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Background

National research shows Bristol’s and the wider City Region’s (West of England) transport system is a key
to its highly successful and growing economy. The City has population of around 428 00 people and it lies
at the heart of city region 1.1 million people. Bristol’s willingness to take risks and look at new ideas, and
their ambitious plans for the future [Ref 1], led the European Commission choose Bristol to be European
Green Capital 2015 out of all the other nominated European cities in 2015 . This award encompasses
many areas such as energy, waste, food and travel, of which most of these areas are highly influenced by
transport and mobility. Bristol’s local transport is responsible for 27% of city’s energy consumption and
20% of the city’s emissions .This entails the great importance of studying the city’s transport and mobility
plan.

Before 2006 Bristol City had its own transport plan. Due to the cross-authority nature of travel and
economic linkages including bus routes in the four West of England authorities (Bath & North East
Somerset, Bristol City, North Somerset and South Gloucestershire Councils) it was necessary for the
councils to come up with a partnership in producing the Joint Local Transport Plan (JLTP3)(WOE23).The
JLTP3 has been developed under the influence of the previous JLTP 2006-2011,programme of major
transport schemes, engagement, Comprehensive Spending Review 2010 and levels of the future funding
. It was produced under the requirements of the Transport Act 2000 S108 as amended by the Local
Transport Act 2008. Bristol’s mobility plans have been developed in formal partnership with the
neighboring authorities. This led to Bristol City Council’s current mobility plan encompassing the JLTP3
which runs from 2011 to 2026 and is supported by Bristol Development Framework Core Strategy
2011.The Local Development Framework Core Strategy was adopted in 2011 and was prepared having
regard to national planning policy. It replaces parts of the Bristol Local Plan 1997 and provides Spatial
strategy and strategic planning policies to 2026.

Vision of the JLTP3 plan

“In a nutshell we want an affordable, low carbon, accessible, integrated, efficient and reliable transport
network to achieve a more competitive economy and better connected, more active and healthy
communities” JLTP3 (WOE23).

Limitations

The JLTP3 (Joint Local Transport Plan 3) was designed for four City councils , only information concerning
Bristol City Council transport and mobility is provided since this study is limited to Bristol City.

Mobility Plan Structure

The JLTP3 is mainly based on five goals which are the drive behind the strategies. In it there is the Delivery
Plan which outlines how they intend to implement the JLTP3. Within it there are also indicators and targets
which they use to measure if their plan’s objectives have been achieved. All these are supported by the
nine Supplementary documents which outlines in detail the nine targeted areas of transport and mobility.
The JLTP3 is also supported by eleven major transport schemes such GBBN (Greater Bristol Bus Network)
etc.

Bristol’s strategies for transport and mobility


1. Carbon Emissions Strategy:

Focusing on transport solutions that promote lower carbon travel choices, and influencing travel behavior,
promote walking and public transport

2. Sustainable economic growth strategy

Promotes use of alternatives to the car (walking, cycling, public transport and other smarter choices).It
supports delivery of goods and access residential areas and employment. Increase capacity and reliability
of transport networks at the same time ensure that transport facilities are properly maintained and
managed.

3. Accessibility Strategy:

It ensures that access to key services such as health facilities, education and employment for all residents
is achieved, promoting shorter journeys and access to local facilities. It improves access of the rural
residents and people with mobility difficulties to transport facilities.

4. Safety, Health and Security Strategy

Reduce number of road casualties at the same time encouraging more physical travel options such as
cycling ,walking and public walking. It ensures implantation of Air Quality Management Areas. It also
ensure that personal security is improved in the transport network

5. Quality of life Strategy:

It enhances the public realm, journey experience and minimize the impact of transport on the natural
and historic environment. It promotes better access to leisure activities and country side.

Policies

A good organized structure is vital to strong decision making so it is also important to take a look at the
organizational structure that led to the JLTP3.

Responsible for overseeing the preparation of the JLTP3 has been the Joint Transport Executive
Committee. It constituted four 4 councils’ Executive Members for Transport. It is an innovative, dynamic,
forward thinking and strategic body bringing insight and joint decision making to transport matters within
the West of England. It recommends course of action to the council.

There is a Joint Scrutiny Commission that ensures decisions taken by the council reflect the opinions,
wishes and options of the people. It is conducted by elected members who understands those who elected
them [7]
Bristol City Council Plans for transport and mobility

The plans are mainly based on an analysis made which targets different areas of interest within transport
sector which ensures that the municipality goals are met.

With the help of transport studies that were carried out by the four city councils of West of England such
as Carbon Impact Assessment Study (DaSTS 2010) and other major stakeholders such as DfT (Department
for Transport) as well as public engagement activities, supplementary documents for 9 targeted areas
were drafted as part of the JLTP3.These targeted areas are as follows

Cycling, Network Management and Freight, Parking, Road Safety, Public transport, Rural transport,
Walking and Smarter Choices.

With these targeted areas in mind plans were devised in order to meet the JLTP3 goals .The following is a
list of some of the plans

1. Plan to have a city with ample and high quality green open spaces and public realm with new
green links and enhanced public access to services and facilities in accordance with Local Area
Agreement (LAA) targets.
2. Developments should be designed and located to ensure the provision of safe streets and reduce
as far as possible the negative impacts of vehicles such as fumes, excessive volumes and noise.
Proposals should create places and streets where traffic and other activities are integrated [3]
3. Continuing working with neighboring city councils in reducing carbon emissions and address the
issues of climate change
4. Aim for an accessible city with a transport system which minimize use of private cars and
maximized opportunities for walking, cycling and public transport [3]
5. A transport system where both bus and rail play their part .Where buses serve the movements
around and within town, city and rural communities with rail serving both short and long
distances.
6. Plan to build new Showcase bus routes/network providing comfortable, fast, reliable, affordable
and low carbon bus services that will serve wide areas of the city through the implementation of
the Greater Bristol Bus Network.
7. A system of rapid transit network of lower carbon vehicles that will serve the city and support its
areas of growth
8. Plan to develop Cycle and pedestrian facilities that feed in to transport network to reduce car
dependency and encouraging active lifestyle (measures to promote modal shift and behavior
change) [4]
9. Plan to reduce need to travel of the city residents and workers by ensuring that developments are
made where sustainable travel patterns can be achieved and also through development of ICT
(Information and Communication Technology) infrastructure
10. Plan to tackle congestion and improving journey times by improving public transport, cycling
provisions and pedestrian facilities areas through specific schemes.
11. Ensuring that street design gives priority to pedestrian access, cycling and public transport
12. Continuing introduction of 20mph speed limit zones to all residential areas to reduce the impact
of cars in residential areas and to encourage walking and cycling.
13. Plan to reduce city car parking capacity and enhancing public transport for travelers arriving from
wider areas
14. Plan to continue working with neighboring City councils in its transport plans
15. Ensuring that spatial planning is considered through working with Local Development Framework
Core Strategy team
16. Plan to establish new Park and Ride facilities and expand the existing ones
17. Land required for the transport proposals will be safeguarded to enable their future provision
18. The council will continue to investigate the potential demand for management measure such as
parking management (e.g Controlled and Residents Parking Zones), and wider demand
management options where necessary [3]
19. Continue engaging Health Service staff in the City Council transport and planning teams in order
to enhance their understanding of health issues [2]
20. Plan to improve personal Security on the transport network

Implementation of Measures
Equipped with plans, strategies and policies what measures do the municipality implement so as
to actually accomplish its mission?
A local Transport Body by the West of England was established to meet the Department of
Transport objectives. This body is responsible for overseeing delivery of the JLTP3 at local level
and actively manages the devoted budget. This body was established as measure to ensure that
schemes which come forward deliver the value for money.
Before the execution of JLTP3 an impact assessment make was carried out. A Strategic
Environmental Assessment was undertaken. The full Environmental report was published
alongside the JLTP3.It includes the Health Impact Assessment that addresses public health
concerns and an Equalities Impact Assessment addressing anti-discrimination and equalities
legislation. Recommendations for mitigation measures were made that would meet problems
arising as a result of the implementation of the JLTP3.
The Council is investing in new public transport infrastructure but also in softer measures to
promote modal shift and behavior change.

Bristol’s leaders are cycling role models. The Mayor of Bristol (George Ferguson) is regularly seen
out and about on his bike, as are leading figures in business and education as well as many City
council employees. This influence the implementation of cyclist related plans and encouraging
the public to use bicycles as a mode of transport
In 2008 Bristol was UK’s demonstration Cycle City showing other UK municipalities the benefits of
investing in cycling. As a result £22m was invested in infrastructure and cycling promotion.

Though the JLTP3 is the main transport plan in use, it doesn’t exist in isolation. It works alongside
the Local Enterprise Partnership, Core Strategies and Local Strategic Partnerships and other
partners in bus industry (First Bus), through the Memoranda of Understanding with the Highways
Agency, Health Sector, Network Rail and train Operators in order to meet its objectives. Working
in partnership ensures the availability of funding for implementation of different various schemes.
The Core strategies set out what type of place their areas should become by 2026, setting out
challenges and the way they should be addressed.

Bristol City Council does not control city’s bus services, they are provided by private companies
such as First Group. By working in partnership with these private operators ensures secure
funding which significantly enhance the city’s ability to deliver its transport and mobility plans [2].

Despite commissioning only a small percentage of public transport services, the city council
provides extensions to commercial services. Bristol City Council funded the development of an
innovative zero-emissions hydrogen waterbus (Hydrogen Ferry) to ensure that transport needs
are met.
The Council uses professionals with expertise in behavioral change to develop communications
campaigns.

The council and its partners runs travel awareness initiatives such as Jam Busting June and Plan
awards to enhance the public’s transport related issues awareness.

Bristol City Council introduced two trial 20mph areas to reduce the impact of the cars on
residential to improve safety, thereby encouraging walking and cycling.
Freight consolidation centres were established to reduce lorry movements in town and city
centres
Bristol is leading through reducing parking capacity and enhancing public transport for many
travelers visiting the city.

In line to complying with their ‘Local Code of Corporate Governance ‘Bristol monitors and reports
transport performance publicly. Targets and indicators were set for the transport plan. They
measure and monitor progress towards meeting JLTP3 set objectives. They highlight where there
is progress and where more effort is required there by ensuring the transport objectives are met.

Although Bristol City Council is in the joint venture plan (JLTP3) ,it plays a key role with regards to
carbon emissions , where it has a more strict target than the JLTP3 of %40 reduction by 2020
rather than 16%.
How and why did Bristol City Council come up with the strategies, plans and policies with urban
transport and mobility in mind????

The cross-authority nature of travel and economic linkages between the four West of England
authorities (Bath & North East Somerset, Bristol City, North Somerset and South Gloucestershire
Councils) and also the need to bid for funding from the Government led the councils to join up to
deliver transport improvements through joint plan across. The growth in travel demand resulting
from the increased population growth and employment, with associated rise in freight movement
was one of major factors that led to the establishment of the transport to meet rising demands.

The overall approach they used was aimed at conducting public engagement, and ensuring that
all partners and the entire public were given an opportunity to contribute to JLTP3.They
established a slogan “Let’s Talk Transport Matters” and a website (www.transportmatters.org)
that provided a platform to discuss and give response to JLTP3.The results from this engagement
provided a strong steer for the JLTP3 and this led the JLTP3 having more focus on supporting
economic growth and reducing carbon emissions supported by the other three goals.

Public Consultation was has been one of the vital tool in gathering information pertaining
peoples’ transport needs

Through the influence of data from previous surveys, UK National Policies, Department for
Transport (DfT) objectives, International requirements, climate challenges, level of funding, need
to create employment and peak oil the councils came up with plans to mitigate transport
challenges whilst taking climate issues into consideration.

Health Service staff were engaged in the City Council transport and planning teams in order to
enhance their understanding of health issues resulting from transport.

The Greater Bristol Strategic Transport Study (GBSTS) that was carried out by Atkins with principal
partners such as Department for transport (DfT), High Way Agency and the four West of England
councils had a major influence in the drafting of the JLTP3. The aim of GBSTS was to come up with
focused and realistic recommendations on transport policy and infrastructure provision across all
modes of transport and networks, whilst taking the availability of potential funding and
deliverability constraints. Information from this study played a pivotal role in the making of plans,
policies and strategies for transport and mobility.

The information from previous JLTP (2006-2011) contributed a lot in the drafting of the JLTP3 as
key areas were already been identified prior to its drafting.

According to road surveys that were previous made 2009, high road causalities were recorded.
The need to reduce road casualties and promote road safety influenced in the drafting of the
JLTP3.
Most areas in Bristol and its surroundings were categorized as Air Quality Management Areas due
to low air quality level. The need to improve the air quality in these areas through reduction of
greenhouse gas in these areas was another influence to the JLTP3 plan.
The transition from fossil fuels to green sources and need to abide to national and International
organizations played a role in the shaping of the transport plan

Bristol being a home to the 2 third sector organizations that are promoting a culture change
across the UK promoting car fee days ,closing rods to allow street parties and organized children’s
play in the streets. Bristol City Council is working closely with this organization helping influencing
behavior change in people [5]
Bristol’s aspirations to become a premier European city was another influence in the drafting of
the transport and mobility plan [6].

References

1 BRISTOL 2015 EUROPEAN GREEN CAPITAL https://www.bristol2015.co.uk/about/why-bristol/


2 WOE 2011: West of England Joint Local Transport Plans 3, 2011 – 2026

http://travelplus.org.uk/our-vision/joint-local-transport-plan-3

3 Bristol method how to get more people riding bikes and walking pdf
4 Indicator 2 Local Transport plan

6. Bristol Local Transport Plan 2001 (Summary Document.pdf)

7. https://www.bristol.gov.uk/how-the-council-works/scrutiny-commisions-and-select-committees

8. http://www.betterbybike.info/

Extra info

Workplace Parking Levies


13.1 In September 2012 Bristol City Council announced it will no longer be pursuing the
option of a workplace parking levy.