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EP 424

Chapter 6: Environmental Analysis of

Combustion Processes
By the end of the chapter you will learn:

Major pollutants from combustion system

Quantification of emissions
Major pollutants from combustion system

• Particulate matter (Ref: https://youtu.be/ojl-sU_OfAM )

• Sulfur oxides (SO2, SO3)
• Unburned and partially burned hydrocarbons
• Nitrogen oxides (NOx)
• Carbon monoxide

Reference Standard
• Malaysian Air Quality Guideline (Ambient Standard)
Quantification of Emissions

• Emission levels from combustion system are

expressed in many different ways:-
• Emission indices
• Corrected concentrations
• Emission factor
Emission Indices

• The emission index for species i is the ratio of the

mass of species i to the mass of fuel burned by the
combustion process
𝐸𝐼𝑖 =
• Dimensionless quantity
• Measure of efficiency of a particular combustion
process in producing a particular pollutant, uncoupled
from specific application
Emission Indices
• For the combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel in air, the
emission index can be determined from mole fraction
measurements of the species of interest, together with
those of all of the C-containing species.
𝑦𝑖 𝑥𝑀𝑊𝑖
𝐸𝐼𝑖 = (Equation 1)
𝑦𝐶𝑂 + 𝑦𝐶𝑂2 𝑀𝑊𝐹
• Where y are mole fractions, x is the number of moles of
carbon in a mole of fuel CxHy, and MWi and MWF are the
molecular weights of species i and the fuel, respectively
• Assumed all of the fuel carbon appears as either CO2 or
• Independent of any dilution of the sample stream by air
Example 1
Example 1
Example 1
Various specific emission measures

• In the dynamometer testing of spark-ignition and

diesel engines, emissions are frequently expressed
mass flow of pollutant
• mass specific emission =
brake power produced

• Mass emission factor: mass of pollutant emitted per

amount of fuel energy supplied
mass of pollutant i
Emission factor =
Fuel energy supplied

Determine the emission factor (i.e. kg of CO2 released per GJ of energy

produced) for the complete combustion of the following fuels at 298 K
and 1 atm

LHVbiodiesel = 37.1 MJ/kg
LHVbutane = 45.3 MJ/kg

(i) Butane (molecular formula: C4H10).

(ii) Biodiesel fuel (molecular formula: CH3(CH2)12COOCH3).