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BUSBAR PROTECTION

By
Makesh Kandan

Makesh Kandan
TOPICS TO BE COVERED

 GENERAL BASIS
 RESIDUALLY CONNECTED RELAY
 CORE BALANCE
 SBEF
 REF
High Impedance REF
Low Impedance REF

Makesh Kandan
GO THROUGH SOME BASIS

Busbar:
 Large Conductors that serves as a common connection point b/w two or more power circuits.
 Nerve Centre of the Power System.
 Need For Bus Protection
 In its absence fault clearance takes place in zone II of distance relay by remote end tripping.
 This means slow and unselective tripping and wide spread black out
 Effect of delayed clearance
 Greater damage at fault point
 Indirect shock to connected equipments like shaft of generator and windings of transformer
Makesh Kandan
BUSBAR FAULT – ORIGIN & CONSEQUENCES

ORIGIN:
 Failure of support insulator resulting in earth faults.
 Flash over across support insulator, causing flash over due to over-voltage.
 Heavily polluted insulator, causing flash-over due to overvoltage.
 Failure of other connected equipments Physical Damage to Insulation.
 Errors in the operation and maintenance of switch gear.

CONSEQUENCE:

Makesh Kandan
BUSBAR PROTECTION

 BUSBAR FAULT

Makesh Kandan
BUSBAR PROTECTION – HIGH IMPEDANCE
SIMPLIFIED SLD (NO CHECK FEATURE)

R1
R2

Makesh Kandan
BUSBAR PROTECTION – HIGH IMPEDANCE
SIMPLIFIED SLD (NO CHECK FEATURE)

Z1
Z2

Makesh Kandan
BUSBAR PROTECTION – CHECK FEATURE

 Second Line of Defense


 Duplication of Primary
Protection using a
second set of CTs on all
circuits other than bus
section and buscoupler.
Z1
 Does not Discriminate Z2
b/w faults in various
section of busbars.
 Trip Logic
Zone-1 Relay
CZ

Zone-2 Relay

Check Relay
Makesh Kandan
BUSBAR PROTECTION – HIGH IMPEDANCE
External Fault Condition (No CT Saturation)

Rct Rly Rlx Rct

Y ZM Rr ZM X

Current in the Relay is ‘Zero’


F
Makesh Kandan
BUSBAR PROTECTION – HIGH IMPEDANCE
When a CT saturates, the
External Fault Condition (CT Saturation) magnetic field requires more
current than normal to
maintain the current
transformation, which means
Voltage across
that Relay,
there is V R = IYcurrent
less (Rlx + Rct)
Rct Rly Rlx Rct injected into the CT secondary
Settingcircuit.
Voltage, Vs > VR (For No Operation)

IY = I f Vs = IR * R ,
Where,
IR = Relay Current Setting
Y ZM VR Rr ZM X R = Relay Circuit Impedance

Ix = 0 R= +

Stabilizing Resistor (Rst):


False Differential Current Flows Through Relay
F Rst = R - Rr
Makesh Kandan
BUSBAR PROTECTION – HIGH IMPEDANCE
External Fault Condition (CT Saturation)
 A stabilizing resistance was added in
series
Rct Rly Rlx Rct
 When CT fully saturates, its magnetic
field impedance is effectively 0.00Ω

Rst
 The current will want to flow around
the outside of the equivalent circuit
Y ZM ZM X because the outside circuit has a lower
Rr impedance path during external faults.
 Scheme becomes Stable for the
external faults.

F
Makesh Kandan
BUSBAR PROTECTION – HIGH IMPEDANCE
Internal Fault Condition
 A stabilizing resistance was added in
F series
Rct Rly Rlx Rct

Rst
Y ZM ZM X
Rr

Makesh Kandan
BUSBAR PROTECTION – HIGH IMPEDANCE

High Impedance Scheme:


 A stabilizing resistor (Rs) to force the false-differential
currents through the CTs instead of the differential
circuit.
 A current detection unit (87) or voltage detection unit
(87Z) set to trip if the differential current or voltage is
greater than its setpoint
 An MOV to limit the possible voltage created across
the differential circuit
 An 86 contact that will close after the relay trips to
ensure no dangerous voltages are applied to the
secondary circuit.

Makesh Kandan
Thank You for Listening

Makesh Kandan
BUSBAR PROTECTION – HIGH IMPEDANCE
External Fault Condition (CT Saturation)

Rct Rly Rlx Rct

Rst
Y ZM ZM X
Rr

Current in the relay is ‘Zero’


F
Makesh Kandan
BUSBAR PROTECTION – HIGH IMPEDANCE
External Fault Condition (CT Saturation)

Rct Rly Rlx Rct

Rst
Y ZM ZM X
Rr

Current in the relay is ‘Zero’


F
Makesh Kandan