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Image Fusion Report

Image Fusion Report

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PROJECT REPORT

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Index

1) Abstract Page No 1 - 2

2) Chapter – 1 Page No

3 - 12

3) Chapter – 2 Page No

13 - 20

4) Chapter – 3 Page No

21 - 23

IMAGE FUSION

5) Chapter – 4 Page No

24 - 26

APPLICATIONS

6) Chapter – 5 Page No

27 - 30

7) Chapter – 6 Page No

31 – 35

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF SEGMENTATION

8) Chapter – 7 Page No

36 – 57

INTRODUCTION TO COSINE

Index

9) Chapter – 8 Page No

58 – 62

COSINE DECOMPOSITION

63 – 66

INTRODUCTION T0 MATLAB

67 – 71

72 - 73

ABSTRACT

Aim: The goal of image fusion is to create new images that are more suitable for the

Description:

The objective of the image fusion is to combine the source images of the same

scene to form one composite image that contains a more accurate description of the scene

than any individual source images. Image fusion methods can be broadly classified into

two - spatial domain fusion and transform domain fusion. The fusion methods such as

In this project, we propose a new multiresolution data fusion scheme based on the

COSINE transform. In order to get a more ideal fusion result, a linear local mapping

which based on the SEGMENTATION is used to create a new "origin" image of the

Satellite imaging, Medical imaging , Robot vision , Concealed weapon detection, Multi-

focus image fusion, Digital camera application, Concealed weapon detection,Battle field

monitoring.

Experimental results confirm that the proposed algorithm is the best image

sharpening method and can best maintain the spectral information of the original image.

Also, the proposed technique performs better than the other ones, more robust and

effective, from both subjective visual effects and objective statistical analysis results. The

performance of the image fusion is evaluated by normalized least square error, entropy,

CHAPTER - 1

Image:

instead of text or a program. Pixels are the basic building blocks of all digital images.

Pixels are small adjoining squares in a matrix across the length and width of your digital

image. They are so small that you don’t see the actual pixels when the image is on your

computer monitor.

Pixels are monochromatic. Each pixel is a single solid color that is blended from

some combination of the 3 primary colors of Red, Green, and Blue. So, every pixel has a

RED component, a GREEN component and BLUE component. The physical dimensions

of a digital image are measured in pixels and commonly called pixel or image resolution.

Pixels are scalable to different physical sizes on your computer monitor or on a photo

print. However, all of the pixels in any particular digital image are the same size. Pixels

Pixel Values: As shown in this bitonal image, each pixel is assigned a tonal value,

expressed in pixels. The pixel dimensions may be determined by multiplying both the

width and the height by the dpi. A digital camera will also have pixel dimensions,

expressed as the number of pixels horizontally and vertically that define its resolution

(e.g., 2,048 by 3,072). Calculate the dpi achieved by dividing a document's dimension

Example:

Fig: An 8" x 10" document that is scanned at 300 dpi has the pixel dimensions of 2,400

Images in MATLAB:

The basic data structure in MATLAB is the array, an ordered set of real or

complex elements. This object is naturally suited to the representation of images, real-

each element of the matrix corresponds to a single pixel in the displayed image. (Pixel is

derived from picture element and usually denotes a single dot on a computer display.)

For example, an image composed of 200 rows and 300 columns of different

colored dots would be stored in MATLAB as a 200-by-300 matrix. Some images, such as

color images, require a three-dimensional array, where the first plane in the third

dimension represents the red pixel intensities, the second plane represents the green pixel

intensities, and the third plane represents the blue pixel intensities. This convention

makes working with images in MATLAB similar to working with any other type of

matrix data, and makes the full power of MATLAB available for image processing

applications.

IMAGE REPRESENTATION

An image is stored as a matrix using standard Matlab matrix conventions. There are four

1. Binary images

2. Intensity images

3. RGB images

4. Indexed images

Binary Images:

In a binary image, each pixel assumes one of only two discrete values: 1 or 0. A binary

image is stored as a logical array. By convention, this documentation uses the variable

The following figure shows a binary image with a close-up view of some of the pixel

values.

Fig: Pixel Values in a Binary Image

Grayscale Images:

matrix whose values represent intensities within some range. MATLAB stores a grayscale

image as an individual matrix, with each element of the matrix corresponding to one

image pixel. By convention, this documentation uses the variable name I to refer to

grayscale images.

The matrix can be of class uint8, uint16, int16, single, or double. While grayscale

images are rarely saved with a color map, MATLAB uses a color map to display them.

For a matrix of class single or double, using the default grayscale color map, the

intensity 0 represents black and the intensity 1 represents white. For a matrix of type

uint8, uint16, or int16, the intensity intmin (class (I)) represents black and the intensity

Color Images:

A color image is an image in which each pixel is specified by three values — one

each for the red, blue, and green components of the pixel's color. MATLAB store color

images as an m-by-n-by-3 data array that defines red, green, and blue color components

for each individual pixel. Color images do not use a color map. The color of each pixel is

determined by the combination of the red, green, and blue intensities stored in each color

Graphics file formats store color images as 24-bit images, where the red, green,

and blue components are 8 bits each. This yields a potential of 16 million colors. The

precision with which a real-life image can be replicated has led to the commonly used

A color array can be of class uint8, uint16, single, or double. In a color array of

class single or double, each color component is a value between 0 and 1. A pixel whose

color components are (0, 0, 0) is displayed as black, and a pixel whose color components

are (1, 1, 1) is displayed as white. The three color components for each pixel are stored

along the third dimension of the data array. For example, the red, green, and blue color

RGB(10,5,3), respectively.

Fig: Color Planes of a True color Image

Indexed Images:

An indexed image consists of an array and a colormap matrix. The pixel values in

the array are direct indices into a colormap. By convention, this documentation uses the

variable name X to refer to the array and map to refer to the colormap.

values in the range [0, 1]. Each row of map specifies the red, green, and blue components

of a single color. An indexed image uses direct mapping of pixel values to colormap

values. The color of each image pixel is determined by using the corresponding value of

with the image when you use the imread function. After you read the image and the

colormap into the MATLAB workspace as separate variables, you must keep track of the

association between the image and colormap. However, you are not limited to using the

The relationship between the values in the image matrix and the colormap

depends on the class of the image matrix. If the image matrix is of class single or double,

it normally contains integer values 1 through p, where p is the length of the colormap.

The value 1 points to the first row in the colormap, the value 2 points to the second row,

and so on. If the image matrix is of class logical, uint8 or uint16, the value 0 points to

the first row in the colormap, the value 1 points to the second row, and so on.

The following figure illustrates the structure of an indexed image. In the figure, the image

matrix is of class double, so the value 5 points to the fifth row of the colormap.

CHAPTER – 2

1. JPEG is a compressed file format that supports 24 bit color (millions of colors). This

is the best format for photographs to be shown on the web or as email attachments. This

is because the color informational bits in the computer file are compressed (reduced) and

2. GIF is an uncompressed file format that supports only 256 distinct colors. Best used

with web clip art and logo type images. GIF is not suitable for photographs because of its

Uncompressed means that all of the color information from your scanner or digital

camera for each individual pixel is preserved when you save as TIFF. TIFF is the best

format for saving digital images that you will want to print. Tiff supports embedded file

information, including exact color space, output profile information and EXIF data. There

is a lossless compression for TIFF called LZW. LZW is much like 'zipping' the image file

because there is no quality loss. An LZW TIFF decompresses (opens) with all of the

4. BMP is a Windows (only) operating system uncompressed file format that supports 24

bit color. BMP does not support embedded information like EXIF, calibrated color space

and output profiles. Avoid using BMP for photographs because it produces approximately

the same file sizes as TIFF without any of the advantages of TIFF.

5. Camera RAW is a lossless compressed file format that is proprietary for each digital

camera manufacturer and model. A camera RAW file contains the 'raw' data from the

camera's imaging sensor. Some image editing programs have their own version of RAW

too. However, camera RAW is the most common type of RAW file. The advantage of

camera RAW is that it contains the full range of color information from the sensor. This

means the RAW file contains 12 to 14 bits of color information for each pixel. If you

shoot JPEG, you only get 8 bits of color for each pixel. These extra color bits make

shooting camera RAW much like shooting negative film. You have a little more latitude

Pixel Coordinates

use pixel coordinates. In this coordinate system, the image is treated as a grid of discrete

elements, ordered from top to bottom and left to right, as illustrated by the following

figure.

Fig: The Pixel Coordinate System

For pixel coordinates, the first component r (the row) increases downward, while

the second component c (the column) increases to the right. Pixel coordinates are integer

values and range between 1 and the length of the row or column.

MATLAB uses for matrix subscripting. This correspondence makes the relationship

between an image's data matrix and the way the image is displayed easy to understand.

For example, the data for the pixel in the fifth row, second column is stored in the matrix

element (5, 2). You use normal MATLAB matrix subscripting to access values of

individual pixels.

I (2, 15)

Spatial Coordinates:

identified by a single coordinate pair, such as (5, 2). From this perspective, a location

perspective, a location such as (5.3, 2.2) is meaningful, and is distinct from (5, 2). In this

spatial coordinate system, locations in an image are positions on a plane, and they are

The following figure illustrates the spatial coordinate system used for images. Notice that

y increases downward.

This spatial coordinate system corresponds closely to the pixel coordinate system

in many ways. For example, the spatial coordinates of the center point of any pixel are

There are some important differences, however. In pixel coordinates, the upper

left corner of an image is (1,1), while in spatial coordinates, this location by default is

(0.5,0.5). This difference is due to the pixel coordinate system's being discrete, while the

spatial coordinate system is continuous. Also, the upper left corner is always (1,1) in

pixel coordinates, but you can specify a non default origin for the spatial coordinate

system.

order of the horizontal and vertical components is reversed in the notation for these two

systems. As mentioned earlier, pixel coordinates are expressed as (r, c), while spatial

coordinates are expressed as (x, y). In the reference pages, when the syntax for a function

uses r and c, it refers to the pixel coordinate system. When the syntax uses x and y, it

processing has many advantages over analog image processing; it allows a much wider

range of algorithms to be applied to the input data, and can avoid problems such as the

Image digitization:

co-ordinates in the plane. Image digitization means that the function f(x,y) is sampled

into a matrix with M rows and N columns. The image quantization assigns to each

continuous sample an integer value. The continuous range of the image function f(x,y) is

split into K intervals. The finer the sampling (i.e., the larger M and N) and quantization

(the larger K) the better the approximation of the continuous image function f(x,y).

Image Pre-processing:

Pre-processing is a common name for operations with images at the lowest level of

abstraction -- both input and output are intensity images. These iconic images are of the

same kind as the original data captured by the sensor, with an intensity image usually

some image features important for further processing. Four categories of image pre-

processing methods according to the size of the pixel neighborhood that is used for the

o Geometric transformations.

pixel.

Image Segmentation:

Image segmentation is one of the most important steps leading to the analysis of

processed image data. Its main goal is to divide an image into parts that have a strong

correlation with objects or areas of the real world contained in the image.Two kinds of

segmentation

necessary.

objects. Image is divided into separate regions that are homogeneous with

processing, and the final image segmentation may be found with the help of

3. Region-based segmentations

Image enhancement

information in images for human viewers, or to provide `better' input for other automated

image processing techniques. Image enhancement techniques can be divided into two

broad categories:

Unfortunately, there is no general theory for determining what `good’ image enhancement

is when it comes to human perception. If it looks good, it is good! However, when image

enhancement techniques are used as pre-processing tools for other image processing

techniques, then quantitative measures can determine which techniques are most

appropriate.

CHAPTER – 3

IMAGE FUSION

Introduction:

relevant information from two or more images into a single image. The resulting image

will be more informative than any of the input images. In remote sensing applications, the

increasing availability of space borne sensors gives a motivation for different image

fusion algorithms. Several situations in image processing require high spatial and high

spectral resolution in a single image. Most of the available equipment is not capable of

providing such data convincingly. The image fusion techniques allow the integration of

different information sources. The fused image can have complementary spatial and

spectral resolution characteristics. But, the standard image fusion techniques can distort

In satellite imaging, two types of images are available. The panchromatic image

acquired by satellites is transmitted with the maximum resolution available and the

multispectral data are transmitted with coarser resolution. This will be usually, two or

four times lower. At the receiver station, the panchromatic image is merged with the

Many methods exist to perform image fusion. The very basic one is the high pass filtering

technique. Later techniques are based on DCT, uniform rational filter bank, and Laplacian

pyramid.

Multisensor data fusion has become a discipline to which more and more general

image processing simultaneously require high spatial and high spectral information in a

single image. This is important in remote sensing. However, the instruments are not

Image fusion methods can be broadly classified into two - spatial domain fusion and

transform domain fusion. The fusion methods such as averaging, Brovey method,

principal component analysis (SEGMENTATION) and IHS based methods fall under

spatial domain approaches. Another important spatial domain fusion method is the high

pass filtering based technique. Here the high frequency details are injected into

they produce spatial distortion in the fused image. Spectral distortion becomes a negative

factor while we go for further processing, such as classification problem, of the fused

image. The spatial distortion can be very well handled by transform domain approaches

on image fusion.

The multiresolution analysis has become a very useful tool for analyzing remote

sensing images. The discrete COSINE transform has become a very useful tool for

fusion. Some other fusion methods are also there, such as Laplacian pyramid based,

Curvelet transform based etc. These methods show a better performance in spatial and

spectral quality of the fused image compared to other spatial methods of fusion.

CHAPTER - 4

APPLICATIONS

1. Image Classification

3. Medical imaging

4. Robot vision

Several methods are there for merging satellite images. In satellite imagery we can have

Multispectral images - Images optically acquired in more than one spectral or

wavelength interval. Each individual image is usually of the same physical area

The SPOT PAN satellite provides high resolution (10m pixel) panchromatic data while

the LANDSAT TM satellite provides low resolution (30m pixel) multispectral images.

Image fusion attempts to merge these images and produce a single high resolution

multispectral image.

The standard merging methods of image fusion are based on Red-Green-Blue (RGB) to

1. Register the low resolution multispectral images to the same size as the

panchromatic image

2. Transform the R,G and B bands of the multispectral image into IHS components

3. Modify the panchromatic image with respect to the multispectral image. This is

4. Replace the intensity component by the panchromatic image and perform inverse

Image fusion has recently become a common term used within medical

diagnostics and treatment. The term is used when patient images in different data formats

are fused. These forms can include magnetic resonance image (MRI), computed

tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET). In radiology and radiation

oncology, these images serve different purposes. For example, CT images are used more

often to ascertain differences in tissue density while MRI images are typically used to

diagnosing and treating cancer. Companies such as Keosys, MIMvista, IKOE, and

BrainLAB have recently created image fusion software to use in conjunction with

radiation treatment planning systems. With the advent of these new technologies,

radiation oncologists can take full advantage of intensity modulated radiation therapy

(IMRT). Being able to overlay diagnostic images onto radiation planning images results

CHAPTER – 5

FUSION ALGORITHMS:

The details of COSINEs and SEGMENTATION algorithm and their use in image

fusion along with simple average fusion algorithm are described in this section.

components. It computes a compact and optimal description of the data set. The first

principal component accounts for as much of the variance in the data as possible and each

succeeding component accounts for as much of the remaining variance as possible. First

principal component is taken to be along the direction with the maximum variance. The

first. Within this subspace, this component points the direction of maximum variance.

The third principal component is taken in the maximum variance direction in the

subspace perpendicular to the first two and so on. The SEGMENTATION is also called as

Karhunen-Loève transform or the Hotelling transform. The SEGMENTATION does not

have a fixed set of basis vectors like FFT, DCT and COSINE etc. and its basis vectors

Let X be a d-dimensional random vector and assume it to have zero empirical mean.

Orthonormal projection matrix V would be such that Y=V TX with the following

…………… (1)

cov(Y) as

…………… (2)

[λ1V1, λ2V2, …. , λdVd] = [cov(X) V1, cov(X) V2, … , cov(X) Vd] ………. (3)

SEGMENTATION Algorithm:

Let the source images (images to be fused) be arranged in two-column vectors. The steps

1. Organise the data into column vectors. The resulting matrix Z is of dimension 2 x n.

2. Compute the empirical mean along each column. The empirical mean vector Me has a

dimension of 1 x 2.

3. Subtract the empirical mean vector Me from each column of the data matrix Z. The

6. Consider the first column of V which corresponds to larger eigenvalue to compute P1

and P2 as

And

algorithm is shown in figure below. The input images (images to be fused) I1 (x, y) and

I2 (x, y) are arranged in two column vectors and their empirical means are subtracted.

The resulting vector has a dimension of n x 2, where n is length of the each image vector.

Compute the eigenvector and eigenvalues for this resulting vector are computed and the

components P1 and P2 (i.e., P1 + P2 = 1) using equation (3) are computed from the

CHAPTER – 6

Image Fusion by Simple Average:

This technique is a basic and straightforward technique and fusion could be achieved by

Fourier analysis:

Signal analysts already have at their disposal an impressive arsenal of tools. Perhaps

the most well-known of these is Fourier analysis, which breaks down a signal into

constituent sinusoids of different frequencies. Another way to think of Fourier analysis is

as a mathematical technique for transforming our view of the signal from time-based to

frequency-based.

Figure 2

For many signals, Fourier analysis is extremely useful because the signal’s

frequency content is of great importance. So why do we need other techniques, like

COSINE analysis?

time information is lost. When looking at a Fourier transform of a signal, it is impossible

to tell when a particular event took place. If the signal properties do not change much

over time — that is, if it is what is called a stationary signal—this drawback isn’t very

important. However, most interesting signals contain numerous non stationary or

transitory characteristics: drift, trends, abrupt changes, and beginnings and ends of

events. These characteristics are often the most important part of the signal, and Fourier

analysis is not suited to detecting them.

In an effort to correct this deficiency, Dennis Gabor (1946) adapted the Fourier

transform to analyze only a small section of the signal at a time—a technique called

windowing the signal.Gabor’s adaptation, called the Short-Time FourierTransform

(STFT), maps a signal into a two-dimensional function of time and

frequency.

Figure 3

The STFT represents a sort of compromise between the time- and frequency-based

views of a signal. It provides some information about both when and at what frequencies

a signal event occurs. However, you can only obtain this information with limited

precision, and that precision is determined by the size of the window. While the STFT

compromise between time and frequency information can be useful, the drawback is that

once you choose a particular size for the time window, that window is the same for all

frequencies. Many signals require a more flexible approach—one where we can vary the

window size to determine more accurately either time or frequency.

COSINE Analysis

COSINE analysis represents the next logical step: a windowing technique with

variable-sized regions. COSINE analysis allows the use of long time intervals where we

want more precise low-frequency information, and shorter regions where we want high-

frequency information.

Figure 4

Here’s what this looks like in contrast with the time-based, frequency-based,

and STFT views of a signal:

Figure 5

You may have noticed that COSINE analysis does not use a time-frequency region, but

rather a time-scale region. For more information about the concept of scale and the link

between scale and frequency, see “How to Connect Scale to Frequency?”

One major advantage afforded by COSINEs is the ability to perform local analysis,

that is, to analyze a localized area of a larger signal. Consider a sinusoidal signal with a

small discontinuity — one so tiny as to be barely visible. Such a signal easily could be

generated in the real world, perhaps by a power fluctuation or a noisy switch.

Figure 6

A plot of the Fourier coefficients (as provided by the fft command) of this signal

shows nothing particularly interesting: a flat spectrum with two peaks representing a

single frequency. However, a plot of COSINE coefficients clearly shows the exact

location in time of the discontinuity.

Figure 7

COSINE analysis is capable of revealing aspects of data that

other signal analysis techniques miss, aspects like trends, breakdown points,

discontinuities in higher derivatives, and self-similarity. Furthermore, because it affords a

different view of data than those presented by traditional techniques, COSINE analysis

can often compress or de-noise a signal without appreciable degradation. Indeed, in their

brief history within the signal processing field, COSINEs have already proven themselves

to be an indispensable addition to the analyst’s collection of tools and continue to enjoy a

burgeoning popularity today.

CHAPTER – 7

INTRODUCTION TO COSINE

Now that we know some situations when COSINE analysis is useful, it is

worthwhile asking “What is COSINE analysis?” and even more fundamentally,

“What is a COSINE?”

A COSINE is a waveform of effectively limited duration that has an average value of

zero.

Compare COSINEs with sine waves, which are the basis of Fourier analysis.

Sinusoids do not have limited duration — they extend from minus to plus

infinity. And where sinusoids are smooth and predictable, COSINEs tend to be

irregular and asymmetric.

Figure 8

Fourier analysis consists of breaking up a signal into sine waves of various

frequencies. Similarly, COSINE analysis is the breaking up of a signal into shifted and

scaled versions of the original (or mother) COSINE. Just looking at pictures of COSINEs

and sine waves, you can see intuitively that signals with sharp changes might be better

analyzed with an irregular COSINE than with a smooth sinusoid, just as some foods are

better handled with a fork than a spoon. It also makes sense that local features can be

described better with COSINEs that have local extent.

Mathematically, the process of Fourier analysis is represented by the Fourier

transform:

which is the sum over all time of the signal f(t) multiplied by a complex exponential.

(Recall that a complex exponential can be broken down into real and imaginary

sinusoidal components.) The results of the transform are the Fourier coefficients F(w),

which when multiplied by a sinusoid of frequency w yields the constituent sinusoidal

components of the original signal. Graphically, the process looks like:

Figure 9

Similarly, the continuous COSINE transform (CWT) is defined as the sum over all

time of the signal multiplied by scaled, shifted versions of the COSINE function

The result of the CWT is a series many COSINE coefficients C, which are a

function of scale and position.

Multiplying each coefficient by the appropriately scaled and shifted COSINE yields the

constituent COSINEs of the original signal:

Figure 10

Scaling

We’ve already alluded to the fact that COSINE analysis produces a time-scale

view of a signal and now we’re talking about scaling and shifting COSINEs.

What exactly do we mean by scale in this context?

Scaling a COSINE simply means stretching (or compressing) it.

often denoted by the letter a.

If we’re talking about sinusoids, for example the effect of the scale factor is very easy to

see:

Figure 11

The scale factor works exactly the same with COSINEs. The smaller the scale factor, the

more “compressed” the COSINE.

Figure 12

It is clear from the diagrams that for a sinusoid sin (wt) the scale factor ‘a’ is related

(inversely) to the radian frequency ‘w’. Similarly, with COSINE analysis the scale is

related to the frequency of the signal.

Shifting

Shifting a COSINE simply means delaying (or hastening) its onset. Mathematically,

delaying a function (t) by k is represented by (t-k)

Figure 13

The continuous COSINE transform is the sum over all time of the

signal multiplied by scaled, shifted versions of the COSINE. This process produces

COSINE coefficients that are a function of scale and position.

It’s really a very simple process. In fact, here are the five steps of an easy recipe for

creating a CWT:

1. Take a COSINE and compare it to a section at the start of the original signal.

2. Calculate a number C that represents how closely correlated the COSINE is with this

section of the signal. The higher C is, the more the similarity. More precisely, if the signal

energy and the COSINE energy are equal to one, C may be interpreted as a

correlation coefficient.

Note that the results will depend on the shape of the COSINE you choose.

Figure 14

3. Shift the COSINE to the right and repeat steps 1 and 2 until you’ve covered the whole

signal.

Figure 15

Figure 16

5. Repeat steps 1 through 4 for all scales.

When you’re done, you’ll have the coefficients produced at different scales by

different sections of the signal. The coefficients constitute the results of a regression of

the original signal performed on the COSINEs.

How to make sense of all these coefficients? You could make a plot on which the x-

axis represents position along the signal (time), the y-axis represents scale, and the color

at each x-y point represents the magnitude of the COSINE coefficient C. These are the

coefficient plots generated by the graphical tools.

Figure 17

If you could look at the same surface from the side, you might see something like this:

Figure 18

The continuous COSINE transform coefficient plots are precisely the time-scale view of

the signal we referred to earlier. It is a different view of signal data than the time-

frequency Fourier view, but it is not unrelated.

Notice that the scales in the coefficients plot (shown as y-axis labels) run from 1 to

31. Recall that the higher scales correspond to the most “stretched” COSINEs. The more

stretched the COSINE, the longer the portion of the signal with which it is being

compared, and thus the coarser the signal features being measured by the COSINE

coefficients.

Figure 19

Thus, there is a correspondence between COSINE scales and frequency as revealed by

COSINE analysis:

• Low scale a=> Compressed COSINE => Rapidly changing details => High

frequency ‘w’.

• High scale a=>Stretched COSINE=>Slowly changing, coarse features=>Low

frequency ‘w’.

It’s important to understand the fact that COSINE analysis does not produce a time-

frequency view of a signal is not a weakness, but a strength of the technique.

Not only is time-scale a different way to view data, it is a very natural way to view data

deriving from a great number of natural phenomena.

centuries of bombardment by meteorites whose sizes range from gigantic boulders to dust

specks.

If we think of this surface in cross-section as a one-dimensional signal, then it is

reasonable to think of the signal as having components of different scales—large features

carved by the impacts of large meteorites, and finer features abraded by small meteorites.

Figure 20

Here is a case where thinking in terms of scale makes much more sense than

thinking in terms of frequency. Inspection of the CWT coefficients plot for this signal

reveals patterns among scales and shows the signal’s possibly fractal nature.

Figure 21

Even though this signal is artificial, many natural phenomena — from the intricate

branching of blood vessels and trees, to the jagged surfaces of mountains and fractured

metals — lend themselves to an analysis of scale.

Calculating COSINE coefficients at every possible scale is a fair amount of work,

and it generates an awful lot of data. What if we choose only a subset of scales and

positions at which to make our calculations? It turns out rather remarkably that if we

choose scales and positions based on powers of two—so-called dyadic scales and

positions—then our analysis will be much more efficient and just as accurate. We obtain

such an analysis from the discrete COSINE transform (DCT).

An efficient way to implement this scheme using filters was developed in 1988 by

Mallat. The Mallat algorithm is in fact a classical scheme known in the signal processing

community as a two-channel sub band coder. This very practical filtering algorithm

yields a fast COSINE transform — a box into which a signal passes, and out of

which COSINE coefficients quickly emerge. Let’s examine this in more depth.

One-Stage Filtering: Approximations and Details:

For many signals, the low-frequency content is the most important part. It is what

gives the signal its identity. The high-frequency content on the other hand imparts flavor

or nuance. Consider the human voice. If you remove the high-frequency components, the

voice sounds different but you can still tell what’s being said. However, if you remove

enough of the low-frequency components, you hear gibberish. In COSINE analysis, we

often speak of approximations and details. The approximations are the high-scale, low-

frequency components of the signal. The details are the low-scale, high-frequency

components.

The filtering process at its most basic level looks like this:

Figure 23

The original signal S passes through two complementary filters and emerges as

two signals.

Unfortunately, if we actually perform this operation on a real digital signal, we

wind up with twice as much data as we started with. Suppose, for instance that the

original signal S consists of 1000 samples of data. Then the resulting signals will each

have 1000 samples, for a total of 2000.

These signals A and D are interesting, but we get 2000 values instead of the 1000

we had. There exists a more subtle way to perform the decomposition using COSINEs.

By looking carefully at the computation, we may keep only one point out of two in each

of the two 2000-length samples to get the complete information. This is the notion of own

sampling. We produce two sequences called cA and cD.

Figure 24

The process on the right which includes down sampling produces DCT

Coefficients. To gain a better appreciation of this process let’s perform a one-stage

discrete COSINE transform of a signal. Our signal will be a pure sinusoid with

high- frequency noise added to it.

Here is our schematic diagram with real signals inserted into it:

Figure 25

The MATLAB code needed to generate s, cD, and cA is:

s = sin(20*linspace(0,pi,1000)) + 0.5*rand(1,1000);

[cA,cD] = DCT(s,'db2');

where db2 is the name of the COSINE we want to use for the analysis.

Notice that the detail coefficients cD is small and consist mainly of a high-frequency

noise, while the approximation coefficients cA contains much less noise than does the

original signal.

[length(cA) length(cD)]

ans = 501 501

You may observe that the actual lengths of the detail and approximation coefficient

vectors are slightly more than half the length of the original signal. This has to do with

the filtering process, which is implemented by convolving the signal with a filter. The

convolution “smears” the signal, introducing several extra samples into the result.

Multiple-Level Decomposition:

decomposed in turn, so that one signal is broken down into many lower resolution

components. This is called the COSINE decomposition tree.

Figure 26

Looking at a signal’s COSINE decomposition tree can yield valuable information.

Figure 27

Number of Levels:

reality, the decomposition can proceed only until the individual details consist of a single

sample or pixel. In practice, you’ll select a suitable number of levels based on the nature

of the signal, or on a suitable criterion such as entropy.

COSINE Reconstruction:

We’ve learned how the discrete COSINE transform can be used to analyze or

decompose, signals and images. This process is called decomposition or analysis. The

other half of the story is how those components can be assembled back into the original

signal without loss of information. This process is called reconstruction, or synthesis. The

mathematical manipulation that effects synthesis is called the inverse discrete COSINE

transforms (IDCT). To synthesize a signal in the COSINE Toolbox, we reconstruct it

from the COSINE coefficients:

Figure 28

Where COSINE analysis involves filtering and down sampling, the COSINE

reconstruction process consists of up sampling and filtering. Up sampling is the process

of lengthening a signal component by inserting zeros between samples:

Figure 29

The COSINE Toolbox includes commands like iDCT and waverec that perform

single-level or multilevel reconstruction respectively on the components of one-

dimensional signals. These commands have their two-dimensional analogs, iDCT2 and

waverec2.

Reconstruction Filters:

The filtering part of the reconstruction process also bears some discussion, because

it is the choice of filters that is crucial in achieving perfect reconstruction of the original

signal. The down sampling of the signal components performed during the decomposition

phase introduces a distortion called aliasing. It turns out that by carefully choosing filters

for the decomposition and reconstruction phases that are closely related (but not

identical), we can “cancel out” the effects of aliasing.

The low- and high pass decomposition filters (L and H), together with their

associated reconstruction filters (L' and H'), form a system of what is called quadrature

mirror filters:

Figure 30

We have seen that it is possible to reconstruct our original signal from the

coefficients of the approximations and details.

Figure

31

It is also

possible to

reconstruct the

approximations

and details themselves from their coefficient vectors.

As an example, let’s consider how we would reconstruct the first-level

approximation A1 from the coefficient vector cA1. We pass the coefficient vector cA1

through the same process we used to reconstruct the original signal. However, instead of

combining it with the level-one detail cD1, we feed in a vector of zeros in place of the

detail coefficients

vector:

Figure 32

The process yields a reconstructed approximation A1, which has the same length

as the original signal S and which is a real approximation of it. Similarly, we can

reconstruct the first-level detail D1, using the analogous process:

Figure 33

The reconstructed details and approximations are true constituents of the original

signal. In fact, we find when we combine them that:

A1 + D1 = S

Note that the coefficient vectors cA1 and cD1—because they were produced by

Down sampling and are only half the length of the original signal — cannot directly be

combined to reproduce the signal.

It is necessary to reconstruct the approximations and details before combining

them. Extending this technique to the components of a multilevel analysis, we find that

similar relationships hold for all the reconstructed signal constituents.

That is, there are several ways to reassemble the original signal:

Figure 34

In the section “Reconstruction Filters”, we spoke of the importance of choosing

the right filters. In fact, the choice of filters not only determines whether perfect

reconstruction is possible, it also determines the shape of the COSINE we use to perform

the analysis. To construct a COSINE of some practical utility, you seldom start by

drawing a waveform. Instead, it usually makes more sense to design the appropriate

quadrature mirror filters, and then use them to create the waveform. Let’s see

how this is done by focusing on an example.

Consider the low pass reconstruction filter (L') for the db2 COSINE.

COSINE function position

Figure 35

Lprime = dbaux(2)

If we reverse the order of this vector (see wrev), and then multiply every even

positions:

HU =–0.0915 0 –0.1585 0 0.5915 0 –0.3415 0

Finally, convolve the up sampled vector with the original low pass filter:

H2 = conv(HU,Lprime);

plot(H2)

Figure 36

If we iterate this process several more times, repeatedly up sampling and

convolving the resultant vector with the four-element filter vector Lprime, a pattern

begins to emerge:

Figure 37

The curve begins to look progressively more like the db2 COSINE. This means

that the COSINE’s shape is determined entirely by the coefficients of the reconstruction

filters. This relationship has profound implications. It means that you cannot choose just

any shape, call it a COSINE, and perform an analysis. At least, you can’t choose an

arbitrary COSINE waveform if you want to be able to reconstruct the original signal

accurately. You are compelled to choose a shape determined by quadrature mirror

decomposition filters.

We’ve seen the interrelation of COSINEs and quadrature mirror filters. The

COSINE function is determined by the high pass filter, which also produces the

details of the COSINE decomposition.

There is an additional function associated with some, but not all COSINEs. This

is the so-called scaling function . The scaling function is very similar to the COSINE

function. It is determined by the low pass quadrature mirror filters, and thus is associated

with the approximations of the COSINE decomposition. In the same way that iteratively

up- sampling and convolving the high pass filter produces a shape approximating the

COSINE function, iteratively up-sampling and convolving the low pass filter produces a

shape approximating the scaling function.

A multi step analysis-synthesis process can be represented as:

Figure 38

This process involves two aspects: breaking up a signal to obtain the COSINE

coefficients, and reassembling the signal from the coefficients. We’ve already discussed

decomposition and reconstruction at some length. Of course, there is no point breaking

up a signal merely to have the satisfaction of immediately reconstructing it. We may

modify the COSINE coefficients before performing the reconstruction step. We perform

COSINE analysis because the coefficients thus obtained have many known uses, de-

noising and compression being foremost among them. But COSINE analysis is still a new

and emerging field. No doubt, many uncharted uses of the COSINE coefficients lie in

wait. The COSINE Toolbox can be a means of exploring possible uses and hitherto

unknown applications of COSINE analysis. Explore the toolbox functions and see what

you discover.

CHAPTER - 8

COSINE DECOMPOSITION

Images are treated as two dimensional signals, they change horizontally and

vertically, thus 2D COSINE analysis must be used for images. 2D COSINE analysis uses

the same ’mother COSINEs’ but requires an extra step at every level of decomposition.

The 1D analysis filtered out the high frequency information from the low frequency

information at every level of decomposition; so only two sub signals were produced at

each level.

In 2D, the images are considered to be matrices with N rows and M columns. At

every level of decomposition the horizontal data is filtered, then the approximation and

details produced from this are filtered on columns.

At every level, four sub-images are obtained; the approximation, the vertical

detail, the horizontal detail and the diagonal detail. Below the Saturn image has been

decomposed to one level. The COSINE analysis has found how the image changes

vertically, horizontally and diagonally.

To get the next level of decomposition the approximation sub-image is decomposed, this

idea can be seen in figure 3.

Fig 3: Saturn Image decomposed to Level 3. Only the 9 detail sub-images and the final

sub-image is required to reconstruct the image perfectly.

The number of zeros in percentage is defined by:

decomposition.

The information flow diagram of COSINE- based image fusion algorithm is shown in

above figure. In COSINE image fusion scheme, the source images I1 (x,y) and I2 (x,y),

are decomposed into approximation and detailed coefficients at required level using DCT.

The approximation and detailed coefficients of both images are combined using fusion

rule Φ.

The fused image (If (x, y)) could be obtained by taking the inverse discrete COSINE

If (x, y) = IDCT [Φ{ DCT (I1 (x,y)), DCT (I2 (x,y))}] ………. (5)

The fusion rule used in this project is simply averages the approximation coefficients and

picks the detailed coefficient in each sub band with the largest magnitude.

Entropy:

E = entropy (I)

texture of the input image. Entropy is defined as -sum (p.*log2 (p)) where p contains the

histogram counts returned from imhist. By default, entropy uses two bins for logical

arrays and 256 bins for uint8, uint16, or double arrays. I can be a multidimensional

image. If I have more than two dimensions, the entropy function treats it as a

multidimensional grayscale image and not as an RGB image. Image can be logical, uint8,

uint16, or double and must be real, nonempty, and nonsparse. E is double. Entropy

converts any class other than logical to uint8 for the histogram count calculation so that

the pixel values are discrete and directly correspond to a bin value.

CHAPTER - 9

INTRODUCTION TO MATLAB

What Is MATLAB?

problems and solutions are expressed in familiar mathematical notation. Typical uses

include

2. Algorithm development

3. Data acquisition

MATLAB is an interactive system whose basic data element is an array that does

not require dimensioning. This allows you to solve many technical computing problems,

especially those with matrix and vector formulations, in a fraction of the time it would

The name MATLAB stands for matrix laboratory. MATLAB was originally written to

provide easy access to matrix software developed by the LINPACK and EISPACK

projects. Today, MATLAB engines incorporate the LAPACK and BLAS libraries,

MATLAB has evolved over a period of years with input from many users. In

toolboxes. Very important to most users of MATLAB, toolboxes allow you to learn and

functions (M-files) that extend the MATLAB environment to solve particular classes of

problems. Areas in which toolboxes are available include signal processing, control

systems, neural networks, fuzzy logic, COSINEs, simulation, and many others.

Development Environment:

This is the set of tools and facilities that help you use MATLAB functions and

files. Many of these tools are graphical user interfaces. It includes the MATLAB desktop

and Command Window, a command history, an editor and debugger, and browsers for

functions like sum, sine, cosine, and complex arithmetic, to more sophisticated functions

like matrix inverse, matrix eigen values, Bessel functions, and fast Fourier transforms.

"programming in the small" to rapidly create quick and dirty throw-away programs, and

"programming in the large" to create complete large and complex application programs.

Graphics:

MATLAB has extensive facilities for displaying vectors and matrices as graphs, as

well as annotating and printing these graphs. It includes high-level functions for two-

presentation graphics. It also includes low-level functions that allow you to fully

The MATLAB Application Program Interface (API):

This is a library that allows you to write C and Fortran programs that interact with

MATLAB. It includes facilities for calling routines from MATLAB (dynamic linking),

calling MATLAB as a computational engine, and for reading and writing MAT-files.

CHAPTER - 10

MATLAB DESKTOP:-

Matlab Desktop is the main Matlab application window. The desktop contains five

sub windows, the command window, the workspace browser, the current directory

window, the command history window, and one or more figure windows, which are

The command window is where the user types MATLAB commands and

expressions at the prompt (>>) and where the output of those commands is displayed.

MATLAB defines the workspace as the set of variables that the user creates in a work

session. The workspace browser shows these variables and some information about them.

Double clicking on a variable in the workspace browser launches the Array Editor, which

can be used to obtain information and income instances edit certain properties of the

variable.

The current Directory tab above the workspace tab shows the contents of the current

directory, whose path is shown in the current directory window. For example, in the

INSTALLED IN DRIVE C. clicking on the arrow in the current directory window shows

a list of recently used paths. Clicking on the button to the right of the window allows the

MATLAB uses a search path to find M-files and other MATLAB related files,

which are organize in directories in the computer file system. Any file run in MATLAB

must reside in the current directory or in a directory that is on search path. By default, the

files supplied with MATLAB and math works toolboxes are included in the search path.

The easiest way to see which directories are on the search path. The easiest way to see

which directories are soon the search path, or to add or modify a search path, is to select

set path from the File menu the desktop, and then use the set path dialog box. It is good

practice to add any commonly used directories to the search path to avoid repeatedly

The Command History Window contains a record of the commands a user has

entered in the command window, including both current and previous MATLAB sessions.

Previously entered MATLAB commands can be selected and re-executed from the

This action launches a menu from which to select various options in addition to executing

the commands. This is useful to select various options in addition to executing the

work session.

Using the MATLAB Editor to create M-Files:

The MATLAB editor is both a text editor specialized for creating M-files and a

graphical MATLAB debugger. The editor can appear in a window by itself, or it can be a

sub window in the desktop. M-files are denoted by the extension .m, as in pixelup.m. The

MATLAB editor window has numerous pull-down menus for tasks such as saving,

viewing, and debugging files. Because it performs some simple checks and also uses

color to differentiate between various elements of code, this text editor is recommended

as the tool of choice for writing and editing M-functions. To open the editor , type edit at

the prompt opens the M-file filename.m in an editor window, ready for editing. As noted

earlier, the file must be in the current directory, or in a directory in the search path.

Getting Help:

The principal way to get help online is to use the MATLAB help browser, opened as

a separate window either by clicking on the question mark symbol (?) on the desktop

toolbar, or by typing help browser at the prompt in the command window. The help

Browser is a web browser integrated into the MATLAB desktop that displays a Hypertext

Markup Language(HTML) documents. The Help Browser consists of two panes, the help

navigator pane, used to find information, and the display pane, used to view the

information. Self-explanatory tabs other than navigator pane are used to perform a search.

Fig: Image 1

Fig: Image 2

Figure: Fused image by COSINEs

CHAPTER - 11

CONCLUSIONS

with and without reference image have been evaluated. The simple averaging fusion

algorithm shows degraded performance. Image fusion using COSINEs with higher level

of decomposition shows better performance in some metrics while in other metrics, the

REFERENCES

1. Gonzalo, Pajares & Jesus Manuel, de la Cruz. A COSINE-based image fusion tutorial.

2. Varsheny, P.K. Multi-sensor data fusion. Elec. Comm. Engg., 1997, 9(12), 245-53.

representation. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intel., 1989, 11(7), 674-93.

4. Wang, H.; Peng, J. & Wu, W. Fusion algorithm for multisensor image based on discrete

multiCOSINE transform. IEE Proc. Visual Image Signal Process., 2002, 149(5).

7. h t t p : / / e n . w i k i p e d i a . o r g / w i k i / Principal_components_analysis.

8. Naidu, V.P.S.; Girija, G. & Raol, J.R. Evaluation of data association and fusion

Navigation, Guidance and Control, Austin, USA, August 2003, pp. 11-14.

10. Multi-sensor image data fusion based on pixel-level weights of COSINE and the

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