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 His famous vocal music works/ Lieder were:

VOCAL MUSIC OF THE “Gretchen am Spinnrade”, “Erlkonig”, “Ellens
Gesang III” (“Ave Maria”) and “Schwanenge sang”
ROMANTIC PERIOD (“Swan Song”). He also wrote piano pieces, string
quartets, operetta and the Symphony No.8 in B
minor (“Unfinished Symphony”)
The parallelisms of music and literature were clearly  Schubert was born on the 31st of January 1797 in
evident in almost all forms of vocal music during the Romantic Himmelpfortgrund, Austria and died in 1828 in
period. Composers interpret poems, mood, atmosphere and Vienna, Austria at 31.
imagery into music. Musical compositions suc as the art song
was written for solo voice and piano. Like all program music, Giuseppe Verdi
art song has its inspiration from poetry in this period. Mood is
often set at the beginning with piano introduction and  A name associated with Romantic opera is that of
concluded with a piano postlude. Verdi.
Romantic artists found inspiration in landscapes. Their  His characters are ordinary people and not those of the
subjects were traditional myths, legends and folklore usually royal family like those found in German operas.
dealing with the supernatural, grotesque, and less ordinary.  He insisted on a good libretto and wrote operas with
Vocal music in this period require singers to perform a greater political overtones and for middle-class audience.
range of tone color, dynamics and pitch. Because of this,  Verdi was born in Parma, Italy on October 9, 1813.
Opera became an important source of musical  He studied in Busseto and later went to Milan where
expressions. The birth of the opera houses came. It was the his first opera “Oberto” was performed in La Scala, the
place where all the arts converged: not only music, but poetry, most important opera house at the time.
painting, architecture and the dance as well.  Almost all of his works are serious love story with
unhappy ending. Expressive vocal melody is the soul
 He completed 25 operas throughout his career. His
Franz Peter Schubert final opera ends with “All the world‟s a joke.”Some of
his famous operas are still being produced and
 The proper name for Franz Schubert songs is performed worldwide.
actually lieder, which is the German word for songs.  His much acclaimed works are; La Traviata, Rigoletto,
Schubert developed lieder so that they had a Falstaff, Otello and Aida were he wrote for the opening
powerful dramatic impact on the listeners. of the Suez Canal.
 He tapped the poetry of writers like Johann Goethe.  He died in Milan, Italy on January 27,1901.
He is considered the last of the Classical composers
and one of the first romantic ones.

Giacomo Puccini and “Parsifal”. His work would later influence

 Giacomo Puccini was born in a poor family on modern film scores, including those of the Harry
December 22, 1858 in Lucca, Italy. He studied at the Potter and Lord of the Rings film series.
Milan Conservatory. He belonged to a group of  Wagner died of a heart attack on February 13,1883
composers who stressed realism, therefore, he drew at age of 69.
material from everyday life, rejecting heroic themes
from mythology and history. Georges Bizet
 Puccini‟s famous operas were: “La Boheme”,  Georges Bizet was registered with the legal name
“Tosca”, “Madame Butterfly”, and “Turandot”. Alexandre-Cesar-Leopold Bizet, but was baptized
Georges Bizet and was always known by the latter
Richard Wagner name. He was born October 25, 1838 in Paris, France.
 Wilhelm Richard Wagner was born in Leipzig, He entered the Paris Conservatory of music at a very
young age.
Germany on May 22, 1813. He attended Leipzig
 Bizet became famous for his operas. His most famous
University. He was very much inspired by Ludwig opera is “Carmen”. However, when “Carmen” first
van Beethoven. opened in Paris, the reviews were terrible. The shows
 Wagner introduced new ideas in harmony and in were criticized in horrible ways that resulted in poor
form, including extremes of chromaticism. audience attendance.
 During the first round of “Carmen” performances, Bizet
 He also explored the limits of the traditional tonal died (June 3, 1875). He was only 36. Four months
system that gave keys and chords its own identity later, “Carmen” opened in Vienna, Austria, and was a
which paved the way for the rise of atonality in the smash hit. It is now one of the most popular operas
20th century. ever written. Bizet never knew that audiences would
 Wagner exerted a strong influence on the operatic come to consider it as his masterpiece.
medium. He was an advocate of a new form of opera
which he called “music drama” where musical and
dramatic elements were fused together. Opera became increasingly popular during the
 He developed a compositional style in which the Romantic period.
orchestra has of equal importance in dramatic roles  It is a musical composition having all or most of its
as the singers themselves. text set to music with arias, recitative, choruses,
 The expressiveness is aided by the use of duets, trios, etc. sung to orchestral accompaniment.
“leitmotifs” or musical sequences standing for a  The opera is usually characterized by elaborate
particular character/plot element. costumes, scenery and choreography.
 His famous works are; “Tristan and Isolde”, “Die
Walkyrie”, “Die Meistersinger”, “Tannhäuser”,

Components of an Opera: For the Female Voice:

 Libretto - the text of an opera. Librettist and the 1. Soprano- highest female voice
composer work closely together to tell the story.  Coloratura-highest soprano voice
 Lyric-bright and full sound
 Score - the book that the composer and librettist put  Dramatic- darker full sound
together. The score has all the musical notes, words  Mezzo-Soprano- most common female voice;
and ideas to help the performers tell the story. Often, strong middle voice, tone is darker or deeper than
there are operas with overtures, preludes, prologues, the soprano
several acts, finales and postludes.
 Contralto- lowest female voice and most unique
among female
 Recitative - Declamatory singing, used in the prose
parts and dialogue of opera. Different roles in operas
Duet, trio, and other small ensemble
are created taking into account different types of
voices. Each role requires a different type of singer, Chorus
not only able to sing a given vocal range but also Orchestra
with certain voice characteristics, color and power. Acts-main divisions of an opera
 Aria – an air or solo singing part sung by a principal Scene- setting or place
character. This song is what the public will
remember best when leaving the opera house.  Composers like Verdi, Puccini and Wagner saw the
Properly and well sung, a beautiful aria can bring an opportunity to explore ways to develop the vocal
audience to its feet and decide the fate of an entire power of a singer. Greater range of tone color,
opera. dynamics and pitch were employed.
 Dynamics and vocal embellishments were used to
further affect the way singers sing.
 It is also important to know the types of voices of
singers. This will serve as a guide for singers on their Some musical terms are used like:
choice of songs and vocal quality expected of a singer or  A Capella - one or more singers performing without
opera character. instrumental accompaniment.
For the Male Voice:  Cantabile - In a singing style
1. Tenor- highest male voice  Capo - Head, the beginning
2. Baritone- Middle male voice, lies between Bass and  Coda - closing section appended to a movement or
Tenor voices. It is the common male voice. song.
3. Bass- lowest male voice  Dolce - sweetly

 Falsetto - a weaker and more airy voice usually in Synopsis

the higher pitch ranges.  At one of her brilliant supper parties, the beautiful but
 Glissando - sliding quickly between 2 notes/ frail demi-mondaine (a woman supported by a
 Passagio - parts of a singing voice where register wealthy lover –Merriam Webster Dictionary), Violetta
transitions occur. Valéry, meets the well-born Alfredo Germont. They
 Rubato - slight speeding up or slowing down of the immediately fall in love and she decides to abandon
tempo of a piece at the discretion of the soloist. her life of pleasure.
 Tessitura - the most comfortable singing range of a  Alfredo‟s father did not approve of their lifestyle in
singer. the country and demands that Violetta renounce
 Vibrato - rapidly repeated slight pitch variation Alfredo. Violetta determined to make the sacrifice,
during a sustained note, to give a richer & more then departs and leaves only a note for Alfredo.
varied sound.  She appears at a ball in Flora‟s house on the arm of
an old admirer, Baron Douphol which makes Alfredo
Here are some examples of the story of 2 famous angry. Alfredo challenges the Baron to play cards
operas of the Romantic Period: where Alfredo wins consistently. Unable to persuade
Violetta to go with him, Alfredo insults her. Violetta
LA TRAVIATA becomes ill, and all her friends desert her, leaving
Music by Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901) her virtually penniless.
 Alfredo returns to Violetta. His father told him of the
Libretto in Italian by Francesco Maria Piave, based on “La
real story behind Violetta‟s departure from their
Dame aux Camélias,” play by Alexandre Dumas after his
country house, and urged him to seek her
novel by the same name. The play is known in English as
forgiveness. Overjoyed at the sight of him, Violetta
“Camille.” Premiere: Venice, March 6, 1853.
attempts to rise but falls into Alfredo‟s arms.
Categorized as a Romantic tragedy. Germont and the doctor enter as Violetta dies.
Set in Paris, France during 1850.
Originally in three acts, but present-day productions are Madame Butterfly
usually in four acts dividing the original Act II
 Music by Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924)
ACT I: Violetta‟s Paris salon, luxuriously furnished
 Libretto in Italian by Giuseppe Giacosa and Luigi
ACT II: A villa near Paris Ilica.From the short story by John Luther Lung,
ACT III: Ballroom in Flora‟s mansion derived from Pierre Loti‟s tale Madame
ACT IV: Violetta‟s bedroom Chrysantheme.
 Romantic tragedy. Set numbers; recitative. Setting:
Nagasaki, Japan, at the beginning of the 20th
century. Two acts; Act 2 with two parts

Synopsis with the proper breath support to project the voice through
 When American naval vessels frequented Japanese the entire hall.
seaports, American Lieutenant Benjamin Franklin Endurance for long operas is an issue for singers.
Pinkerton met Cio-Cio-San (“Butterfly”) and was You have to practice a lot so that you can sing well for the
captivated by her beauty. Pinkerton rented a entire length of the opera, which can be two to four hours.
Japanese house and part of his rental package is his
“betrothal” to Cio-Cio-San.  Language:
 Treating the marriage merely as a casual affair, Opera singers often sing in Italian, French, German,
Pinkerton returns to America after the wedding or Russian. You don‟t have to be fluent in all these
leaving Cio-Cio-San loyally waiting for his return. He languages, but you want to be familiar enough with them
marries an American woman named Kate. When he that you can easily sing and sound like you are fluent in
returns to Japan three years later with his American these languages.
wife, he learns that he bore a son with Cio-Cio-San.
Upon learning that Pinkerton had married another
woman, Cio-Cio-San kills herself to make sure that
Pinkerton takes their son with him. Fundamentals of Singing
 Breathing
There are two sides of breathing-inhaling and
Training to sing for opera usually requires a long process of exhaling- and both play an important role in singing.
voice lessons or study. It also requires a lengthy time of Breathing is a natural biological function but you can control
practice for you to master your voice. how you breathe in order to develop your best singing
For many singers, the long process of studying also means voice. Learn how to expand your lung capacity, control your
starting early in life. The list below shows you the different exhalation, and release air without making breathing noises.
aspects that you need to learn as you train for opera.
 Sound/ Tone Color:  Controlling Tone Quality
For opera, the performance is about the quality of The timbre of the voice describes its tone quality.
sound that the singer makes. Singing opera requires you to Some singers refer to “head” and “chest” voice. Generally,
sing long phrases and to sing loud enough to be heard over the lower the pitch, the lower it resonates. The voice often
an orchestra in large halls. “breaks” and the tone quality changes on certain pitches.
The key is to realize that the registers are not actually
 “Bel Canto” technique: separate mechanism, just have different levels on a
When singing opera, the focus of the performance is continuous scale.
on the singing technique. Opera technique is called bel
canto, which literally means beautiful singing. This is done
by singing with your mouth and throat wide open and used

 Posture  Famous writers of sarsuwela include Benigno Zamora,

Proper posture promotes efficient breathing which is Severino Reyes and Clodualdo del Mundo. Dalagang
essential to projection, tone quality, and vocal range. The Bukid (Country Maiden, 1919) is arguably the most
ideal posture for singing is erect yet relaxed. Overall good popular sarsuwela in Tagalog.
health and physical fitness are also important.
 Today, singers like Maria Callas and Kirsten Chenoweth
 Vocal Range are famous because of their performances of different
One major goal of every singer is to have a well- operas and musical plays abroad. In the Philippines
developed and impressive singing range. In order to artist like Isay Alvarez, Robert Seňa, Monique Wilson,
achieve this, a singer should establish good vocal habits in Jaime Rivera and Leah Salonga also became famous
the most comfortable placement of the voice and then not only in the local scene but abroad as well for their
slowly expanding the range. roles in musical plays like the “Miss Saigon.” In fact
Leah Salonga won various international awards like the
 Endurance Olivier, Tony, Drama Desk and Theatre World awards.
Singers are expected to perform well even it will take She also received the Order of Lakandula Award from
an hour or more to perform. Endurance is expected from Philippine president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo in
singers who also practice long hours to give a good and recognition of her excellence in her craft and for using
memorable performance. her talents to benefit Philippine society.
Even today popular singers still showcase their
talents to a high level of performance. The need to capture  Heralded by the French Revolution, the Romantic
the audience with their extraordinary vocal ability is still the Period was one of subjectivity. The music is intensely
main reason for showcasing their talents. Many musical emotional, deriving its strength from massive forces and
plays are inspired by these operas of the Romantic Period. vivid orchestration. It was also in this period, hat the
They emulate the same intense emotions but are now put virtuoso emerged and performed in numerous concerts.
into the present context.
 The Romantic Era brought further changes in the world
 In the Philippines, the sarsuwela, also known as the of vocal music. The art song (lied) became a special
„drama simbolico‟ was a traditional theatre genre that category of vocal music. Composers made great strides
dominated the Philippine theatre scene over one during this time to closely associate the text or words of
hundred years. It was first introduced by Dario a piece with its musical counterpart.
Cespedes.Like the Opera of the Romantic period its
storyline was commonly based on domestic issues that  The real achievements of the Romantics in theatre were
often exemplified a strong sense of Filipino nationalism in opera. One of the striking characteristics of the late
and anguish against the country‟s foreign imperialists. 18th and early 19th centuries is the development of the
idea of romantic love linked to marriage. Romantic

operatic voice is trained to be full and rich, powerful

enough to fill an opera house in the days before
electronic amplification.

Aria - solo singing part in an Opera
Bel canto - beautiful singing
Chromaticism - The use of notes foreign to the mode or
diatonic scale upon which composition is based
Coloratura - type of operatic soprano who specializes in
music that is distinguished by agile runs and leaps
Leitmotifs - musical sequences standing for a particular
character/plot element.
Libretto - book or story of the opera
Lieder - German word for songs
Mezzo-soprano - Female vocal range between soprano
and alto; have a tone that is darker than sopranos but
lighter than altos
Overtures - An instrumental composition intended
especially as an introduction to an extended work, such as
an opera
Postlude - a closing piece of music
Preludes – a short piece generally played as an
introduction to another larger musical piece
Prologues - An introduction or preface

Ancient Theater
(Greek and Roman Theater)
Greek Theater
History of the Theatrical Forms and Their Evolution  European theater began in Ancient Greece. It began
 Theater began from myth, ritual and ceremony. Early around 700 B.C. with festivals honoring their many
society perceived connections between actions gods. One god, Dionysus, with a religious festival
performed by groups of people or leaders to a called, ―The Cult of Dionysus‖, to honor Dionysus
certain society and these actions moved from habit, (Di-on-i-sus), the god of wine and fertility. The city-
to tradition, to ritual, to ceremony due to human state of Athens was the center of a significant
desire and need for entertainment. The repeated cultural, political, and military power during this
rehearsals, performances and creation of different period, where the festivals and competitions were
actions broke the ground for theater. Let us now usually performed. The three well-known Greek
study the theatrical forms of the different art periods. tragedy playwrights are Sophocles, Euripides and
 Theater means ―place of seeing‖, but it is more Aeschylus.
than the buildings where performance take place. To  The theater of ancient Greece consisted of three
produce theater, a playwright writes the scripts, the types of drama: Tragedy, Comedy and the Satyr
director rehearses the performers, the designer and play.
technical crew produce props to create the scenes,  Tragedy is a compound of two Greek words,
and actors and actresses perform on stage. Then it ―tragos‖ or "goat" and ―ᾠδή‖ (ode) meaning
will only be a true theater act when an audience "song, referring to goats sacrificed to Dionysus
witnesses it. before performances, or to goat-skins worn by the
 Before we proceed to experience how to organize performers.
and perform in a theater, we have to acquire  In Greece, tragedy was the most admired type of
information on the important periods and events in play. It dealt with tragic events and have an unhappy
theater history. ending, especially one concerning the downfall of the
main character. Thespis was the first actor and
introduced the use of masks and was called the
"Father of Tragedy‖ .

 The actors, directors, and dramatists were all the

same person. After some time, only three actors

were allowed to perform in each play. Due to limited They consisted of three main elements: the orchestra, the
number of actors allowed on-stage, the chorus skene, and the audience
played into a very active part of Greek theatre. Music .
was often played during the chorus. Men performed Orchestra: A large circular or rectangular area at the center
songs to welcome Dionysus and women were not part of the theatre, where the play, dance, religious rites,
allowed to perform. Competitions in song, dance, and acting took place.
music, scenic representation and bodily exercises
were done during the festivals. And to promote a Theatron- viewing place on the slope of a hill
common identity, Athenians spread these festivals to Skene –stage
their numerous allies.
Parodos- side entrance.
 Comedy plays were derived from imitation; there
were no traces of their origin. Aristophanes wrote
most of the comedy plays. Out of these 11 plays,
Lysistrata survived, a humorous tale about a strong Roman Theater
woman who led a female coalition to end war in
Greece. Cyclops was an adventurous comedy by  The theatre of ancient Rome started in the 3rd
Euripides. century BC. It had varied and interesting art forms,
 Satyr Play contains comic elements to lighten the like festival performances of street theatre,
overall mood or a serious play with a happy ending. acrobatics, the staging of comedies of Plautus, and
The satyr play was a short, lighthearted tailpiece the high-verbally elaborate tragedies of Seneca.
performed after each trilogy of the tragedies. It is an Although Rome had a native tradition of
ancient Greek form of tragic comedy. It featured
performance, the Hellenization (historical spread of
choruses of satyrs, based on Greek mythology, and
with pretended drunkenness, bold sexuality ancient Greek culture) of Roman culture in the 3rd
(including phallic props), tricks, and sight jokes. This century BC had an intense and energizing effect on
featured half-man / half-goat characters known as Roman theatre and encouraged the development of
Satyrs. They were awful, ridiculous, and usually Latin literature.
drunk. The Satyr characters lusted after everyone on  According to Roman historian Livy, in the 4th century
stage, and they delivered the most humorous lines, BC, the Etruscan actors were the first experienced
often at the expense of others. theater. While in 240 BC, Roman drama began with
the plays of Livius Andronicus. It remained popular
Ancient Theater Terms: throughout late Antiquity. And by the mid 4th century
AD, 102 out of 176 ludi publici being dedicated to
Theatre buildings were called theatron. The theaters were
large, open-air structures constructed on the slopes of hills.

theatre, besides a considerably lower number of Medieval Theater

gladiator and chariot racing events. 500 C.E.-1400
 Greek theatres had a great influence on the
Roman’s theater, too. The Triumvir Pompey- was During the Medieval era, theater performances were not
one of the first permanent (non-wooden) theatres in allowed throughout Europe. To keep the theater alive,
Rome, whose structure was somewhat similar to the minstrels, though denounced by the Church, performed in
theatron of Athens. The building was a part of a markets, public places and festivals. They travelled from
multi-use complex that included a large one town to another as puppeteers, jugglers, story tellers,
quadriporticus (a columned quadrangle), directly dancers, singers, and other theatrical acts. These minstrels
behind the scaenae fron-, an elaborately decorated were viewed as dangerous and pagan.
background of theatre stage, enclosed by the large
columned porticos with an expansive garden Churches in Europe started staging their own theater
complex of fountains and statues. There were rooms performances during Easter Sundays with biblical stories
also that were dedicated to the exposition of art and and events. Eventually, some plays were brought outside
other works collected by Pompey Magnus which the church due to their portrayal of the devil and hell. An
were located along the stretch of covered arcade. example of this kind of play is the ―Mystére d‟Adam” or
"The Mystery of Adam.‖ The story revolves around Adam
 The usual themes for Roman theater plays were and Eve and ends with the devil capturing and bringing
chariots races, gladiators, and public executions. them to hell.
The Romans loved a good spectacle. They loved to Over the centuries, the plays revolved around biblical
watch combat, admired blood sports and gladiator themes from the Story of the Creation to the Last Judgment.
competition. The more realistic the violence, the
more it pleased Roman audiences. The Christians
however opposed the barbaric themes of the plays Renaissance Theater:
and closed down all theaters. 1400-1600

 Renaissance theater arts were characterized by a

 Comedy plays were popular too in the Roman return of Classical Greek and Roman arts and
Theater from 350 to 250 B.C. and women were culture.
allowed to perform on stage.  During Middle Ages, mystery plays formed a part of
religious festivals in England and other parts of
Europe during the Renaissance period. Morality
plays (in which the protagonist was met by
personifications of various moral attributes who try to

choose a Godly life over the evil) and the University Cleopatra, Julius Caesar, Muc Much Ado about
drama were formed to recreate Athenian tragedy. Nothing. The four tragedies considered to be
Public theatres were developed like, the Commedia Shakespeare's greatest works were Hamlet, Othello,
dell'arte (Italian comedy and a humorous theatrical
King Lear, and Macbeth. Other contemporary
presentation performed by professional players who
traveled in troupes) and the elaborate masques (a playwrights like Christopher Marlowe (tragedies such
dramatic entertainment consisting of pantomime, as Dr. Faustus and The Jew of Malta), and Thomas
dancing, dialogue, and song and sometimes players Kyd (The Spanish Tragedy).
wore masks) that were usually presented in court.  The history plays depicted English or European
history. Shakespeare's plays were about the lives of
 One of the most prominent supporters of the theater kings, such as Richard III and Henry V, Christopher
was Queen Elizabeth I. The companies of players Marlowe's Edward II and George Peele's Famous
(companies of actors) were organized by the Chronicle of King Edward the First.
aristocrats and performed seasonally in many places.
They were called professional players that performed  Comedies were common, too. These dealt with life in
on the Elizabethan stage. The tours of these players London after the fashion of Roman New Comedy.
gradually replaced the performances of the mystery Some of comedy plays were ―The Shoemaker's
and morality plays by local players. Gorboduc (authors Holiday‖ by Thomas Dekker and ―A Chaste Maid in
were Thomas Norton and Thomas Sackville), also
Cheapside‖ by Thomas Middleton.
known as Ferrex and Porrex, was an English play and
first performed at the Christmas celebration in 1561,
 For the first time, ballet was performed in public
and performed before Queen Elizabeth I on 18 January
1562, by the Gentlemen of the Inner Temple ( was one during this period. Ballet is a formalized form of
of the four Inns of Court -professional associations for dance which originated from the Italian Renaissance
barristers and judges in London). courts. It developed and flourished from Italy to
France with the help of Catherine de' Medici, (Queen
 The famous actor and poet who emerged in this period of France). An early example of Catherine's
was William Shakespeare. He was baptized on April development of ballet is through „Le Paradis d'
Amour', a piece of work presented at her daughter's
26, 1564 and died on April 23, 1616. He was an
wedding, Marguerite de Valois to Henry of Navarre.
English poet, playwright and actor and regarded as the Money of the Aristocrats was responsible for the
greatest writer and dramatist in the whole world. initial stages of ―court ballet‖ for the Aristocrats’
Shakespeare was often called England's national poet entertainment. The first formal ―court ballet‖ ever
and the "Bard of Avon". His works consist of about 38 recognized was, 'Ballet des Polonais' in 1573. A true
plays. Some of these plays were well-loved Romeo form of royal entertainment, 'Ballet des Polonais' was
and Juliet, Hamlet, Midsummer Night’s Dream, commissioned by Catherine de' Medici to honor the

Polish Ambassadors who visited Paris for the  The use of theatrical technologies in the Baroque
enthronement of King Henry in Poland. period may be seen in the films Vatel (2000), Farinelli
(1999) and in the different stage productions of
Innovations of the Stage: ―Orpheus‖ by Claudio Monteverdi.
1. Proscenium was developed. This is the area of a theater
surrounding the stage opening. Arches frame and divide the Neoclassical Theater
stage from the audience. 1800-1900
2. Backdrops for scenery were popularized by the art of
painting clothes.  The Neoclassical period was a movement where the
3. Commedia dell‟arte or ―Comedy of the Profession‖ was styles of Roman and Greek societies influenced the
theater arts.
developed. It was quick-witted performance of the
 During the Neoclassical period, the theater was
characterized by its grandiosity. Costumes and
sceneries were highly elaborate. The main concepts of
the plays were to entertain and to teach lessons.
Baroque Theater Stages were restyled with dramatic arches to highlight
1600-1750 the scenes. Multiple entry points on the stage were
evident in many plays. Lighting and sound effects
 The theater of the Baroque period is marked by the use intensified the mood and message of each scene,
of technology in current Broadways or commercial enhancing the dramatic experience. The idea of
plays. The theater crew uses machines for special changing scenery and backdrops become more
effects and scene changes which may be changed in a noticeable, particularly with the invention of pulley
matter of seconds with the use of ropes and pulleys. systems that allowed parts to move more quickly
 This technology affected the content of the performed across the stage.
pieces, practicing at its best the Deus ex Machina(a  The concept of decorum (meaning right and proper
Latin word meaning "god from the machine) solution. audience behavior) was applied in this period which
means classical concepts and appropriate social
 In which the character gods were finally able to come behavior must be observed.
down from the heavens and rescue the hero in
dangerous situations.  This period officially established just two types of plays,
 As a result, the theater was richly decorated, the tragedy and comedy. They never mixed these together,
multiplicity of plot turns and a variety of situations and the restriction led to the use of the now well-known
characteristic of Mannerism (a variety of approaches or pair of happy and sad masks that symbolize the
intellectual sophistication as well as using artificial theatrical arts. Tragedies portrayed the complex and
qualities of the play) were succeeded by opera. fateful lives of the upper classes and royals, while

comedies, which were either public discourse or Greek ―melos”, music, and French‖ drame”, which is
comedies of manners, tended to focus on the lower derived from Greek ―dran” to peform. Melodrama can be
ranks of society, Observance to these genres was also be described as a dramatic work that puts characters
critical to a play's success. in a lot of danger in order to appeal to the emotions and in
 Three playwrights achieved a significant amount of which orchestral music or song was used to accompany the
success. Pierre Cornielle (1606 – 1684) was often action. Opera, in the other hand, is an art form in which
called the father of the French tragedy, writing scripts singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining
for more than four decades. One of these was “The text (called a libretto) and musical score. Such as acting,
Cid‖. Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, better known as Molière scenery, and costumes and dance were important elements
(1622 – 1673) was known for his comedies, “Tartuffe of theater. It is usually performed in an opera house,
and The Missanthrope‖ was one of his works. Jean
accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble.
Racine (1639 – 1699) was a tragedian beloved for his
simple approach to action and the linguistic rhythms
and effects he achieved. ―Andromache and Phaedra”
was one of his scripts. These men were able to take Victor Marie Hugo was born on February 26, 1802 and
elements from classical Greek and Roman literature died on May 22, 1885. He is considered one of the greatest
and transform them into plays. and best known French writers. He was a poet, novelist,
and dramatist of the Romantic movement. Hugo's literary
TRIVIA about the Neoclassical Theater: fame comes from his poetry, novels and his dramatic
achievements. Among his works that stand out all over the
1. The first "spotlight" was used in the U.S. during world are “Les Contemplations , La Légende des siècles,
this period and was called the "Limelight”. Les Misérables, and Notre-Dame de Paris” which is known
as the Hunchback of Notre-Dame. Quasimodo, a deformed
2. The Theatre Regulation Act of 1843 banned drinking hunchback, the bell-ringer of Notre Dame had a good heart
in legitimate theaters. Many tavern owners took of helped Esmeralda, a beautiful Gypsy street dancer with a
advantage of the situation and renovated their kind and generous heart. Esmeralda captured the hearts of
establishments to accommodate live performances. many men that had always wanted to own her.

There are several playwrights that had been known

Romantic Theater in this period such as, Charles Nodier, George Sand,
1800-2000 Heinrich von Kleist, Ludwig Uhland and many more.
Romantic Playwrights:
During Romantic period, melodrama and ―operas‖ became
the most popular theatrical forms. Melodrama originated
from the French word “melodrame”, which is derived from

Romantic Composers
Theatrical Elements:
Georges Bizet was born on October 25, 1838 – died June Genre: Tragedy
3, 1875, Paris. Bizet was the only child of Adolphe Armand Number of Characters per Play: 1 to 3 characters only, but
Bizet( formerly a hairdresser and later became a singer and they can portray
composer) and Aimee Marie Louise Leopoldine Josephine other characters.
Delsarte, (a pianist). . He entered the Paris Conservatory of The Chorus: consists of twelve (12) members, all of whom
Music a fortnight before his tenth birthday. His first wore identical masks since they were supposed to be of like
symphony, the Symphony in C Major, was written when mind and opinion
he was seventeen years old. The symphony had an Masks: The use of masks acts to advance the universality
amazing stylistic resemblance to the music of Franz of the themes and the dramatic impact of the events and to
Schubert. keep the audience from beingdistracted by the actual,
This French composer was a pianist and best known for his physical attributes of the actors.
operas. Carmen is the most popular among his works. Bizet Oedipus: a gold mask with exaggerated deep empty
composed the title role for a mezzo-soprano in the eyesockets
character of Carmen. The opera tells the story of the Jocasta: was the wife of Laius and mother of Oedipus, the
downfall of Don José, a naïve soldier who is seduced by the expression of her mask depends on the scene of the play.
charms of the sizzling Gypsy, Carmen. Antigone and Ismene : white face, dark under the eyes and
Some of his stage works are La prêtresse, operetta (1854), sad-looking
Le docteur Miracle, opéra bouffe (1857), Don Procopio, Creon : brother in-law of Oedi
opéra bouffe (1859), Les pêcheurs de perles, opera (1863),
Ivan IV, grand opera (unfinished), La jolie fille de Perth, Staging:
opera (1867), Noé, opera by Fromental Halévy finished by The Parthenon’s facade, has the design of Ionic order
Bizet (1869), L'Arlésienne, 'musique de scène' (1872), columns with cornice and moldings on the top, and elevated
Djamileh, one-act opera (1872). by 5 step-risers at the center, and has a platform in front
His contemporary composers during the Romantic period near the audience.
were Franz Liszt, Richard Wagner, Frederic Chopin, Ludwig
van Beethoven, Franz Schubert, Felix Mendelsshon and
Hector Berlioz

Different Western Classical Plays and Opera tetralogy. Sophocles influenced the development of the
drama, most importantly by adding a third actor. And he
A. Greek: developed his characters to a greater importance than the
chorus in the presentation of the plot.
This time let us read an example of plays, Oedipus Rex and Oedipus Rex( Ee-dih – pus Rex):
Antigone . Understand the stories because after you have (Sophocles-Playwright)
read these, you will answer the activities given in this Main Characters:
module and choose one of them to perform in the Oedipus - the king of Thebes
culminating activity. You are given enough time to read the Creon - Oedipus brother-in-law
story Eurydice - Creon’s wife
Apollo - god or oracle of Delphi
Sophocles-Playwright King Laius - father of Oedipus
Sophocles (sofəkliːz); c. 497/6 BC 406/5 BC) is an ancient Jocasta - mother and wife of Oedipus
Greek tragedian. His contemporary playwrights were Polynices and Eteocles – sons of Oedipus
Aeschylus, and Euripides. Sophocles wrote 123 plays, but Tiresias - the blind prophet
only seven have survived in a complete form: Polybus - Oedipus foster father
Ajax, Merope - Oedipus foster mother
Antigone, Antigone and Ismene – the daughters of Oedipus
Haemon - Antigone’s lover
The Women of Trachis,
Sphinx- the half-human half lion that symbolizes plague and
Oedipus( Ee dih - pus) the King, misfortune
Philoctetes and
Oedipus at Colonus.

For almost 50 years in the dramatic competitions of the city-

state of Athens that took place during the religious festivals
of the Lenaea and the Dionysia, Sophocles was the most
famous playwright. He won first place in 24 out of 30
competitions and was never judged lower than second
place. Aeschylus won 14 competitions, and was sometimes
defeated by Sophocles, while Euripides won only 4
competitions The most famous tragedies of Sophocles were
Oedipus and Antigone: they were known as the Theban
plays, although each play was actually a part of a different

Titus Andronicus
B. Renaissance: Romeo and Juliet The Comedy of Errors
(William Shakespeare) The Taming of the Shrew and
The Two Gentlemen of Verona
Genre: Tragedy
William Shakespeare was born and baptized on April 26 Later Works: Tragedies and Tragicomedies
1564 and died on April 23 1616. Hamlet
Shakespeare was born and brought up in Stratford-upon- King Lear
Avon. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with Othello
whom he had three children: Susanna, and twins Hamnet
and Judith. He was an English poet and playwright, widely
known as the greatest writer in the English language and Theatrical Elements:
the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He’s been known also as
Staging for Romeo and Juliet:
the "Bard of Avon". His existing works consist of about:
38 plays,
The stage itself was divided into three levels:
154 sonnets, a main stage area with doors at the rear and a curtained
two long narrative poems area at the back for "discovery scenes";
an upper, canopied area called "heaven", for balcony
Between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in scenes; and
London as an actor, writer, and part-owner of a playing
an area under the stage called "hell," which could be
company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men, later known
accessed through a trap door in the stage.
as the King's Men. He appears to have retired to Stratford
around 1613 at age 49, where he died three years later.
There is no curtain in the front of the stage, which meant
With the exception of Romeo and Juliet, Shakespeare's
that scenes had to flow into each other, and "dead bodies"
most famous tragedy and one of the world's most
had to be dragged off. There are dressing rooms located
enduring love stories, William Shakespeare's early plays
behind the stage,
were mostly histories written in the early 1590s.
The performances during the renaissance period took place
Shakespeare also wrote several comedies during his early
during the day, and the open plan theater allowed for the
use of natural light. Since there could be no dramatic
A Midsummer Night's Dream
lighting and there was art direction (scenery and props),
Merchant of Venice audiences relied on the actors' lines, dialogue, movements,
Much Ado About Nothing and stage directions to tell the time of day and year, same
As You Like It and as the location, mood and weather.
Twelfth Night

But today, new media technology/gadgets like the laptop, Prince Escalus — Prince of Verona; kinsman to Mercutio
computer, mixer, sensitive microphones, fogs machine, loud and Paris
speakers and the like are available. These new technology Paris — Loves Juliet
are used in many performances, to make the play more Rosaline — Romeo’s first love who never actually appears
realistic, creative, and spectacular. Backdrops for every in the play
scene can be seen through the use of computers. Props are Friar John — Friar Lawrence’s friend
created much more easily and are more colorful. There is a Apothecary — Romeo’s acquaintance in Mantua
greater impact and satisfaction not only to the audience but Costumes:
also to the performers in using the innovations in the plays. The costumes are based on the style and design of dresses worn
Props: during the renaissance period.
Props in this play may vary depend on the scene/act the learners
are going to perform. Here are lists of props one may use for the
C. Romantic Period
Characters: Georges Bizet
Montague’s Family: (Composer, Arranger)
Romeo — sole heir to the Montague fortune Georges Bizet was born on October 25, 1838 in Paris,
Lord Montague — Romeo’s father France and died on June 3, 1875 at Bougival, France. Bizet
Lady Montague — Romeo’s mother was the only child of Adolphe Armand Bizet( formerly a
Benvolio — Romeo’s cousin hairdresser and later became a singer and composer) and
Balthasar — Romeo’s faithful servant Aimee Marie Louise Leopoldine Josephine Delsarte, (a
Abraham — Montague servant pianist).
Capulet’s Family • They lived on the southern slopes of Montmartre, Paris
Juliet — sole heir to the Capulet fortune Georges Bizet was a French composer and pianist of the
Lord Capulet — Juliet’s father Romantic era. He is best known for his opera Carmen.
Lady Capulet — Juliet’s mother
Tybalt — Juliet’s cousin Georges Bizet was registered with the legal name
The Nurse — Juliet’s faithful Nurse Alexandre-César-Léopold Bizet, but was baptized Georges
Peter — Capulet servant Bizet, and he became known with this name. At the age of
Sampson — Capulet servant ten he entered
Gregory — Capulet servant PD Picture:Photo by Etienne Carjat, 1875,
Other Characters:
Friar Lawrence — friend and advisor to Romeo and Juliet the Paris Conservatory of Music. Georges Bizet's first
Mercutio — Romeo’s best friend; Prince’s kinsman symphony was the Symphony in C Major. It seems that
Bizet completely forgot about it, until 1935, when in the

archives of the Conservatory library the piece was Halévy was based on a novel of the same title by Prosper
discovered . When it was first performed, it was immediately Mérimée.
hailed as a junior masterwork and became one of the great Staging:
performances during the Romantic period. It was a The story is set in Seville, Spain and the surrounding hills, in
delightful work of a seventeen-year-old boy, Georges Bizet. 1820. The opera, written in the genre of opéra comique with
Some Stage Works: musical numbers separated by dialogue tells the story of the
Carmen, opera (1875) downfall of Don José, a naïve soldier who is seduced by the
L'Arlésienne, 'musique de scène' (1872) charms of the flaming Gypsy, Carmen. No man could resist
Djamileh, one-act opera (1872) Carmen’s charms, and when she was ready to move on, watch
Noé, opera by Fromental Halévy finished by Bizet (1869) out! The opera is a fascinating drama of love and jealousy, filled
Ivan IV, grand opera (unfinished) with famously alluring melodies and captivating dancing. The
La jolie fille de Perth, opera (1867)
story has been the subject of many screen and stage
Les pêcheurs de perles, opera (1863)
(Georges Bizet
The Setting of Carmen: Famous Filipino Playwrights
The setting of Carmen takes place in Seville, Spain during Read the biography of the following Filipino theater artists,
the mid 19th century. Francisco Balagtas, Severino R. Reyes, Ricardo G. Abad
Main Characters of Carmen: and Salvador F. Bernal. Watch the play Walang Sugat and
Carmen (soprano) Florante at Laura. Compare and differentiate their works to
Don Jose (tenor) Western classical theater.
El Dancairo (baritone) Francisco Balagtas y de la Cruz was born on April 2,
El Remendado (tenor) 1788 in Panginay, Bigaa, Bulacan and died on February 20,
Escamillo (baritone) 1862 of pneumonia. He was also known as Francisco
Frasquita (mezzo-soprano) Baltazar. His best known work is the Florante at Laura.
Mercedes (mezzo-soprano) Francisco Balagtas was the youngest of the four children of
Micaela (soprano) Juan Balagtas, a blacksmith, and Juana de la Cruz. He
Morales (bass) studied in a parochial school in Bigaa and later in Manila.
Zuniga (bass) During his childhood years. Francisco worked as houseboy
Brief History: in Tondo, Manila.
Image from : Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
The opera Carmen is one of the world’s most popular http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PH_nhi_francisco_baltazar.jpg

operas. It was first performed at the Opéra-Comique in Balagtas learned to write poetry from José de la Cruz
Paris in France on March 3, 1875.. The opera was in four (Huseng Sisiw), one of the most famous poets of Tondo. It
acts with music written by the French composer Georges was de la Cruz himself who personally challenged Balagtas
Bizet. The libretto written by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic to improve his writing.

In 1835, Balagtas moved to Pandacan, where he met María A Filipino writer, dramatist, and playwright, Reyes was
Asunción Rivera, who served as the muse for his future highly acclaimed as one of the giants of Tagalog literature
works. She is referenced in Florante at Laura as 'Celia' and In 1902, Reyes founded and directed the Grand
'Mer'. Compania de Zarzuela Tagala.
Balagtas' affections for Mer were challenged by the On June 14, 1902, the company staged his play Walang
influential Mariano Capule. Capule won the battle when he Sugat (No Wounds), a
used his wealth to get Balagtas imprisoned under the http://www.seasite.niu.edu/Tagalog/modules_in_Tagalog/w
accusation that Balagtas ordered a servant girl's head to be pe36733.JPGdrama set against the historical events in
shaved. It was in prison that he wrote Florante at Laura so Bulacan during the Philippine revolution.
that the events of the poem were meant to parallel his own
situation. In 1923, Reyes co-founded the Liwayway, a Tagalog
Balagtas published Florante at Laura upon his release in literary weekly which published a series of fairy tales titled
1838. He moved to Balanga, Bataan in 1840 where he ― Mga Kuwento ni Lola Basyang‖, written by Reyes. The
served as the assistant to the Justice of peace and later, in storyteller, Lola Basyang was based by the author on a
1856, as Major Lieutenant. neighbor named Gervacia de Guzman.
He died on February 20, 1862 at the age of 73.On his death Severino Reyes died on September 15, 1942, when the
bed, he asked a favor that none of his children become a Philippines
poet like him, who had suffered under his gift. He even told was under the Japanese
them it would be better to cut their hands off than let them regime.
be writers. Severino Reyes'
Balagtas is so greatly revered in the Philippines that the masterpiece, Walang
term for Filipino debate in extemporaneous verse is named Sugat broadly underscores
after him: Balagtasan and one of the greatest literary the injustice of Spanish rule
awards in the Philippines is also named after him. even as it dances around
Severino R. Reyes the cruel fate of the young
(A playwright) lovers Tenyong and Julia
with humor and song. Set
"Father of the Tagalog Zarzuela" in the final leg of the
The son of Rufino Reyes Philippine Revolution,
and Andrea Rivera, Reyes was Tenyong is forced to leave
born in Sta. Cruz, Manila on behind his childhood
February 11, 1861. sweetheart Julia to join the
He studied at San Juan de Katipunan. Meanwhile,
Letran College and later at the Julia's mother pressures
University of Sto. Tomas, where he studied philosophy. her into marrying the

wealthy Miguel instead. the Cultural Center of the Philippines, and the Metropolitan
With no word from Theater.
Tenyong as the battle Theater Guild. Many of his theater productions were
Cast+of+Walang+Sugat+from+left+Lou+Veloso,+Remus+Vi classics of western drama but in terms of a Filipino and
llanueva,+Jelson+Bay,+Noel+Rayos,+Cris+Vilonco+and+N Asian sensibility, like Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet.
prolongs, Julia gives in, but Salvador F. Bernal
her wedding is interrupted by the fatally wounded Tenyong. (Father of Theater Design in the Philippines)
He mentions his dying wish to Julia, and the play features
an "unexpected twist" that shows how Tenyong was able to Born in 1945 to a family that ran a Terno shop
outwit the persons separating him from his beloved Julia. • He was the first to develop theater design as a profession
• The production was directed by Ricardo Abad, under the and elevate it to an art form.
musical direction of Josefino Tolledo. Jonjon Villareal • Studied at Ateneo de Manila and at Northwestern
handled lights design while Dexter Santos choreographed. University, Evanston, Illinois, USA, practiced and handled
Set, and costumes were designed by National Artist courses in the art and
Salvador Bernal. Photo taken from Cultural Center of the Philippines Exhibit,
by Lourdes R. Siobal
Dr. Ricardo G. Abad
craft of theater design.
(A Director)
• Taught briefly at Ateneo de Manila and University of the
Born in Manila on August 10, 1946 of parents
from Cavite and Camiguin. • He had designed more than 250 productions in ballet,
Graduated at the Ateneo de Manila, after which theater and film.
he obtained a Fulbright grant to finish a doctorate • National Artist awardee
in sociology at Fordham University in New York.
Full-time Faculty, Department of Sociology and
Anthropology; Artistic Director, Tanghalang Summary:
Ateneo Metrobank Network of Outstanding Different Theaterical Forms
Teachers Pathways/ANI, Ateneo de Manila I. Ancient Theater
University Role Players, Theater for Life Social Greek Theater
Weather Stations - Ritual-theory, focused on god Dionysus, performed in
Has been involved as actor and director in over 120 festivals
productions while at the same time doing sociological work - Sophocles and Euripides were the most popular
as teacher, researcher, and editor. playwrights during Ancient period
He has also directed and acted for professional - Oedipus Rex, Oedipus at Colonus and Antigone were
companies like Teatro Pilipino and Tanghalang Pilipino of famous plays

- Theater genre was tragedy Backdrop-a painted cloth hung at the back of a theatre
- Performed in Theatron-viewing place on slope of a hill stage as part of the scenery
- Women were not allowed to perform Broadway Theater-professional theatres with 500 or more
Roman Theater seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center
along Broadway, in the Manhattan borough of New York
- Began in Ancient Greek Theater
City ; along with London's West End theatres, Broadway
- Theater genre- Comedy theatres are widely considered to represent the highest
- Women began to perform level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world
- Competitions of chariots, gladiators and public executions Chariot-a two-wheeled vehicle drawn by horses, used in
as public theaters ancient racing and warfare
Comedy-a play characterized by its humorous or satirical
II. Renaissance Theater tone
Focused on Classical Greek and Roman arts and culture Curtain Call- the appearance of one or more performers on
Theater designs were developed stage after a performance to acknowledge the audience's
Backdrops for scenery applause
Queen Elizabeth supported theater Decorum- behavior in keeping with good taste and propriety
depiction of amusing people or incidents, in which the
Famous actor and playwright was William Shakespeare, characters
who wrote Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, Midsummer Night’s
Dream, Cleopatra Drama- a term coming from the Greek word meaning
"action" , which is derived from the verb meaning "to do" or
III. Romantic Period "to act"
 Fabula- means in Russian ``story'' or ``plot'' ;consisting of
The age of enlightenment the entirely of the events that actually (or supposedly, in
Focused on appreciation of the exotic and primitive fictional narrative) occurred, independent of the particular
Used fantastic mythical or nature-focused images narration; considered as having a chronological order, and
Melodrama was the genre of theater being seen from a fully well-informed perspective; does not
Famous Operatic composers were Georges Bizet have the gaps, and is infinitely detailed
(Carmen) and Richard Wagner. Greek chorus - a homogeneous, non-individualized group of
Protagonist was rebellious who often succeeded performers in the plays of classical Greece, who comment
with a collective voice on the dramatic action
Interest in the common man and childhood Gypsy- a member of a nomadic; European, African, Indian
Technical innovations were introduced people of generally dark color complexion, who migrated
originally from India, settling in various parts of Asia,

Europe, and, most recently, North America; a chorus Trilogy- a set of three works of art that are connected, and
dancer, esp. in the Broadway theater that can be seen either as a single work or as three
Liturgy- the sacrament of the Eucharist or the Mass individual works
Melodrama- a sensational dramatic piece with exaggerated ultimately triumph over adversity
characters and exciting events intended to appeal to the
Minstrel-a medieval singer or musician, especially one who
sang or recited lyric or heroic poetry to a musical
accompaniment for the nobility
Neoclassical- a revival in literature in the late 17th and 18th
centuries, characterized by a regard for the classical ideals
of reason, form, and restraint
Opera- an art form in which singers and musicians perform
a dramatic work combining text (libretto) and musical score,
usually in a theatrical setting; incorporates many of the
elements of spoken theatre, such as acting, scenery, and
costumes and sometimes includes dance. The performance
is typically given in an opera house, accompanied by an
orchestra or smaller musical ensemble
Opera House-a theatre designed for the performance of
Playwright- a person who writes plays
Plot- the main events of a play, novel, film, or similar work,
devised and presented by the writer as an interrelated

Tavern-a place of business where people gather to drink

alcoholic beverages and be served food, and in some
cases, where travelers receive lodging
Tetralogy-a group of four related literary or operatic works.
Tragedy-a play dealing with tragic events and having an
unhappy ending, especially one concerning the downfall of
the main character

The HELP Philosophy can guide you in starting a healthy

INTRODUCTION lifestyle change:
 The way you live your life in an everyday basis is
your lifestyle. These are the patterns of your
behaviour on how you typically live. In includes
eating habits, 15
 physical activity participation, and recreational
choice. Do you belong to the “technology
generation?” Well, these are the people who choose
to spend time in front of the computer rather than
playing sports, walking, and moving around. How
about your eating preferences? Today‟s teenagers
are seen at places like fast food chains indulging
with unhealthy food such as fries, burgers, an
drinking too much sugary drinks that causes obesity.
 Participation in active recreation influences your WEIGHT RANGE
healthy lifestyle. It improves health condition in It is an estimate of how much you should weigh
many ways. It also helps you to use the calories depending on your height and your body frame. One of the
better and sustain a desirable weight. ways of knowing your weight range is through your Body Mass
 Lifestyle change is the best way of preventing Index (BMI).
illness and early death. Major causes of early death
have shifted from infectious diseases to chronic After determining your healthy weight rangeusing your
lifestyle-related conditions such as heart disease, BMI, let us identify what affects your weight?
cancer, and diabetes. 1. Genes –These are inherited traits from your parents.
Children can inherit the chances of being overweight or
How do you maintain a healthy lifestyle? obese if born from obese parents, approximately 80%
chance. While a non-obese parents can only have a 10%
1. Engage yourself in a regular physical activity chance of bearing an obese or overweight child. The rapid
2. Eat healthy food. growth teens undergo causes a natural healthy weight gain.
3. Find time to manage stress However, girls on their teens have hormonal changes that
4. Follow a good personal healthy habits cause weight change.
2. Environmental factors – aside from the genetic factors,
being overweight or obese is also caused by some

environmental factors. This includes behaviour and lifestyle Introduce the next topic. Note that active recreation is
choices. When a child is brought up with overeating divided into:
unhealthy foods and under exercising, he develops a i. Indoor recreation
learned behaviour that leads to wrong lifelong habits. Individual sports – badminton
Team sports – volleyball
Energy Balance
Dance – Zumba
The concept of energy balance compares the amount of
ii. Outdoor Recreation
energy consumed as food with the amount of energy
expended through physical activities, exercises, and resting
metabolism. Camping
You can maintain a healthy weight by eating a healthy diet Orienteering
and balancing the food you eat. These foods are used as
energy to keep your body systems working. You use some
for physical activity and exercises such as playing sports INDOOR RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES
and dancing.
If you eat more than your energy expenditure, you will
gain weight. If you eat the same amount of food that your Badminton
body needs in your daily physical activities, you will 6653fa8673c0e7da1e159304/e5a2ec446653fa8673c0e7da1e159304_scale
maintain your weight. Then if you have more than _410_519.jpg
energy expenditure than food intake, you will lose Badminton is believed to have originated from the game
weight. “poona” that was played by English Army officers stationed
in India during the 17th century. It was later brought to
To sum it up: England in 1870‟s when the Duke of Beaufort held a lawn
Weight Gain (more calories consumed/less calories party in his country place, Badminton. It was only in 1992
expended) Barcelona Olympics when the game became an Olympic
Weight Loss (more calories consumed/less calories sport with singles and doubles events.
Weight Management (calories consumed = calories Games are held inside the gym to avoid the effect of air in
expended the flight of the shuttle. Players need a racket and a shuttle
cock to enjoy the game in a court.
Engaging in physical activity is one big step that you can do The game requires the skills in service, strokes in hitting the
to start changing your lifestyle into a more healthy and shuttle such as smash, drop, lob or clear and net shorts,
active one. Being active would mean getting yourself into and power of the leg in footwork.
active recreation such as sports, dances and some outdoor- The game is played by either singles, doubles and mixed
type activities. doubles. A game is won when a player/s reach a score of

21 points. In case of a deuce (20-all), one has to gain a two drop shots, and power jumps for smashing burns more
point advantage over the other. But in case of a 29-all calories. Volleyball on the other hand strengthens the upper
score, the first to reach 30 will win the set. A match is won body, arms and should as well as the lower extremities
by winning two out of three sets. when you serve, pass, set, spike and block when in play.
You can burn an approximately 7% of body fats in
Volleyball badminton, while burns 585 calories in a 45 minute game.
http://superiorawards.us/Sports%20Photos%20Page/Home%20Page Participation in both badminton and volleyball helps you to
%20Icons/Volleyball%20Icon.gif manage your weight appropriate for your age and height.
The beginning of volleyball can be traced from the ingenuity However, religious indulgence in the two games can lead
of William J. Morgan in 1895 at Holyoke Massachusetts. you to attaining your desired weight by losing extra fat
Initially, the game was called “mintonette” but in its first deposits. This can be achieved better when combined with
exhibition game demonstration, Alfred Halstead suggested proper diet.
the name “Volley Ball” due to the volleying characteristic of Aside from the physical dimension, t the games also has
the game.. In 1910, the game was brought to the claims on affecting the different dimensions of health of a
Philippines by Elwood S Brown. The Filipinos are credited person. When players control their feelings during games,
in the changes of the game with the addition of the skill the emotional dimension is involved. Since a sport is fun,
called “spike or kill”. In 1964, volleyball had its first summer the emotional wellbeing is improved. Playing with strategies
Olympics exposure as a medal sport. and tactics involves the intellectual dimension.Thinking of
Volleyball is a team sports with six players in each side of ways on where to direct the shuttle and the ball gives you an
the court with a 9x18 meters dimension. The object of the advantage of winning and enjoying the game. The social
game is to send the ball over the net and avoid it from dimensionis
grounding into your own court. A ball, net and a court is
needed to play the game. Scoring follows a rally point seen when players build good relationships. Trusting your
system. A game is won in a two out of three sets. A set is teammate builds camaraderie and teamwork.
won by reaching a score of 25. In case of a deuce, a team Before you introduce this topic, you can give this as an
should have a two-point advantage over the other. Players assignment so that they can have a broader
need skills like service, volleying, setting, spiking and background of what zumba/latinaerobi dance is. You
blocking to enjoy much of the game and gain its fitness can also ask them to download a video of thefollowing
benefits. dances so that they can relate to the lesson.
BENEFITS OF SPORTS fat- burning cardio latin work out by Denise Austin
Badminton and volleyball are good recreation activities that Reduce tummy by Zuma Rio
involve the physical dimension.It enhances the
Sizzling Latin Dance Fitness by Paul Eugene
metabolism of the body which in turn is a factor in losing
weight. While playing badminton, the constant racket
swings in receiving birdies, leg stretches in saving net and Dance

http://shelovesblogging.files.wordpress.com/2010/07/aerobics.jpg Stress Reliever – It is believed that zumba dancing

Dance is another indoor alternative recreation for those who releases more altering endorphins that melts away worries
enjoy the beat of rhythm and movement. It is a fantastic and away.
fun form of exercise that gradually raises heart rate. That‟s
why dance is a very good cardio work out. Regular Improved mood – It releases feel good hormones called
participation in dance activities tightens and tones muscle “endorphin” that improves self-esteem, self- confidence and
groups and burns more calories. self -image.
Zumba Fitness Dance –
Zumba dance is an alternative indoor recreational activity It tones the abdominals – the dance moves work on
with fitness benefit claims. It was accidentally discovered by firmer core abdominal muscles.
a Alberto “Beto” Perez , a celebrity fitness trainor of
Colombia in the mid 90‟s. The birth of zumba came about Basic Zumba steps
during one his aerobics class, when he realized that he had Zumba involves a combination of latin dance steps such as
forgotten his aerobics music. Quickly, he grabbed whatever Salsa, Samba, Raggaeton, Merengue, Cumbia, Cha-cha-
tape he has in his backpack. It so happened that the his cha, mambo rumba, flamenco. Many steps have been
tapes are those of latin music such as merengue and salsa. included to make the dance more exciting such as belly
With his improvisation skill, he was able to create an on-the dancing, hip hop and the like
–spot aerobics class using the non-traditional music. That‟s
the birth of the dance fitness craze Zumba! OUTDOOR RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES

Here are some benefits of dancing zumba /latin aerobics: Are you dreaming of adventures to experience? Mountains
It improves cardiovascular health –The to climb?Rivers and beaches to swim?Terrains to hike and
combination of cardio intervals brought about by the other adventures that nature can offer? Well, get ready and
fast and slow rhythms makes this dance a great find your way out…Let the adventure begin!
cardio interval work-out The fast and upbeat moves HIKING
of zumba improve the delivery of blood which carries Hiking is going on an extended walk for the purpose of
oxygen to the different parts of the body through the pleasure and exercise. Pleasure includes having close
veins, arteries and heart. encounter with nature, enjoying the beauty of the
environment, smelling the natural aroma of flowers and
It helps in losing weight – cardio interval effect of zumba trees, and being one with Mother Nature. Exercise on the
maximize burns more calories. Joining zumba workout for other hand pertains to the fitness benefits that we get from
an hour burns approximately 600 calories. the activity. Hiking is more of adventure

Ask them the following: Have you experienced walking weight. Use a climbing checklist to help you decide what to
in a longer distance? How was the feeling? bring. You can also rent or borrow equipment from other
http://www.adventurecenter.com/sites/default/files/styles/search_ hikers.
● When choosing a backpack, look at its carrying capacity
and its size. It should be big enough to fit all your
It offers cardiovascular fitness
belongings and snug enough to stay close to your back.
It gives the feeling of relaxation
Pack your heaviest gear close to your back and near your
It balances your daily life routine
It‟s a good option for weight management activity
6. Pack and wear appropriate clothing.
Have you thought of a good destination to go on ● Wear moisture-wicking or “dry-fit” fabric because this
absorbs sweat faster than cotton and dries easily.
hiking? Well, be guided by the following reminders:
Essential Tips for the Outdoors: ● Wear proper footwear, such as hiking shoes or trail
1. Pick a partner. runners, as most sneakers or sandals may not have enough
grip on their soles.
● Find a friend who is an experienced hiker or backpacker. 26
It‟s safer to travel with a friend or group of friends. Plus, an
experienced hiker can share valuable tips and advice for
the wilderness.
2. Pick a destination.
● Do your research on your destination: read travel books,
websites or magazines. Ask well-travelled friends too.
3. Know your time and distance.
● Know how long and how far the trip will take you. This will
also help you plan what you need to pack. This will also
help you when making a budget for the trip.
4. Be physically ready.
● Make sure you are physically fit for the hike. You should
have ample endurance to prepare yourself for long walks.
Practice carrying heavy bags so that you will also build
5. Choose your gear and your backpack.
● Try to pack as light as possible. Think about which
comforts of home you can leave behind to save space and

Source: Wood, T.D. (2013). Backpacking for beginners.

● Wear a hat to protect yourself from the sun. Retrieved from: http://www.rei.com/learn/expert-
● Always bring a rain jacket in case it rains. advice/backpacking-beginners.html
● Wear comfortable pants, such as trekking pants or shorts. Give them an assignment “Give scenarios/situations in
Jeans can be heavy and quite hot if worn during hiking trips. the school or community on how can one apply “Leave
No Trace ”policy
7. Plan your meals.
● Bring some trail mix (nuts, chocolate, jelly, cereal, etc.) to ORIENTEERING
keep your energy up throughout the day. http://www.cwsportspartnership.org/images/dr_b02989e6690cc0638
● If going on overnight hikes, plan your meals accordingly. e4da09ded34f9cb.jpg
If traveling with a big group, divide the team into smaller It is an outdoor navigational recreational activity using
groups and assign a meal per small group. specially drawn and detailed maps. It requires navigational
8. Keep communication lines open. skills to navigate from point to point normally moving at a
speed .An orienteering course consist of a series of control
● Not all areas have signal for your mobile phones but keep
points which have to be located in order in the shortest
them handy in case of an emergency.
possible time.
● Before you leave for your trip, make sure that you have a Orienteering as an outdoor recreational activity offers much
contact person who knows all your emergency details. Keep benefit to you: Here are some claims:
the contact person informed on your whereabouts at all 1. Conceptual aspects – Since it is a navigational activity, it
times (if possible). Leave your itinerary with the contact enhances your decision making skills about map
person. interpretations and using compass. It also requires you to
9. Wilderness ethics constantly interpret information contained in the map.
● Pack out what you pack in. Practice the Leave No Trace 2. Physical Aspect – Orienteering is basically a
principles by picking up after your trash and bringing them running sport so it develops your cardiovascular endurance
home with you. and general fitness. Speed, endurance, and strength are
● Modulate your noise levels. Remember, some people go essential components necessary to successfully participate
into the wilderness to relax and unwind. Respect the privacy in the game. Technically, this activity captivates the mental
of other people. and physical challenge features.
● Be respectful and courteous to other visitors as well as to 3. Personal aspects – Since you are responsible in making
wildlife. decisions in this activity, you develop your self-confidence
and reliance. Your aims
● Enjoy the view and the experience! 29

shows a small picture of each of the symbols used on the

are clear that you work hard to achieve them giving you the map, along with a written description of the meaning of
feeling of self-achievement. each symbol.
4. Social Aspects – You will learn to work cohesively with
one another Orienteering Compass
5. Environmental aspect – It creates an avenue for you to A compass is an invaluable tool that every backpacker
appreciate your environment should know how to use. It is a magnetized needle floating
in a liquid and responding to the Earth‟s magnetic field
The fundamental skill in orienteering is orientating the consequently revealing directions. Generally, a compass is
map or setting the map. In moving the map, you have to: use to measure bearings and to pinpoint locations
Find your approximate location on the map Orienteering Compass Parts
Recognize the pattern of features on the ground as being Magnetic needle – the magnetic needles north end is
the same as the pattern on the map painted red and its south end is white.
Always hold the map so that you are looking along the Revolving compass housing – the housing is marked with
route with the map matching the ground. the four cardinal points of north, east, south and west and
The map is said to be oriented if the features on the map further divided into 2 degree graduations indicating the full
are in proper relation to the actual features in the field 360 degrees of a circle. The bottom of the rotating housing
is marked with an orienting arrow and meridian lines
The Map - is a picture or representation of the earth‟s Transparent base plate – the base plate is marked with a
surface. It includes a compass rose that shows directions. ruler , an index line as well as the direction of travel arrow.
Cardinal directions are the four base parts on a compass.
The top point is north and the point at the bottom is south. Parts of an orienteering compass
The side points are called east and west. The points in
between the cardinal directions are called intermediate Bearing
directions which include northwest, northeast, southwest Bearing refers to the direction from one spot to another
and southeast. measured in degrees from the reference line of north.
http://www.myteacherpages.com/webpages/ttravis/social_studies How do you take the bearing?
_class.cfm?subpage=648434 Hold the compass in front of you with the direction of
Maps use a key or legend to explain the meaning of each of travel arrow pointing at object of interest
the symbols used in the map. The key usually shows a Hold the compass level steady and rotate the housing
small picture of each of the symbols used on the map, dial until the orienting arrow lines up with the red end ( north
along with a written description of the meaning of each end) of the magnetic needle, while keeping the direction of
symbol.Maps use a key or legend to explain the meaning of travel arrow pointed at the object.
each of the symbols used in the map. The key usually

Read the number indicated at the index line – that is your 7. Front Plank – In a push-up position, make your forearm
bearing as the base of support together with your toes. Keep a
steady position and work on your abdominals and arms. Do
Here‟s how the exercises are done … this in eight seconds.
1. Lateral trunk stretch –Stand with feet shoulder width, 39
stretch both arms up with the fingers interlocking with one
another. With that position, bend to the right without 8. Split squats–Stand with your feet shoulder width apart.
bending the knees for eight seconds. Do it again to the left Step your right foot forward and lift the heel of your left foot
side. Do not over stretch! Stretch on your flexibility level. off the ground. Keeping your hands on your waist, bend the
left leg slowly and lower it almost touching the floor. The
2. Push up –Perform regular push up with 5 repetitions front knee should not go beyond your toes. Repeat 10 times
alternating the right and left foot.
3. Jog around - jog around the gym/area for 60 seconds.
37 9. Side Plank – Lie on your right side making sure that your
body is in a straight line. Rest on your forearm and bring
4. Burpees – Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart. Go your elbow underneath your shoulders. Contract your
to squat position with the hands on the floor in front of you. abdominals. Then slowly lift your hips off the floor making a
Kick your feet back moving in a push-up position. With that diagonal straight line from your base of support to the head.
position, open your legs in a straddle position then close. Look straight ahead keeping your neck in line with your
Kick your feet forward back to the original position. Stand spine. Hold for 10 seconds and repeat on the other side.
up and jump in the air. Repeat five times
10. Chair dips – stand with your back in front of the chair.
5. FBS Jump - stand with your feet shoulder width apart. Sit on the edge of the chair and place your hands behind
Slightly bend your knees with both hands at the back of your hips along the sides of the chair.
your neck. Jump forward, backward, sideward Right and left 40
as fast as u can keeping your weight on the balls of your
feet. One count for every cycle (forward, backward, 11. Jumping Jacks – stand with feet together, hands at
sideward R and Left). Make 8 cycles. sides. Jump and land onboth feet open shoulder width apart
38 with arms moving sideward upward finishing above the
head. Then go back to the original position. Do this for 10
6. Trunk twist – Standing with feet open in shoulder width, times.
raise arms sides at shoulder level with palms up. Gradually 41
twist your trunk to the right for eight counts. Do it again to After the game, have a sharing on the following
the left. questions:

a. Which among the exercises develop flexibility?

Strength? Endurance? Power? Coordination?
b. How did you perform the different activities? Did you
find it easy?
c. Ask the overweight/obese learners about their
experience. Did their weight affect their performance?
d. Ask the underweight and normal learners the same
e. Relate the effect of weight to physical exercise.

Perform a cool down activity after the exercises.

Give them appreciation on their efforts…