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UiTM Perak
Kampus Tapah


Lesson Outcomes
 Upon completion of this chapter, students should be able to:

 define element, compound, atom, molecule, and ion,

 give the names or formulas of elements, molecules, and compound
 understand the basic structure of an atom,
 define proton number, nucleon number, and isotope
 define relative atomic mass and relative molecular/formula mass,
 understand the mole concept,
 calculate the % composition, empirical the molecular formulas
 balance chemical equations
 understand chemical stoichiometry
 determine limiting reactant
 calculate the concentration and molarity of solution
 smallest particle of an element that retain the
characteristic properties of that element

 Substance that cannot be broken down

into two or more different substances.
 Same elements: Same no of proton
 It is formed from the combination of atoms only.
 Also occur in a molecular form in which the same
type of elements (atoms) are chemically combined.
They are called diatomic molecules or, sometimes,
molecular elements.

hydrogen, H2; nitrogen, N2; oxygen, O2;

fluorine, F2;
chlorine, Cl2; bromine, Br2; iodine, I2

An aggregate of at least two

atoms in a definite
arrangement held together
by chemical forces
 Molecules are formed from chemical
combinations of atoms-atoms
 combined in specific ratios to one another.
 A compound is a substance composed of atoms of
two or more elements chemically united in fixed
 Compounds can only be separated into their pure
components (elements) by chemical means.

lithium fluoride quartz dry ice – carbon dioxide

 An ion is an atom, or group of atoms, that has a net
positive or negative charge.
 CATION – ion with a positive charge
 Ifa neutral atom loses one or more electrons it
becomes a cation.

Na 11 protons Na+ 11 protons

11 electrons 10 electrons
 ANION - ion with a negative charge
 If a neutral atom gains one or more electrons
 it becomes an anion.

Cl 17 protons Cl- 17 protons

17 electrons 18 electrons
Monoatomic ions
 A monatomic ion contains only one atom

Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, O2-, Al3+, N3-

Polyatomic ion
 A polyatomic ion contains more than one atom

OH-, CN-, NH4+, NO3-

Common Ions Shown on the Periodic Table

Chemical Nomenclature
Ionic Compounds
 Often a metal + nonmetal
 Anion (nonmetal), add “ide” to element name

BaCl2 barium chloride

K2O potassium oxide
Mg(OH)2 magnesium hydroxide
KNO3 potassium nitrate
Complete the names of the following binary compounds:

Na3N sodium ________________

KBr potassium________________

Al2O3 aluminum ________________

MgS _________________________
Transition metal ionic compounds

 indicate charge on metal with Roman numerals

FeCl2 2 Cl- -2 so Fe is +2 iron(II) chloride

FeCl3 3 Cl- -3 so Fe is +3 iron(III) chloride

Cr2S3 3 S-2 -6 so Cr is +3 (6/2) chromium(III) sulfide

Name the following compounds:

A. CaO
1) calcium oxide 2) calcium(I) oxide
3) calcium (II) oxide
B. SnCl4
1) tin tetrachloride 2) tin(II) chloride
3) tin(IV) chloride
C. Co2O3
1) cobalt oxide 2) cobalt (III) oxide
3) cobalt trioxide
Complete the names of the following binary compounds
with variable metal ions:

FeBr2 iron (_____) bromide

Cu2O copper (_____) oxide
SnCl4 ___(_____ ) ______________
Fe2O3 ________________________
CuS ________________________
Molecular compounds
 Nonmetals or nonmetals + metalloids
 Common names
 H2O, NH3, CH4,
 Element furthest to the left in a period
and closest to the bottom of a group on
periodic table is placed first in formula
 If more than one compound can be
formed from the same elements, use
prefixes to indicate number of each
kind of atom
 Last element name ends in ide
 Common examples:
HI hydrogen iodide
NF3 nitrogen trifluoride
SO2 sulfur dioxide
N2Cl4 dinitrogen tetrachloride
NO2 nitrogen dioxide
N2O dinitrogen monoxide

CO carbon ______oxide

CO2 carbon _______________

PCl3 phosphorus _______chloride

CCl4 carbon ________chloride

N2O _____nitrogen _____oxide

A. P2O5 1) phosphorus oxide
2) phosphorus pentoxide
3) diphosphorus pentoxide

B. Cl2O7 1) dichlorine heptoxide

2) dichlorine oxide
3) chlorine heptoxide

C. Cl2 1) chlorine
2) dichlorine
3) dichloride
Metal-Polyatomic anion
 +ve charge species on left (using Stock
method/common name)
 -ve charge species on right (using name of polyatomic
 Use parentheses as needed.
Formula Ions name
BaSO4 Ba 2+and SO4 2- Barium sulphate
Ca(NO3)2 Ca 2+ and NO3- Calcium nitrate
Ca(NO2)2 Ba 2+ and NO2- Calcium nitrite
Fe(NO3)2 Fe 2+ and NO3- Iron (II) nitrate or ferrous nitrate
Match each set with the correct name:

A. Na2CO3 1) magnesium sulfite

MgSO3 2) magnesium sulfate
MgSO4 3) sodium carbonate

B. Ca(HCO3)2 1) calcium carbonate

CaCO3 2) calcium phosphate
Ca3(PO4)2 3) calcium bicarbonate

A. aluminum nitrate
1) AlNO3 2) Al(NO)3 3) Al(NO3)3
B. copper(II) nitrate
1) CuNO3 2) Cu(NO3)2 3) Cu2(NO3)
C. Iron (III) hydroxide
1) FeOH 2) Fe3OH 3) Fe(OH)3
D. Tin(IV) hydroxide
1) Sn(OH)4 2) Sn(OH)2 3) Sn4(OH)
Hydro Acids
 hydro + halogen name + ic
 Acids which do not contain oxygen (e.g., HCl, H2S,
HF) are named by adding the hydro- prefix to the
root name of the element, followed by the -ic suffix.

Formula Molecular Name Acid name

HF Hydrogen fluoride Hydrofluoric acid
HCl Hydrogen chloride Hydrochloric acid
H 2S Hydrogen sulfide Hydrosulfuric acid
HCN Hydrogen cyanide Hydrocyanic acid
Oxo Acids
 Oxoacid is an acid that contains hydrogen, oxygen,
and another element

HNO3 nitric acid

H2CO3 carbonic acid

H3PO4 phosphoric acid

Naming Oxoacids and Oxoanions
 The rules for naming oxoanions, anions of oxoacids, are
as follows:
1. When all the H ions are removed from the “-ic”
acid, the anion’s name ends with “-ate.”
2. When all the H ions are removed from the “-ous”
acid, the anion’s name ends with “-ite.”
3. The names of anions in which one or more but not all
the hydrogen ions have been removed must indicate
the number of H ions present.
For example:
 H2PO4- dihydrogen phosphate
 HPO4 2- hydrogen phosphate
 PO43- phosphate

The mole concept and Avogadro’s
Atomic Mass
 The mass of an atom of an element compared with
that of one atom of 12C. For example, an atom of
magnesium has twice the mass of an atom of 12C.
Its relative atomic mass is therefore 24
By definition:
1 atom 12C “weighs” 12 amu

On this scale
1H = 1.008 amu
16O = 16.00 amu
Relative Atomic Mass (RAM)
 The weighted average of all of the naturally
occurring isotopes of the element.
Naturally occurring lithium is:
7.42% 6Li (6.015 amu)
92.58% 7Li (7.016 amu)

Average atomic mass of lithium:

7.42 x 6.015 + 92.58 x 7.016

= 6.941 amu


Average atomic mass (6.941)

 In real, we deal with macroscopic samples.
 Atomic mass is too small.
 Idea :

Have a special unit.

To denote a particular no of
 The Mole (mol): A unit to count numbers of particles
Dozen = 12

Pair = 2

The mole (mol) is the amount of a substance that

contains as many elementary entities as there
are atoms in exactly 12.00 grams of 12C
1 mol = NA = 6.0221367 x 1023

Avogadro’s number (NA)

1 mol H atoms = 6.02 x 1023 H atoms
1 mol H2 molecules = 6.02 x 1023 H2 molecules
1 mol H2O molecules = 6.02 x 1023 H2O molecules
1 mol NO3- ions = 6.02 x 1023 NO3- ions

1 mol O2 molecules contain = 6.02 x 1023 O2 molecules

1 mol O2 molecules contain = 2 mol O
1 mol O2 molecules contain = 2 x 6.02 x 1023 O atoms
Molar Mass
 Molar mass is the mass of 1 mole of shoes in
grams marbles
1 mole 12C atoms = 6.022 x 1023 atoms = 12.00 g
1 12C atom = 12.00 amu

1 mole 12C atoms = 12.00 g 12C

1 mole lithium atoms = 6.941 g of Li
For any element
atomic mass (amu) = molar mass (grams)
One Mole of:



Cu Fe
Interconverting Masses, Moles and
Numbers of Particles

Moles provide a bridge from the molecular scale to the real-

world scale.
Mole concepts

Using triangle boxes

Number of
Mass atom/

Moles x RMM or Moles x NA

How many atoms are in 0.551 g of potassium (K) ?

1 mol K = 39.10 g K
1 mol K = 6.022 x 1023 atoms K

1 mol K 6.022 x 1023 atoms K

0.551 g K x x =
39.10 g K 1 mol K

8.49 x 1021 atoms K

Helium (He) is a valuable gas used in industry. How many moles
of He atoms are in 6.46 g of He?
To convert grams to moles we need the molar mass. In exam, the molar mass of
element is given. We find that the molar mass of He is 4.0 g. This can be expressed
How many grams of CH2Cl2 are obtained in 2.88 moles of
CH2Cl2? ( Ar of H = 1.0, C = 12.0, Cl = 35.5)

Firstly we have to calculate the molar mass of CH2Cl2 = C + 2H + 2Cl
= 12 + 2(1) + 2(35.5) = 85.0 g
1 mol CH2Cl2  85.0 g CH2Cl2
Thus, 2.88 mol CH2Cl2 = 2.88 mol x 85.0 g
1 mol
= 244.8 g
(a) Determine the number of atoms in 12.3 g Li
(b) Calculate the number of Br atoms in 32 g Br2
(Ar Li = 7, H = 1, S = 32, O = 16)

 Calculate the formula mass of:

a) (NH4)2S
b) (NH4)2SO4

 Calculate the grams present in:

a) 0.200 moles of H2S
b) 3.40 x 10-5 moles of Na2CO3

 Calculate the moles present in:

a) 75.57 grams of KBr
b) 0.750 grams of Na2CO3
Formula Mass
 The sum of the atomic masses (in amu) in a formula
unit of an ionic compound.

1Na 22.99 amu

NaCl 1Cl + 35.45 amu
NaCl 58.44 amu

For any ionic compound

formula mass (amu) = molar mass (grams)
1 formula unit NaCl = 58.44 amu
1 mole NaCl = 58.44 g NaCl
What is the formula mass of Ca3(PO4)2 ?

1 formula unit of Ca3(PO4)2

3 Ca 3 x 40.08
2P 2 x 30.97
8O + 8 x 16.00
310.18 amu

Empirical Formula

 A formula that gives the simplest whole-number ratio

of atoms in a compound

 Different compounds may have the same empirical

formula, example :
 ethyne (C2H2) and benzene (C6H6) have the same
empirical formula CH
Steps for Determining an
Empirical Formula
1. Start with the number of grams of each element
2. Convert the mass of each element to moles
3. Divide each mole value by the smallest number of moles
4. Round to the nearest whole number.
• If the number is too far to round (x.1 ~ x.9), then multiply
each solution by the same factor to get the lowest whole
number multiple.
• e.g. If one solution is 1.5, then multiply each solution in
the problem by 2 to get 3.
• e.g. If one solution is 1.25, then multiply each solution in
the problem by 4 to get 5.
 What is the empirical formula of a compound that
contains 40.00% carbon, 6.67% hydrogen and
53.33% oxygen by mass?

Molecular Formula

 Formula that shows how many atoms/ions of each

element combine to make that compound.
• Once the empirical formula is found, the molecular
formula for a compound can be determined if the
molar mass of the compound is known.
• Simply calculate the mass of the empirical formula
• Divide the molar mass of the compound by the mass
of the empirical formula to find the ratio between the
molecular formula and the empirical formula.
• Multiply all the atoms (subscripts) by this ratio to find
the molecular formula.
 For a compound whose empirical formula is CH2O,
the molecular mass was found to be 180. What is its
molecular formula?

A compound is 75.46% carbon, 4.44% hydrogen, and 20.10% oxygen by mass. It has a molecular
weight of 318.31 g/mol. What is the molecular formula for this compound?

Elements C H O

n (MW empirical formula) = MW molecular formula

Percent Composition
 The percent by mass of each element the compound
n x molar mass of element
x 100%
molar mass of compound
n is the number of moles of the element in 1 mole
of the compound
2 x (12.01 g)
%C = x 100% = 52.14%
46.07 g
6 x (1.008 g)
%H = x 100% = 13.13%
46.07 g
1 x (16.00 g)
%O = x 100% = 34.73%
46.07 g
C2H6O 52.14% + 13.13% + 34.73% = 100.0%
From % mass given, empirical formula can be calculated

Elements Mg O H

1 Convert mass percentages to masses in gram 41.38 55.17 3.45

2 Divide the mass of each element by its molar 41.38 55.17 3.45
mass in order to obtain the number of moles of 24 16 1
each atom in the compound = 1.7242 = = 3.45
3 Change the ratio to whole number mole ratio by 1.7242 3.4481 3.45
dividing each mole value in the above ratio by 1.7242 1.7242 1.7242
the smallest of the 3 mole values =1 = 1.999 = 2.000
4 Determine the empirical formula of the Mg 1 O2 H2
Mg (OH)2
 Example :
A compound is 75.46% carbon, 4.44% hydrogen,
and 20.10% oxygen by mass. It has a molecular
weight of 318.31 g/mol. What is the molecular
formula for this compound?
Example :
A compound is 75.46% carbon, 4.44% hydrogen, and 20.10% oxygen by
mass. It has a molecular weight of 318.31 g/mol. What is the molecular
formula for this compound?

Elements C H O

n (MW empirical formula) = MW molecular formula

 Example:
When 5 g of acetic acid are burned in air, 7.33 g of
CO2 and 3.00 g of water are obtained. What is the
simplest formula of acetic acid?
 From CO2 determine the mass of C
C x 7.33 g x 12 g = 1.99 g C
CO2 44
 From H2O determine the mass of H
2H x 3.00 g x 1g = 0.33 g H
H2O 18
 mass of O
= mass of sample – mass of C – mass of H
= 5 g – 1.99 g – 0.33 g = 2.68 g O
 From the mass, empirical formula can be calculated

Elements C H O

1 masses in gram
2 Divide the mass of each element by its
molar mass in order to obtain the number
of moles of each atom in the compound
3 Change the ratio to whole number mole
ratio by dividing each mole value in the
above ratio by the smallest of the 3 mole
4 Determine the empirical formula of the

Balancing Chemical Equations
Balancing Chemical Equations

1. Write the correct formula(s) for the reactants on

the left side and the correct formula(s) for the
product(s) on the right side of the equation.
Ethane reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water

C 2H 6 + O 2 CO2 + H2O

2. Change the numbers in front of the formulas

(coefficients) to make the number of atoms of
each element the same on both sides of the
equation. Do not change the subscripts.
2C2H6 NOT C4H12
Balancing Chemical Equations

3. Start by balancing those elements that appear in

only one reactant and one product.
C2H6 + O2 CO2 + H2O start with C or H but not O

2 carbon 1 carbon
multiply CO2 by 2
on left on right

C2H6 + O2 2CO2 + H2O

6 hydrogen 2 hydrogen
on left on right multiply H2O by 3

C2H6 + O2 2CO2 + 3H2O

Balancing Chemical Equations

4. Balance those elements that appear in two or

more reactants or products.
C2H6 + O2 2CO2 + 3H2O multiply O2 by

2 oxygen 4 oxygen + 3 oxygen = 7 oxygen

on left (2x2) (3x1) on right

7 remove fraction
C2H6 + O2 2CO2 + 3H2O
2 multiply both sides by 2

2C2H6 + 7O2 4CO2 + 6H2O

Balancing Chemical Equations

5. Check to make sure that you have the same

number of each type of atom on both sides of the
2C2H6 + 7O2 4CO2 + 6H2O

4 C (2 x 2) 4C

12 H (2 x 6) 12 H (6 x 2)

14 O (7 x 2) 14 O (4 x 2 + 6)
Reactants Products

4C 4C
12 H 12 H
14 O 14 O
Exercise: Balance the following equations

1. CH3OH + O2  CO2 + H2O

2. Be2C + H2O  Be(OH)2 + CH4
3. VO + Fe2O3  FeO + V2O5
4. MnO2 + HCl  Cl2 + MnCl2 + H2O
5. KO2 + H2O + CO2  KHCO3 + O2
6. CH3NH2 + O2  CO2 + N2 + H2O
Stoichiometry Calculation
Stoichiometry Calculation
 The quantitative relationship between reactants
and/or products.
 in chemical equation, the formulae reactant are
written on the leftside on the equation and the
formulae of the products on the right.
2H2S(g) + SO2(g)  3S(s) + 2H2O(l)
 Coefficient = number of moles
 “2 mol of H2S is consumed to produce 3 mol of S”
 2 mol of H2S is consumed together with 1 mol of SO2
 The coefficients in a balanced chemical equation indicate both
relative numbers of molecules (or formula units) in the reaction
and the relative numbers of moles.
1. Write balanced chemical equation
2. Convert quantities of known substances into moles
3. Use coefficients in balanced equation to calculate the
number of moles of the sought quantity
4. Convert moles of sought quantity into desired units
Methanol burns in air according to the equation
2CH3OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 4H2O
If 209 g of methanol are used up in the combustion, what mass of
water is produced?
grams CH3OH moles CH3OH moles H2O grams H2O

molar mass coefficients molar mass

CH3OH chemical equation H2O

1 mol CH3OH 4 mol H2O 18.0 g H2O

209 g CH3OH x x x =
32.0 g CH3OH 2 mol CH3OH 1 mol H2O

235 g H2O
How many moles of CO2 are produced in the
combustion of 2.72 mol of C6H14O4, in excess of O2?
2C6H14O4 + 15O2  12CO2 + 14H2O

2.72 moles excess ? moles

= 16.3 mol CO2

Copper is obtained from copper(I) sulfide by roasting it in the
presence of oxygen gas) to form powdered copper(I) oxide and
gaseous sulfur dioxide.
(a) How many moles of oxygen are required to roast 10.0 mol of
copper(I) sulfide?
(b) How many grams of sulfur dioxide are formed when 10.0 mol of
copper(I) sulfide is roasted?
(c) How many kilograms of oxygen are required to form 2.86 kg of
copper(I) oxide?
2Cu2S(s) + 3O2(g) 2Cu2O(s) + 2SO2(g)

= 15.0 mol O2
= 641 g SO2
= 0.959 kg O2
 All alkali metals react with water to produce hydrogen gas
and the corresponding alkali metal hydroxide. Reaction given:
2 Li + 2H2O  2LiOH + H2

How many grams of H2 will be formed by the complete

reaction of 80.57 g of Li with water?
Limiting Reactant
 Limiting reactant: The reactant in a chemical
reaction that limits the amount of product that can
be formed. The reaction will stop when all of the
limiting reactant is consumed

 Excess Reagent: The reactant in a chemical

reaction that remains when a reaction stops when
the limiting reactant is completely consumed. The
excess reactant remains because there is nothing
with which it can react.
Limiting Reactant

• Limiting reactant: The reactant that is entirely consumed

when a reaction goes to completion.
• Excess reactant: Reactant that is not completely
Limiting Reactant
• You can make cookies until
you run out of one of the
• Once this family runs out of
sugar, they will stop making
cookies (at least any cookies
you would want to eat).

• In this example the sugar would be the limiting reactant,

because it will limit the amount of cookies you can make.
Limiting Reagent:
Reactant used up first in the

2NO + O2 2NO2

NO is the limiting reagent

O2 is the excess reagent

A 2.00 g sample of ammonia is mixed with 4.00 g of
oxygen. Which is the limiting reactant , how many
gram NO produced and how much excess reactant
remains after the reaction has stopped?

4 NH3(g) + 5 O2(g) 4 NO(g) + 6 H2O(g)


Zinc metal reacts with hydrochloric acid by the following reaction:

Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq)  ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)
If 0.30 mol Zn is added to HCl containing 0.52 mol HCl, how many
moles of H2 are produced?

0.26 mol
In a process for producing acetic acid, oxygen gas is bubbled into
acetaldehyde, CH3CHO, containing manganese (II) acetate
(catalyst) under pressure at 60°C.
2CH3CHO(l) + O2(g)  2HC2H3O2(l)
In a laboratory test of this reaction, 20.0 g CH3CHO and 10.0 g O2
were put into a reaction vessel.
a) How many grams of acetic acid can be produced by this
reaction from these amounts of reactants?
b) How many grams of the excess reactant remain after the
reaction is complete?
Acetyldehyde, 27.3g ;
27.g O2 remaining
Reaction Yield
Reaction Yield
Theoretical Yield is the amount of product that would
result if all the limiting reagent reacted.

Actual Yield is the amount of product actually obtained

from a reaction.

Actual Yield
% Yield = x 100%
Theoretical Yield

The actual yield is never excess than the theoretical


In a lab experiment, 0.80 g of copper metal should be

produced. If a student actually made 0.77 g of copper,
what is the percent yield?

% yield = actual yield x 100

theoretical yield
= 0.77 g x 100
0.80 g
= 96.25%
a) Calculate the theoretical yield of ZnS, in grams, from the
reaction of 0.488 g Zn and 0.503 g S8

Answer: Must balance equation first

8 Zn + S8 8 ZnS
I 0.488 g 0.503 g 0
8 Zn x 0.503 x 65 S8 x 0.488 x 256 8 ZnS x 0.488 x 97
S8 256 8 Zn 65 8 Zn 65

= 1.022 g = 0.240 g = 0.728 g Theoretical

F (0.488 – 1.022 g) (0.503 – 0.240 g)
= -0.534 g = 0.263 g
(limiting reagent) (excess reagent)

b) If the actual yield is 0.606 g ZnS, what is the percentage yield?

Percentage yield = Actual yield x 100 = 0.606 g x 100

Theoretical yield 0.728 g

= 83.24%