must be a closed 2-D or 3-D complex object or shape.
If you use Site Design, no volumes will be calculated within void regions. RoadCalc does
not extract cross-section information if the cross-section falls within the void region.
If the complex object drawn for a void region is two-dimensional, it should be placed at an
elevation that is outside the minimum and maximum valid elevations specified in the
Surface Model tab on the New Surface Model dialog box (Figure 2-2 on page 24). If the
complex object representing the void region is within the valid elevation range, Surface
Modeling may use the vertex on the object as valid points for constructing the surface
model.
ï When constructing a 2-D complex object and snapping to an entity, the vertex you are
creating will have the same elevation as that of the entity you are first snapping to,
whereas, a 3-D complex object takes the elevation of each point it is snapped to.

52 Surface Modeling
ï If you have not created a surface model using the New Surface Model command, this
command will display an Eagle Point Message Box. You must have a surface model
added in the Manage Surface Models dialog box (Figure 2-1 on page 22) before you can
create a predefined void region.

Chapter 2: Prepare
Figure 2-21 Predefined Void Regions Dialog Box

Predefined Void Regions Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
New Predefined This allows you to create predefined void regions for a selected surface model. All void
Void Region regions that are created will be associated with a description that is linked to a surface
model or all surface models.
For more information see New Predefined Void Region, below.
Modify This allows you to change the description or the surface model that these void regions are
Predefined Void defined for.
Region For more information, see New Predefined Void Region, below.
Delete This removes the highlighted predefined void regions. These void regions are removed
Predefined Void from the list, but not from the CAD graphic file.
Region
Show Void When this option is selected, the predefined void regions will be displayed in the CAD
Regions graphic file.

New Predefined Void Region


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ý@B5@1B5ð½ð@B54569>54ðF?94ðB579?>ð½ð
>5Gð@B54569>54ðF?94ðB579?>

The New Predefined Void Region command allows you to create interior boundaries that
will be used when a surface model is created. The predefined void regions are defined for
a specific surface model or could be defined for all surface models. When creating that
surface model, you can use the predefined void regions option. This allows you to create
the surface model without having to manually select the void regions.

Chapter 2: Prepare 53
You may select the Void Regions using two methods. You can graphically select the
object(s) in CAD or you can specify a Layer/Level on which the command searches for
closed objects or shapes. When using the Layer/Level option, only objects that are closed
and residing on the specified layer/level are included as void regions.
Enter a description for the selection set of objects, which model the voids are assigned to,
and a selection method. Depending on the method set, clicking on OK either prompts you
to graphically select the objects or the layer/level specified is automatically read for the
possible objects. After the selection is made, the predefined void region(s) is saved for the
current project and the dialog box closes.
ï If you want to create an exterior boundary for a surface model, use the Predefined
Boundary command.

Figure 2-22 New Predefined Void Regions Dialog Box

New Predefined Void Regions Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Description This is the description that will display in the Predefined Void Regions dialog box (Figure
2-21 on page 53). This helps you determine which surface model these void regions will
be used for.
Surface Model This is the surface model that the predefined void regions are being created for. This drop
list will display all of the surface models that are listed in the Manage Surface Models
dialog box (Figure 2-1 on page 22) and an entry labeled All Surface Models. The All
Surface Models entry allows you to use the selected void regions for every surface model
that is created.

54 Surface Modeling
New Predefined Void Regions Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Selection This option controls how the objects are selected when adding predefined void regions.
Method Depending on the version of CAD you are running, you are presented with different
methods.
AutoCAD/IntelliCAD/Eagle Point Graphics Engine users:
´ CAD Selection: This method prompts you to select objects using normal CAD
selection methods. Only closed polylines can be selected as void regions.
´ Layer: Use this option to enter a layer name for which the command searches
for closed polylines on.

Chapter 2: Prepare
MicroStation users:
´ Multiple: This method prompts you to select multiple closed shapes one at a
time from the design file. After making and accepting your final selection use
the reset button to finish the command.
´ Fence: This method requires you to have a fence placed around the objects you
want to be in the predefined void region selection set.
´ Level: Use this option to enter a level number for which the command searches
for closed shapes on.
Layer/Level This edit field becomes available on when the Selection Method is set to Layer or Level.
Enter the layer name or level number that you want the command to search for closed
objects or shapes on. Use the Select Layer button to display the Select Layer dialog box
for picking an existing layer name.

QuickSteps
To create predefined void regions to be used when creating a surface model, complete
the following steps:
1. Select Prepare Æ Predefined Void Regions.
This displays the Predefined Void Regions dialog box (Figure 2-21 on page 53).
2. Click on the New Predefined Void Region icon.
This displays the New Predefined Void Regions dialog box (Figure 2-22 on page 54).
3. Enter the description for the Predefined Void Regions in the Description edit
field.
4. Select the surface model that you want the void regions defined for from the
drop list.
5. Choose a selection method. The available options are CAD Selection and Layer
in AutoCAD/IntelliCAD/Eagle Point Graphics Engine and Multiple Fence and
Level in MicroStation. If you have selected Layer/Level, enter the layer/level in
the edit field.
6. Click on OK. If you have selected CAD Selection/Multiple for the Selection
Method, you are prompted:

Chapter 2: Prepare 55
CU\USdðf_YTðbUWY_^c*
7. Graphically select the closed polylines/complex chains, or shapes to be used
as the void regions.
8. Once you have selected the desired objects, press Enter in AutoCAD/IntelliCAD/
Eagle Point Graphics Engine or the reset button on your pointing device in
MicroStation to end the selection.

Batch Operations
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð@B5@1B5ð½ð21D38ð?@5B1D9?>C

KEY-IN COMMAND: c]RQdSX

ICON:
The Batch Operations command allows you to perform several operations at one time.
You can create a surface model, contours and a rectangular grid. Instead of completing
these operations one at a time using the various pull-down menus and dialog boxes, they
can be accomplished in one step by using the Batch Operations command.
The Batch Operations dialog box (Figure 2-23 on page 57) allows you to specify which
surface model is to be used in the batch operation. The Parameters buttons also allow you
to specify if a predefined or selected boundary is to be used in creating a surface model,
placing contours or placing a grid. There is also an option of erasing existing objects from
the surface model layer/level, contour layers/levels and grid layers/levels using the
Parameters buttons.

56 Surface Modeling
ï If a surface model is already created, use any combination of the Place Contours or Place
Grid commands.

Chapter 2: Prepare
Figure 2-23 Batch Operations Dialog Box

Batch Operations Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model From the drop list, select the surface model to be used for carrying out the batch
operations. This drop list will contain all of the surface models that are listed in the
Manage Surface Models dialog box (Figure 2-1 on page 22).
Surface Model If the Create option is toggled on, a surface model will be created for the surface model
Create selected in the Surface Model drop list at the top of the dialog box. From the Create
Surface Model drop list, select the method of triangulation to be used to create the surface
model.
Surface Model If the Surface Model Create option is toggled on, the Surface Model Parameters button
Parameters will be enabled, allowing you to set up the parameters you wish to use for constructing the
surface model. The Triangulate Surface Model dialog box (Figure 2-24 on page 58) lists
the options that can be used when selecting the parameters option.
Contours Create If the Create option is toggled on, contours will be placed for the surface model selected in
the Surface Model drop list. Select the type of contours to create from the Create
Contours drop list.
Contours If the Create Contours option is toggled on, the Contours Parameters button activates,
Parameters allowing you to set up the parameters for constructing contours. The Make Intermediate
Contours dialog box (Figure 2-25 on page 60) displays the options that can be used for
constructing contours.
Rectangular If the Rectangular Grid Create option is toggled on, a rectangular grid will be placed for
Grid Create the surface model selected in the Surface Model drop list. Choose the construction
method for the grid from the Create Rectangular Grid drop list.
Rectangular The Rectangular Grid Parameters button activates when the Rectangular Grid Create
Grid Parameters toggle is on. Use the Parameters button to set various options when constructing the
rectangular grid. The Place Shadow Grid dialog box (Figure 2-26 on page 61) displays the
different options for the rectangular grid.

Chapter 2: Prepare 57
Batch Operations Surface Model Parameters
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð@B5@1B5ð½ð21D38ð?@5B1D9?>Cð½ðCEB6135ð=?45<ð½ð@1B1=5D5BC

This command allows you to make a surface model for the model chosen from the Surface
Model drop list on the Batch Operations dialog box (Figure 2-23 on page 57). If the Create
option is toggled on, the surface model will be created using the parameters specified.
The Triangulate Surface Model dialog box (below) lists the options that can be used when
making the surface model

Figure 2-24 Triangulate Surface Model Dialog Box

Triangulate Surface Model Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model This will display the same surface model as the one on the Batch Operations dialog box
(Figure 2-23 on page 57). This field is disabled so you cannot change the surface model.
If you want to change the surface model, change it on the Batch Operations dialog box.
Boundary From the drop list, select the type of boundary you wish to implement. If no boundary is to
be applied, select the None option. The Select option will prompt you to select a boundary
prior to creating triangles. The Predefined option will refer back to the predefined
boundary list and apply the boundary that references the surface model.
Void Regions From the drop list, select the type of void region you wish to implement. If no void region is
to be applied, select the None option. The Select option will prompt you to select a void
region boundary prior to creating triangles. The Predefined option will refer back to the
predefined void region list and apply all void regions that reference the surface model.
Display Model Toggle on this option if you wish to shadow display the surface model triangles. A shadow
display shows the triangles upon completion, but when a screen redraw/refresh is applied,
the triangles disappear.
Use External Toggle this option on if you wish to use an external point file for constructing a surface
Point File(s) model. If this option is checked, the Build File List button will enable allowing you to select
the ASCII file from which to build your surface model.

58 Surface Modeling
Triangulate Surface Model Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Display Selected If this option is checked on, a detailed list of the objects used to create the surface model
Object’s Details will display. This list includes details about the Graphics, External Node Database and
ASCII Points File, such as number of objects selected and their minimum and maximum
elevations.
Place Triangles Toggle this option on if you wish to place the surface model triangles into the CAD graphic
file after the surface model is created. For more information about the Place Triangles
command, see Place Triangles on page 140.
Settings This option allows you to modify any of the current surface model settings. For more
information on surface model settings refer to the Manage Surface Models Dialog Box

Chapter 2: Prepare
(Figure 2-1 on page 22).

Batch Operations Contours Parameters


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð@B5@1B5ð½ð21D38ð?@5B1D9?>Cð½ð3?>D?EBCð½ð@1B1=5D5BC

This command allows you to make contours for the model chosen from the Surface Model
drop list on the Batch Operations dialog box (Figure 2-22 on page 53). If the Create option
is checked on, contours will be created using the parameters specified. Select from the
drop list any of the following types of contours you wish to create.
´ The Preview option displays the contours before they are actually created. This option
allows you to check proper smoothing variables for adjustments to be made.
´ The Shadow option makes temporary contours that will only display initially. Upon any
view refresh/redraw the contours will be removed from the CAD graphic. No
annotation can be applied to these contours.
´ The Index and Interval contours option constructs and displays the contours for both
sets of these contours.
´ The Intermediate contour option only constructs and displays the Intermediate
contours.
´ The Index contour option only constructs and displays the Index contours.
´ The User-Defined option only constructs and displays the User-Defined contours.
If the Create option is toggled on, the Parameters button will enable for all contour types
except Preview, allowing you to set up the parameters you wish to use for constructing

Chapter 2: Prepare 59
contours. The Make Intermediate Contours dialog box (below) lists the options that can be
used when selecting this option.

Figure 2-25 Make Intermediate Contours Dialog Box

Make Intermediate Contours Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model This will display the same surface model as the one on the Batch Operations dialog box
(Figure 2-23 on page 57). This field is disabled so you cannot change the surface model.
If you want to change the surface model, change it on the Batch Operations dialog box.
Use Screen This option allows you to place the contours only in the area of the screen that is visible.
Display The contours do not extend beyond the coordinate limits of the display of the screen.
User-defined This option allows you to specify the area in which you want contours to be placed. The
Boundary contours are confined to this area. The boundary that is used must be a closed object.
Erase Existing This option allows you to remove the contour objects that already reside in the CAD
Contours for graphic for the surface model selected.
this Surface
CAD Settings This option allows you to set the parameters for the contour objects such as color, layer/
level, linetype/linestyle and width/weight.
Settings This option allows you to modify the parameters for the contours, such as interval,
smoothing factor and polynomial factor.
For more information on contour settings, see New Surface Model – Contours Tab on
page 29.

Batch Operations Rectangular Grid Parameters


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð@B5@1B5ð½ý21D38ð?@5B1D9?>Cð½ýB53D1>7E<1Bð7B94ð½ð@1B1=5D5BC

This option allows you to make a grid for the model chosen from the Surface Model drop
list on the Batch Operations dialog box (Figure 2-23 on page 57). If the Create option is
toggled on, a grid will be created using the parameters specified. Select from the drop list
any of the following types of grids you wish to display.
´ Shadow Grid shows a temporary display of the grid. Upon any view refresh/redraw,
the contours will be removed from the CAD graphic.

60 Surface Modeling
´ Grid places the grid of the surface model constructed into the CAD graphic. The
parameters for Grid settings are displayed in the Place Shadow Grid dialog box,
shown below.
If the Create option is toggled on, the Parameters button will enable, allowing you to set up
the parameters you wish to use for constructing the grid. The Place Shadow Grid dialog
box displays the list of options that are available for this command.

Chapter 2: Prepare
Figure 2-26 Place Shadow Grid Dialog Box

Place Shadow Grid Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model This will display the same surface model as the one on the Batch Operations dialog box
(Figure 2-23 on page 57). This field is disabled so you cannot change the surface model.
If you want to change the surface model, change it on the Batch Operations dialog box.
Grid Skirt Toggle this option on to display a grid skirt. The Grid Skirt finds the lowest point on the
model and then extends that elevation to the outer boundary of the model. Once the outer
boundary has been found, the skirt then stretches vertically until it ties in with the elevation
at that particular location. This option could best be described using the analogy of a table
cloth that drapes over the sides of a table.
User Defined This allows you to specify the area in which you want the grid to be placed. The grid is
Boundary confined to this area. The boundary that is used must be a closed object.
Elevation Table Toggle this option on to display the grid using the elevation table. The Elevation Table is
set up to segregate and color grid squares according to an elevation interval
For more information on the Elevation Table, refer to Elevation Table on page 36.
Import Elevation This option will import a Table Legend for the existing elevation table into the CAD
Table Legend graphic.
Erase Existing This option allows you to remove the grid objects that already reside in the CAD graphic
Grid for this for the surface model selected.
Surface
CAD Settings This allows you to set the parameters for the grid object such as color, layer/level,
linetype/linestyle and width/weight.
Settings This allows you to modify grid settings such as: X-interval, Y-interval, Vertical Stretch
Factor, Smoothing, Longitudinal Angle, Construction Method, etc.
For more information on these options, refer to New Surface Model – Rectangular Grid
Tab on page 33.

Chapter 2: Prepare 61
62 Surface Modeling
CONSTRUCT
The Construct menu provides access to many commands
that allow you to create, modify and manage objects in a
CHAPTER
plan CAD graphic. The commands include Feature Line,
Digitize Contours, Join Contours, Join Broken Contours
and Change Contour Elevation. Other commands allow
you to manage the masking of objects and densify and
weed objects in preparation for the creation of a surface
model. Each of these functions are discussed in detail.
In this chapter:
Construct Feature Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Digitize Contours. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Join Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3
Join Broken Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Change Contour Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Mask Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Change Masking Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Unmask All Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Show Masked Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Densify Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Weed Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Chapter 3: Construct 63
Construct Feature Line
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð3?>CDBE3Dð½ð651DEB5ð<9>5

KEY-IN COMMAND: c]VUQd\Y^U


The Feature Line command can be used for constructing 3-D objects at a user-defined
slope or elevation. It can be used to draw lines at a percent slope, horizontal-over-vertical
slope, vertical-over-horizontal slope, unit per unit slope, or the line can be placed with
absolute elevations for the vertices. This command is useful for constructing parking lots,
ditches and building pads, or for placing additional topographic information.

Figure 3-1 Construct Feature Line Dialog Box

Construct Feature Line Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
First Point This defines the starting point of the feature line. After the Northing, Easting and Elevation
are entered, the Next Point frame is enabled.
Northing This is the Northing (Y) coordinate for the starting location of the feature line. This can be
entered by typing the value or by graphically selecting a location using the PIC button.
Easting This is the Easting (X) coordinate for the starting location of the feature line. This can be
entered by typing the value or by graphically selecting a location using the PIC button.
Elevation This is the Elevation (Z) coordinate for the starting location of the feature line.
PIC This allows you to graphically select the Northing and Easting coordinates for the feature
line in CAD.
Next Point This defines any of the following points of the feature line. This is only enabled after the
first point is defined. You can define the next point by either coordinate values or by
direction and distance.
Coordinates Toggle this option on if you want to use coordinates for the next point of the feature line.

64 Surface Modeling
Construct Feature Line Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Distance/ Toggle this option on if you want to use directions and distances for the next point of the
Direction feature line. When this is toggled on, the Northing label shown in the Next Point frame will
be replaced with Distance, and the Easting label shown in the Next Point frame will be
replaced with Direction.
Northing This is the Northing (Y) coordinate for the next point of the feature line. This can be
entered by typing the value or by graphically selecting a location using the PIC button.
This field is available with the Coordinate option.
Distance This is the horizontal distance to the next point of the feature line. This can be entered by
typing the value or by graphically selecting a line. This field is available with the Distance/
Direction option.
Easting This is the Easting (X) coordinate for the next point of the feature line. This can be entered
by typing the value or by graphically selecting a location using the PIC button. The field is
available with the Coordinates option.
Direction This is the direction to the next point of the feature line. This can be entered by typing the
value or by graphically selecting a line. THis field is available with the Distance/Direction
option.
Elevation This is the Elevation (Z) coordinate for the next point of the feature line. If you enter a
value into this field, the slope is calculated. When a slope is entered the elevation is

Chapter 3: Construct
calculated.
Slope This is the slope to the next point of the feature line. If you enter a value into this field, the
elevation is calculated. The slope is also calculated from an elevation value that is entered
in the elevation field. The types of slopes that are available to choose from are % Slope,
H/V, V/H and Unit/Unit.

QuickSteps
To create a feature line, complete the following steps.
1. Select Construct Æ Feature Line.
This displays the Construct Feature Line dialog box (Figure 3-1 on page 64).
2. Enter the Northing and Easting coordinates for the first point of the feature line,
or graphically select the location by clicking on the PIC button and graphically
selecting in the CAD graphic.
3. Enter the Elevation for the first point of the feature line. After entering the value,
press the Tab key.
This enables the next point fields.
4. Select how you want to enter the next point of the feature line by toggling on
either the Coordinates or Distance/Direction option.
A. If you have toggled on the Coordinates option, enter the Northing and
Easting coordinates or use the PIC button to graphically select a point in the
CAD graphic.

Chapter 3: Construct 65
B. If you have toggled on the Distance/Direction option, enter the distance and
direction or click on the PIC button to graphically select an object in the
CAD graphic to be used for the distance and an object to be used for the
direction.
5. Enter the elevation of the next point of the feature line or the slope to the next
point. When you enter one of these, the other is calculated. When entering a
slope, the available slope types you can choose from are % Slope, H/V, V/H and
Unit/Unit.
6. Click on Apply.
This places the line in the CAD graphic and clears the edit fields in the Next Point
frame, allowing you to place another segment of the feature line.
7. Click on Close when you finish constructing the feature line.

Digitize Contours
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð3?>CDBE3Dð½ð4979D9J5ð3?>D?EBC

KEY-IN COMMAND: TYWS_^d


The Digitize Contours command allows you to utilize a digitizer to copy linework
representing contours from existing hard copy maps into the CAD graphic. The contours
will be placed in the CAD graphic as 2-D objects at the elevation specified.
ï Before using the Digitize Contours command, check the Tablet settings in CAD.

Figure 3-2 Digitize Contours Dialog Box

Digitize Contours Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Point to Point This option allows you to define each vertex by selecting the location graphically in the
CAD graphic.

66 Surface Modeling
Digitize Contours Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Sketch This option automatically places a vertex when the digitizer pointer has moved the
distance specified as the Record Increment from the previous vertex. With Sketch
selected, you only have to click once to begin digitizing. The contour will be “traced” into
the CAD graphic simply by moving the digitizer puck over the lines on the hard copy.
Record This is enabled when the Sketch option is selected. The value entered in this field will
Increment control the placement of the contour vertices in the CAD graphic. The lower the value, the
more vertices will be placed and the more accurate the contour will be. However, the CAD
graphic will be larger as well.
Starting The first contour is placed at the elevation specified in this field.
Elevation
Intermediate The value in this field controls the increment applied when beginning subsequent
Contour Interval contours.
Index Contour The value in this field determines which contours will be displayed as Index Contours.
Interval
CAD Settings This allows you to set the parameters for the contour objects, such as color, layer/level,
linetype/linestyle and width/weight.
Current This is the elevation for the contour that is being digitized.

Chapter 3: Construct
Elevation

Join Contours
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð3?>CDBE3Dð½ð:?9>ð3?>D?EBC

KEY-IN COMMAND: Z_Y^S_^d


The Join Contours command attaches one or more contours that have the same elevation
to form a single object. Since the contours are joined together it is easier to modify them,
such as changing their elevation or color.
ï This only joins the objects if vertices of the segment and adjacent segment have the same
constant elevation.

Figure 3-3 Join Contours Dialog Box

Chapter 3: Construct 67
Join Contours Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Make Copy of This option makes copies of the existing contours and then joins them together. The copy
Contour is placed using the parameters specified in the CAD settings command. The Make Copy
of Contour option allows you to keep the original contours.
Modify Existing The Modify Existing Contour option takes the existing contours and joins them together.
Contour The CAD Settings do not affect the existing contours when you use this option.
CAD Settings This option allows you to set the parameters for the segments being joined, such as color,
layer/level, linetype/linestyle and width/weight.

QuickSteps
To join contour segments together, complete the following steps.
1. Select Construct Æ Join Contours.
This displays the Join Contours dialog box (Figure 3-3 on page 67).
2. Choose how you want to modify the contour. You can either make a copy of the
contour and have the copy joined together or modify the existing contour.
3. If you want to change any of the CAD settings for the contours, click on the CAD
Settings icon.
4. Click on Apply.
You are prompted to:
CU\USdð_RZUSdc.
5. Graphically select the objects that you want joined together.
6. When you have finished selecting the objects, press the Enter key in AutoCAD/
IntelliCAD/Eagle Point Graphics Engine or press the Reset button on your
mouse in MicroStation.
All of the segments that can be joined together for the contours are joined.

Join Broken Contours


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð3?>CDBE3Dð½ð:?9>ð2B?;5>ð3?>D?EBC

KEY-IN COMMAND: Z_Y^Rb_[US_^d


The Join Broken Contours command connects contours that have been broken or that are
separated. Broken contours usually occur when the contours have been annotated and

68 Surface Modeling
the contour is removed under the annotation. This command connects the two contours
(at the same elevation) within a tolerance by moving the vertex of one contour lines.
ï This only joins contours that have the same elevation within the specified tolerance. If
there are more than two contours that have the same elevation within the tolerance
specified that can be joined, they will be joined to the closest contour available.

Figure 3-4 Join Broken Contours Dialog Box

Join Broken Contours Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Make Copy of This option makes copies of the existing contours and then joins the segments together

Chapter 3: Construct
Contour within the tolerance specified. The copy is placed using the parameters specified in the
CAD settings command. The Make Copy of Contour option allows you to hold on to keep
the original contours.
Modify Existing This option modifies the existing contour by joining the segments together within the
Contour tolerance specified. The CAD settings do not affect the existing contours using this option.
Tolerance This allows you to specify the maximum distance away from a contour when trying to join
it to another contour.
CAD Settings This option allows you to set the parameters for the segments being joined, such as color,
layer/level, linetype/linestyle and width/weight.

QuickSteps
To join broken contours, complete the following steps.
1. Select Contours Æ Join Broken Contours.
This displays the Join Broken Contours dialog box (above).
2. Choose how you want to modify the contour. You can either make a copy of the
contour and have the copy joined together within a tolerance or modify the
existing contour within a tolerance.
3. Enter the tolerance that you want contours at the same elevation to be joined
with. If the contours are not within the tolerance or are not at the same
elevation, they will not be joined together.
4. If you want to change any of the CAD settings for the contours, click on the CAD
Settings button.

Chapter 3: Construct 69
5. Click on Apply.
You are prompted to:
CU\USdð_RZUSdcâ
6. Graphically select the objects you want joined together within a tolerance.
7. When you are finished selecting objects, press the Enter key in AutoCAD/
IntelliCAD/Eagle Point Graphics Engine or press the Reset button on your
mouse in MicroStation.
All of the contours that can be joined together are joined.

Change Contour Elevation


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð3?>CDBE3Dð½ð381>75ð3?>D?EBð5<5F1D9?>

KEY-IN COMMAND: S_^dU\Uf


The Change Contour Elevation command changes the elevation of the contours that are
selected. This allows you to enter a starting elevation and an increment elevation. All of
the contours that you draw a line through will have their elevations changed. Use this
command to convert 2-D contour maps into 3-D.
ï If you enter a positive increment elevation, the elevation will be added to the previous
elevation. If you enter a negative increment elevation, the elevation will be subtracted from
the previous contour elevation.

Figure 3-5 Change Contour Elevation Dialog Box

Change Contour Elevation Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Starting This is the elevation of the first contour that the line is drawn through.
Elevation
Increment This determines the elevation difference from the current contour being changed to the
Elevation next contour. Enter a positive value to add the increment elevation to the previous contour
or a negative value to subtract the increment elevation from the previous contour.

70 Surface Modeling
QuickSteps
To change the elevation of contours, complete the following steps.
1. Select Construct Æ Change Contour Elevation.
This displays the Change Contour Elevation dialog box (Figure 3-5 on page 70).
2. Enter the Starting Elevation for the first contour line.
3. Enter the Increment Elevation for each of the following contours. Enter a
positive value to add the increment elevation to the previous contour or a
negative value to subtract from the previous contour.
4. If you want to change any of the CAD settings for the contours, click on the CAD
Settings icon.
5. Click on Apply.
You are prompted to:
@YS[ðQð@_Y^d
6. Graphically select the first point.

Chapter 3: Construct
You are prompted to:
@YS[ðQð@_Y^d
7. Graphically select the second point.
The elevation of all of the contour lines that are between the first and second point
selected are changed.
The first contour that is crossed is changed to the starting elevation. Each contour
crossed after that has its elevation incremented from the previous contour.

Mask Objects
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð3?>CDBE3Dð½ð=1C;ð?2:53DC

KEY-IN COMMAND: ]Qc[

ICON:
The Mask Objects command allows you to change the way that objects are treated when
a surface model is created. When creating a surface model, Surface Modeling prompts
you to select objects. Normally, all selected objects are used to create the surface model
and all lines are treated as breaklines. Masking lets you specify points and lines that you

Chapter 3: Construct 71
want to behave differently when creating the surface model. The masking options that are
available are Include, Exclude, No Break and Soft Break.
ï This does not change the surface model or anything created from the surface model. This
only changes the objects. In order for the surface model to be changed, you need to
recreate the surface model after you have masked the objects.

ï You may also mask Nodes and lines produced by Data Collection ahead of time using
the mask options in the Node (Field Code) Library and in the Data Collection Line Work
Library.
For more information on masking, refer to Masking on page 3 and Creating Surface
Models on page 4.

Figure 3-6 Mask Objects Dialog Box

Mask Objects Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Masking Type The masking type changes the way that Surface Modeling looks at objects that are
selected to be used for creating a surface model.There are four ways to mask an item:
Include, Exclude, Soft Break and No Break.
´ Include: All of the objects of this type are used when creating a surface model.
By default, all objects are included.

´ Exclude: All objects of this type are not used when creating a surface model.

´ No Break: All lines and polylines/complex chains of this type have only the
vertices used and are not treated as breaklines.

´ Soft Break: All lines and polylines/complex chains of this type are considered as
smooth breaklines. This option will not produce the abrupt grade changes as
the Include option does.
By Objects This option allows you to mask objects that are selected. You can mask specific items
such as points, lines, objects and 3-D objects.
By Layer/Level This option allows you to mask objects by the layer/level that they reside on. This masks
all objects that are on that layer/level.

QuickSteps
To mask objects, complete the following steps:

72 Surface Modeling
1. Select Construct Æ Mask Objects.
This displays the Mask Objects dialog box (Figure 3-6 on page 72).
2. Select the desired masking type from the drop list. The available options are
Include, Exclude, No Break and Soft Break.
3. Toggle on the method by which you want to mask the objects. The available
options are By Object and By Layer/Level. If you selected By Layer/Level, enter
the layer/level in the edit field or select an existing layer by clicking on the
Layers icon to the right of the edit field.
4. Click on Apply.
If you selected the By Object option, you are prompted to:
CU\USdð?RZUSdc
5. Graphically select the objects that you wish to mask. When you are done
selecting objects, press the Enter key in AutoCAD/IntelliCAD/Eagle Point
Graphics Engine or press the Reset button on your pointing device in
MicroStation.
All of the objects selected or all of the objects on the layer/level selected are masked

Chapter 3: Construct
according to the masking type specified.

Change Masking Type


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð3?>CDBE3Dð½ð381>75ð=1C;9>7ðDI@5

KEY-IN COMMAND: SXQ^WU]Qc[


The Change Masking Type command allows you to change the way an object is masked.
This changes all the objects from one masking type to another. This also displays the
number of objects that are of the masking type specified.
ï This does not change the surface model or anything created from the surface model. This
only changes the object. In order for the surface model to be changed, you need to
recreate the surface model after you have changed the masking type.

Figure 3-7 Change Masking Type Dialog Box

Chapter 3: Construct 73
Change Masking Type Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
From This specifies the Masking Type of the objects that you want to change and how many of
those objects exist in the CAD graphic.
To This specifies the Masking Type that the object will be changed to and how many objects
of that masking type already exist in the CAD graphic.

QuickSteps
To change all objects from one masking type to another, complete the following steps.
1. Select Construct Æ Change Masking Type.
This displays the Change Masking Type dialog box (Figure 3-7 on page 73).
2. In the From drop list, select the type of masking from which you want to change
the objects.
This displays the number of objects that are of that masking type.
3. In the To drop list, select the type of masking to which you want to change the
objects.
This displays the number of objects that are of that masking type.
4. Click on Apply.
This changes all the objects from one masking type to another.

Unmask All Objects


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð3?>CDBE3Dð½ðE>=1C;ð1<<ð?2:53DC

KEY-IN COMMAND: e^]Qc[


The Unmask All Objects command returns all objects that were masked as Exclude, No
Break or Soft Break back to their default state of Include. Some of the commands that
mask objects are Mask, Weed, Densify, Slope Projections and Project Plan Objects.

74 Surface Modeling
ï This does not change the surface model or anything created from the surface model. This
only changes the objects. In order for the surface model to be changed, you need to
recreate the surface model after you have unmasked the objects.

Figure 3-8 Unmask All Objects Dialog Box

Unmask All Objects Dialog Box Definition


Option Function
Masked Objects This lists how many objects have been masked for Exclude, No Break and Soft Break.
Found

Chapter 3: Construct
QuickSteps
To unmask all objects, complete the following steps.
1. Select Construct Æ Unmask All Objects.
This displays the Unmask All Objects dialog box (above).
The number of objects that are masked for each type is displayed.
2. Click on OK to change all of the objects to a masking type of Include.

Show Masked Objects


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð3?>CDBE3Dð½ðC8?Gð=1C;54ð?2:53DC

KEY-IN COMMAND: cX_g]Qc[

Chapter 3: Construct 75
The Show Masked Objects command allows you to view objects that have been masked.
The available masking types to choose from are Include, Exclude, No Break and Soft
Break.

Figure 3-9 Show Masked Objects Dialog Box

Show Masked Objects Dialog Box Definition


Option Function
Masking Type This specifies the masking type of the objects you want to show. The available masking
types are Include, Exclude, No Break and Soft Break.

QuickSteps
To show objects that are masked by a specific type, complete the following steps.
1. Select Construct Æ Show Masked Objects.
This displays the Show Masked Objects dialog box (above).
2. Select the Masking Type from the drop list.
The available options are Include, Exclude, No Break and Soft Break.
3. Click on Apply.
All of the objects that are masked by the type specified are displayed in the CAD
graphic. As soon as the screen is redrawn, all objects will return.

Densify Objects
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ý3?>CDBE3Dð½ð45>C96Ið?2:53DC

KEY-IN COMMAND: ðTU^cYVi


The Densify Objects command inserts points along lines and arcs based on user-defined
criteria such as the change in elevation, distance and number of points. More points can
be added to the CAD graphic so the surface model more accurately represents the
ground. The program masks the original object selected and constructs another object on
the current layer/level.

76 Surface Modeling
The routine starts at the end point and evaluates the next point along the selected item to
calculate the number of points that can be placed based on the user-defined parameters.
If the entity selected is at an elevation such as zero and there are points corresponding to
the vertices of the object, it will mask the lines and points and construct a new 3-D object
that meets the specified parameter you set. The original line is masked to Exclude,
therefore it is not used when a surface model is created.
ï Densifying an object masks the original object as Exclude and creates a new object with
the current color and layer/level. Always densify the original object, never an object
created with this command. To undensify an object, unmask it (or mask it as Include).

ï The Densify option works on a complex arc only when the Arc option is chosen.

Chapter 3: Construct
Figure 3-10 Densify Object Dialog Box

Densify Object Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Line Parameters This group of options allows you to specify how you want a line to be densified.
Densify Lines Toggle this option on if you want to insert additional vertices on any of the lines that are
selected.
Distance Along This option places evenly spaced points at no more than the specified distance.
Number of This option places the exact number of specified segments evenly along the line.
Segments
Maximum This option specifies the greatest change that can occur in elevation before a point will be
Elevation placed along the line.
Change
Arc Parameters This group of options allows you to choose how you want an arc densified.
Densify Arc Toggle this option on if you want to insert additional vertices on any of the arcs that are
selected.
Distance Along This is the maximum distance along the arc between two points. If distance is greater than
specified, a point will be placed.

Chapter 3: Construct 77
Densify Object Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Number of This overrides the other arc options if they produce a number of segments greater than
Segments this number.
Maximum This option specifies the greatest change that can occur in elevation before a point will be
Elevation placed along the arc.
Change
Maximum This is the maximum separation between the chord and the arc segment. If the distance is
Middle Ordinate greater than the specified number, a point will be placed along the arc.

QuickSteps
To densify objects such as lines or arcs, complete the following steps.
1. Select Construct Æ Densify Objects.
This displays the Densify Objects dialog box (Figure 3-10 on page 77).
2. If you want to densify lines, toggle on the Densify Lines option.
This enables all of the options in the Line Parameters frame.
3. Select the desired option for densifying the lines and enter a value in the
corresponding edit field.
4. If you want to densify arcs, toggle on the Densify Arcs option.
This enables all of the options in the Arc parameters frame.
5. Select the desired option for densifying the arcs and enter a value in the
corresponding edit field.
6. Click on Apply.
You are prompted to:
CU\USdð?RZUSdc
7. Graphically select the objects you want densified. When you are done selecting
objects, press the Enter key in AutoCAD/IntelliCAD/Eagle Point Graphics
Engine, or press the Reset button on your mouse in MicroStation.

Weed Objects
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð3?>CDBE3Dð½ýG554ð?2:53DC

KEY-IN COMMAND: gUUT

78 Surface Modeling
The Weed Objects command removes vertices from objects based on user-defined
criteria such as the distance, angle and area formed by three points on the polyline/
complex chain. This decreases the processing time for creating a surface model, but
sacrifices some accuracy. The original lines selected are masked as exclude so they will
not be used when creating a surface model.
ï Weeding an object masks the original object as Exclude and creates a new object on the
same layer/level as the original object. Always weed the original object, never an object
created with this command. To unweed an object, unmask it (or mask it as Include). If an
object is weeded multiple times, only the original object and the last weeded object
remain.

Figure 3-11 Weed Objects Dialog Box

Chapter 3: Construct
Weed Objects Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Minimum Length This eliminates a vertex on the selected polyline(s)/complex chain(s) if two vertices are
closer than the specified length. If the length of a line between vertices is less than the
minimum value specified and a vertex can be eliminated, a line will be inserted between
the previous point and the next point.
Maximum This eliminates a vertex if the exterior angle formed by three consecutive vertices is less
Deflection Angle than the specified angle. If the deflection angle is less than the value entered and a vertex
can be eliminated, a line will be inserted between the previous point and the next point.
Minimum Area The Minimum Area has two functions. The first saves segments that would have been
eliminated by the Maximum Deflection Angle option. The second removes vertices if the
area of the triangle formed by two segments is smaller than the specified area. The
Minimum Area is the value between three vertices along a given line. If the area is less
than the value entered and a vertex can be eliminated, a line is inserted between the
previous point and the next point.

QuickSteps
To weed vertices from objects, complete the following steps.
1. Select Construct Æ Weed Objects.
This displays the Weed Objects dialog box (above).
2. Enter the Minimum Length.
This makes sure that the vertices are not too far apart.

Chapter 3: Construct 79
3. If you want to use the Maximum Deflection Angle, toggle on this option and
enter the desired deflective angle.
4. If you want to use the Maximum Area, toggle on this option and enter the
desired area.
5. Click on Apply.
You are prompted to:
CU\USdð?RZUSdc
6. Graphically select the desired objects to be weeded.
7. When finished selecting objects, press the Enter key in AutoCAD/IntelliCAD/
Eagle Point Graphics Engine or press the Reset button on your pointing device
in MicroStation.

80 Surface Modeling
TRIANGULATE
The Triangulate menu provides access to several
commands that allow you to create a surface model. The
CHAPTER
commands include Triangulate Surface Model,
Triangulate Surface Model from Contours, Triangulate
Surface Model from Sparse Data and Triangulate Merged
Surface Models. Other commands allow you to determine
the elevation for the surface model and the grade of the
surface model between two points. These commands are
Track Coordinates and Calculate Grade and Distance.
In this chapter:
Triangulate Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Triangulate Surface Model from Contours . . . . . . 87
Triangulate Surface Model from Sparse Data . . . . 90
4
Triangulate Merged Surface Models . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Track Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Calculate Grade & Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

Chapter 4: Triangulate 81
Triangulate Surface Model
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ðDB91>7E<1D5ð½ðCEB6135ð=?45<

KEY-IN COMMAND: ]Q[UdY^

ICON:
The Triangulate Surface Model command creates a surface model of selected objects
such as points, lines, arcs, shapes and blocks/cells. Only the objects that reside within the
specified minimum and maximum valid elevation range are used when creating the
surface model.
ï It is often a good idea to place the minimum elevation for the surface model to 1 or higher
so that objects at invalid elevations (i.e., 0) are not used. Placing minimum and maximum
elevations with 5 to 10 units from the valid elevations will limit the possibility of using
invalid objects.

ï If you are creating a surface model from contours it is a good idea to use the Triangulate
Surface Model from Contours command so that flat triangle correction is applied to your
site. For more information, see Creating Surface Models on page 4.

Figure 4-1 Triangulate Surface Model Dialog Box

Triangulate Surface Model Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model Select the name of the surface model that you want to create from the drop list. You can
also click on the Manage Surface Models icon to the right of the drop list to access the
Manage Surface Models dialog box (Figure 2-1 on page 22).
Manage Surface This icon allows you to display the Manage Surface Models dialog box (Figure 2-1 on
Models page 22), so you can add, modify, copy, delete or summarize a surface model.

82 Surface Modeling
Triangulate Surface Model Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Boundary This option allows you to specify if you want to use a boundary. Your options are to not
use a boundary (default), use a predefined boundary or to graphically select a closed
object to define a boundary while creating a surface model.
Void Regions This option allows you to specify if you want to use a void region. Your options are to not
use a void region (default), use a predefined void region or to graphically select closed
objects to define void regions while creating a surface model.
Display Model This option displays the surface model triangles in the CAD graphic as temporary objects
after the surface model is created. As soon as a redraw is performed, the triangles will
disappear.
Use External This option allows you to select an ASCII point file or External Node Database as points to
Point File (s) create the surface model. This allows you to create a surface model from points that are
not in your CAD graphic. You will still be able to select objects that are in your CAD
graphic when creating the surface model.
Build File List This option allows you to keep a list and add new files from which the surface model will
be created. You can select an ASCII point file or an External Node Database.
For more information, see Build File List on page 85.
Display Selected This option provides information on the type of objects selected and how many have been
Objects Details selected for the surface model that you are creating. It will list the number of points used
and where the points came from, either the Graphics, External Node Database or ASCII
file. This report also tells you the minimum and maximum elevations used from each
source and the number of ASCII files that were used to create the surface model.
Place Triangles Toggle this option on if you wish to place the surface model triangles into the CAD graphic
file after the surface model is created.
For more information about the Place Triangles command, see Place Triangles on page
140.
Settings This button allows you to change any of the surface model parameters before you create
the surface model. These settings can also be set when adding a new surface model to

Chapter 4: Triangulate
the manager located under Prepare-Manage Surface Models. These settings affect how
the surface model is created, such as minimum and maximum elevation, point tolerance,
curved breaklines and output.

QuickSteps
To create a surface model, complete the following steps:
1. Select Triangulate Æ Surface Model.
The Triangulate Surface Model dialog box (Figure 4-1 on page 82) displays.
2. Specify an original surface by selecting it from the drop list. If there is no
surface model in the drop list or if you want to modify a surface model in the
list, click on the Manage Surface Models icon. Click on Close when you are
finished in the Manage Surface Models dialog box (Figure 2-1 on page 22).
3. Select the appropriate Boundary option to use. Set the drop list to None to
create a surface model without a boundary, Select to select a closed object

Chapter 4: Triangulate 83
when creating the surface model or Predefined to use a predefined boundary
when creating the surface model.
4. Select the appropriate Void Region option to use. Set the drop list to None to
create a surface model without a void region, Select to select a closed object as
a void region when creating the surface model or Predefined to use a
predefined void region when creating the surface model.
5. To temporarily display the surface model that has been created, toggle on the
Display Model option.
6. To use external points when creating the surface model, toggle on the Use
External Point File(s) option.
7. To display information about the objects that are being used to create the
surface model, toggle on the Display Selected Objects Details option.
8. To place the triangles of the surface model into the CAD graphic file after the
surface model is created, toggle on the Place Triangles option.
9. To change any of the settings for the surface model, click on the Settings
button.
10. Click OK to create the surface model.
A. In AutoCAD/IntelliCAD/Eagle Point Graphics Engine, you are prompted to:
CU\USdð_RZUSdc
Graphically select the desired objects and press the Enter key when you are
finished selecting objects.
B. In MicroStation, you are prompted to:
1SSU`dð6U^SUð3_^dU^dc
Select a data point to accept the fence contents.
You must have a fence placed to create a surface model in MicroStation.
11. If you have set the Boundary option to Select, graphically select the boundary.
In MicroStation, accept the selection of the boundary.
12. If you have set the Void Regions option to Select, graphically select the desired
void regions. Press the Enter key in AutoCAD/IntelliCAD/Eagle Point Graphics
Engine or the reset button on your pointing device in MicroStation when you are
finished selecting void regions.

84 Surface Modeling
Build File List
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ðDB91>7E<1D5ð½ðCEB6135ð=?45<ð½ð2E9<4ð69<5ð<9CD

The Build File List command allows you to keep a list and add new files from which the
surface model will be created. You can select an ASCII point file or an External Node
Database to use to obtain the points from. This list will be saved for each surface model.
ï You will still be prompted to select objects when creating the surface model. This allows
you to select objects in the CAD graphic as well as use ASCII files and an External Node
Database for your points. If you do not wish to use any objects from the CAD graphic
press the Enter key in AutoCAD/IntelliCAD/Eagle Point Graphics Engine or the Reset
button on your pointing device in MicroStation.

Figure 4-2 Build File List Dialog Box

Build File List Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function

Chapter 4: Triangulate
File Name This displays the path and name of the file that will be used as the External Point file when
creating a surface model.
Format This displays the format of the file type that is listed. This will either be END for External
Node Database or ASCII for ASCII Point file.
New External This allows you to add an External Point file to the list. You are able to add an External
File Node Database or an ASCII Point file. For more information, see New External File on
page 86.
Delete External This option removes the External Point file from the list. It does not remove the external
File file from your drive. It only removes it from the list so it is not used when using the External
Points option in the Triangulate Surface Model, Triangulate Surface Model from Contours
or Triangulate Surface Model from Sparse Data commands.

Chapter 4: Triangulate 85
New External File
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ðDB91>7E<1D5ð½ðCEB6135ð=?45<ð½ð2E9<4ð69<5ð<9CDð½ð>5G

The New External File command allows you to add an External Point file to the list. You
are able to add an External Node Database or an ASCII Point file.
ï This file will only be used if the Use External Point File(s) option in Triangulate Surface
Model, Triangulate Surface Model from Contours or Triangulate Surface Model from
Sparse Data is set to on.

Figure 4-3 New External File Dialog Box

New External File Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Use Nodes This option allows you to use an External Node Database as the external point file.
Database
Use ASCII Point This option allows you to use an ASCII Point file as the external point file. When this
File option is selected, you need to provide the path and file name that you would like to use,
as well as the format of the file.
File Name Type the file name to be added to the list of external files to triangulate or browse for the
desired file using the Select File icon. This is active only if the Use ASCII Point File radio
button is turned on.
Format This allows you to set the format for the external point file. The available options you can
choose from are: Point #,Northing,Easting,Elevation,Description or X,Y,Z,Description;
Point #,Northing,Easting,Elevation,Line Indicator or X,Y,Z,Line Indicator.
Format Example This displays what the file should look like for the format that is selected in the Format
drop list.
Selected File This displays the first two lines of the ASCII file that is selected. This allows you to
determine if the file is in the format that is specified.

86 Surface Modeling
Triangulate Surface Model from Contours
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ðDB91>7E<1D5ð½ðCEB6135ð=?45<ð6B?=ð3?>D?EBC

KEY-IN COMMAND: ]Q[UdY^VS

ICON:
The Triangulate Surface Model from Contours command optimizes creating surface
models from contour maps. The command provides a more reliable means of fixing flat
triangles created in elbow-like contours. Intersection points are calculated down the elbow
and the elevations are interpolated for these points.
ï When creating a surface model from contours, the program runs a check for flat triangles.
The flat triangle correction prevents the system from making triangles whose vertices
have the same elevation.
For more information see Creating Surface Models from Contours on page 5.

Chapter 4: Triangulate
Figure 4-4 Triangulate Surface Model from Contours Dialog Box

Triangulate Surface Model from Contours Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model Select the name of the surface model that you want to create from the drop list. You can
also click on the Manage Surface Models icon to the right of the drop list to access the
Manage Surface Models dialog box (Figure 2-1 on page 22).
Manage Surface This icon allows you to display the Manage Surface Models dialog box (Figure 2-1 on
Models page 22), so you can add, modify, copy, delete or summarize a surface model.
Boundary This option allows you to specify if you want to use a boundary. Your options are to not
use a boundary (default), use a predefined boundary or graphically select a closed object
to define a boundary while creating a surface model.

Chapter 4: Triangulate 87
Triangulate Surface Model from Contours Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Void Regions This option allows you to specify if you want to use a void region. Your options are to not
use a void region (default), use a predefined void region or graphically select closed
objects to define void regions while creating a surface model.
Display Model This option displays the surface model triangles in the CAD graphic as temporary objects
after the surface model is created. As soon as a redraw is performed, the triangles will
disappear.
Use External This option allows you to select an ASCII point file or External Node Database as points to
Point File(s) create the surface model. This allows you to create a surface model from points that are
not in your CAD graphic. You will still be able to select objects that are in your CAD
graphic when creating the surface model.
Build File List This option allows you to keep a list and add new files from which the surface model will
be created. You can select an ASCII point file or an External Node Database.
For more information, see Build File List on page 85.
Display Selected This option provides information on the type of objects selected and how many have been
Objects Details selected for the surface model that you are creating. It will list the number of points used
and where the points came from, either the Graphics, External Node Database or ASCII
point file. This report also tells you the minimum and maximum elevations used from each
source and the number of ASCII point files that were used to create the surface model.
Place Triangles Toggle this option on if you wish to place the surface model triangles into the CAD graphic
file after the surface model is created.
For more information about the Place Triangles command, see Place Triangles on page
140.
Settings This allows you to change any of the surface model parameters before you create the
surface model. These settings can also be set when adding a new surface model to the
manager located under Prepare-Manage Surface Models. These settings affect how the
surface model is created, such as minimum and maximum elevation, point tolerance,
curved breaklines and output.

QuickSteps
To create a surface model from contours, complete the following steps:
1. Select Triangulate Æ Surface Model from Contours.
The Triangulate Surface Model from Contours dialog box (Figure 4-4 on page 87)
displays.
2. Specify an original surface by selecting it from the drop list.
If there is no surface model in the drop list or if you want to modify a surface model in
the list, click on the Manage Surface Models icon.
3. Click Close in the Manage Surface Models dialog box (Figure 2-1 on page 22)
when you are finished selecting the surface model.
4. Select the appropriate Boundary option to use. Set the drop list to None to
create a surface model without a boundary, Select to select a closed object

88 Surface Modeling
when creating the surface model or Predefined to use a predefined boundary
when creating the surface model.
5. Select the appropriate Void Region option to use. Set the drop list to None to
create a surface model without a void region, Select to select a closed object as
a void region when creating the surface model, or Predefined to use a
predefined void region when creating the surface model.
6. To display the surface model that has been created, toggle on the Display Model
option.
7. To use external points when creating the surface model, toggle on the Use
External Point File(s) option.
8. To display information about the objects that are being used to create the
surface model, toggle on the Display Selected Object’s Details option.
9. To place the triangles of the surface model into the CAD graphic file after the
surface model is created, toggle on the Place Triangles option.
10. To change any of the settings for the surface model, click on the Settings
button.
11. Click on Apply to create the surface model.
A. In AutoCAD/IntelliCAD/Eagle Point Graphics Engine, you are prompted to:
CU\USdð_RZUSdcâ
Graphically select the desired objects and press the Enter key when you are
finished selecting objects.
B. In MicroStation, you are prompted to:
1SSU`dðVU^SUðS_^dU^dcâ

Chapter 4: Triangulate
Select a data point to accept the fence contents.
You must have a fence placed to create a surface model in MicroStation.
12. If you have set the Boundary option to Select, graphically select the boundary.
In MicroStation, accept the selection of the boundary.
13. If you have set the Void Regions option to Select, graphically select the desired
void regions. Press the Enter key in AutoCAD/IntelliCAD/Eagle Point Graphics
Engine or the Reset button on your pointing device in MicroStation when you
are finished selecting void regions.

Chapter 4: Triangulate 89
Triangulate Surface Model from Sparse Data
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ðDB91>7E<1D5ð½ðCEB6135ð=?45<ð6B?=ðC@1BC5ð41D1

KEY-IN COMMAND: ]Q[UdY^Vc


The Triangulate Surface Model from Sparse Data command should be used when there
are large areas between points on your site. This command creates a surface model from
the selected objects, creates a grid of that surface model and then recreates the surface
model from the grid. By creating a surface model from the grid, you will be “filling” in the
area between the points and obtaining a more natural appearance.
For more information, see Creating Surface Models from Sparse Data on page 8.

Figure 4-5 Triangulate Surface Model from Sparse Data Dialog Box

Triangulate Surface Model from Sparse Data Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model Select the name of the surface model that you want to create from the drop list. You can
also click on the Manage Surface Models icon to the right of the drop list to access the
Manage Surface Models dialog box (Figure 2-1 on page 22).
Manage Surface This icon allows you to display the Manage Surface Models dialog box (Figure 2-1 on
Models page 22), so you can add, modify, copy, delete or summarize a surface model.
Boundary This option allows you to specify if you want to use a boundary. Your options are to not
use a boundary (default), use a predefined boundary or to graphically select a closed
object to define a boundary while creating a surface model.

90 Surface Modeling
Triangulate Surface Model from Sparse Data Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Void Regions This option allows you to specify if you want to use a void region. Your options are to not
use a void region (default), use a predefined void region or to graphically select closed
objects to define void regions while creating a surface model.
Display Model This option displays the surface model triangles into the CAD graphic as temporary
objects after the surface model is created. As soon as a redraw is performed, the triangles
will disappear.
Use External This option allows you to select an ASCII point file or External Node Database as points to
Point File(s) create the surface model. This allows you to create a surface model from points that are
not in your CAD graphic. You will still be able to select objects that are in your CAD
graphic when creating the surface model.
Build File List This option allows you to keep a list and add new files from which the surface model will
be created. You can select an ASCII point file or an External Node Database.
For more information, see Build File List on page 85.
Display Selected This option provides information on the type of objects selected and how many have been
Objects Details selected for the surface model that you are creating. It will list the number of points used
and where the points came from, either the Graphics, External Node Database or ASCII
file. This report also tells you the minimum and maximum elevations used from each
source and the number of ASCII point files that were used to create the surface model.
Place Triangles Toggle this option on if you wish to place the surface model triangles into the CAD graphic
file after the surface model is created.
For more information about the Place Triangles command, see Place Triangles on page
140.
Settings This option allows you to change any of the surface model parameters before you create
the surface model. These settings can also be set when adding a new surface model to
the manager located under Prepare-Manage Surface Models. These settings affect how
the surface model is created, such as minimum and maximum elevations, point tolerance,
curved breaklines and output.

Chapter 4: Triangulate
X Interval This is the width (X-direction) of the grid square.
Y Interval This is the height (Y-direction) of the grid square.
Smoothing This is the amount of smoothing used for the grid. The lower the number, the less smooth
Factor the grid will be.
Display Grid This option allows you to temporarily display the grid that was used to create the surface
model. As soon as a redraw is performed, the grid squares will disappear.

QuickSteps
To create a surface model from sparse data, complete the following steps:
1. Select Triangulate Æ Surface Model from Sparse Data.
The Triangulate Surface Model from Sparse Data dialog box (Figure 4-5 on page 90)
displays.
2. Specify an original surface by selecting it from the drop list. If there is no
surface model in the drop list or you want to modify a surface model in the list,

Chapter 4: Triangulate 91
click on the Manage Surface Models icon. Click on Close in the Manage Surface
Models dialog box (Figure 2-1 on page 22) when you are done selecting a
surface model.
3. Select the appropriate Boundary option to use. Set the drop list to None to
create a surface model without a boundary, Select to select a closed object
when creating the surface model or Predefined to use a predefined boundary
when creating the surface model.
4. Select the appropriate Void Region option to use. Set the drop list to None to
create a surface model without a void region, Select to select a closed object as
a void region when creating the surface model or Predefined to use a
predefined void region when creating the surface model.
5. To display the surface model that has been created, toggle on the Display Model
option.
6. To use external points when creating the surface model, toggle on the Use
External Point File(s) option.
7. To display information about the objects that are being used to create the
surface model, toggle on the Display Selected Object’s Details option.
8. To place the triangles of the surface model into the CAD graphic file after the
surface model is created, toggle on the Place Triangles option.
9. To change any of the settings for the surface model, click on the Settings
button.
10. Type the X-Interval for the surface model grid in the edit field.
11. Type the Y-Interval for the surface model grid in the edit field.
12. To use a smoothing factor for the grid, toggle on the Smoothing Factor option
and type the smoothing factor in the edit field.
13. To temporarily display the grid, toggle on the Display Grid option.
14. Click on OK to create the surface model.
A. In AutoCAD/IntelliCAD/Eagle Point Graphics Engine, you are prompted to:
CU\USdð_RZUSdcâ
Graphically select the desired objects and press the Enter key when you are
finished selecting objects.
B. In MicroStation, you are prompted to:
1SSU`dðVU^SUðS_^dU^dcâ
You must have a fence placed to create a surface model in MicroStation.
15. If you set the boundary option to Select, graphically select the boundary. In
MicroStation, accept the selection of the boundary.

92 Surface Modeling
16. If you have set the Void Regions option to Select, graphically select the desired
void regions.
17. Press the Enter key in AutoCAD/IntelliCAD/Eagle Point Graphics Engine or the
Reset button on your pointing device in MicroStation when you are finished
selecting void regions.

Triangulate Merged Surface Models


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ðDB91>7E<1D5ð½ð=5B754ðCEB6135ð=?45<C

KEY-IN COMMAND: ]UbWUc]

ICON:
The Triangulate Merged Surface Models command joins an original and one or more final
surface models into a composite surface model that represents the final site. You may
merge a single final model onto the original surface or you may merge multiple final
models on to the original surface. The final model(s) may be completely inside of the
original model or completely separate.

Chapter 4: Triangulate
Figure 4-6 Triangulate Merged Surface Models Dialog Box

Triangulate Merged Surface Models Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Original Surface This model represents the base surface model. Select the desired surface model from the
drop list. If you want to use an original surface model from another project, select the All
Surface Models icon next to the drop list.
Final Surface This model is the surface that you want merged to the original surface. Select the desired
surface model from the drop list. If you want to use a final surface model from another
project, select the All Surface Models icon next to the drop list.

Chapter 4: Triangulate 93
Triangulate Merged Surface Models Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Merged Surface This model is the joining of the two or more surface models into a composite surface
model that represents the final site. Select the desired surface model from the drop list. If
you want to create a new surface model to display in the drop list or to modify the
parameters for the surface model in the drop list, click on the Manage Surface Models
icon next to the drop list.
Merge Options These options determine how the final surface model is merged onto the original surface
model. The two options you can choose from are Single and Multiple.
´ Single: This option merges a single final surface model onto the original surface
model. The final model can be contained within the original surface model,
overlapping it or completely outside of it.
´ Multiple: This option merges more than one final surface model to the original
model. The surface models will be merged to the original surface model in the
order that they are selected. To select which surface models will be merged to
the original surface model, click on the Multiple Models button. The final model
can be contained within the original surface model, overlapping it or completely
outside of it.
For more information, see Multiple Final Surface Models on page 95.
User-Defined This option allows you to specify an area that you want the merged surface model to be
Boundary restricted to. The merged surface model will be confined by the user-defined boundary. If
you want to merge the entire final surface model to the original surface model, you do not
need to use this option.
Display Model This option displays the surface model triangles in the CAD graphic as temporary objects
after the surface model is created. As soon as a redraw is performed, the triangles will
disappear.

QuickSteps
To merge a surface model to another surface model, complete the following steps:
1. Select Triangulate Æ Merged Surface Model.
This displays the Triangulate Merge Surface Models dialog box (Figure 4-6 on page
93).
The Merged Surface Models command requires two existing surface models (one
representing original and one representing final ground) to be specified.
2. Specify an original surface by selecting it from the drop list. If the original
surface model resides in a different project than the one that you are working in,
click on the All Surface Models icon next to the drop list.
3. Specify a final surface by selecting it from the drop list. If the final surface
model resides in a different project than the one that you are working in, click
on the All Surface Models icon next to the drop list.
4. Specify the merged surface by selecting it from the drop list.

94 Surface Modeling
If the merged surface model does not exist in the drop list or if you want to modify
some of its parameters, click on the Manage Surface Models icon to the right of the
drop list.
5. Select the type of merging you want to do: Single or Multiple.
If you selected the Multiple Models option, ææ=E<D9@<5ææðdisplays in the Final
Surface field and the Multiple Models button will be enabled. To select the multiple
final surfaces to be merged, click on the Multiple Models button and select the desired
surface models.
6. If you want the merged model to be restricted to be within a boundary, toggle on
the User-Defined Boundary option.
7. If you want the merged triangles for the model to be displayed temporarily,
toggle on the Display Model option.
8. Click on OK to create the merged surface model.
9. If you toggled on the User-Defined Boundary option, graphically select the
boundary. In MicroStation, accept the selection of the boundary.
Surface Modeling creates the merged surface model.

Multiple Final Surface Models


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ðDB91>7E<1D5ð½ý=5B754ðCEB6135ð=?45<Cð½ð=E<D9@<5ð=?45<C

The Multiple Final Surface Models command allows you to select multiple final surface
models that will be merged to the original surface model. This is beneficial if you have

Chapter 4: Triangulate
multiple small sites that you want to merge to the original ground surface model to develop
a proposed surface model for.
ï The order that the surface models are set in the list is the order that they will be merged to
the original surface model.

Figure 4-7 Multiple Final Surface Models Dialog Box

Chapter 4: Triangulate 95
Multiple Final Surface Models Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Ordered Final This list displays the order of how the final surface models will be merged to the original
Surfaces surface model.
Move Final This option moves the highlighted surface model in the Ordered Final Surfaces list box up
Surface Up in the list.
Move Final This option moves the highlighted surface model in the Ordered Final Surfaces list box
Surface Down down in the list.
Add Final This option adds the surface model that is highlighted in the Available Surfaces list box to
Surface the Ordered Final Surfaces list box. As soon as you add a surface model, it will be
removed from the Available Surfaces list box and placed in the Ordered Final Surfaces list
box at the bottom of the list.
Remove Final This option removes the surface model that is highlighted in the Ordered Final Surfaces
Surface list box. As soon as you remove a surface model, it will be removed from the Ordered
Final Surfaces list box and added to the Available Surfaces list box in its correct location.
Available This option lists all of the surface models for the project. These are all of the surface
Surfaces models that you can choose from to merge to the original surface model.
All Surface This icon allows you to select a surface model from a different project to be used as a final
Models surface model.

Track Coordinates
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ðDB91>7E<1D5ð½ðDB13;ð3??B49>1D5C

KEY-IN COMMAND: c]dbQS[

ICON:
The Track Coordinates command displays the Northing (Y), Easting (X) and Elevation (Z)
coordinates for the surface model selected in the drop list. These are the coordinates of
the cross hairs as they are moved across the screen. If your cursor is no longer on the
surface model displayed in the drop list, the elevation value will no longer be displayed.

Figure 4-8 Track Coordinates Dialog Box

96 Surface Modeling
Track Coordinates Dialog Box Definition
Option Function
Surface Model Select the name of the surface model that you want to track coordinates for. This displays
all of the surface models for the current project. If you want to track coordinates for a
surface model in a different project, select the All Surface Models icon next to the surface
model drop list.

Calculate Grade & Distance


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ðDB91>7E<1D5ð½ð31<3E<1D5ð7B145ðêð49CD1>35

KEY-IN COMMAND: c]SQ\SWbQTU


The Calculate Grade & Distance command allows you to determine the grade and
distance between two points based on a surface model. The elevations are obtained from
the surface model, not the object that is selected.
ï If one or both of the selected points are not inside the surface model or in a void region, an
elevation for the point cannot be calculated. Therefore, the grade also cannot be
calculated.

Chapter 4: Triangulate
Figure 4-9 Calculate Grade & Distance Dialog Box

Calculate Grade & Distance Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model Select the name of the surface model that you want to track coordinates for. This displays
all of the surface models for the current project. If you want to calculate the grade and
distance for a surface model in a different project, select the All Surface Models icon next
to surface model drop list.
PIC This allows you to graphically select the Node ID of the Northing and Easting coordinates
from the CAD graphic.

Chapter 4: Triangulate 97
Calculate Grade & Distance Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
From Point This option allows you to select the location of the point that you want to calculate the
grade from. You can either select a Node or point in the CAD graphic using the PIC button
or type in the Northing and Easting coordinates of the point.
To point This option allows you to select the location of the point that you want to calculate the
grade to. You can either select a Node or point in the CAD graphic using the PIC button or
type in the Northing and Easting coordinates of the point.
Grade This is calculated when Apply is clicked on. This is displayed according to the display
option that is selected in the drop list. The available display options for the grade are:%
slope, H/V (Horizontal/Vertical), V/H (Vertical/Horizontal) and Unit/Unit.
Distance This is calculated when Apply is clicked. This is the horizontal distance between the From
Point and the To Point.

98 Surface Modeling
EDIT MODEL
The Edit Model menu provides access to several
commands that allow you to manipulate a surface model
CHAPTER
once it has been created. The commands include Delete
Triangle, Change Point Elevation, Change Triangle
Elevation, Add Point to Surface Model, Insert Breakline
and Switch Diagonal.
In this chapter:
Delete Triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Change Point Elevation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Change Triangle Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Add Point to Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Insert Breakline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
5
Switch Diagonal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Raise/Lower Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

Chapter 5: Edit Model 99


Delete Triangle
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð549Dð=?45<ý½ý45<5D5ðDB91>7<5

KEY-IN COMMAND: TU\dbY


The Delete Triangle command is used to develop void areas by deleting triangles that
were developed inside of the proposed region. If the deleted triangle is on the outside of
the surface model, a boundary region is created. Deleting a triangle modifies the surface
model data file and updates the contours (if referenced).
ï The surface model triangles must be placed into your CAD graphic before you can edit the
surface model.

Figure 5-1 Delete Triangle Dialog Box

Delete Triangle Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model Select a surface model from the current project for which you wish to delete a triangle.
Reference Toggle this on if you want to display the contours for the surface model. The contours will
Contours be updated as the triangle is deleted from the surface model. The available contour
options that you can select from are Preview, Shadow, Intermediate & Index,
Intermediate, Index or User-Defined.
Parameters This controls how the contours will be placed into the CAD graphic. This is available when
the reference contour option is toggled on and the drop list is set to anything except
Preview Contours.
Place Triangles This places the triangles into the CAD graphic so you can delete a triangle from them.
For more information about the Place Triangles command, see Place Triangles on page
140.

QuickSteps
To delete a triangle from a surface model, complete the following steps:
1. Select Edit Model Æ Delete Triangle.
This displays the Delete Triangle dialog box (above).

100 Surface Modeling


2. Select the surface model to use from the drop list.
If the surface model data files do not exist, the following error message displays:
1ðcebVQSUð]_TU\ð]ecdðRUðSbUQdUTðVYbcdâ
3. Toggle on the Reference Contours option if you want to display your contours.
Set the drop list to the type of contours you want to display.
4. If you choose a reference contour type other than Preview, you may click on the
Parameters button to change any of the parameters for the contours.
5. Click on the Place Triangles button if you have not already placed the triangles
in your CAD graphic.
6. Click on Apply when you are ready to start deleting triangles from the surface
model.
You are prompted to select a point inside the triangle you want to delete.
7. Graphically select a point inside the triangle that you want to delete.
Your surface model data files and contours (if referenced) are updated.

Change Point Elevation


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð549Dð=?45<ð½ð381>75ð@?9>Dð5<5F1D9?>

KEY-IN COMMAND: `_Y^dU\Uf


The Change Point Elevation command is used to change the elevation of a given point on
a surface model and modify the slopes of the adjoining triangles. You can change the
elevation of a point either to an absolute elevation (i.e., 700 ft) or by a relative distance
(i.e., -20 ft). Pick the triangle vertex you wish to change the elevation of by selecting a
point in CAD near the vertex. After changing the elevation of a point the surface model
data file and referenced contours are updated.

Chapter 5: Edit Model

Chapter 5: Edit Model 101


ï The surface model triangles must be placed into your CAD graphic before you can edit the
surface model.

Figure 5-2 Change Point Elevation Dialog Box

Change Point Elevation Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model Select the surface model for which you wish to change the point elevation of a triangle.
Relative This option allows you to change the elevation of the point relative to its current elevation.
Elevation If you want to move the point up, enter a positive value. If you want to move the point
down, enter a negative value.
Absolute This option allows you to change the elevation of the point to a new elevation. The point is
Elevation moved to the elevation that is entered.
Reference Toggle this on if you want to display the contours for the surface model. The contours will
Contours be updated as the point elevation of a triangle is changed for the surface model. The
available contour options that you can select from are Preview, Shadow, Intermediate &
Index, Intermediate, Index or User-Defined.
Parameters This controls how the contours will be placed into the CAD graphic. This is available when
the reference contour option is toggled on and the drop list is set to anything except
Preview Contours.
Place Triangles This places the triangles into the CAD graphic so you can change the elevation of a point.
For more information on the Place Triangles command, see Place Triangles on page 140.

QuickSteps
To change the elevation of a point in the surface model, complete the following steps:
1. Select Edit Model Æ Change Point Elevation.
This displays the Change Point Elevation dialog box (above).
2. Select the surface model to use from the drop list.
If the surface model data files do not exist, the following error message displays:
1ðcebVQSUð]_TU\ð]ecdðRUðSbUQdUTðVYbcdâ
3. Set the option for how you want to change the elevation of the point. You can
either change the point by a relative elevation or change it to an absolute
elevation.

102 Surface Modeling


4. Toggle on the Reference Contours option if you want to display your contours.
Set the drop list to the type of contours that you want to display.
5. If you choose a reference contours type other than Preview, you may click on
the Parameters button to change any of the parameters for the contours.
6. Click on the Place Triangles button if you have not already placed the triangles
in your CAD graphic.
7. Click on Apply when you are ready to start changing the point elevations of the
triangles from the surface model.
You are prompted to select a point near the triangle vertex for which you want to
change the elevation.
8. Graphically select the corner point of a triangle for which you wish to change
the elevation.
Your surface model data files and contours (if referenced) are updated.

Change Triangle Elevation


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð549Dð=?45<ð½ð381>75ðDB91>7<5ð5<5F1D9?>

KEY-IN COMMAND: dbYU\Uf


The Change Triangle Elevation command is used to change the elevation of one or more
triangles. If you choose the Relative elevation option, the triangle you pick will have each
of its vertices raised by the amount specified. If the Elevation option is set to Absolute,
each of the vertices of the triangle you pick will be raised to the exact elevation specified.
This results in a flat triangle. The command modifies the slopes of the adjacent triangles in
order to raise or lower the triangle vertices. Changing the elevation of a triangle modifies
the surface model data file and updates the contours (if referenced).
ï The surface model triangles must be placed into your CAD graphic before you can edit the
surface model.

Chapter 5: Edit Model

Figure 5-3 Change Triangle Elevation Dialog Box

Chapter 5: Edit Model 103


Change Triangle Elevation Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Surface Model This drop list allows you to select the surface model for which you want to change the
elevation of a triangle.
Elevation This allows you to change the elevation of the triangle. You may change it relative to its
current elevation or change its absolute elevation.
Relative: This option allows you to change the elevation of the triangle relative to its
current elevation. If you want to move the triangle up, enter a positive value. If you want to
move the triangle down, enter a negative value.
Absolute: This option allows you to change the elevation of the triangle to a new elevation.
The triangle is moved to the elevation that is entered.
Reference Toggle this on if you want to display the contours for the surface model. The contours will
Contours be updated as the triangle is modified. The available contour options that you can select
from are Preview, Shadow, Intermediate & Index, Intermediate, Index or User-Defined.
Parameters This controls how the contours will be placed into the CAD graphic. This is available when
the reference contours option is toggled on and the drop list is set to anything except
Preview Contours.
Place Triangles This places the triangles into the CAD graphic so you can change the elevation of a
triangle.
For more information about the Place Triangles command, see Place Triangles on page
140.

QuickSteps
To change the elevation of a triangle, complete the following steps:
1. Select Edit Model Æ Change Triangle Elevation.
This displays the Change Triangle Elevation dialog box (Figure 5-3 on page 103).
2. Select the surface model to use from the drop list.
If the surface model data files do not exist, the following error message displays:
1ðcebVQSUð]_TU\ð]ecdðRUðSbUQdUTðVYbcdâ
3. Set the option for how you want to change the elevation of the triangle. You can
either change the triangle by a relative elevation or change it to an absolute
elevation.
4. Toggle on the Reference Contours option if you want to display your contours.
Set the drop list to the type of contours that you want to display.
5. If you choose a reference contours type other than Preview, you may click on
the Parameters button to change any of the parameters for the contours.
6. Click on the Place Triangles button if you have not already placed the triangles
in your CAD graphic.
7. Click on Apply when you are ready to start changing the triangle elevations.

104 Surface Modeling


You are prompted to select a point inside the triangle for which you want to change the
elevation.
8. Graphically select a point inside the triangle for which you want to change the
elevation.
Your surface model data files and contours (if referenced) are updated.

Add Point to Surface Model


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð549Dð=?45<ð½ð144ð@?9>DðD?ðCEB6135ð=?45<

KEY-IN COMMAND: QTT`_Y^d


The Add Point to Surface Model command allows you to add points into an existing
surface model without remaking the surface model. This modifies the surface model data
file and updates the contours (if referenced).
ï The surface model triangles must be placed into your CAD graphic before you can edit the
surface model.

Figure 5-4 Add Point to Surface Model Dialog Box

Add Point to Surface Model Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model Select a surface model for which you want to add a point. Chapter 5: Edit Model
PIC This allows you to graphically select the point that you want to add to the surface model.
Northing This is the Northing (Y) coordinate for the point that you want to add to the surface model.
You can either type in the coordinate or select it graphically.
Easting This is the Easting (X) coordinate for the point that you want to add to the surface model.
You can either type in the coordinate or select it graphically.
Elevation This is the Elevation (Z) coordinate for the point that you want to add to the surface model.

Chapter 5: Edit Model 105


Add Point to Surface Model Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Reference Toggle this on if you want to display the contours for the surface model. The contours are
Contours updated as the point is added to the surface model. The available contour options that you
can select from are Preview, Shadow, Intermediate & Index, Intermediate, Index or User-
Defined.
Parameters This controls how the contours will be placed into the CAD graphic. This is available when
the reference contours option is toggled on and the drop list is set to anything except
Preview Contours.
Place Triangles This places the triangles into the CAD graphic so you can add a point to the surface
model.
For more information about the Place Triangles command, see Place Triangles on page
140.

QuickSteps
To add a point to the surface model, complete the following steps:
1. Select Edit Model Æ Add Point to Surface Model.
The Add Point to Surface Model dialog box (Figure 5-4 on page 105) displays.
2. Select the surface model to use from the drop list.
If the surface model data files do not exist, the following error message displays:
1ðcebVQSUð]_TU\ð]ecdðRUðSbUQdUTðVYbcdâ
3. Graphically select the location for the point to be added to the model using the
PIC button or enter the Northing and Easting coordinates.
4. Enter the Elevation for the point.
5. Toggle on the Reference Contours option if you want to display your contours.
Set the drop list to the type of contours that you want to display.
6. If you choose a reference contours type other than Preview, you may click on
the Parameters button to change any of the parameters for the contours.
7. Click on the Place Triangles button if you have not already placed the triangle in
your CAD graphic.
8. Click on Apply to add the point to the surface model.
You are prompted to:
CU\USdðdXUð\_SQdY_^ð_VðdXUð`_Y^dðd_ðRUðQTTUTðd_ðdXUðcebVQSUð]_TU\â
9. Graphically select the location of the point to be added to the surface model.
Your surface model data files and contours (if referenced) are updated.

106 Surface Modeling


Insert Breakline
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð549Dð=?45<ð½ð9>C5BDð2B51;<9>5

KEY-IN COMMAND: Y^cUbdR\


The Insert Breakline command allows you to select two points that you want used as a
breakline in the surface model. This modifies the surface model data file and updates the
contours (if referenced).
ï The surface model triangles must be placed into your CAD graphic before you can edit the
surface model.

Figure 5-5 Insert Breakline Dialog Box

Insert Breakline Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model Select the surface model for which you wish to insert a breakline.
Reference Toggle this on if you want to display the contours for the surface model. These will be
Contours updated as the breakline is added to the surface model. The available contour options
that you can select from are Preview, Shadow, Intermediate & Index, Intermediate, Index
or User-Defined.
Parameters This controls how the contours will be placed into the CAD graphic. This is available when
the reference contours option is toggled on and the drop list is set to anything except
Preview Contours.
Place Triangles This places the triangles into the CAD graphic so you can insert a breakline into the
surface model.
For more information about the Place Triangles command, see Place Triangles on page
140.
Chapter 5: Edit Model

QuickSteps
To insert a breakline into the surface model, complete the following steps:
1. Select Edit Model Æ Insert Breakline.
This displays the Insert Breakline dialog box (above).

Chapter 5: Edit Model 107


2. Select the surface model to use from the drop list.
If the surface model data files do not exist, the following error message displays:
1ðcebVQSUð]_TU\ð]ecdðRUðSbUQdUTðVYbcdâ
3. Toggle on the Reference Contours option if you want to display your contours.
Set the drop list to the type of contours that you want to display.
4. If you choose a reference contour type other than Preview, you may click on the
Parameters button to change any of the parameters for the contours.
5. Click on the Place Triangles button if you have not already placed the triangles
in your CAD graphic.
6. Click on Apply to insert the breakline into the surface model.
You are prompted to:
9TU^dYViðcdQbdð`_Y^dðV_bðRbUQ[\Y^Uâ
7. Graphically select the starting point of the breakline.
You are prompted to:
9TU^dYViðU^Tð`_Y^dðV_bðRbUQ[\Y^Uâ
8. Graphically select the ending point of the breakline.
Your surface model data files and contours (if referenced) are updated.

Switch Diagonal
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð549Dð=?45<ð½ðCG9D38ð4917?>1<

KEY-IN COMMAND: cgYdSXTYQW


The Switch Diagonal command is used to restructure the way the two adjoining surface
model triangles were created. You can switch the leg of an internal triangle by graphically
selecting a point inside the triangle. This modifies the surface model data file and updates
the contours (if referenced).
For more information, see Editing the Surface Model on page 17.

108 Surface Modeling


ï The surface model triangles must be placed into your CAD graphic before you can edit the
surface model.

Figure 5-6 Switch Diagonal Dialog Box

Switch Diagonal Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model This drop list allows you to select the surface model for which you wish to switch the
diagonal.
Reference Toggle this on if you want to display the contours for the surface model. The contours will
Contours be updated as the diagonal of the triangle is switched in the surface model. The available
contour options that you can select from are Preview, Shadow, Intermediate & Index,
Intermediate, Index or User-Defined.
Parameters This controls how the contours will be placed into the CAD graphic. This is available when
the reference contours option is toggled on and the drop list is set to anything except
Preview Contours.
Place Triangles This places the triangles into the CAD graphic so you can switch the diagonal of them.
For more information about the Place Triangles command, see Place Triangles on page
140.

QuickSteps
To switch the diagonal of a triangle, complete the following steps:
1. Select Edit Model Æ Switch Diagonal.
This displays the Switch Diagonal dialog box (above).
2. Select the surface model to use from the drop list.
If the surface model data files do not exist, the following error message displays:
1ðcebVQSUð]_TU\ð]ecdðRUðSbUQdUTðVYbcdâ Chapter 5: Edit Model

3. Toggle on the Reference Contours option if you want to display your contours.
Set the drop list to the type of contours that you want to display.
4. If you choose a reference contours type other than Preview, you may click on
the Parameters button to change any of the parameters for the contours.
5. Click on the Place Triangles button if you have not already placed the triangles
in your CAD graphic.

Chapter 5: Edit Model 109


6. Click on Apply when you are ready to start switching diagonals of triangles in
the surface model.
You are prompted to select a point near the diagonal you want to switch.
7. Graphically select a point near the diagonal line that you want to switch.
Your surface model data files and contours (if referenced) are updated.

Raise/Lower Surface Model


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð549Dð=?45<ð½ðB19C5á<?G5BðCEB6135ð=?45<

KEY-IN COMMAND: bQYcU]_TU\


This command can be used to raise or lower an entire surface model by specifying a
displacement elevation. Set the Surface Model droplist to the model name you wish to edit
and enter a positive Displacement Elevation to raise the model or a negative
Displacement Elevation to lower the model. Clicking on OK overwrites the model
specified. The original objects used to make the surface model are unaffected.

Figure 5-7 Raise/Lower Surface Model Dialog Box

Raise/Lower Surface Model Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model Specify the surface model you wish to raise or lower. This lists all of the surface models
in the current project.
Displacement Enter the relative elevation change for the surface model to modify. Enter a positive
Elevation number to raise the elevations of the surface model. Enter a negative number to lower
the elevations of the surface model.

110 Surface Modeling


CONTOURS
The Contours menu provides access to several
commands that allow you to display contours for a
CHAPTER
surface model. The commands include Preview
Contours, Make Shadow Contours, Make Intermediate
and Index Contours, Make Index Contours, Make
Intermediate Contours and Make User-Defined Contours.
You can also annotate the contours that have been
placed into your CAD graphic.
In this chapter:
Preview Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Make Shadow Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Make Intermediate & Index Contours . . . . . . . . . 115
6
Make Index Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Make Intermediate Contours. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Make User-Defined Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Annotate Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

Chapter 6: Contours 111


Preview Contours
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð3?>D?EBCð½ð@B5F95G

KEY-IN COMMAND: `bUfS_^d

ICON:
The Preview Contours command allows you to see the contours without having CAD
loaded. These contours are generated in an OpenGL preview window. You can preview
the contours for any surface model that has been created.
By being able to preview the contours without a CAD package, you can determine if the
contours of the site are acceptable before going back to the office. If you have noticed that
you need to collect more survey data for the site, you can do so while you are still at the
job site.
The preview dialog box allows you to pan, zoom and rotate your view orientation on the
contours.
For more information on the viewing the contours, refer to Preview Object in the Eagle
Point Menu manual.
For more information on smoothing contours, refer to Smoothing Factor on page 11 and
Polynomial Factor on page 16.

Figure 6-1 Preview Contours Dialog Box

112 Surface Modeling


Preview Contours Dialog Box Definition

Chapter 6: Contours
Option Function
View Commands The icons across the top of the dialog box control the viewing perspective of the contour
map. You can zoom, pan and change the view rotation using these commands.
Refer to the Preview Object command in the Eagle Point Menu manual for more
information.
Display Settings This command allows you to specify which type of contours are on (Index or
Intermediate), the zoom ratio, pan factor and display type for the objects. The display
types that can be chosen are wire frame, constant shading and hidden line removal.
For more information on the display settings, see Preview Object Display Settings in the
Eagle Point Menu manual.
Surface Model Select the surface model for which to create contours by selecting it from the drop list. The
All Surface Models icon allows you to select a surface model from a different project.

QuickSteps
To preview contours, complete the following steps:
1. Select Contours Æ Preview.
This displays the Preview Contours dialog box (Figure 6-1 on page 112).
2. Specify the surface model to preview by selecting it from the drop list.
You can also select a surface model from a different project by clicking on the All
Surface Models icon.
This displays a preview of the contours for the surface model that is selected in the
drop list.

Make Shadow Contours


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð3?>D?EBCð½ð=1;5ðC814?G

KEY-IN COMMAND: ]Q[UcS_^d


The Make Shadow Contours command allows you to create temporary contours in the
CAD graphic that disappear when a redraw of the screen occurs. This allows you to check
the contours for your surface model before making permanent contours. For more

Chapter 6: Contours 113


information on smoothing contours, refer to Smoothing Factor on page 11 and Polynomial
Factor on page 16.

Figure 6-2 Make Shadow Contours Dialog Box

Make Shadow Contours Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model Select the surface model to create contours for by selecting it from the drop list. The All
Surface Models icon allows you to select a surface model from a different project.
Use Screen This allows you to place the contours only in the area of the screen that is visible. The
Display contours do not extend beyond the coordinate limits of the display of the screen.
User-defined This allows you to specify the area in which you want the contours to be placed. The
Boundary contours are confined to this area. The boundary that is used must be a closed object.
Erase Existing This option allows you to remove the contour objects that already reside in the CAD
Contours for graphic for the surface model selected.
this Surface
CAD Settings This allows you to set the parameters for the contour objects such as color, layer/level,
linetype/linestyle and width/weight.
Settings This allows you to modify the parameters for the contours such as interval, smoothing
factor and polynomial factor.

QuickSteps
To create shadow contours, complete the following steps:
1. Select Contours Æ Make Shadow.
This displays the Make Shadow Contours dialog box (above).
2. Specify the surface model to create shadow contours for by selecting it from
the drop list.
You can also select a surface model from a different project by clicking on the All
Surface Models icon.
3. Toggle on the Use Screen Display option if you want to display the contours
only in the limits of the screen.
4. Toggle on User-Defined Boundary if you want to create the contours within a
specified boundary.

114 Surface Modeling


5. Toggle on the Erase Existing Contours for this Surface option if you want to

Chapter 6: Contours
remove existing contours for the surface model before creating new contours.
6. Click on the CAD Settings button if you want to change any of the CAD settings
for the contours.
7. Click on the Settings button if you want to change any of the contour
parameters.
8. Click on Apply to create the shadow contours.
9. If you have toggled on the User-Defined Boundary option, graphically select the
boundary. In MicroStation, accept the selection of the boundary.
In MicroStation, you will be prompted to:
CU\USdðQðfYUgâ
Click in the view that you want the contours placed into using the data point mouse
button.

Make Intermediate & Index Contours


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð3?>D?EBCð½ð=1;5ð9>D5B=5491D5ðêð9>45Hð3?>D?EBC

KEY-IN COMMAND: ]Q[US_^d

ICON:
The Make Intermediate and Index Contours command allows you to create contour lines
based on the surface model selected. This creates contours using the intermediate and
index intervals specified on the contour settings.
For more information on smoothing contours, refer to Smoothing Factor on page 11 and
Polynomial Factor on page 16.

Figure 6-3 Make Intermediate & Index Contours Dialog Box

Chapter 6: Contours 115


Make Intermediate & Index Contours Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Surface Model Select the surface model to create contours for from the drop list. The All Surface Models
icon allows you to select a surface model from a different project.
Use Screen This allows you to place the contours only in the area of the screen that is visible. The
Display contours do not extend beyond the coordinate limits of the display of the screen.
User-defined This allows you to specify the area in which you want contours to be placed. The contours
Boundary are confined to this area. The boundary that is used must be a closed object.
Erase Existing This option allows you to remove the contour objects that already reside in the CAD
Contours for graphic for the surface model selected.
this Surface
CAD Settings This allows you to set the parameters for the contour objects such as color, layer/level,
linetype/linestyle and width/weight.
Settings This allows you to modify the parameters for the contours such as interval, smoothing
factor and polynomial factor.

QuickSteps
To create intermediate and index contours, complete the following steps:
1. Select Contours Æ Make Intermediate & Index.
This displays the Make Intermediate & Index Contours dialog box (Figure 6-3 on page
115).
2. Specify the surface model to create intermediate and index contours for by
selecting it from the drop list.
You can also select a surface model from a different project by clicking on the All
Surface Models icon.
3. Toggle on the Use Screen Display option if you want to display the contours
only in the limits of the screen.
4. Toggle on the User-Defined Boundary option if you want to create the contours
within a boundary specified.
5. Toggle on the Erase Existing Contours for this Surface option if you want to
remove existing contours for the surface model before creating new contours.
6. Click on the CAD Settings button if you want to change any of the CAD Settings
for the contours.
7. Click on the Settings button if you want to change any of the contour
parameters.
8. Click on Apply to create the intermediate and index contours.
9. If you have toggled on the User-Defined Boundary option, graphically select the
boundary. In MicroStation, accept the selection of the boundary.

116 Surface Modeling


In MicroStation, you are prompted to:

Chapter 6: Contours
CU\USdðQðfYUgâ
Click in the view that you want the contours placed into using the data point mouse
button.

Make Index Contours


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð3?>D?EBCð½ð=1;5ð9>45Hð3?>D?EBC

KEY-IN COMMAND: ]Q[UY^TUh


The Make Index Contours command allows you to create contour lines based on the
surface model selected. This creates contours using the index interval only. Use the
Settings button to change the intermediate contour interval. For more information on
smoothing contours refer to Concepts-Smoothing Factor and Concepts-Polynomial
Factor.

Figure 6-4 Make Index Contours Dialog Box

Make Index Contours Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model Select the surface model to create contours for from the drop list. The All Surface Models
icon allows you to select a surface model from a different project.
Use Screen This allows you to place the contours only in the area of the screen that is visible. The
Display contours will not extend beyond the coordinate limits of the display of the screen.
User-defined This allows you to specify the area in which you want contours to be placed. The contours
Boundary are confined to this area. The boundary that is used must be a closed object.
Erase Existing This option allows you to remove the contour objects that already reside in the CAD
Contours for graphic for the surface model selected.
this Surface
CAD Settings This allows you to set the parameters for the contour objects such as color, layer/level,
linetype/linestyle and width/weight.

Chapter 6: Contours 117


Make Index Contours Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Settings This allows you to modify the parameters for the contours such as interval, smoothing
factor and polynomial factor.

QuickSteps
To create index contours, complete the following steps:
1. Select Contours Æ Make Index.
This displays the Make Index Contours dialog box (Figure 6-4 on page 117).
2. Specify the surface model for which to create index contours by selecting it
from the drop list.
You can also select a surface model from a different project by clicking on the All
Surface Models icon.
3. Toggle on the Use Screen Display option if you want to display the contours
only in the limits of the screen.
4. Toggle on the User-Defined Boundary option if you want to create the contours
within a specified boundary.
5. Toggle on the Erase Existing Contours for this Surface option if you want to
remove any existing contours for the surface model before creating new
contours.
6. Click on the CAD Settings button if you want to change any of the CAD Settings
for the contours.
7. Click on the Settings button if you want to change any of the contour
parameters.
8. Click on Apply to create the index contours.
9. If you have toggled on the User-Defined Boundary option, graphically select the
boundary. In MicroStation, accept the selection of the boundary.
In MicroStation, you will be prompted to:
CU\USdðQðfYUgâ
Click in the view that you want the contours placed into using the data point mouse
button.

118 Surface Modeling


Chapter 6: Contours
Make Intermediate Contours
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð3?>D?EBCð½ð=1;5ð9>D5B=5491D5ð3?>D?EBC

KEY-IN COMMAND: ]Q[UY^d


The Make Intermediate Contours command allows you to create contours lines based on
the surface model selected. This creates contour lines using the intermediate interval only.
Use the Settings button to change the intermediate contour interval.
For more information on smoothing contours, refer to Smoothing Factor on page 11 and
Polynomial Factor on page 16.

Figure 6-5 Make Intermediate Contours Dialog Box

Make Intermediate Contours Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model Select the surface model to create contours for by selecting it from the drop list. The All
Surface Models icon allows you to select a surface model from a different project.
Use Screen This allows you to place the contours only in the area of the screen that is visible. The
Display contours will not extend beyond the coordinate limits of the display of the screen.
User-defined This allows you to specify the area in which you want contours to be placed. The contours
Boundary are confined to this area. The boundary that is used must be a closed object.
Erase Existing This option allows you to remove the contour objects that already reside in the CAD
Contours for graphic for the surface model selected.
this Surface
CAD Settings This allows you to set the parameters for the contour objects such as color, layer/level,
linetype/linestyle and width/weight.
Settings This allows you to modify the parameters for the contours such as interval, smoothing
factor and polynomial factor.

QuickSteps
To create intermediate contours, complete the following steps:
1. Select Contours Æ Make Intermediate.

Chapter 6: Contours 119


This displays the Make Intermediate Contours dialog box (Figure 6-5 on page 119).
2. Specify the surface model to create intermediate contours for by selecting it
from the drop list.
You can also select a surface model from a different project by clicking on the All
Surface Models icon.
3. Toggle on the Use Screen Display option if you want to display the contours
only in the limits of the screen.
4. Toggle on the User-Defined Boundary option if you want to create the contours
within a specified boundary.
5. Toggle on the Erase Existing Contours for this Surface option if you want to
remove any existing contours for the surface model before creating new
contours.
6. Click on the CAD Settings icon if you want to change any of the CAD Settings
for the contours.
7. Click on the Settings button if you want to change any of the contour
parameters.
8. Click on Apply to create intermediate contours.
9. If you have toggled on the User-Defined Boundary option, graphically select the
boundary. In MicroStation, accept the selection of the boundary.
In MicroStation, you will be prompted to:
CU\USdðQðfYUgâ
Click in the view that you want the contours placed into using the data point mouse
button.

Make User-Defined Contours


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð3?>D?EBCð½ð=1;5ðEC5Bã4569>54ð3?>D?EBC

KEY-IN COMMAND: ]Q[UecUb

ICON:
The Make User-defined Contours command allows you to place a contour at a specific
elevation. This allows you to place a contour at an elevation that is not either the
intermediate or index contour interval.

120 Surface Modeling


For more information on smoothing contours, refer to Smoothing Factor on page 11 and

Chapter 6: Contours
Polynomial Factor on page 16.

Figure 6-6 Make User-Defined Contours Dialog Box

Make User-Defined Contours Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model This allows you to select the surface model to create contours for by selecting it from the
drop list. The All Surface Models icon allows you to select a surface model from a different
project.
Elevation This is the elevation at which the user-defined contour will be placed.
Use Screen This allows you to place the contours only in the area of the screen that is visible. The
Display contours will not extend beyond the coordinate limits of the display of the screen.
User-defined This allows you to specify the area in which that you want contours to be placed. The
Boundary contours are confined to this area. The boundary that is used must be a closed object.
Erase Existing This option allows you to remove the contour objects that already reside in the CAD
Contours for graphic for the surface model selected.
this Surface
CAD Settings This allows you to set the parameters for the contour objects such as color, layer/level,
linetype/linestyle and width/weight.
Settings This allows you to modify the parameters for the contours such as interval, smoothing
factor and polynomial factor.

QuickSteps
To create user-defined contours, complete the following steps:
1. Select Contours Æ Make User-Defined.
This displays the Make User-Defined Contours dialog box (above).
2. Specify the surface model to create user-defined contours for by selecting the
surface model from the drop list.
You can also select a surface model from a different project by clicking on the All
Surface Models icon.
3. Enter the elevation at which the user-defined contour is to be placed.

Chapter 6: Contours 121


4. Toggle on the Use Screen Display option if you want to display the contours
only in the limits of the screen.
5. Toggle on the User-Defined Boundary option if you want to create the contours
within a specified boundary.
6. Toggle on the Erase Existing Contours for this Surface option if you want to
remove any existing contours for the surface model before creating new
contours.
7. Click on the CAD Settings icon if you want to change any of the CAD Settings
for the contours.
8. Click on the Settings button if you want to change any of the contour
parameters.
9. Click on Apply to create User-Defined Contours.
10. If you have toggled on the User-Defined Boundary option, graphically select the
boundary. In MicroStation, accept the selection of the boundary.
In MicroStation, you will be prompted to:
CU\USdðQðfYUgâ
Click in the view that you want the contours placed into using the data point mouse
button.

Annotate Contours
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð3?>D?EBCð½ð1>>?D1D5

KEY-IN COMMAND: Q^^S_^d

ICON:
The Annotate Contours command allows you to label the elevations of the contours that
have been created. You can annotate intermediate, index or user-defined contours that

122 Surface Modeling


were created in Surface Modeling. You can also annotate polylines/complex chains that

Chapter 6: Contours
were not created with Surface Modeling by using the Other Layer/Level option.

Figure 6-7 Annotate Contours Dialog Box

Annotate Contours Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model Select the surface model from the drop list that you wish to annotate the contours for. The
All Surface Models icon allows you to select a surface model from a different project.
Intermediate Toggle this on if you want to annotate the elevation for the intermediate contours for the
Contours surface model selected.
Index Contours Toggle this on if you want to annotate the elevation for the index contours for the surface
model selected.
User-defined Toggle this on if you want to annotate the elevation for the user-defined contours for the
Contours surface model selected.
Other Toggle this on if you want to annotate an object that is not a contour that was generated
Layer/Level by Surface Modeling.
Crossing This option annotates the contours at the location where they cross a line that you
Method construct.
Interval Method This option annotates the selected contours based on spacing. Specify the distance along
the contour being annotated.
Endpoints This option places the contour annotation at the end of each selected contour.
Method
Annotation This allows you to specify how you want the contours to be annotated. You can specify
Settings the location of the contour annotation, if you want to break the contour around the
annotation, place a symbol around the annotation or specify the direction of the
annotation.
For more information, see Annotate Contour Settings on page 125.

Chapter 6: Contours 123


Annotate Contours Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Erase Existing This option allows you to remove the contour annotation that already resides in the CAD
Contour graphic for the surface model selected.
Annotation for
this Surface
CAD Settings Use this option to modify the parameters for the contour annotation such as layer/level
and color.

QuickSteps
To annotate contours, complete the following steps:
1. Select Contours Æ Annotate.
This displays the Annotate Contours dialog box (Figure 6-7 on page 123).
2. Specify the surface model to annotate the contours for by selecting the surface
model from the drop list.
You can annotate the contours from a different project by clicking on the All Surface
Models icon.
3. Select the type of contours to be annotated (Index, Intermediate, User-defined).
If you select Other Layer/Level, type in the layer/level of the object to be annotated or
click on the Other Layer/Level icon to display the Select Layer/Level dialog box.
4. Toggle the annotation method to Crossing, Interval or Endpoints.
If the Interval method is selected, you need to specify a spacing between annotations.
5. If you want to change any of the annotation settings, click on the Annotation
Settings button.
6. If you want to erase the existing contour annotation for the selected surface
model, toggle on Erase Existing Contour Annotation for this Surface.
7. Click on Apply to annotate the contours.
Follow the instructions provided. These are different based on the method that is
selected.
A. If the Crossing option is on, the system prompts:
CU\USdðVYbcdð`_Y^dâ
Pick a point on the screen.
The system then prompts:
CU\USdðcUS_^Tð`_Y^dâ
Pick the second point that crosses the contour lines.

124 Surface Modeling


The contours that are crossed are annotated at the intersection between the two

Chapter 6: Contours
points selected and the contours.
B. If the Interval option is on, the system prompts:
CU\USdðS_^d_ebc*
Select the contours that you wish to annotate.
The contours that are selected are annotated at the interval specified.
C. If the Endpoints option is on, the system prompts:
CU\USdðS_^d_ebc*
Select the contours that you wish to annotate.
The contours that are selected are annotated at the interval specified.

Annotate Contour Settings


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð3?>D?EBCð½ð1>>?D1D5ð½ð1>>?D1D9?>ðC5DD9>7C

The Annotate Contour Settings command allows you to specify how you want the
contours to be annotated. You can specify the location of the contour annotation; if you
want to break the contour around the annotation, place a symbol around the annotation or
specify the direction of the annotation.

Figure 6-8 Annotate Contour Settings Dialog Box

Annotate Contour Settings Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Annotation This allows you to specify the location of the annotation on the contour. The available
Location options are Above, Middle and Below.
Text Height This allows you to specify the distance as a percentage of text height. The contour
Displacement annotation will be placed from the contour when the location is set to Above or Below.

Chapter 6: Contours 125


Annotate Contour Settings Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Place Symbol Toggle this on if you want to place a symbol around the contour annotation. When this is
Around toggled on, the Symbol drop list is enabled.
Annotation
Symbol This is the symbol that is placed around your contour annotation. The available symbols
from which to choose are Rectangle, Circle and Ellipse.
Break Contour Toggle this on if you want to break the contour when it is annotated. This trims the contour
Around line in the area that the annotation is placed.
Annotation
Annotation Toggle this on if you want to specify the direction at which the contour annotation will be
Direction placed. When this is toggled on, the Angle and Uphill/Downhill options are enabled.
Angle This allows you to rotate the contour annotation instead of it being aligned with the
contour. The angle is measured counterclockwise with zero (0) degrees to the East.
Uphill/Downhill This allows you to specify the direction of annotation based on the two points that are
selected. If the two points selected define a line from bottom to top, then the contour
annotation is readable from left to right. If the two points selected define a line from top to
bottom, then the contour annotation is readable from right to left. This option is only
available when the crossing method is selected.

126 Surface Modeling


OUTPUT
The Output menu is used as a source to generate
graphical and report information. Throughout Surface
CHAPTER
Modeling, surface models, elevation labels, contours and
grids are created and all the information is stored in data
files that are located in the project data file folder. To
display any of these objects in the CAD graphic or to
obtain printouts of the existing data, use the commands
on the Output menu.
In this chapter:
Place Spot Elevation Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Place Grid Elevation Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Place Shadow Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
7
Place Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Place Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Place Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Place Boundary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Place Void Regions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Erase Existing Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Preview Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Print Crossing Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

Chapter 7: Output 127


Place Spot Elevation Labels
ðCEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð?ED@EDý½ý@<135ðC@?Dð5<5F1D9?>ð<125<C

KEY-IN COMMAND: c`_dU\Uf

ICON:
The Place Spot Elevation Labels command allows you to annotate the elevation of points
within a selected surface model. This can be useful to display surface model elevations or
dynamically track elevations of a point. A common use of this command would be to locate
the Z-coordinate at ground elevation features such as ditch alignments, centerline
alignments, building pads, etc.

Figure 7-1 Place Spot Elevation Labels Dialog Box

Place Spot Elevation Labels Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model Select the surface model for which to place the spot elevation labels from the drop list.
You can also place spot elevation labels using a surface model from a different project by
clicking on the All Surface Models icon.
Erase Existing Toggle this on if you want to erase the existing elevation labels for the selected surface
Elevation Labels model before creating new elevation labels.
for this Surface
CAD Settings This allows you to set the parameters for the elevation labels such as color and layer/
level.
Settings This allows you to specify the text rotation angle that will be applied to the elevation label.
For more information, see Place Grid Elevation Label Settings on page 131.

QuickSteps
To place spot elevation labels for a surface model, complete the following steps:
1. Select Output Æ Place Spot Elevation Labels.
This displays the Place Spot Elevation Labels dialog box (above).

128 Surface Modeling


2. Specify the surface model to place spot elevation labels for by selecting it from
the drop list. If you want to place spot elevation labels for a surface model in a
different project, click on the All Surface Models icon.
3. Toggle on Erase Existing Elevation Labels for this Surface to erase the existing
spot elevation labels placed in the CAD graphic. If the toggle is off, the spot
elevation labels are created without erasing previously created spot elevation
labels.
4. Select the CAD Settings icon if you want to change any of the CAD Settings for
the elevation labels such as layer/level and color.

Chapter 7: Output
5. Select the Settings button if you want to change the text rotation for the
elevation label.
6. Click on Apply to process the Place Spot Elevation Labels command.
You are prompted to select a spot elevation label location.
7. Graphically select the locations where you want a spot elevation label placed.

Place Grid Elevation Labels


ðCEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð?ED@EDý½ý@<135ð7B94ð5<5F1D9?>ð<125<C

KEY-IN COMMAND: WbYTU\Uf


The Place Grid Elevation Labels command allows you to annotate grid elevations within a
selected surface model. This can be useful to place grid stakes for the purpose of
generating reports. A common usage of this command would be to stake out the
elevations of a designed construction area for use in the field.
ï When placing Grid Elevation Labels, a window is used to determine the outer perimeter of
the grid outlay. If a rotation angle is utilized, all point objects will be rotated about their
individual insertion points.

Figure 7-2 Place Grid Elevation Labels Dialog Box

Chapter 7: Output 129


Place Grid Elevation Labels Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Surface Model Select the surface model for which to place grid elevation labels from the drop list. You
can also place grid elevation labels using a surface model from a different project by
clicking on the All Surface Models icon.
Erase Existing Toggle this on if you want to erase the existing elevation labels for the selected surface
Elevation Labels model before creating new elevation labels.
for this Surface
CAD Settings This allows you to set the parameters for the elevation labels such as color and layer/
level.
Settings This allows you to specify the Text Rotation Angle, X Interval, Y Interval and Rotation
Angle for the grid.
For more information, see Place Grid Elevation Label Settings on page 131.

QuickSteps
To place grid elevation labels for a surface model, complete the following steps:
1. Select Output Æ Place Grid Elevation Labels.
This displays the Place Grid Elevation Labels dialog box (Figure 7-2 on page 129).
2. Specify the surface model to place grid elevation labels for by selecting it from
the drop list. If you want to place grid elevation labels for a surface model in a
different project, click on the All Surface Models icon.
3. Toggle on the Erase Existing Elevation Labels for this Surface option to erase
the existing grid elevation labels placed in the CAD graphic. If the toggle is off,
the grid elevation labels are created without erasing previously created grid
elevation labels.
4. Click on the CAD Settings icon if you want to change any of the CAD Settings
for the elevation labels such as layer/level and color.
5. Click on the Settings button if you want to change text rotation, X and Y
intervals for the grid and the grid rotation angle.
6. Click on Apply to process the Place Grid Elevation Labels command.
You are prompted to select the first corner.
7. Graphically select the first corner of a rectangle for the grid elevation labels to
be placed in.
You are prompted to select the second corner.
8. Graphically select the second corner in which the rectangle for the grid
elevation labels will be placed.

130 Surface Modeling


Place Grid Elevation Label Settings
ðCEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð?ED@EDð½ð@<135ð7B94ð5<5F1D9?>ð<125<Cð½ðC5DD9>7C

The Place Grid Elevation Labels Settings command allows you to specify the Text
Rotation Angle, X Interval, Y Interval and Rotation Angle for the grid. It also allows you to
specify the CAD Settings for the grid elevation labels such as color and layer/level.

Chapter 7: Output
Figure 7-3 Place Grid Elevation Label Settings Dialog Box

Place Grid Elevation Label Settings Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Text Rotation This allows you to rotate the elevation labels. The angle of 0 (zero) degrees is to the east
Angle with positive angles measured in a counterclockwise direction.
X Interval This is the spacing in the x direction for the grid elevation labels to be placed.
Y Interval This is the spacing in the y direction for the grid elevation labels to be placed.
Grid Rotation This is the angle at which the grid elevation labels will be placed. This is measured in a
Angle counterclockwise direction with zero (0) degrees to the east.
Construction Select the desired option to be used when you place grid elevation labels. The available
Method options are Blocks and Eagle Point object. This option is only available in AutoCAD/
IntelliCAD/Eagle Point Graphics Engine.
CAD Settings This allows you to set the parameters for the elevation labels such as color and layer/
level.

Place Shadow Grid


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð?ED@EDý½ý@<135ðC814?Gð7B94

KEY-IN COMMAND: cXQT_gWbYT

Chapter 7: Output 131


The Place Shadow Grid command creates temporary grid squares for the selected
surface model. This can be used as an alternative to place grids permanently into your
CAD graphics, but will only be visible until the screen is redrawn.

Figure 7-4 Place Shadow Grid Dialog Box

Place Shadow Grid Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model This drop list allows you to select the surface model for which you want to place a shadow
grid. You can also place a shadow grid for a surface model in a different project by clicking
on the All Surface Models icon.
Grid Skirt Toggle this option on to display a grid skirt. A grid skirt consists of vertical lines that are
drawn from the minimum elevation of the surface model. Grid skirts are used to display
depth or elevation.
User-Defined This allows you to specify the area in which you want the shadow grid placed. The
Boundary shadow grid is confined to this area.
é The boundary that is selected must be a closed object.
Elevation Table Toggle this option on to display the grid using the elevation table. The elevation table
allows elevation ranges to be displayed according to color.
For more information, see Elevation Table on page 36.
Table Click on this button to set up an elevation table. If you want the appearance of the grid to
reflect elevation intervals set this toggle on and enter the elevation table desired.
For more information, see Elevation Table on page 36.
Import Elevation Toggle on this option to import a table legend of the elevation table. If this toggle is on, a
Table Legend report can be added to the CAD graphic as a legend.
Erase Existing This option allows you to remove the grid objects that already reside in the CAD graphic
Grid for this for the surface model selected.
Surface
CAD Settings This allows you to set the parameters for the grid such as color, layer/level, linetype/
linestyle and width/weight.
Settings This allows you to modify grid settings such as X-interval, Y-interval, Vertical Stretch
Factor, Smoothing, Longitudinal Angle, Construction Method, etc.
For more information, see New Surface Model – Rectangular Grid Tab on page 33.

QuickSteps
To create a shadow grid, complete the following steps:

132 Surface Modeling


1. Select Output Æ Place Shadow Grid.
This displays the Place Shadow Grid dialog box (Figure 7-4 on page 132).
2. Specify the surface model that you want to create a shadow grid for by
selecting it from the drop list. You can also select a surface model from a
different project by clicking on the All Surface Models icon.
3. If you want to place a grid skirt with the shadow grid, toggle on the Grid Skirt
option.
4. If you want to place the shadow grid within a user-defined boundary, toggle on
the User-Defined Boundary option.

Chapter 7: Output
5. If you want to place the shadow grid with an elevation table, toggle on the
Elevation Table toggle. This enables the Table button. Click on the Table button
to set the grid elevation ranges.
6. If you want to import the elevation table legend, toggle on the Import Elevation
Table Legend option.
7. If you want to erase the existing grid objects from the CAD graphic, toggle on
the Erase Existing Grid for this Surface option.
8. If you want to change any of the CAD parameters for the shadow grid, click on
the CAD Settings button.
9. If you want to change any of the settings for the shadow grid, such as X- and Y-
interval, smoothing factor and vertical scale factor, click on the Settings button.
10. Click on Apply to place the shadow grid in the CAD graphic.
If you toggled on the User-Defined boundary option, you are prompted to select a
boundary.
11. Graphically select a closed object as the boundary to place the shadow grid
within.

Chapter 7: Output 133


Elevation Table
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ý?ED@EDð½ð@<135ðC814?Gð7B94ð½ðD12<5

The Elevation Table command allows you to create elevation ranges for the rectangular
grid. You can specify the elevation, color and layer/level for the grid squares.

Figure 7-5 Elevation Table Dialog Box

Elevation Table Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Cut Grid Toggle this on if you want to assign multiple colors to a grid square that is in two elevation
Squares at ranges. If the toggle is off, the grid square will be assigned the color of the average
Elevation elevation of the different faces of the grid square.
Change
Elevation This indicates the elevation of the surface model that will be used when creating the
rectangular grid. If MIN or MAX displays in this field, it indicates that this is a minimum or
maximum valid elevation as specified on the Surface Model tab on the New Surface
Model dialog box (Figure 2-2 on page 24).
Layer/Level This indicates what layer/level the grid squares at this elevation range will be constructed
on in the CAD graphic.
Color This indicates what color the grid squares at this elevation range will display as in the CAD
graphic.
Display This indicates if the grid constructed at this elevation range will display in the CAD
graphic.
New Elevation This allows you to add an elevation range. You can specify the elevation, color, layer /
Range level and if the range is displayed. The elevations will automatically be sorted in
ascending order (lowest to highest).
For more information, see New Elevation Range on page 135.

134 Surface Modeling


Elevation Table Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Modify Elevation This allows you to change the parameters for the elevation range such as the elevation,
Range color, layer/level and if it is displayed.
For more information, see New Elevation Range, below.
Delete Elevation This allows you to remove an elevation range from the elevation table. This will remove
Range the elevation range that is highlighted.
Generate This allows you to automatically generate an elevation table. You can generate the
Elevation Table elevation table dividing the elevation ranges equally or by incrementing the elevation
between a minimum and maximum value.

Chapter 7: Output
For more information, see Generate Elevation Table on page 136.

New Elevation Range


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð?ED@EDð½ð@<135ðC814?Gð7B94ðD12<5ð½ð>5Gð5<5F1D9?>ðB1>75

The New Elevation Range command allows you to add an elevation range to be used for
the rectangular grid. You can specify the elevation, color, layer/level and if it is displayed.
The elevations will automatically be sorted in ascending order (lowest to highest).

Figure 7-6 New Elevation Range Dialog Box

New Elevation Range Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Elevation This indicates the elevation of the surface model that will be used when creating the
rectangular grid.
Layer/Level This indicates what layer/level the grid squares at this elevation range will be constructed
on in the CAD graphic.
Color This indicates what color the grid squares at this elevation range will display as in the CAD
graphic.
Display This indicates if the grid constructed at this elevation range will display in the CAD
Elevation Range graphic.

Chapter 7: Output 135


QuickSteps
To add a new elevation range, complete the following steps:
1. Select Output Æ Place Shadow Grid.
The Place Shadow Grid dialog box (Figure 7-4 on page 132) displays.
2. Toggle on the Elevation Table toggle and click on the Table button.
The Elevation Table dialog box (Figure 7-5 on page 134) displays.
3. Select the New Elevation Range button.
The New Elevation Range dialog box (Figure 7-6 on page 135) displays.
4. Enter the elevation into the Elevation edit field.
5. Enter the layer/level for the grid squares to be placed on in the Layer/Level edit
field.
6. Enter the color for the grid squares in the Color edit field or click on the Color
icon to select a color.
7. Toggle on the Display Elevation Range option if you want the elevation range to
be displayed when the rectangular grid is created.
8. Click on Apply to add the elevation range to the elevation table and keep the
New Elevation Range dialog box open, or click on OK to add the elevation range
to the elevation table and dismiss the New Elevation Range dialog box.

Generate Elevation Table


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð?ED@EDð½ð@<135ðC814?Gð7B94ð½ðD12<5ð½ð75>5B1D5ð5<5F1D9?>ðD12<5

The Generate Elevation Table command allows you to automatically generate the
elevation ranges. You can automatically generate the elevation ranges by specifying the
number of elevation ranges or an increment of elevation ranges between a minimum and

136 Surface Modeling


maximum elevation specified. Each elevation range can use the same color, or the color
number can be incremented with each elevation range.

Chapter 7: Output
Figure 7-7 Generate Elevation Table Dialog Box

Generate Elevation Table Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Minimum This sets the lowest elevation to use when generating the elevation ranges.
Elevation
Maximum This sets the highest elevation to use when generating the elevation ranges.
Elevation
Divide This creates equal spaced elevation ranges between the minimum and maximum
elevations. The difference of the minimum and maximum elevation is divided by the value
in the number of elevations edit field. This number is then added to the previous elevation
(starting at the minimum) until the maximum elevation is reached.
Increment This adds the elevation specified to the previous elevation (starting at the minimum) until
Elevation the maximum elevation is reached.
Layer/Level This indicates what layer/level the grid squares at this elevation range will be constructed
on in the CAD graphic.
Color This indicates what color the grid squares at this elevation range will display as in the CAD
graphic.
Increment each Toggle this on if you want the color for each slope range to be incremented by one color
color number value. This will enable the Starting with color edit field and Color Selection icon. Enter the
starting color in the edit field or select a starting color by clicking on the Color Selection
icon.

QuickSteps
To automatically generate an elevation table, complete the following steps:
1. Select Output Æ Place Shadow Grid.
The Place Shadow Grid dialog box (Figure 7-4 on page 132) displays.

Chapter 7: Output 137


2. Toggle on the Elevation Table toggle and click on the Table button.
The Elevation Table dialog box (Figure 7-5 on page 134) displays.
3. Click on the Generate Elevation Table button.
The Generate Elevation Range Table dialog box (Figure 7-7 on page 137) displays.
4. Enter the minimum elevation at which to start the elevation ranges.
5. Enter the maximum elevation at which to end the elevation ranges.
6. If you want the elevation ranges divided equally, toggle on the Divide option and
enter the number of elevation ranges. If you want the elevation ranges to be
incremented by even amounts, toggle on the Increment Elevation option and
enter the increment elevation.
7. Enter the layer/level for the grid squares to be placed on in the Layer/Level edit
field.
8. If you want a single color used for all elevation ranges, enter the color in the
Color edit field. If you want the color to be different for each elevation range,
toggle on the Increment each color number option and enter the starting color
for the elevation ranges.
9. Click on OK.
This generates the elevation ranges, places them in the Elevation Table dialog box
and closes the Generate Elevation Table dialog box.

Place Grid
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð?ED@EDý½ð@<135ð7B94

KEY-IN COMMAND: `\QSUWbYT

ICON:
The Place Grid command allows you to place a rectangular grid of an existing surface
model into the CAD graphic. The grid can be used to create a three-dimensional
representation of an existing surface model. This command imports objects or lines into
the CAD graphic.

AutoCAD/IntelliCAD/Eagle Point Graphics Engine


The grid can be placed as 3-D faces, lines or an Eagle Point Grid Object. If the drawing size is of
consideration, you should use Eagle Point Grid Object. File sizes and processing times for
constructing grids can be dramatically reduced by using Eagle Point Grid Object.

138 Surface Modeling


MicroStation
The grid can be placed as a shape or surface. If the design file size if of consideration, you should use
shapes. File sizes and processing times for constructing grids can be dramatically reduced by using
shapes.

Chapter 7: Output
Figure 7-8 Place Grid Dialog Box

Place Grid Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model Select the surface model that you want to place a grid for from the drop list. You can also
place a grid using a surface model from a different project by clicking on the All Surface
Models icon.
User-Defined This allows you to specify the area in which you want the grid placed. The grid is confined
Boundary to this area.
é The boundary that is selected must be a closed object.
Elevation Table Toggle this option on to display the grid using the elevation table. The elevation table
allows elevation ranges to be displayed according to color.
For more information, see Elevation Table on page 134.
Table Click on this button to set up an elevation table. If you want the appearance of the grid to
reflect elevation intervals set this toggle on and enter the elevation table desired.
For more information, see Elevation Table on page 134.
Import Elevation Toggle on this option on to import a Table Legend of the elevation table. If this toggle is
Table Legend on, a report can be added to the CAD graphic as a legend.
Erase Existing This option allows you to remove the grid objects that already reside in the CAD graphic
Grid for this for the surface model selected.
Surface
CAD Settings This allows you to set the parameters for the grid, such as color, layer/level, linetype/
linestyle and width/weight.
Settings This allows you to modify grid settings, such as X-interval, Y-interval, Vertical Stretch
Factor, Smoothing, Longitudinal Angle, Construction Method, etc.
For more information, see New Surface Model – Rectangular Grid Tab on page 33.

Chapter 7: Output 139


QuickSteps
To create a grid, complete the following steps:
1. Select Output Æ Place Grid.
This displays the Place Grid dialog box (Figure 7-8 on page 139).
2. Specify the surface model that you want to create a grid for by selecting it from
the drop list. You can also select a surface model from a different project by
clicking on the All Surface Models icon.
3. If you want to place the grid with an elevation table, toggle on the Elevation
Table toggle. This activates the Table button. Click on the Table button to set
the grid elevation ranges.
4. If you want to import the elevation table legend, toggle on the Import Elevation
Table Legend option.
5. If you want to place the grid within a user-defined boundary, toggle on the User-
Defined Boundary option.
6. If you want to erase the existing grid objects from the CAD graphic, toggle on
the Erase Existing Grid for this Surface option.
7. If you want to change any of the CAD parameters for the grid, click on the CAD
Settings button.
8. If you want to change any of the settings for the grid such as X- and Y-interval,
smoothing factor and vertical scale factor, click on the Settings button.
9. Click on Apply to place the grid in the CAD graphic. If you toggled on the User-
Defined boundary option, you will be prompted to select a boundary.
Graphically select a closed object as the boundary within which the grid will be
placed.

Place Triangles
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð?ED@EDý½ý@<135ðDB91>7<5C

KEY-IN COMMAND: `\QSUdbY

ICON:

The Place Triangles command allows you to place the surface model triangles into your
CAD graphic. This allows you to see how the surface model was triangulated. If you wish

140 Surface Modeling


to edit your surface model using commands found in the Edit Model menu you must place
triangles into the CAD graphic.

AutoCAD/IntelliCAD/Eagle Point Graphics Engine


The triangles can be placed as an ARX object called Eagle Point Object. You may use grips to edit
vertices of Eagle Point triangle objects. This can be exploded into 3-D faces if the drawing is to be
opened without Eagle Point. You can also set your construction method to produce 3-D faces instead.

MicroStation
The triangles can be placed as a shape or surface. If the design file size is of consideration, you should
use shapes. File sizes and processing times for constructing triangles can be dramatically reduced by

Chapter 7: Output
using shapes.

Figure 7-9 Place Triangles Dialog Box

Place Triangles Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model Select the surface model for which to place the triangles from the drop list. You can also
place triangles using a surface model from a different project by clicking on the All Surface
Models icon.
Use Elevation Toggle this option on to display the triangles using the elevation table. The elevation table
Table allows elevation ranges to be displayed according to color.
For more information, see Elevation Table on page 134.
Table Click on this button to set up an elevation table. If you want the appearance of the
triangles to reflect elevation intervals set this toggle on and enter the elevation table
desired.
For more information, see Elevation Table on page 134.
Import Elevation Toggle on this option to import a Table Legend of the elevation table. If this toggle is on, a
Table Legend report can be added to the CAD graphic as a legend.
User-defined Toggle this option on to display triangles within an existing boundary. If the triangles are
Boundary only desired for an enclosed region within your surface model select this option.
Erase Existing Toggle this option on to erase all existing triangles for the selected surface model.
Triangles for
this Surface

Chapter 7: Output 141


Place Triangles Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
CAD Settings This allows you to set the parameters for the triangles such as color, layer/level, linetype/
linestyle and width/weight.
Settings This allows you to specify the location in which the triangles will be placed. You can
specify if you want them placed in the project CAD graphic or in a different CAD graphic
and have it referenced to the project CAD graphic.
For more information on Settings, refer to the New Surface Model Dialog Box (Figure 2-2
on page 24).

QuickSteps
To place triangles into your CAD graphic, complete the following steps:
1. Select Output Æ Place Triangles.
This displays the Place Triangles dialog box (Figure 7-9 on page 141).
2. Specify the surface model that you want to place the triangles for by selecting it
from the drop list.
You can also select a surface model from a different project by clicking on the All
Surface Models icon.
3. If you want to place the triangles with an elevation table, toggle on the Elevation
Table toggle. This activates the Table button. Click on the Table button to set
the triangle elevation ranges.
4. If you want to import the elevation table legend, toggle on the Import Elevation
Table Legend option.
5. If you want to place the triangles within a user-defined boundary, toggle on the
User-defined Boundary option.
6. If you want to erase the existing triangles from the CAD graphic, toggle on the
Erase Existing Triangles for this Surface option.
7. If you want to change any of the CAD parameters for the triangles, click on the
CAD Settings button.
8. If you want to change any of the settings for the triangles, such as the location
that they will be placed, click on the Settings button.
9. Click on Apply to place the triangles in the CAD graphic. If you toggled on the
User-defined boundary option, you will be prompted to select a boundary.
Graphically select a closed object as the boundary to place the triangles within.

142 Surface Modeling


Place Breaklines
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð?ED@EDý½ý@<135ð2B51;<9>5C

KEY-IN COMMAND: `\QSUR\


The Place Breaklines command allows you to place the breaklines into the CAD graphic
that were used when creating the surface model. This allows you to make sure that the
surface model was triangulated the way you expected it to be. If you have crossing

Chapter 7: Output
breaklines that you have chosen to ignore, those breaklines will not be imported into the
CAD graphic.

Figure 7-10 Place Breaklines Dialog Box

Place Breaklines Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model Select the surface model for which to place the breaklines from the drop list. You can also
place breaklines for a surface model of a different project by clicking on the All Surface
Models icon.
Erase Existing Toggle this option on to erase all existing breaklines for the selected surface model. This
Breaklines for option only erases the breaklines created previously by this command.
this Surface
CAD Settings This allows you to set the parameters for the breaklines, such as color, layer/level,
linetype/linestyle and width/weight.

QuickSteps
To place the surface model breaklines into your CAD graphic, complete the following
steps:
1. Select Output Æ Place Breaklines.
This displays the Place Breaklines dialog box (above).
2. Specify the surface model that you want to place the breaklines for by selecting
it from the drop list. You can also select a surface model from a different project
by clicking on the All Surface Models icon.

Chapter 7: Output 143


3. If you want to erase the existing breakline entities from the CAD graphic, toggle
on the Erase Existing Breaklines for this Surface option.
4. If you want to change any of the CAD parameters for the breaklines, click on the
CAD Settings button.
5. Click on Apply to place the breaklines in the CAD graphic.

Place Boundary
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð?ED@EDý½ý@<135ð2?E>41BI

KEY-IN COMMAND: `\QSUR_e^T


The Place Boundary command allows you to place the boundary of the surface model that
is selected. This is the 3-D boundary of the surface model triangles.

Figure 7-11 Place Boundary Dialog Box

Place Boundary Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model Select the surface model for which to place the boundary from the drop list. You can also
place a boundary for a surface model of a different project by clicking on the All Surface
Models icon.
Erase Existing Toggle this option on to erase the existing triangulated boundary for the selected surface
Boundary for model. This option only erases the boundary objects that were created previously by this
this Surface command.
CAD Settings This allows you to set the parameters for the boundary, such as color, layer/level, linetype/
linestyle and width/weight.

QuickSteps
To place the surface model boundary into your CAD graphic, complete the following steps:
1. Select Output Æ Place Boundary.
This displays the Place Boundary dialog box (above).

144 Surface Modeling


2. Specify the surface model that you want to place the boundary for by selecting
it from the drop list. You can also select a surface model from a different project
by clicking on the All Surface Models icon.
3. If you want to erase the existing boundary from the CAD graphic, toggle on the
Erase Existing Boundary for this Surface option.
4. If you want to change any of the CAD parameters for the boundary, click on the
CAD Settings icon.
5. Click on Apply to place the boundary in the CAD graphic.

Chapter 7: Output
Place Void Regions
ðCEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð?ED@EDý½ý@<135ðF?94ðB579?>C

KEY-IN COMMAND: `\QSUf_YT


The Place Void Regions command allows you to place the 3-D void regions for the
selected surface model into the CAD graphic. These are the void regions that are in the
surface model. This command can be used to make sure that all of the void regions that
you specified have been used, or to make sure that the maximum length of triangle side
options did not create any undesired void regions.

Figure 7-12 Place Void Regions Dialog Box

Place Void Regions Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
Surface Model Select the surface model for which to place the void regions from the drop list. You can
also place void regions for a surface model of a different project by clicking on the All
Surface Models icon.
Erase Existing Toggle this option on to erase the existing void regions for the selected surface model.
Void Regions for This option only erases the void region objects that were created previously by this
this Surface command.
CAD Settings This icon allows you to set the parameters for the void regions, such as layer/level,
linetype/linestyle and width/weight.

Chapter 7: Output 145


QuickSteps
To place the surface model void regions into your CAD graphic, complete the following
steps:
1. Select Output Æ Place Void Regions.
This displays the Void Regions dialog box (Figure 7-12 on page 145).
2. Specify the surface model that you want to place the void regions for by
selecting it from the drop list.
You can also select a surface model from a different project by clicking on the All
Surface Models icon.
3. If you want to erase the existing void regions from the CAD graphic, toggle on
the Erase Existing Void Regions for this Surface option.
4. If you want to change any of the CAD parameters for the void regions, click on
the CAD Settings icon.
5. Click on Apply to place the void regions in the CAD graphic.

Erase Existing Objects


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð?ED@EDð½ð5B1C5ð5H9CD9>7ð?2:53DC

KEY-IN COMMAND: UbQcU_\T


The Erase Existing Objects command allows you to erase any of the objects that are in
the CAD graphic for the surface model that is selected. The objects that you can erase are
Triangles, Contours, Contour Annotation Grids, Spot/Grid Elevation Labels, Breaklines,
Boundaries and Void Regions.

Figure 7-13 Erase Existing Objects Dialog Box

146 Surface Modeling


Erase Existing Objects Dialog Box Definitions
Option Function
Surface Model Select the surface model for which to erase the existing objects.
Triangles This allows you to erase the existing triangle objects from the CAD graphic for the surface
model selected.
Contours This allows you to erase the existing contour objects from the CAD graphic for the surface
model selected.
Contour This allows you to erase the existing contour annotation from the CAD graphic for the
Annotation surface model selected.
Grid This allows you to erase the existing grid squares from the CAD graphic for the surface

Chapter 7: Output
model selected.
Elevation Labels This allows you to erase the existing elevation labels from the CAD graphic for the surface
model selected.
Breaklines This allows you to erase the existing breakline objects from the CAD graphic for the
surface model selected.
Boundary This allows you to erase the existing boundary objects from the CAD graphic for the
surface model selected.
Void Regions This allows you to erase the existing void regions from the CAD graphic for the surface
model selected.

Preview Surface Model


CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð?ED@EDð½ð@B5F95GðCEB6135ð=?45<

KEY-IN COMMAND: `bUfc]


The Preview Surface Model command allows you to view different aspects of the specified
surface model in an OpenGL preview dialog box. When the command is chosen, the
default view of the specified surface model is of the triangles. You can use the Display
Settings command to toggle on other items to view including; the surface model boundary,
breaklines, index contours, intermediate contours, a rectangular grid of the model, model
points, triangles and void regions.
For more information on the display settings, see Preview Object Display Settings in the
Eagle Point Menu manual.
The icons across the top of the Preview Objects dialog box (Figure 7-14 on page 148)
control the viewing perspective of the contour map.

Chapter 7: Output 147


Refer to Preview Object in the Eagle Point Menu manual for more information.

Figure 7-14 Preview Objects Dialog Box

Preview Objects Dialog Box Definitions


Option Function
View Commands The icons across the top of the dialog box control the viewing perspective of the surface
model. You can zoom, pan and change the view rotation using these commands.
Refer to Preview Object in the Eagle Point Menu manual for more information.
Display Settings This command allows you to specify what surface model items are shown, the zoom ratio,
pan factor and display type for the objects. The available items to see for the surface
model include; the surface model boundary, breaklines, index contours, intermediate
contours, a rectangular grid of the model, model points, triangles and void regions. The
display types that can be chosen are wire frame, constant shading and hidden line
removal.
For more information on the display settings, see Preview Object Display Settings in the
Eagle Point Menu manual.
Surface Model Select the surface model for which to create contours by selecting it from the drop list. The
All Surface Models icon allows you to select a surface model from a different project.

148 Surface Modeling


Print Crossing Breaklines
CEB6135ð=?45<9>7ð½ð?ED@EDð½ð3B?CC9>7ð2B51;<9>5C

KEY-IN COMMAND: `bY^dhR\


The Print Crossing Breaklines command allows you to print the listing of all of the
breaklines that cross. The information that will be printed are the Northing and Easting
coordinates of the crossing breaklines and the elevation of both of the breaklines. For

Chapter 7: Output
more information about Crossing Breaklines, see Crossing Breaklines on page 47.

Chapter 7: Output 149


150 Surface Modeling
SURFACE
MODELING GLOSSARY
OF

TE R M S
Breakline
This is a line/polyline/linestring that represents a
feature on the surface that is to be strictly adhered to
during triangulation (i.e., a triangle side may not cross
a breakline). Contours that pass through road
centerlines, edges of pavements, flow lines, buildings
and ponds are distinguished by breaklines. By default,
all lines/polylines/linestrings are defined as breaklines
unless they are masked otherwise.

Boundary
This is a closed polyline or shape that is used to
define the extents of a surface model. It may be two
dimensional or three dimensional. If the boundary is
two-dimensional and is not placed at an elevation
appropriate to the rest of the data (i.e., placed at 0
elevation), make sure that the valid elevation range for
the surface model is set to exclude the elevation that
the boundary is drawn at. If a boundary is not
constructed, one will be created for you when
triangulating surfaces.

Crossing Breaklines
When breaklines touch each other without a vertex
placed at the crossing, they are considered crossing
breaklines. A surface model cannot be properly made
when two breaklines cross and don’t share a common
vertex. Surface Modeling has tools to identify
crossings and to fix them.

Glossary of Terms 151


Curved Breakline
Some features used in the creation of the surface model may have arcs in them that
are to be treated as breaklines. Surface Modeling can see those arcs as breaklines
and will internally densify them during triangulation.

Densify
This is the process of inserting additional vertices along objects that are to be used
during triangulation.

Digital Terrain Model (DTM)


See Surface Model.

Elevation Table
An elevation table may be created to establish elevation ranges or “bands” when
placing triangles or grid squares into the CAD graphic. Each elevation range may have
a different layer/level and color assigned to it.

Grid Elevation Labels


Spot elevation labels may be placed by setting grid parameters. You may specify the
X- and Y-coordinate intervals of the elevation grid.

Grid Skirt
A grid skirt may be constructed when a rectangular grid is placed into the CAD graphic.
The skirt places additional faces along the sides of the rectangular grid down to the
minimum elevation of the surface model.

Index Contour Interval


This refers to the interval at which you want the major contour lines to be placed. Index
contours have their own CAD settings associated with them so they may be placed on
different layers/levels and in different colors than Intermediate contours.

Intermediate Contour Interval


This refers to the interval at which you want the minor contour lines to be placed.
Intermediate contours have their own CAD settings associated with them so they may
be placed on different layers/levels and in different colors than Index contours.

Masking
This is the process of assigning certain properties to objects that are to be used in the
creation of a surface model. Because the triangulation process assumes all objects

152 Surface Modeling


that are visible and in the elevation range selected are valid to use in the creation of the
surface model, some things may need to be excluded or masked as no-break features.

Maximum Length of Triangle Side


This is a surface model creation setting that controls the length of any side of any
triangle such that it does not exceed this length. If a triangle would be formed with a
side that would exceed this length, that triangle switches its diagonal until it finds a
valid length. If it cannot create a triangle with a side length less than the maximum, the
triangulation routine throws the triangle out and a void region forms or the outside
boundary is tightened.

Maximum Valid Elevation


This is a surface model creation setting that controls the highest elevation of an object
that can be used during the triangulation process. If the process encounters an object
at a higher elevation than this setting, it ignores it.

Merge Surface Model


This is the process of combining two or more surface models together to form one,
composite surface model.

Minimum Valid Elevation


This is a surface model creation setting that controls the lowest elevation of an object
that can be used during the triangulation process. If the process encounters an object
at a lower elevation than this setting, it ignores it.

Point Tolerance
This is a surface model creation setting that controls how close points have to be to
each other before the triangulation process considers them coincident and removes
them.

Polynomial Factor
This is a contour creation setting that is used to control how smooth a contour looks. It
is based on splining techniques and is performed on the contour lines after they have
been interpolated from the triangles of the surface model. Contours created with a
polynomial factor may not be as accurate as contours produced with a smoothing
factor specified.

Preview Contours
This is a graphic display of a surface model’s contours on a dialog box, rather than
inside of CAD.

Glossary of Terms 153


Rectangular Grid
This is a three-dimensional grid that represents the top of a surface model. The X and
Y dimensions of the grid are user definable.

Shadow
Shadow objects are temporarily shown in the CAD graphic. As soon as the graphic is
regenerated/updated the objects disappear. These objects are useful when you want
to see contours within a certain area but are unsure whether or not you want them
permanently placed within CAD.

Smoothing Factor
A contour creation setting that is used to control how smooth a contour looks. It is
based on a triangle densification process that produces more triangle legs for a
contour line to intercept, thereby producing less “jagged” contours.

Spot Elevation Label


This is a user-defined location that when picked graphically, annotates the elevation of
the point according to the surface model.

Surface Model
This is the network (mesh) of triangles that are created by connecting all valid points
and object endpoints selected, according to the Delauney triangulation method.
Sometimes it is referred to as a Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) or Digital Terrain
Model (DTM).

Switch Diagonal
This is a surface modeling edit command that re-triangulates two adjacent triangles
such that the common leg between them switches endpoints.

Triangulate
This is the process of creating a surface model. Eagle Point uses the Delauney method
of triangulation.

Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN)


See Surface Model.

User-defined Contour
This is a contour that can be constructed at any elevation on the surface model. This is
commonly used to denote flood plains and other constant elevation features.

154 Surface Modeling


Vertical Scale Factor
This is a numeric value that scales the Z-coordinate of the object being placed into the
CAD graphic. Triangles and rectangular grids have the ability to be placed at a scaled
elevation. A factor of 1 keeps the Z-coordinate of the object at its true (original)
elevation.

Void Region
This is an interior boundary used to denote areas within the surface model that are not
to be triangulated across. Buildings, ponds and other features you do not want to
generate contours through should be defined as void regions.

Weed
This is the process of removing vertices from CAD objects that are going to be used
during triangulation.

Write Output
This is a toggle that appears within different commands in Surface Modeling that
allow for objects (triangles, contours and rectangular grids) to be placed into drawings/
design files other than the current CAD graphic. The destination drawing/design file
must exist before writing any output to it.

Glossary of Terms 155


156 Surface Modeling
INDEX

A Batch Operations Rectangular Grid


Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Absolute Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Batch Operations Surface Model
Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Add Final Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Batch Operations Contours Parameters . . . . . 59
Add Point to Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Batch Operations Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Add Point to Surface Model Batch Operations Rectangular Grid
Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Place Shadow Grid Dialog Box . . . . . . . . 61
Add Point to Surface Model Dialog Box . . . . . 105 Batch Operations Surface Model
All Surface Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Triangulate Surface Model
Annotate Contour Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Annotate Contour Settings Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58, 83, 87, 90, 147
Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Boundary, place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Annotate Contour Settings Dialog Box . . . . . 125 Break Contour Around Annotation . . . . . . . . 126
Annotate Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Annotate Contour Settings . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Breaklines, place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Annotate Contours Dialog Box . . . . . . . . 123 Build File List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83, 85, 88, 91
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Build File List Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Annotate Contours Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Build File List Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Annotation Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 By Layer/Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Annotation Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 By Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Annotation Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Arc Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
C
Arc/Curve Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
ARX object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 CAD Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 31, 33,
ASCII Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 35, 60, 61, 67, 68, 69, 114, 116, 117, 119,
ASCII Point File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 121, 124, 128, 130, 131, 132, 139, 142, 143,
ASCII Point file comma or space 144, 145
delimited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Calculate Grade & Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
ASCII Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43, 45 Calculate Grade & Distance
AutoCAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Available Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Calculate Grade & Distance Dialog Box . . . . . 97
Average Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Change Contour Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Change Contour Elevation Dialog Box . . 70
B QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Change Contour Elevation Dialog Box . . . . . . 70
Batch Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Change Default Smoothing Factor . . . . . . . . . 34
Batch Operations Contours Change Masking Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Change Masking Type Dialog Box . . . . . . 73
Batch Operations Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . 57 QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Index 157
Change Masking Type Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . 73 Make Intermediate Contours . . . . . . . . . .119
Change Point Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Make Shadow Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . .113
Change Point Elevation Dialog Box . . . . 102 Make User-Defined Contours . . . . . . . . .120
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Preview Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112
Change Point Elevation Dialog Box . . . . . . . 102 Contours Alone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Change Triangle Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Contours Connecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Change Triangle Elevation Dialog Box . 103 Contours Create . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Contours Not Connecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Change Triangle Elevation Dialog Box . . . . . 103 Contours of Surface Model Before Diagonal
Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Reference Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Contours Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36, 37, 39, 134, 135, 137 Contours Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29, 30
Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Contours with Surface Model Triangles
Creating Surface Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Imported . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Creating Surface Models from Contours . . 5 Contours, erase existing . . . . . . . . . . . . 114, 116,
Creating Surface Models from 117, 119, 121
Sparse Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
Curved Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Copy Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23, 40, 41
Editing the Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Copy Surface Model Dialog Box . . . . . . . .41
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Copy Surface Model Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . .41
Masking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Creating Surface Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Polynomial Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Creating Surface Models from Contours . . . . . .5
Smoothing Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Contours Connecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Construct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Contours Not Connecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Change Contour Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Desired Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Change Masking Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Creating Surface Models from Sparse Data . . . .8
Construct Feature Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Nodes Used in Triangulation . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Densify Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Normal Surface Model Contours . . . . . . . .10
Digitize Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Surface Model Made from
Join Broken Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Sparse Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Join Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Crossing # . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Mask Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Crossing Breakline Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Show Masked Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Crossing Breakline Settings
Unmask All Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Weed Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Crossing Breakline Settings Dialog Box . . . . . .49
Construct Feature Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Crossing Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Construct Feature Line Dialog Box . . . . . 64 Crossing Breakline Settings . . . . . . . . . . .49
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Crossing Breaklines Dialog Box . . . . . . . .47
Construct Feature Line Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . 64 Crossing Breaklines Dialog Box
Construction Method . . . . . . . 25, 30, 32, 35, 131 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Contour Annotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Crossing Breaklines Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Contour of Surface Model after Crossing Breaklines, print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149
Diagonal Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Crossing Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
Contour Smoothing Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Current Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
Contour, break around annotation . . . . . . . . 126 Curved Breakline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111, 147 Curved Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3, 25, 27
Annotate Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Curved Breaklines Dialog Box . . . . . . . . .27
Make Index Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Make Intermediate & Index Contours . . 115 Curved Breaklines Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . .27

158 Surface Modeling


Cut Grid Squares at Elevation Add Point to Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . 105
Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36, 134 Change Point Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Change Triangle Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . 103
D Delete Triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Insert Breakline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Delete Curved Breakline Parameters . . . . . . . 28
Raise/Lower Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . 110
Delete Elevation Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 135
Switch Diagonal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Delete External File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Editing the Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Delete Predefined Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Contour of Surface Model after
Delete Predefined Void Region . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Diagonal Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Delete Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 41
Contours of Surface Model Before
Delete Surface Model Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Diagonal Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Delete Triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Nodes 7 and 4 Connected . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Delete Triangle Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Surface Model Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36, 37, 64, 65,
Delete Triangle Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
104, 105, 121, 134, 135
Delta X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Elevation #1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Delta Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Elevation #2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Densify Arc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Elevation Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Densify Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Elevation Labels Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31, 32
Densify Object Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Elevation Range, delete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Densify Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Elevation Range, display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Densify Object Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Elevation Range, modify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Elevation Range, new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 135
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 51, 54
Elevation Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 36,
Desired Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
61, 132, 134, 139
Digitize Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Elevation Table Dialog Box . . . . . . . 36, 134
Digitize Contours Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . 66
Elevation Table Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . 36, 134
Digitize Contours Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Elevation Table, use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
End Result, Smoothing Factor of 2 . . . . . . . . . 16
Displacement Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41, 110
Endpoints Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36, 134
Erase Existing Boundary for this Surface . . . 144
Display Elevation Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38, 135
Erase Existing Breaklines for this Surface . . 143
Display Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Erase Existing Contour Annotation for
Display Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58, 83, 88, 91, 94
this Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Display Selected Object’s Details . . . . . . . . . . 59
Erase Existing Contours for
Display Selected Objects Details . . . . . 83, 88, 91
this Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60, 114, 116,
Display Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113, 148
117, 119, 121
Display Transverse Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 35
Erase Existing Elevation Labels for
Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65, 98
this Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128, 130
Distance Along . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Erase Existing Grid for this
Distance/Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61, 132, 139
Divide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39, 137
Erase Existing Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Erase Existing Objects Dialog Box . . . . 146
E Erase Existing Objects Dialog Box . . . . . . . . 146
Eagle Point Grid Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Erase Existing Triangles for this Surface . . . 141
Eagle Point Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Erase Existing Void Regions for
Easting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48, 64, 65, 105 this Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Edit Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Existing Contour, modify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68, 69

Index 159
Export ASCII Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Increment each color number . . . . . . . . . .39, 137
Export ASCII Breaklines Dialog Box . . . . 46 Increment Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39, 70, 137
Export ASCII Breaklines Dialog Box . . . . . . . . 46 Index and Interval contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
Export ASCII Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Index contour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
Export ASCII Points Dialog Box . . . . . . . . 45 Index Contour Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
Export ASCII Points Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Index Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
External Point File(s) . . . . . . . . . . . 58, 83, 88, 91 Index Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Insert Breakline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
F Insert Breakline Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . .107
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
File Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43, 44, 45, 46, 85, 86
Insert Breakline Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
File Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Intermediate contour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
Final Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Intermediate Contour Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
First Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Intermediate Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85, 86
Intermediate Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Format Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43, 45, 46, 86
Interval Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
Four Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
From . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
From Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
J
G Join Broken Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
Join Broken Contours Dialog Box . . . . . . .69
Generate Elevation Range Dialog Box . . . . . . 39
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
Generate Elevation Table . . . . . 37, 38, 135, 136
Join Broken Contours Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . .69
Generate Elevation Range
Join Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Join Contours Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
Generate Elevation Table
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Join Contours Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39, 137
Generate Elevation Table Dialog Box . . . . . . 137
Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
L
Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61, 147 Layer/Level . . . . . . .36, 37, 39, 55, 134, 135, 137
Grid Elevation Labels, place . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Length of Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Grid Elevation Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Line Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Grid object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Line Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
Grid Rotation Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32, 131 Load Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Grid Skirt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 35, 61, 132 Lock/Unlock Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Grid Squares, cut at elevation change . . . . . 134 Longitudinal Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33, 34
Grid, place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
M
I Make Copy of Contour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68, 69
Import ASCII Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Make Index Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
Import ASCII Breaklines Dialog Box . . . . 44 Make Index Contours Dialog Box . . . . . .117
Import ASCII Breaklines Dialog Box . . . . . . . . 44 QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118
Import ASCII Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Make Index Contours Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . .117
Import ASCII Points Dialog Box . . . . . . . . 43 Make Intermediate & Index Contours . . . . . . .115
Import ASCII Points Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Make Intermediate & Index Contours
Import Elevation Table Legend . . . . . . . . 61, 132, Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
139, 141 QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116

160 Surface Modeling


Make Intermediate & Index Contours Maximum Elevation Change . . . . . . . . . . . 77, 78
Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Maximum Length Triangle Side . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Make Intermediate Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Maximum Middle Ordinate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Make Intermediate Contours Maximum Valid Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Merge Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Merged Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Make Intermediate Contours Dialog Box . . . . 119 Minimum Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Erase Existing Contours for Minimum Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39, 42, 137
this Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Minimum Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Make Shadow Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Minimum Valid Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Make Shadow Contours Dialog Box . . . . 114 Modify Curved Breakline Parameters . . . . . . . 28
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Modify Elevation Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 135
Make Shadow Contours Dialog Box . . . . . . . 114 Modify Existing Contour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68, 69
Make User-Defined Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Modify Predefined Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Make User-Defined Contours Modify Predefined Void Region . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Modify Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Modify Surface Model Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Make User-Defined Contours Move Final Surface Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Move Final Surface Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Manage Surface Models . . . . . . . . 22, 82, 87, 90 Multiple Final Surface Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Copy Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Multiple Final Surface Models
Delete Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Elevation Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Multiple Final Surface Models Dialog Box . . . . 95
Generate Elevation Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Manage Surface Models Dialog Box . . . . 22 N
New Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
New Curved Breakline Parameters . . . . . . . . . 28
New Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
New Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
New Surface Model – Contours Tab . . . . 29
New Elevation Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
New Surface Model –
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Elevation Labels Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
New Elevation Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
New Surface Model –
New Elevation Range . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 134, 135
Rectangular Grid Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
New Elevation Range Dialog Box . . . . . 135
New Surface Model –
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Surface Model Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
New Elevation Range Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . 135
Surface Model Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
New External File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85, 86
Surface Model Prototype Library . . . . . . . 26
New External File Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . 86
Manage Surface Models Dialog Box . . . . . . . . 22
New External File Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Mark Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
New Predefined Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 51
Mask Both Crossing Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
New Predefined Boundary
Mask Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Mask Objects Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
New Predefined Boundary Dialog Box . . . . . . 51
Mask Objects Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
New Predefined Void Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Mask Shorter Breakline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
New Predefined Void Regions
Masked Objects Found . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Masking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Masking Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72, 76
New Predefined Void Regions Dialog Box . . . 54
Maximum Deflection Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
New Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22, 23
Maximum Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39, 42, 137

Index 161
Curved Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Place Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
New Surface Model – Contours Tab . . . . . . . . 29 Place Boundary Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . .144
New Surface Model – QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
Elevation Labels Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Place Boundary Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
New Surface Model – Place Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143
Rectangular Grid Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Place Breaklines Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . .143
Write Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143
New Surface Model – Place Breaklines Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . .143
Surface Model Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Place Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138
New Surface Model Dialog Box – Place Grid Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139
Contours Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140
New Surface Model Dialog Box – Place Grid Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139
Elevation Labels Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Place Grid Elevation Label Settings . . . . . . . .131
New Surface Model Dialog Box – Place Grid Elevation Label Settings
Rectangular Grid Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
New Surface Model Dialog Box – Place Grid Elevation Label Settings
Surface Model Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
New Surface Model Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Place Grid Elevation Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
Next Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Place Grid Elevation Label Settings . . . .131
Nodes 7 and 4 Connected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Place Grid Elevation Labels
Nodes Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
Nodes Used in Triangulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130
Normal Surface Model Contours . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Place Grid Elevation Labels Dialog Box . . . . .129
Northing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48, 64, 65, 105 Place Shadow Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
Number of Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Elevation Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134
Number of Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77, 78 Generate Elevation Table . . . . . . . . . . . .136
New Elevation Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
O Place Shadow Grid Dialog Box . . . . . . . .132
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
Ordered Final Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Place Shadow Grid Dialog Box . . . . . . . .61, 132
Original Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Place Spot Elevation Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Other Layer/Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Place Spot Elevation Labels
Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Erase Existing Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Place Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Place Spot Elevation Labels Dialog Box . . . .128
Place Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Place Symbol Around Annotation . . . . . . . . . .126
Place Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Place Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59, 83, 88,
Place Grid Elevation Labels . . . . . . . . . 129
91, 100, 102, 104, 106, 107, 109, 140
Place Shadow Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Place Triangles Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . .141
Place Spot Elevation Labels . . . . . . . . . 128
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
Place Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Place Triangles Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141
Place Void Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Place Void Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
Preview Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Place Void Regions Dialog Box . . . . . . .145
Print Crossing Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . 149
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
Output, write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Place Void Regions Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . .145
Plan Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
P Pnt#,N,E, Elev,Line Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
Parameters . . . . . . 100, 102, 104, 106, 107, 109 Pnt#,N,E,Elev, Desc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43, 45
PIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64, 97, 105 Pnt#,N,E,Elev,Line Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44

162 Surface Modeling


Point to Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Reference External Drawing/
Point Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Design File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 31, 35
Polynomial Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16, 30 Relative Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Predefined Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Remove Final Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
New Predefined Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Repair All . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Predefined Boundaries Dialog Box . . . . . 50 Repair Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Predefined Boundaries Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . 50 Resulting Contours with a Smoothing
Predefined Boundary, modify . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Factor of 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Predefined Boundary, new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Resulting Contours with Smoothing
Predefined Void Region, modify . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Factor of 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Predefined Void Region, new . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Predefined Void Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
New Predefined Void Region . . . . . . . . . . 53 S
Predefined Void Regions Dialog Box . . . . 53
Save To . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Predefined Void Regions Dialog Box . . . . . . . . 53
Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Prepare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Screen Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Batch Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Screen Display, use . . . 114, 116, 117, 119, 121
Crossing Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Selected File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43, 45, 86
Export ASCII Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Selection Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Export ASCII Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Separate Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Import ASCII Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48, 59, 60, 61,
Import ASCII Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
83, 88, 91, 114, 116, 118, 119, 121, 128, 130,
Manage Surface Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
132, 139, 142
Predefined Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Shadow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Predefined Void Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Shadow Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Shapes, grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Preview Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Shapes, triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Preview Contours Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . 112
Show Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Show Masked Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Preview Contours Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Preview Objects Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Show Masked Objects Dialog Box . . . . . . 76
Preview Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Show Masked Objects Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . 76
Preview Objects Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . 148
Show Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Print Crossing Breaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . 48, 149
Show Void Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Properties for Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Prototype List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Smoothing Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 30, 33, 91
R Contours Alone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Raise/Lower Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Contours with Surface Model Triangles
Raise/Lower Surface Model Imported . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 End Result, Smoothing Factor of 2 . . . . . 16
Raise/Lower Surface Model Dialog Box . . . . 110 Four Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Record Increment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Resulting Contours with a Smoothing
Rectangular Grid Create . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Factor of 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Rectangular Grid Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Resulting Contours with Smoothing
Rectangular Grid Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 34 Factor of 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Reference Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100, 102, Sub-Triangulation That Occurs When
104, 106, 107, 109 Using a Smoothing Factor of 1 . . . . . 14

Index 163
Sub-Triangulation That Occurs When Track Coordinates Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
Using a Smoothing Factor of 2 . . . . . 15 Triangle, delete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
Standard Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147
Starting Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67, 70 Triangulate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Sub-Triangulation That Occurs When Calculate Grade & Distance . . . . . . . . . . .97
Using a Smoothing Factor of 1 . . . . . . . . 14 Track Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
Sub-Triangulation That Occurs When Triangulate Merged Surface Models . . . . .93
Using a Smoothing Factor of 2 . . . . . . . . 15 Triangulate Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Surface Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Triangulate Surface Model from
Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42, 45, 46, Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
51, 54, 57, 58, 60, 61, 82, 87, 90, 97, 100, Triangulate Surface Model from
102, 104, 105, 107, 109, 110, 113, 114, 116, Sparse Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
117, 119, 121, 123, 128, 130, 132, 139, 141, Triangulate Merged Surface Models . . . . . . . .93
143, 144, 145, 147, 148 Multiple Final Surface Models . . . . . . . . . .95
Surface Model Create . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94
Surface Model Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Triangulate Merged Surface Models
Surface Model Made from Sparse Data . . . . . 11 Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Surface Model Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Triangulate Merged Surface Models
Surface Model Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Surface Model Properties Dialog Box . . . 42 Triangulate Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Surface Model Properties Dialog Box . . . . . . . 42 Build File List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Surface Model Prototype Library . . . . . . . 24, 26 New External File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
Surface Model Prototype Library QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Triangulate Surface Model Dialog Box . . .82
Surface Model Prototype Library Triangulate Surface Model Dialog Box . . . .58, 82
Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Triangulate Surface Model from Contours . . . .87
Surface Model Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
Surface Model, modify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Triangulate Surface Model from
Surface Model, new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Contours Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
Surface Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Triangulate Surface Model from Contours
Surface, grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
Surface, triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Triangulate Surface Model from Sparse
Switch Diagonal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
Switch Diagonal Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . 109 Triangulate Surface Model from
Switch Diagonal Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Sparse Data Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . .90
Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32, 126 Triangulate Surface Model from Sparse Data
Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
T Triangulate Surface Model routine . . . . . . . . . .47
Trim Breakline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132, 139, 141
Text Height Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Text Rotation Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32, 131
U
To . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Unmask All Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
To point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
To Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Unmask All Objects Dialog Box . . . . . . . .75
Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Unmask All Objects Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . .75
Track Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Uphill/Downhill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126
Track Coordinates Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . 96 Use ASCII Point File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86

164 Surface Modeling


Use Elevation Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Use External Point File(s) . . . . . . . 58, 83, 88, 91
Use Nodes Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Use Screen Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60, 114,
116, 117, 119, 121
User Defined Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
User-Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
User-Defined Boundary . . . . . . . . . . 94, 132, 139
User-defined Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60, 114,
116, 117, 119, 121, 141
User-defined Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

V
Vertex of 2-D and 3-D complex objects . . . . . . 50
Vertical Scale Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 34
vertical scale factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
View Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113, 148
Void Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58, 83, 88, 91, 147
Void regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

W
Weed Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
QuickSteps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Weed Objects Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Weed Objects Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Write Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Write Output External Drawing/
Design File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 31, 35
Write Output Plan Drawing/Design File . . . . . .25,
31, 35

X
X Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91, 131
X,Y,Z,Desc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43, 45
X,Y,Z,Line Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44, 46
X-interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
X-Interval, Y-Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32, 34

Y
Y Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91, 131
Y-Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32, 34
Y-interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Index 165
166 Surface Modeling