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NOMBRE: _________________________________________ GRADO: ONCE
TEMA: Refuerzo de gramática y vocabulario Unidad 1
DOCENTE: Ivonne Hernández
COMPETENCIAS: Lingüística, pragmática y sociolingüista


 Expressing Purpose:

You use a purpose clause when you want to state the purpose of the action in the
independent clause. The most common type of purpose clause is a to-infinitive

Example: Sarah went to the computer lab to print out her research report.

In formal writing, in order to and so as to are often used.

Example: The company conducted a detailed survey in order to gauge its clients’

In formal writing, you can also introduce a purpose clause with so that or in order
that. These finite purpose clauses usually contain a modal.

Example: Dr Chan adjusted the overhead projector so that the students would be
able to see the chart more clearly.
Example: The lecturer finished his lecture five minutes early so that the
students could come and ask him questions.

The difference between so and so that is that so that implies that the cause was
deliberately done by someone in order to get a specific result.

We can express purpose using SO THAT or IN ORDER THAT + CLASUE. We

need to use these expressions when the two verbs in the sentence have different
subjects. However, we can also use them when the subjects are the same.

Example: You need to recognize employee’s achievements so that / in order that

they feel valued (different subject)

Example: He’s currently studying for an MBA so that / in order that he can apply for
management positions. (same subject)

 Expressing Reason

We can use different expressions to explain the reason for something. These
include because of, owing to, on account of, due to and as a result of. We can
use these expressions before a noun or a noun phrase.

Example: Business is booming because of the warm weather

Example: The bottom fell out of the housing market owing to the economic crisis.
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We can also use owing to, due to, on account of and as a result of before a
gerund –ing

Example: Steve Jobs became rich as a result of inventing apple.

We can use the perfect gerund: having + past participle, when we refer to the
results of earlier events.

Example: We missed our sales targets due to consumers having spent less
money on the high street

 Expressing Result

We can use different verb phrases to introduce the result of an action or event.
These include result in, lead to and give rise to. We use these expressions
before a noun, noun phrase or gerund.

Example: The recession gave rise to mass unemployment.

Example: The advent of the internet led to new jobs being created.

Before a clause, we can use the expressions with the result that, meaning that
and so.

Example: Our sales results are disappointing, meaning that there will be some

We use so + adjective + that and such + (adjective) + noun phrase + that to

emphasize the degree of something and express the result.

Example: The talk was so inspiring that he brought the house down.

Example: It was such an inspiring talk that he brought the house down.


 Reporting verb + to infinitive

Example: The teacher offered to explain reporting verbs.

 Some verbs don’t need an object:

John said “I will help you” = John offered to help us

 Some other, do:

John said “Come to my party” = John invited us to go to his party


Reporting Example
Agree “Ok. We’ll stay in that hotel”, he said. =He agreed to stay in that hotel
Offer “I’ll do the washing up today”, he said. =He offered to do the washing up
that day
Promise “I’ll tidy up my room”, she said. =She promised to tidy her room.
Refuse “I won’t give up”, he said. =He refused to give up.
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Reporting Example
Invite “Would you like to go to the premiere with me”. =He invited me to go
to the premiere with him.
Beg “please, don’t tell me more lies”, she told Ben. =She begged Tom
not to tell her more lies.
Advise “you should go to the doctor”, my mother said. =My mother advised
me to go to the doctor.
Warn “don’t drive so fast”, she said. =she warned me not to drive so fast.

 Reporting verb + that clause

Example: Reporting verbs are followed by a that clause:


Reporting Example
Insist “I repeat. You must be more polite”, she said. She insisted that I
have / had to be more polite.
Explain “The connectors are useful to organize the writing” he said. He
explained that the connectors are useful to organize writing.
Suggest “Why don’t we stay at home?”, he said. He suggested that we
stayed at home.
Advise “you ought to sleep more hours”, she said. She advised that I ought
to sleep more hours.
Promise “I’ll phone you” he said. He promised that he would phone me.

 Reporting verb + gerund

Example: the students thanked him for explaining it.

Some reporting verbs are followed by a verb-ing:

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 He admitted forgetting it.
 He recommended taking an umbrella.
 He suggested meeting at the restaurant.

Some other verbs are follow by a preposition and then a verb-ing.

 He accused Tom of cheating at the exam.

 He insisted on going all together.
 He apologized for being late.


Words indicating Words indicating Words indicating

success failure something in between
Booming Disappointing Hanging on
Flourishing In decline
In demand Ineffective
Profitable Slipping
Thriving Struggling


 Bring the house down: if you bring the house down, you give a very successful

Example: the singer’s performance brought the house down. She got a standing
ovation and several encores.

 Crest of the wave: if you are on the crest of a wave, you are very likely to achieve

Example: it’s an incredible time for them! The band is definitely on the crest of a

 Rags to riches: if a person goes from rags to riches, they start off being very poor
and become very rich and successful.

Example: he started selling clothes on a market stall and look at him now! It’s a
great example of a rags-to-riches story.

 Weather the storm: if you weather the storm, you succeed in surviving a difficult
period or situation.
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Example: the economic crisis hit my uncle’s firm badly, but they managed to
weather the storm.

 Have the world at your feet: if you have the world at your feet, you are
extremely successful and greatly admired.

Example: that young entrepreneur has the world at his feet.


 Bottom fell out: when something causes a plan, project or venture to collapse
or fail the bottom falls out of it.

Example: they were doing quite well, but the bottom fell out the online gaming

 Miss the boat: if you miss the boat, you fail to take advantage of an opportunity
because you don’t act quickly enough.

Example: there was a market for that kind of service a couple of years ago, but I
think you may have missed the boat.
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