Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 83

# 2.

## From Material Balance to

Reservoir Simulation
Gillian Pickup 2016

1
Outline
• Lecture 1
– Material Balance

• Lecture 2
– Darcy’s Law

• Lecture 3
– Buckley-Leverett Theory

2
Lecture 1
• Introduction
– Review of basic engineering concepts

• Material Balance
– Derivation of equations for an under-saturated oil
– Determination of STOIIP for an oil reservoir with no
water production or aquifer influx

3
1.1 Review of Basic Engineering Quantities

## • We assume you are familiar with:

– Viscosity (mo, mw and mg)
– Density (ro, rw, rg)
– Phase saturations (So, Sw, Sg)
– Initial or connate water saturation (Swi or Swc)
– Residual oil saturation (Sor)

## • What are the units for viscosity and density?

4
1.1 Review of Basic Engineering Quantities

## • We assume you are familiar with:

– Viscosity (mo, mw and mg) – cP, Pas
– Density (ro, rw, rg) – lb/ft3, kg/m3
– Phase saturations (So, Sw, Sg)
– Initial or connate water saturation (Swi or Swc)
– Residual oil saturation (Sor)

5
Review of Basic Engineering Quantities
• Formation Volume Factors
– Bo, Bw, Bg

Bo 
Vol. oil at STC

## – What are the units for B?

– How do Bo, Bw, Bg vary with pressure?

6
Review of Basic Engineering Quantities
• Formation Volume Factors
– Bo, Bw, Bg
– reservoir volume/stock tank volume
– Units of rb/stb, or rm3/sm3
– Stock Tank Conditions – 60oF, 14.7 psi

7
Variation of B with Pressure
• Formation Volume Factor

Bg
Bo
FVF

Bw

Pb P

8
Review of Basic Engineering Quantities
• Gas solubility factor, or solution gas oil ratio
– Rso, Rsw

Rso 
Vol. oil at STC

## – What are the units for Rso?

– How does Rso vary with pressure?

9
Review of Basic Engineering Quantities
• Gas solubility factor, or solution gas oil ratio
– Rso, Rsw
– Units are scf/stb (sometimes Mscf/stb), or sm3/sm3

Rso
Rso

Pb P

10
Review of Basic Engineering Quantities
• Isothermal fluid compressibilities
– co , cw , cg

1  rk  1  Vk 
ck     
rk  P  Vk  P 
k = o, w or g

## – What are the units for co?

11
Review of Basic Engineering Quantities
• Isothermal fluid compressibilities
– co , cw , cg

1  rk  1  Vk 
ck     
rk  P  Vk  P 
k = o, w or g
– Units are psi-1, bar-1, or Pa-1
– Note that we sometimes assume that co is constant with
pressure, but this is not necessarily the case

12
2. Material Balance
• Material balance has been used in reservoir
• It is used for
– Determining the STOIIP
– Calculating water influx
– Predicting mean pressure in the future

## • It can supply the input for reservoir simulation

13
• See textbook on “The Practice of Reservoir
Engineering” (and Topic 2 notes)
• Note that:
– Performing reservoir simulation does not replace
good reservoir engineering analysis
– MB and RS are complimentary
– When setting up a reservoir simulation, you are
inputting the STOIIP, but this should be a history
matching parameter

14
Notes on Material Balance
• Material balance is a volume balance
• The volume of the reservoir is assumed fixed
• The changes in the reservoir volumes of oil,
water, gas and rock must add up to zero
• If oil is produced, other fluids are rock must
expand to fill the space
• Reservoir pressure will drop, although this may
be balanced by influx of water

15
Notes on Material Balance
• The reservoir response depends on the
compressibilities or the fluid and the rock
Fluid or formation Compressibility (10-6 psi-1)
Formation rock, crock 3 - 10
Water, cw 2-4
Undersaturated oil, co 5 - 100
Gas at 1000 psi, cg 900 - 1300
Gas at 5000 psi, cg 50 - 200

16
2.2 Derivation of Material Balance
Initial Conditions
• Initial conditions pressure = po
• Reservoir is a “tank” oil
• Swi is average saturation
– may be distributed N
throughout the tank
NBoi = Vf.(1-Swi)
– but drawn here separately

water, Swi
W = Vf.Swi

17
Derivation of Material Balance
After Production (Np)
pressure = p
• After a time, oil has
been produced oil oil prod, Np
– P has fallen
(N – Np)Bo water
– water may be produced prod, Wp
– also, water may NBoi = Vf.(1-Swi)
encroach from aquifer

water, Sw
W + We - WpBw
water influx, We
18
Definitions
Symbol Definition
N STOIIP – stock tank oil initially in place (stb)
Boi Initial formation volume factor of oil (rb/stb)
Np Cumulative volume of oil produced at time t, pressure, p (stb)
Bo Oil formation volume factor at current t and p (rb/stb)
W Initial volume of water in the reservoir (rb)
Wp Cumulative volume of produced water (stb)
Bw Water formation volume factor (rb/stb)
We Water influx into reservoir (rb) (“e” stands for “encroachment”)
cw Isothermal compressibility of water
crock Isothermal compressibility of rock
p Change in reservoir pressure , p – po

## Vf Initial void space (rb); V f  N .Boi 1  Swi  ; W  V f .Swi

Swi Initial water saturation (of the whole system)
cf Void space isothermal compressibility (psi-1) c f  1 V f  V f p 

19
Pressure Change and Volume Balance
• Initial pressure is Po, after production of some oil
pressure has reduced to P
• Change in pressure is taken as P = P – Po
– So P is negative

• Volume balance is
Vo  Vw  Vrock  Vo  Vw  V f  0 (1)

20
Material Balance Equation
• Full derivation in the Appendix for Topic 2

##  Np  Boi Boi  Swi  cw  c f 

   1    p  0 (2)
 N  Bo Bo  1  S wi 

## • The following assumptions have been made

– there is no gas cap and no gas is coming out of solution
– there is no water production and no water is coming in
from the aquifer

21
Material Balance Equation
• Alternative form

##  Np  Boi Boi  Swi  cw  c f 

1      p
 N  Bo Bo  1  S wi  (3)

## • N p N is the recovery factor, so

 
• 1  N p N is the oil remaining in the reservoir

22
STOIIP Calculation
How well do you
• Need to know Bo(P), Swi, cw and cf think this input
• Also Np and P as a function of time data is known?

##  Np  Boi Boi  Swi  cw  c f 

1      p
 N  Bo Bo  1  S wi 

23
STOIIP Calculation, contd
• Plot 1  N p N  vs  p
• With perfect data, will be ~ straight line for o/w
– could be some noise though

24
Bo as a Function of Pressure
• Bo may vary linearly with P above the bubble point

25
Calculation of STOIIP
• We know “X” from the RHS of Equation 3
• For a given p and Np, we can calculate N

Np
1 Y
N
X

0
 p

26
2.3 Conditions for the Validity of Mat Bal

## • We assume that the whole reservoir is at one

pressure
– Pressure must equilibrate rapidly
– Hydraulic diffusivity, Dh, must be large
• See Topic 4

k
Dh 
m c

27
Conditions for the Validity of Mat Bal
• Also, we must have adequate data
– Cumulative production and pressure as a function of time
– PVT data (Bo, cw, cf)
– Also an estimate of Swi – average water saturation

## • We must be able to define the average pressure

decline
– the more “tank like” the better

28
What Mat Bal Can’t Do
• There are a many things which Mat Bal cannot do,
where you need reservoir simulation, e.g.
– Predicting water breakthrough in a water flood
– Deciding where to drill in-fill wells
– Complex recovery processes, such as EOR (Topic 9)

29
Review of Lecture 1
• In this lecture, we have revised some general
reservoir engineering
• Make sure that you are familiar with:
– m, r, c, Sw, B, Rs

## • Also, you should understand the concept of material

balance
– and know how to calculate the STOIIP

30
Lecture 2
• Review of Darcy’s Law
– Important because we’ll be dealing with fluid flow

## • Single Phase Darcy’s Law

– Darcy Experiment
– Darcy’s Law with Gravity

## • Darcy’s Law for Two-Phase Flow

31
Darcy’s Law
• This is not actually how Darcy did his experiment, but
shows how permeability could be measured in a lab

P

Q Q

kA  P 
Q
m  L 

32
Darcy’s Law
• In a given system (fixed L and A), flow rate is
proportional to P
– constant of proportionality = k/m
P

Q Q

kA  P   is a constant which
Q
m  L  depends on the units

33
Area, A
• Note that the area A is the area perpendicular to
flow
– for flow in the x-direction, A  y  z

A
y
x

34
Darcy’s Law
• Usually written as

Q k P k  P 
u   .   .  (4)
 A m L m  x 
Flow along x
• Note the minus sign P
– Fluid flows down pressure gradient

35
Units – See Table 4 of Notes
• The permeability of a piece of rock 1 cm3 is 1 Darcy if
the flow rate is 1 cc/s and the pressure gradient is 1
atm/cm
– In this case  = 1

## • Normally, we give permeability in mD

• In field units (bbl/day, ft, psi, cP, mD)
–  = 1.127 x 10-3

36
Units, contd
• MRST uses SI units,
– length in m
– time in s
– pressure in Pa
– viscosity in Pa.s
– permeability is in m2
– (and  = 1 when using SI units)

## 1 Darcy = 9.869 x 10-9 cm2 = 0.9869 x 10-12 m2 ~ 1 mm2

37
Darcy’s Law in 3D
• Fluid can flow in any direction, and simulator
needs to take account of this

1  P  1  P 
ux  - kx   uy  - ky  
m  x  m  y 

1  P 
uz  - kz   (5)
m  z 

## • More details in the Appendix for Topic 2

38
Darcy’s Law in 1D with Gravity
• Darcy’s Law becomes

1  P z 
ux  - k x  - gr  (6)
m  x x 

## • g is the acceleration due to gravity

• r is the density

39
Darcy’s Law in an Inclined System
• Suppose the x-axis is tilted by an angle, q

 z 
   sin q
 x 

40
Darcy’s Law in an Inclined System
• Then

1  P 
ux  - kx  - g.r .sin q  (7)
m  x 

41
• So far, we have used Cartesian coords (x, y, z)
• However, when simulating flow in vertical wells,

42
• Notation
Q = volumetric flow rate of fluid into well
r = radial distance from well
h = height of formation
dP = incremental pressure drop from r  (r + dr) i.e. over dr
A = area of surface at r = 2p.r.h
m = fluid viscosity
k = formation permeability

43
• Radial form of Darcy’s Law

2p khr  dP 
Q   (8)
m  dr 

44
2p khr  dP 
• Rearrange Equation (8) Q
m  dr 

mQ  dr 
dP     (9)
2p kh  r 

## • Integrate between the wellbore radius (rw) and some

distance, r

45
• Integrating
mQ  dr  mQ  dr 
r r rw r

r dP   2p kh r  r  or r dP   2p kh r  r  (10)
w w w

• Therefore
mQ  r 
P  rw   P  r   P (r )  ln   (11)
2p kh  rw 
• This is the pressure drop away from an injector
– Change signs for a producer

46
• Pressure varies logarithmically with radius
mQ  r 
P(r )  ln   More in Topic 3
2p kh  rw 

47
4. Darcy’s Law for Two-Phase Flow
• Usually we have at least two phases flowing in a
reservoir
– We will focus on 2 phases – oil and water

k f A Pf
Qf 
mf L

## • kf is the permeability to fluid, f

– Sometimes termed effective permeability

48
Darcy’s Law for Two-Phase Flow
• Darcy-type experiment with oil and water

Pw
Po
Qw Qw
Qo Qo

49
Darcy’s Law for Two-Phase Flow
Pw
Po
Qw Qw
Qo Qo

## k f A  Pf  kabs krf A  Pf 

Qf      (13)
mf  L  mf  L 
f = o or w

## kf = phase permeability; krf = relative permeability

kabs = absolute, or single-phase permeability
50
Relative Permeability
• Typical relative permeability curves
– More on rel perms in Topic 7

51
Capillary Pressure
• Note that Po and Pw may be different due to capillary
pressure

Pc  Sw   Po  Pw
• Strictly speaking Pc is
Pc  Sw   Pnonwett .  Pwett .

• More on Pc in Topic 7

52
Two-Phase Flow with Gravity
• Differential form of Darcy’s Law

k .krw  Pw z 
uw  -  - g rw 
m  x x 
(14)
k .kro  Po z 
uo  -  - g ro 
m  x x 

53
Review of Lecture 2
• In this lecture, we have revised Darcy’s Law
• Make sure you are very familiar with
– Darcy’s Law for single-phase flow
• linear, in 1D or more dimensions
• with gravity
– Darcy’s law for two-phase flow

54
Lecture 3
Fractional Flow Theory
• Introduction
• Derivation of the Continuity Equation
• Buckley-Leverett Solution
• Welge Tangent

55
Introduction to Fractional Flow
• Although reservoir simulation allows us to calculate
the flow of fluids in complex 3D models, it is very
useful to be able to assess the effect of rel perms
– “shock front” height
– time to breakthrough
– Recovery at breakthrough

56
5.1 Introduction to Fractional Flow
• Although reservoir simulation allows us to calculate
the flow of fluids in complex 3D models, it is very
useful to be able to assess the effect of rel perms
– “shock front” height
– time to breakthrough
– Recovery at breakthrough

57
Simple Problem
. (15)

## • How does a waterflood progress in a 1D model?

• We make a few assumptions
– Water displacing oil (no gas)
– No gravity or Pc
– Incompressible system

## kabs krw . A P kabs kro . A P

Qw   Qo  
mw x mo x
(15)

58
1D Model
• Figure shows part of a 1D model
– split into blocks of length x
– numbered i = 1, 2, …. n

## Block i-1 Block i Block i+1

i-1/2 i+1/2
Rock Rock Rock
A Oil qo Oil Oil
So
qw
Sw
Water Water Water

x x x+x

59
Fractional Flow
• Fractional flow of water and oil
Qw Qo
fw  (16) fo   1  fw (17)
QT QT

## • Using Darcy’s Law

Qw   kabs krw A mw  P x 
fw  
QT   kabs krw A mw  P x    kabs kro A mo  P x 

60
Fractional Flow
• Fractional flow of water from (16)
Qw   kabs krw A mw  P x 
fw  
QT   kabs krw A mw  P x    kabs kro A mo  P x 

## • Cancel kabs, A and P x

1
krw mw 1  kro mw 
fw    1  
krw mw  kro mo  kro mw   krw mo  (18)
1  
 krw mo 

61
Example Fractional Flow Curve
• Since fw depends on rel perm, fw depends on Sw

62
5.2 Continuity Equation
• Consider the 1D model and the mass balance for
block i
– Since we have an incompressible system, this is a volume
balance
Block i-1 Block i Block i+1
i-1/2 i+1/2
Rock Rock Rock
A Oil qo Oil Oil
So
qw
Sw
Water Water Water

x x x+x

63
Continuity Equation
• Mass of water flowing into and out of block i, in time
t

## Mass that Mass the

Change in
flows INTO flows OUT OF
Block i over
- Block i over
= mass in Block i
over time t
time t time t

64
5.2 Continuity Equation
• Mass of water IN over time t = r w  Qw  t x (19)

## • Change in mass over time t =

 A   x  r w  S w t t  A    x  r w  S w t 

 r w  A    S w t t  S w t  (21)

## (r, A and  are constant)

65
Continuity Equation
• From (19), (20) and (21) we get:

  Qw x x
 Qw x r w  t  r w  A    S w t t  S w t 
(22)
• Divide throughout by Axt


 S w t t  Sw t  1  Qw
  x x
 Qw x  0 (23)
t A x

66
Continuity Equation


 S w t t  Sw t  1  Qw
  x x
 Qw x  0 (23)
t A x

• Let x  0, t  0 S w 1 Qw
   0 (24)
t A x

• Or, using Qw  QT  f w
Sw QT f w
   0 (25)
t A x
67
5.3 Buckley-Leverett Solution
• Assumptions
– Water saturation is a function of position and time
• Sw(x,t)
– Oil aren water viscosities are constant
– The rel perms for oil and water are a function of Sw only

## • The fw is a function of Sw only, and

 f w   df w   S w 
   .  (26)
  x   w
dS x 
68
Buckley-Leverett Solution
• Therefore the continuity equation becomes

QT  f w   S w   S w 
      (27)
 A  S w   x   t 

## • The full differential for Sw is

S w S w
dS w  dx  dt (28)
x t t x

69
Take a Fixed Water Saturation
S w S w
dS w  dx  dt (28)
x t t x
• Choose x = x(t) to coincide with a surface of fixed
water saturation, Sw
• Then dSw  0
• So (28) becomes
 dx   Sw   Sw 
     t   x  (29)
 dt  Sw    

70
Buckley-Leverett Solution
 S w   S w  QT  f w 
• (27) can be re-written 

 





 t   x  A  w
S

 dx   Sw   Sw 
• And (29) is        
 dt  Sw  t   x 

• Therefore
 dx  QT  df w 
     (30)
 dt  Sw  A  dS w 

71
Buckley-Leverett Solution
• This is the Buckley-Leverett Equation

 dx  QT  df w   df w 
      vT   (30)
 dt  Sw  A  dS w   dS w 

## • where vT  QT / ( A) is the interstitial velocity

• It says that the velocity of a saturation value, Sw, is
equal to the derivative of the fractional flow times
the total fluid velocity

72
Buckley-Leverett Solution
• Integrating with respect to time gives:

W  t   df w 
x  Sw , t     (31)
A  dS w 

## • where W(t) is the amount of water which has been

injected since t = 0
• It is assumed that water is injected at the left side,
where x = 0

73
Usefulness of B-L Solution
• If we know the relative permeabilities and viscosities,
we can calculate fractional flow as a function of Sw

## • And, if fw(Sw) is differentiable, we can compute the

saturation distribution in a 1D model, as a function of
time

74
5.4 Welge’s Method
• Typical fractional flow curve

75
Derivative of fw
• The velocity and therefore the distance travelled
depend on df w dS w , shown below

xSw  df w dS w

76
Derivative of fw
• Previous figure turned round
– Obviously unrealistic: Sw is double-valued!

77
Saturation vs Distance
• But take a volume balance
– Sw stays at Swc, then there is an abrupt increase – a shock

shock
front

Swc

78
Saturation vs Distance
• But take a volume balance
– Sw stays at Swc, then there is an abrupt increase – a shock

are equal

79
Saturation vs distance
• Final curve

80
Welge Tangent
• Welge discovered that the saturation shock front
could be determined by drawing a tangent from Sw =
Swc to the fractional flow curve.

Welge
tangent

## Swc Swf (1 – Sor)

81
Other Useful Results
• Time to water breakthrough
LA
tbt 
Qw  df w dS w  Swf

## • Recovery efficiency at breakthrough

1
R
df w dS w
• Only valid for a 1D homogeneous system, but good
for a rough estimate

82
Review of Lecture 3
• You should now know
– How to calculate fractional flow
– How to derive the continuity equation
– How to derive the Buckley-Leverett Equation
– The significance of the Welge tangent

## • You will have an opportunity to practise using

Buckley-Leverett Theory in Tutorial 2 for this topic

83